Note: This page contains sample records for the topic young homeless women from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Understanding survival sex: young women, homelessness and intimate relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to explore gendered experiences of homelessness through an examination of survival sex. Survival sex is usually understood to be the exchange of sex for material support, however, this research found a greater complexity in the intimate relationships being undertaken by young women experiencing homelessness. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young women aged 18–25 years living in

Juliet Watson

2011-01-01

2

Homeless Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 190 homeless women in Portland, Oregon, found that most homeless women are young, have minor children, and are mobile. The majority have a history of physical or sexual abuse, many are in poor health, 18 percent have been in a mental hospital, and one-fourth are alcoholic. The implications of these findings for policies and practice are discussed.

Sandra C. Anderson; Tome Boe; Sharon Smith

1988-01-01

3

Pregnancy and Mental Health of Young Homeless Women  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy rates among women in the U.S. who are homeless are much higher than rates among women who are housed (Greene & Ringwalt, 1998). Yet little research has addressed mental health, risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. This study utilizes a sample of women from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents (MLSHA) to investigate pregnancy and motherhood over three years among unaccompanied homeless young mothers. Our data are supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of these women. Results show that almost half of sexually active young women (n = 222, µ age = 17.2) had been pregnant at baseline (46.4%), and among the longitudinal subsample of 171 women (µ age = 17.2), almost 70.0% had been pregnant by the end of the study. Among young mothers who are homeless, only half reported that they helped to care for their children consistently over time, and one-fifth of the women reported never seeing their children. Of the young women with children in their care at the last interview of the study (Wave 13), almost one-third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode (MDE), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime drug abuse, and one-half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder (APD). Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed, including the implications for practice, policy, and research.

Crawford, Devan M.; Trotter, Emily C.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.

2012-01-01

4

Becoming homeless, being homeless, and resolving homelessness among women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to more comprehensively articulate the experiences of homeless women and make evidence-based inferences regarding optimal social services. This study was conducted using qualitative meta-synthesis methods. As youth, homeless women experience challenging circumstances that leave them ill-prepared to prevent and resolve homelessness in adulthood. Resolution of homelessness occurs in iterative stages: crisis, assessment, and sustained action. To enhance forward progression through these stages, nurses are encouraged to promote empowerment in concordance with the Transtheoretical and Harm Reduction Models. Services that are highly valued include physical and mental health care and child care assistance. PMID:20521916

Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

2010-07-01

5

Factors influencing homelessness in women.  

PubMed

The specific aims of the article were to: (i) compare childhood experiences of intimacy and autonomy as they occurred in the families of origin of women who have and women who have not experienced homelessness; (ii) compare social support, reciprocity, and conflict as they occurred in the childhood support networks and in the current support networks of women who have and women who have not experienced homelessness; (iii) examine the relationships between intimacy and autonomy in families of origin and the social support networks from childhood of women who have and women who have not experienced homelessness. Descriptive correlational design: 255 women were interviewed to determine levels of intimacy, autonomy, social support, reciprocity, and conflict in childhood relationships. The ANCOVA models for each of support, reciprocity, and conflict indicated a significant group effect. The post-hoc analysis for support indicated that the homeless group was significantly lower in support and reciprocity and significantly higher in conflict than the never-homeless groups. The never-homeless, never-abused group scored significantly higher on autonomy and intimacy than the homeless or the never-homeless, abused groups. This study demonstrates the significance of families of origin and learning how to develop and utilize support systems in preventing or reducing homelessness. PMID:14692985

Anderson, Debra Gay; Rayens, Mary Kay

2004-01-01

6

Sexual Health: The Role of Sexual Health Services Among Homeless Young Women Living in Toronto, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent statistics indicate limited condom use, high STI (sexually transmitted infection) rates, and a general lack of knowledge about reproductive and sexual health among homeless youth. This research focuses on the experiences of homeless female and transgendered youth, providing an insider’s perspective on shaping sexual health interventions. This qualitative research is based on life history interviews and participant observation with

Vanessa Oliver; Rebecca Cheff

2012-01-01

7

Negative Cultural Capital and Homeless Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of…

Barker, Justin David

2013-01-01

8

Risk Factors for Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background. Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Methods. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm

Donna L. Washington; Elizabeth M. Yano; James McGuire; Vivian Hines; Martin Lee; Lillian Gelberg

2010-01-01

9

Risk Factors for Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Methods. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm

MPH Elizabeth M. Yano MSPH Donna L. Washington; MSPH Lillian Gelberg

2010-01-01

10

Barriers to Psychosocial Services Among Homeless Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterans make up a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to 4 times more likely to be homeless than nonveteran women. This article provides a grounded description of barriers to psychosocial services among homeless women veterans. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. These women

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Vivian Hines; Donna L. Washington

2012-01-01

11

A Unique Population: Women Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a unique population within the homeless community--women who are homeless and mentally ill. Homelessness prevalence and etiology data are presented, followed by a general discussion of how mental illness affects people who are homeless. The article provides an overview of women who are homeless, focusing on those who are…

Markos, Patricia A.; Baron, Heather Lyn; Allen, Daniel N.

2005-01-01

12

Young homeless people and service provision.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on access to services, and views of service provision amongst young homeless people aged 14-25 years. Two hundred young homeless people were interviewed in locations throughout Greater Manchester, the majority in towns surrounding the city of Manchester. A semistructured interview schedule was used with interviews being taped and transcribed to provide additional qualitative data. The operational definition of homelessness included not only those who were roofless, but also those residing in hostels, bed and breakfast accommodation, or staying temporarily with friends. Topics examined include: access to services such as housing, health, advice and information; appraisal of service provision; confidence in securing help; and the use of both formal and informal support services. Results show that the provision and use of services for young homeless people varies widely across the county, with the majority of services being concentrated in the city of Manchester. Respondents made good use of certain services such as streetwork agencies, but exhibited a lack of confidence in securing help with the most basic needs, such as food. A desire to avoid being labelled as 'homeless' appeared to make some people unwilling to make use of non-statutory agencies specifically for homeless people. Overall, respondents found particular difficulties in accessing help from statutory services, such as housing and health. Findings point to the necessity of providing adequately resourced services which reach out to young homeless people. PMID:11560618

Reid, Paul; Klee, Hilary

1999-01-01

13

Correlates of adult assault among homeless women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076

Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary

2010-11-01

14

Homelessness and Trauma Go Hand-in-Hand”: Pathways to Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVeterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation’s homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans’ pathways into homelessness.

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Donna L. Washington

2011-01-01

15

Health of the homeless street women in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a qualitative survey conducted among 88 homeless street women in Johannesburg inner city about their health profile. The survey analysis is a descriptive one that elicits information about the types and causes of diseases prevalent among the street homeless women as well as their access to health care services based on the experiences of the homeless

Olusola Olufemi

1999-01-01

16

Strengthening At-Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…

Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy

2010-01-01

17

Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…

Jordan, Lucinda

2012-01-01

18

Young People, Drug Use and Family Conflict: Pathways into Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people who experience homelessness, in Australia and in other western contexts (US, Canada, England), are widely perceived to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. The available research indicates that homeless young people use all drug types, whether injected or otherwise, more frequently than their home-based peers. Debate exists in the…

Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Keys, Deborah

2005-01-01

19

Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

2009-01-01

20

Pregnancy and sexual health among homeless young injection drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of prenatal care, and histories of sexual victimization are described. A total of

Dodi Hathazi; Stephen E. Lankenau; Bill Sanders; Jennifer Jackson Bloom

2009-01-01

21

Fear, romance and transience in the lives of homeless women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes up the question of what it means to be a woman who lives on the streets and in hostels as a homeless person in London. Using qualitative data from three women respondents, the analysis focuses upon their reasons for becoming and staying homeless. We address issues concerning the women's perceptions of danger and safety on the streets,

Alan Radley; Darrin Hodgetts; Andrea Cullen

2006-01-01

22

From Homelessness to Community: Psychological Integration of Women Who Have Experienced Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined psychological integration of women who were homeless at the study's outset. Participants (N = 101) were recruited at homeless shelters and participated in 2 in-person interviews, approximately 2 years apart. A predictive model identifying factors associated with having a psychological sense of community within…

Nemiroff, Rebecca; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

2011-01-01

23

Risk Factors for Trading Sex among Homeless Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous homeless youth report trading sex, few studies have examined risk factors associated with trading sex and\\u000a even fewer have employed multivariate analyses to examine this relationship, even though trading sex is associated with many\\u000a negative health outcomes. Based on a sample of 151 homeless young adults in the midwestern United States, logistic regression\\u000a analyses revealed that for each

Kimberly A. Tyler

2009-01-01

24

Enabling Older Homeless Minority Women to Overcome Homelessness by Using a Life Management Enhancement Group Intervention  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness.

Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.

2010-01-01

25

Family Dynamics, Housing, and Recurring Homelessness Among Women in New York City Homeless Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looks at two sets of women who stayed in New York City homeless shelters in 1992—one set as part of a family and the other set as individuals—and at factors associated with an increased risk of their experiencing repeat shelter stays. Descriptive statistics and event history analysis indicate that regardless of whether the women stay in shelters with

STEPHEN METRAUX; DENNIS P. CULHANE

1999-01-01

26

Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

2012-01-01

27

Issues and Strategies Involved in Helping Homeless Parents of Young Children Strengthen Their Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.

Swick, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

28

Characteristics of Home: Perspectives of Women Who Are Homeless  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We employed participatory, community-based research methods to explore the perceptions of home among women who are homeless. Twenty women engaged in one or more techniques including qualitative interviews, digital story telling, creative writing, photovoice, and design charrette to characterize their perceptions of home. Analysis of the data…

Walsh, Christine A.; Rutherford, Gayle E.; Kuzmak, Natasha

2009-01-01

29

The HIV Risk Reduction Needs of Homeless Women in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Background Substance use, housing instability, and transactional sex all contribute to HIV risk engagement among homeless women. Because of the increased risk of HIV among homeless women, this study sought to understand the context of sexual behaviors and condom use among homeless women and elucidate modifiable factors that can be targeted by interventions. Methods Homeless women (n = 45) participated in focus groups (n = 6) at shelters throughout Los Angeles County. Thematic analyses revealed that similar to other high-risk women, homeless women engage in sex with multiple types of partners (steady, casual, and transactional). Findings Our findings indicate that, similar to use among other high-risk women, condom use by homeless women varied by type of partner. Substance use also contributed to condom non-use. In a departure from previous research, homeless women reported overarching feelings of hopelessness. Participants spoke of hopelessness contributing to risk engagement, specifically the number of ongoing stressors experienced because of homelessness contributing to despair. Without acknowledgement of this unique quality of homelessness, women felt their risk reduction needs would never truly be understood. Conclusions Interventions involving homeless women should include self-esteem building, acknowledgment and use of inherent resilience qualities gained during homelessness, respect for current knowledge and skills, and an exploration of when women choose to trust their partners and how they make safer sex choices.

Cederbaum, Julie A.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Chereji, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

30

Homeless and Disabled: Rights, Responsibilities, and Recommendations for Serving Young Children with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…

Gargiulo, Richard M.

2006-01-01

31

Racial Differences in the Use of Antidepressants and Counseling for Depression Among Homeless Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine how African American race was related to the use of antidepressants and counseling among homeless depressed women. Women were recruited in 18 homeless shelters in four counties in central North Carolina. Head of household homeless mothers with psychiatric and\\/or substance abuse disorders who had dependent children were eligible to participate. One

Betsy L. Sleath; Elizabeth Jackson; Kathleen C. Thomas; James Galloway; Lisa Dumain; Joshua Thorpe; Angela Rollins; Joseph Morrissey

2006-01-01

32

The Relationship between Spiritual Resources and Life Attitudes of African American Homeless Women.  

PubMed

Little is known about the relationships between spiritual resources and life attitudes of homeless African American women. Spiritual resources may serve as protective factors for women leaving homelessness. This descriptive study examines spiritual resources, life attitudes, and selected demographics of 160 African American women who were homeless in the Midwestern United States. Participants ranged in age from 30-62 years of age and reported being homeless 1-9 times, with a mean of 1.94 (SD = 1.53) times. The authors draw inferences for how spiritual resources and life attitudes can influence women's efforts to leave homelessness and identify implications for nursing practice. PMID:24702208

Gash, Jean; Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Feen-Calligan, Holly

2014-04-01

33

I built my house of hope: abused women and pathways into homelessness.  

PubMed

Violence from intimate partners is a serious reality for a number of women. For some abused women, leaving becomes a path to homelessness. In fact, when abused women and their children leave their homes because of partner abuse, they become homeless even if they subsequently seek residence in a shelter for woman abuse. This project interviewed 62 women from across Canada who had been abused by partners and were homeless at some point. The women were asked about their experiences with both partner abuse and homelessness and the effects on themselves and their children, which suggest important policy shifts. PMID:24424578

Tutty, Leslie M; Ogden, Cindy; Giurgiu, Bianca; Weaver-Dunlop, Gillian

2013-12-01

34

Adapting the Individual Placement and Support Model with Homeless Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental…

Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley

2012-01-01

35

The Impact of Being Homeless on Young Children and Their Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Families with young children are the fastest growing population of the homeless. Homeless young children (under the age of 5) are especially vulnerable as early childhood professionals consider the early years to be the most critical developmental period in all domains (cognitive, social-emotional, physical, and language). The disruptions to a…

Powell, Tenisha L.

2012-01-01

36

Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

Ferguson, Kristin M.

2009-01-01

37

Use of a mobile health van by a vulnerable population: Homeless sheltered women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the health status of homeless women. In this study, we examined the health problems of and services provided to sheltered, homeless, Midwestern women who used a mobile health van. Our objectives were to document these women's ages, self?reported past medical histories, self?reported histories of addictions and hospitalizations, presenting concerns, diagnoses, and visit patterns. To this end,

Diane McGee; Martha Morgan; Mary J. McNamee; Jean Krajicek Bartek

1995-01-01

38

The Impact of Homelessness on Recent Sex Trade among Pregnant Women in Drug Treatment  

PubMed Central

This study is a secondary data analysis aimed to examine the influence of recent homelessness on recent sex trade among pregnant women in drug treatment after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, age, education, and race. Eighty-one pregnant women from a drug treatment program in Baltimore, Maryland attended an in-person interview and completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV for Axis I disorders, the HIV Risk Behavior Interview, and demographic questionnaires, which assessed psychiatric symptoms, recent homelessness, and sexual risk behavior respectively. Women who experienced recent homelessness had a 4.74 greater odds of having recently traded sex than women who had not been recently homeless, suggesting that homelessness uniquely influences sex trade beyond psychiatric status, which was also a significant correlate of recent sex trade. Addressing both homelessness and psychiatric problems may effectively reduce sex trade and risk for infectious diseases, which could adversely impact maternal and child health outcomes.

Brown, Qiana L.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Penniman, Typhanye V.; Latimer, William W.

2012-01-01

39

IMPLICATIONS OF HOMELESSNESS FOR PARENTING YOUNG CHILDREN: A PRELIMINARY REVIEW FROM A DEVELOPMENTAL ATTACHMENT PERSPECTIVE  

PubMed Central

Although it has been well-documented that parents and children who experience homelessness often have compromised health and well-being, few studies have examined the potential implications of homelessness on the process of parenting young children. In this review, we consider how parents of young children might function under the circumstances of homelessness. We begin with a brief overview of the psychological, social, and medical characteristics of homeless mothers and their young children. Using a developmental attachment perspective, we next briefly review the central tasks of parenting during the first 5 years of life, including emotion regulation and fostering of child autonomy, with an eye toward how homelessness may compromise a mother's ability to complete these tasks. Finally, we provide suggestions for further research that incorporate a developmental attachment perspective and other relevant viewpoints. Because of the paucity of research in this area, our review seeks to provide a heuristic framework for future research, intervention development, and policy.

DAVID, DARYN H.; GELBERG, LILLIAN; SUCHMAN, NANCY E.

2012-01-01

40

Direct and Indirect Effects of Parenting on the Academic Functioning of Young Homeless Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Effects of parenting quality on the academic functioning of young homeless children were examined using data from 58 children ages 4 to 7 and their parents during their stay at an emergency homeless shelter. Parenting quality, child executive function, child intellectual functioning, and risk status were assessed in the shelter,…

Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Vrieze, Danielle; Leibel, Cari; Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

2011-01-01

41

Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

42

Families on the Edge: Homeless Young Parents and Their Welfare Experiences. A Survey of Homeless Youth and Service Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the experiences of homeless young parents with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, which can be an important tool in helping them achieve long-term stability and economic self-sufficiency. The 1996 welfare reform act included special provisions that applied only to minor teen parents, requiring them to…

Reeg, Bob; Grisham, Christine; Shepard, Annie

43

A qualitative study of pregnancy intention and the use of contraception among homeless women with children.  

PubMed

We undertook a qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory to explore pregnancy intention and the barriers to contraceptive use as perceived by homeless women with children. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were performed in English and in Spanish. The dominant theme emerging from the interviews was a strong desire to avoid pregnancy while homeless. However, few women in our sample used contraception or accessed reproductive health care consistently. There were multiple barriers to using contraception and to accessing reproductive health care services that homeless women reported: (1) inability to prioritize health due to competing demands, (2) shelter-related obstacles and restrictive provider practices that impede access to reproductive health care services and the use of contraception, and (3) change in the power dynamics of sexual relationships while homeless, making women more vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Findings suggest a multifactorial approach is needed to help homeless women use contraception and access reproductive health services. PMID:24858884

Kennedy, Sara; Grewal, Mandeep; Roberts, Elizabeth M; Steinauer, Jody; Dehlendorf, Christine

2014-05-01

44

Social Networks in Time and Space: Homeless Women in Skid Row, Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networks operate within a specific time-space fabric. This paper develops a theoretical framework for understanding the role of social networks among the homeless. The concept of time-space discontinuity is offered as a way to conceptualize the impacts of homelessness on social network formation, daily paths, life paths, personal identity and self-esteem. Ethnographic research among homeless women in Skid Row,

Stacy Rowe; Jennifer Wolch

1990-01-01

45

Mortality and Life Expectancy in Homeless Men and Women in Rotterdam: 2001-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Data on mortality among homeless people are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to describe mortality patterns within a cohort of homeless adults in Rotterdam (the Netherlands) and to assess excess mortality as compared to the general population in that city. Methods Based on 10-year follow-up of homeless adults aged ? 20 years who visited services for homeless people in Rotterdam in 2001, and on vital statistics, we assessed the association of mortality with age, sex and type of service used (e.g. only day care, convalescence care, other) within the homeless cohort, and also compared mortality between the homeless and general population using Poisson regression. Life tables and decomposition methods were used to examine differences in life expectancy. Results During follow-up, of the 2096 adult homeless 265 died. Among the homeless, at age 30 years no significant sex differences were found in overall mortality rates and life expectancy. Compared with the general Rotterdam population, mortality rates were 3.5 times higher in the homeless cohort. Excess mortality was larger in women (rate ratio [RR] RR 5.56, 95% CI 3.95–7.82) as compared to men (RR 3.31, 95% CI 2.91–3.77), and decreased with age (RR 7.67, 95% CI 6.87–8.56 for the age group 20–44 and RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.41–1.88 for the age group 60+ years). Life expectancy at age 30 years was 11.0 (95% CI 9.1–12.9) and 15.9 (95% CI 10.3–21.5) years lower for homeless men and women compared to men and women in the general population respectively. Conclusion Homeless adults face excessive losses in life expectancy, with greatest disadvantages among homeless women and the younger age groups.

Nusselder, Wilma J.; Slockers, Marcel T.; Krol, Luuk; Slockers, Colette T.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; van Beeck, Ed F.

2013-01-01

46

When the Bough Breaks: The Effects of Homelessness on Young Children. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 3, Issue 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living without permanent, long-term housing creates a number of stressors for children and families, but being homeless can be particularly detrimental to the healthy development of young children. The National Center on Family Homelessness reports that more than 1.6 million children--or one in 45 children--were homeless annually in America…

McCoy-Roth, Marci; Mackintosh, Bonnie B.; Murphey, David

2012-01-01

47

A systematic study of mental health services utilization by homeless men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric illness is overrepresented among the homeless, but mental health services are underutilized in this population in proportion to their needs. The current study was concerned with 900 homeless men and women randomly sampled and systematically interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule; it focuses on psychiatric and substance abuse rehabilitation service patterns and stated needs of this population in relation

C. S. North; E. M. Smith

1993-01-01

48

Homelessness and Young Children: Early Childhood Care and Education. Minibibliography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, states must have policies and procedures in place that ensure timely assessment, appropriate services, and continuity of services for children with disabilities who are homeless. IDEA 2004 specifically requires states to comply with the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance…

Goode, Susan, Comp.; Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.

2006-01-01

49

The Real Cost of Linking Homeless Young People to Employment, Education and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the implementation of the Victorian Youth Employment, Education and Training Initiative (YEETI). This statewide initiative delivered brokerage funds to homeless young people through their housing advocates. One of the findings of the project was that the main barrier to young people achieving a stable continuum in their lives…

Broadbent, Robyn

2008-01-01

50

Employment Status and Income Generation among Homeless Young Adults: Results from a Five-City, Mixed-Methods Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed-methods study identified correlates of unemployment among homeless young adults in five cities. Two hundred thirty-eight homeless young people from Los Angeles (n = 50), Austin (n = 50), Denver (n = 50), New Orleans (n = 50), and St. Louis (n = 38) were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Multivariate logistic regression…

Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Pollio, David

2012-01-01

51

The Impact of Homelessness on Recent Sex Trade among Pregnant Women in Drug Treatment.  

PubMed

This study is a secondary data analysis aimed to examine the influence of recent homelessness on recent sex trade among pregnant women in drug treatment after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, age, education, and race. Eighty-one pregnant women from a drug treatment program in Baltimore, Maryland attended an in-person interview and completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV for Axis I disorders, the HIV Risk Behavior Interview, and demographic questionnaires, which assessed psychiatric symptoms, recent homelessness, and sexual risk behavior respectively. Women who experienced recent homelessness had a 4.74 greater odds of having recently traded sex than women who had not been recently homeless, suggesting that homelessness uniquely influences sex trade beyond psychiatric status, which was also a significant correlate of recent sex trade. Addressing both homelessness and psychiatric problems may effectively reduce sex trade and risk for infectious diseases, which could adversely impact maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:22754382

Brown, Qiana L; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Penniman, Typhanye V; Latimer, William W

2012-01-01

52

Help for Homeless Veterans  

MedlinePLUS

... Women Veterans Incarcerated Veterans SITE SEARCH Search For Homeless Veterans If you are a homeless veteran or a veteran at risk of becoming homeless, these pages provide information that you can use ...

53

Perceived Competency and Resolution of Homelessness Among Women with Substance Abuse Problems  

PubMed Central

Using a metasynthesis approach, our aim was to articulate new insights relating to the most efficient and effective means of helping homeless women with substance abuse problems to enhance their well-being and become more stably housed. Distorted perceptions of competency, which are shaped by dysfunctional relationships and mental health problems, make it challenging for women with substance abuse problems to resolve homelessness. Women with particularly low or high levels of perceived competency tend to grapple with challenges related to structure and control, trust, and hopelessness. Therapeutic strategies for approaching these women include careful assessment, caring, personalized structure and control, development of interpersonal trust, instillation of hope, and the targeted use of psychotherapeutic agents and counseling. Framing care for homeless women within the context of perceived competency offers a new way of understanding their plight and shaping interventions to more expeditiously move them toward healthy and stable lives.

Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Bloom, Tina L.; Johnson, E. Diane

2011-01-01

54

Hospitalizations Among Homeless Women: Are There Ethnic and Drug Abuse Disparities?  

PubMed Central

This paper explores associations among the vulnerabilities of being female, being a member of a minority group, and being a drug abuser in homeless women’s hospitalizations. It uses a 1997 probability survey of 974 homeless females age 15–44 in Los Angeles. In unadjusted analyses, whites were more likely than other ethnic minority groups to be hospitalized, and drug abusers were more likely to be hospitalized than non-drug abusers. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that factors associated with hospitalization differed considerably among the ethnic and drug-abuse subgroups. For example, ethnic disparities in inpatient health care were found for drug-abusing women, but not for those who did not abuse drugs. Pregnancy was the only important determinant of hospitalization in all subgroups (OR, 2.9–17.4). Preventing unintended pregnancy appears to be the most inclusive means of reducing hospitalization and attendant costs among homeless women.

Gelberg, Lillian; Andersen, Ronald; Longshore, Douglas; Leake, Barbara; Nyamathi, Adeline; Teruya, Cheryl; Arangua, Lisa

2013-01-01

55

Correlates of HIV Risk Behaviors Among Homeless and Unstably Housed Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Homeless young adults are exposed to multiple risk factors for HIV infection. We identified HIV risk behaviors and their correlates among homeless young adults in Portland, Oregon. Methods We conducted a community-based, cross-sectional survey of HIV risk behaviors among homeless young adults aged 18–25 years in 2010. Participants completed three study components: (1) an interviewer-administered survey of HIV risk behaviors; (2) a brief, client-centered HIV risk-based counseling session; and (3) rapid HIV testing. Results Among 208 participants, 45.8% identified as racial/ethnic minority groups, 63.8% were male, and 35.7% self-identified as nonheterosexual. Six participants, all from sexual minority groups, had positive HIV screening results (two newly identified, four previously known) for a seropositivity rate of 2.9%. Female sex, belonging to a sexual minority group, frequent traveling between cities, depression, and alcohol use to intoxication were significantly associated with unprotected sex in univariate analysis. Female sex and high perceived risk of HIV were significantly associated with unprotected sex in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Our findings support the need for enhanced HIV prevention interventions for homeless young adults.

Logan, Jennifer L.; Frye, Alison; Pursell, Haley O.; Anderson-Nathe, Michael; Scholl, Juliana E.

2013-01-01

56

Strengthening Homeless Parents with Young Children through Meaningful Parent Education and Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homeless parents of young children confront several barriers to developing effective parenting skills and dispositions. Perhaps the major barrier is that of the negative stereotype that many people use to label them. They also often have not had positive parent role models and in many cases have had to deal with the issues of violence. Parent…

Swick, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

57

On the Road: Examining Self-Representation and Discourses of Homelessness in Young Adult Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors analyze representations of social issues within contemporary memoirs written for and marketed to a young adult audience and multimodal zines produced by homeless youth. To read across these distinctly different texts (mass marketed and do-it-yourself cultural productions) and genres (memoir and zines), the authors…

Rogers, Theresa; Marshall, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

58

Correlates of Engaging in Survival Sex among Homeless Youth and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 1,625 homeless youth and young adults aged 10 to 25 from 28 different states in the United States, this study examines the correlates of having engaged in survival sex. Findings suggest that differences exist based on demographic variables (gender, age, race, and sexual orientation), lifetime drug use (inhalants, Valium™, crack cocaine, alcohol, Coricidin™, and morphine), recent

N. Eugene Walls; Stephanie Bell

2010-01-01

59

Homelessness and drug abuse among young men who have sex with men in New York city: A preliminary epidemiological trajectory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset

Michael C. Clatts; Lloyd Goldsamt; Huso Yi; Marya Viorst Gwadz

2005-01-01

60

Homeless Women with Children: The Role of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers alcohol and other drug abuse among homeless women and the impact of public policy decisions on this group, their dependent children, and the family unit. Examines barriers to treatment including legal rights conflicts (women's versus children's), criminalization, and treatment approaches. (JB)

Robertson, Marjorie J.

1991-01-01

61

Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization Among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates that women who were sexually abused as children are more likely to become involved in prostitution and to experience criminal victimization. A sample of 40 adolescent runaways and a sample of 95 homeless women were studied to test direct and indirect models of the impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. The results suggest that

RONALD L. SIMONS; LES B. WHITBECK

1991-01-01

62

Community Women's Circle: A Partnership Program Developed to Connect and Serve Homeless, Poor and Socially Marginalized Women with Developmental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

For approximately three years Street Health Nursing Foundation, Regent Park Community Health Centre and Surrey Place Centre (SPC) have been conducting a drop- in, support group for women who have developmental disabilities and are homeless, poor, and socially marginalized. We found that these women came from a different culture and shared some increased vulnerabilities not shared by the clients we

Cheryl Bedard; Caroll Drummond; Josie Ricciardi; Fiona Husband

63

Breast Cancer in Young Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Cervical Cancer Burden by County Helping Rural Counties Access Screening Cancer Home Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the breast, it is ...

64

Young Women, Sports, and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

Hanson, Sandra L.

2007-01-01

65

Youth Homelessness 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third national census of homeless school students, conducted in 2006, found that the number of homeless students had decreased since 2001. There were 9,389 homeless students in 2006 compared with 12,227 in 2001. Three groups were over-represented in the homeless population: Indigenous students, young people from single parent and blended…

MacKenzie, David; Chamberlain, Chris

2008-01-01

66

Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

1991-01-01

67

Personal, Cognitive, Behavioral, and Demographic Predictors of HIV Testing and STDs in Homeless Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a multiracial sample of 621 homeless women, we tested a latent variable causal model of personal, cognitive, behavioral, and demographic predictors of two coping mediators and the outcome variables of HIV testing and return for test results and a recent STD infection. HIV testing and return were predicted by more social support, greater AIDS knowledge, greater perceived risk for

Adeline M. Nyamathi; Judith A. Stein; Janice M. Swanson

2000-01-01

68

Strategies for managing health problems among homeless women: three case studies.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to illustrate through case examples how homeless women experience coexisting health problems, and how they may conceal these stigmatizing health problems from others, including health professionals and shelter staff. The article will also address how nurse case managers can interact with these women so that together they can develop strategies about how to manage these complex health problems. PMID:10232218

Hatton, D C; Fisher, A

1999-01-01

69

Life Experiences and Vulnerabilities of Homeless Women: A Comparison of Women Unaccompanied Versus Accompanied by Minor Children, and Correlates with Children's Emotional Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histories and service needs of 2 groups of homeless women, those unaccompanied by minor children (n = 46) and those accompanied by minor children (n = 22), were compared, on the basis of their responses to a biennial survey of homeless people in a midsize city in the southeast United States. Mothers of children aged 2–10 also completed a

Timothy Page; Roger M. Nooe

2002-01-01

70

Does sexual coercion play a role in the high-risk sexual behavior of adolescent and young adult women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual coercion and its relationship to high-risk sexual behavior were examined in five samples of young women. Sample 1 (N=22) consisted of sexually active adolescents aged 15 to 19. Samples 2 (N=206) and 3 (N=70) were recruited from among patients at three sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sample 4 (N=51) consisted of young homeless women living on the street in a

Anthony Biglan; John Noell; Linda Ochs; Keith Smolkowski; Carol Metzler I

1995-01-01

71

Breast cancer in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Although uncommon, breast cancer in young women is worthy of special attention due to the unique and complex issues that are raised. This article reviews specific challenges associated with the care of younger breast cancer patients, which include fertility preservation, management of inherited breast cancer syndromes, maintenance of bone health, secondary prevention, and attention to psychosocial issues.

Courtney A Gabriel; Susan M Domchek

2010-01-01

72

Breast cancer in young women  

PubMed Central

Although uncommon, breast cancer in young women is worthy of special attention due to the unique and complex issues that are raised. This article reviews specific challenges associated with the care of younger breast cancer patients, which include fertility preservation, management of inherited breast cancer syndromes, maintenance of bone health, secondary prevention, and attention to psychosocial issues.

2010-01-01

73

Endometrial Hyperplasia in Young Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Findings in a long-term follow-up study of 97 young women with endometrial hyperplasia are presented. In 24 patients (25%), the endometrial hyperplasia was associated with sclerocystic ovaries consistent with the so-called Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Fertil...

D. L. Chamlian H. B. Taylor

1970-01-01

74

Young women and sexual health.  

PubMed

Young women who have sex with men are vulnerable to infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), because of both the potential presence of infectious organisms and young women's lack of appropriate and effective personal skills in asserting their relationship needs, and their needs for protection against infection. The increasing incidence of STDs, including HIV, in young women would reduce if the women could be enabled to develop techniques, such as the communication, negotiation, and assertiveness skills needed to manage their sexual health within a heterosexual relationship. One obstacle to bringing about substantive changes in heterosexual behavior is that STDs are not fully acknowledged as a public health issue by non-gay people. However, an overwhelming body of evidence from sources around the world shows that STDs are mainly infections of heterosexual people aged 15-30 years, and that the concept of a risk group is unsound for educational purposes. Risk behavior is what matters. Other obstacles include the belief among many that heterosexual behavior is natural, and that sex must be penetrative; serial monogamy; lack of frank communication between sex partners; the absence of a heterosexual community; and current economic and political circumstances. PMID:12179696

Jones, J

1991-07-01

75

Factors associated with poor mental health status among homeless women with and without dependent children.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental health problems among a representative sample of homeless women with and without dependent children and determine if the effects of risk factors for mental health are modified by the presence of dependent children. Homeless women (n = 522) were recruited in 2004-2005 from shelters and meal programs in Toronto, Canada. Linear and logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with mental health status. Poor mental health was associated with low perceived access to social support, physical/sexual assault in the past 12 months, presence of a chronic health condition, and presence of a drug use problem in the past month. Efforts to improve mental health in this population will need to address the associated problems of victimization, substance abuse, and lack of social supports. PMID:23423484

Chambers, Catharine; Chiu, Shirley; Scott, Allison N; Tolomiczenko, George; Redelmeier, Donald A; Levinson, Wendy; Hwang, Stephen W

2014-07-01

76

Substance Abuse by Homeless Pregnant Mothers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies characteristics of 29 pregnant homeless women (18 African Americans, 6 whites, and 5 others). In general, respondents are young, unmarried minority group members with no income other than entitlements, who have been without a home one year or less. These women have more health problems than the average population. (SLD)

Wagner, Janet Dougherty; Menke, Edna Mae

1992-01-01

77

Partner violence among homeless young adults: measurement issues and associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The primary goal of this study was to test the reliability of the Partner Violence Interview and examine validity by measuring differential correlates of partner violence.Methods: Sixty young adults (30 males and 30 females) housed in an urban shelter participated in this study. All participants were between the ages of 18 and 21 years and the majority were African-American.

Neil W Boris; Sherryl Scott Heller; Tonya Sheperd; Charles H Zeanah

2002-01-01

78

Relative contributions of parent substance use and childhood maltreatment to chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems among homeless women: mediating roles of self-esteem and abuse in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study, using latent variable methodology, explores simultaneously the relative effects of childhood abuse and early parental substance abuse on later chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems in a sample of homeless women. We also examine whether self-esteem and recent violence can serve as mediators between the childhood predictors and the dysfunctional outcomes.Method: The sample consists of 581

Judith A Stein; Michelle Burden Leslie; Adeline Nyamathi

2002-01-01

79

Developing a Tripartite Prevention Program for Impoverished Young Women Transitioning to Young Adulthood: Addressing Substance Use, HIV Risk, and Victimization by Intimate Partners  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the transition to adulthood for adolescent females and young women who are impoverished and homeless. Co-occurrence of drug use and abuse, HIV risk, and victimization is notable among homeless women, highlighting the need for comprehensive interventions. Unfortunately, evidence-based prevention approaches addressing these inter-related problems among impoverished women transitioning into adulthood are lacking. To address this gap, we designed an innovative prevention program by utilizing open and closed ended interview data from impoverished women (n = 20), focus groups with community experts and providers (2 groups; n = 9), and a theoretical framework to direct the research. Information provided by our focus groups and interviews with women supported our theoretical framework and highlighted the importance of addressing normative information, providing skills training, and utilizing a non confrontational approach when discussing these sensitive issues.

D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Barnes, Dionne; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

2013-01-01

80

Impact of nursing intervention on improving HIV, hepatitis knowledge and mental health among homeless young adults.  

PubMed

In a prospective two-group pilot study of a convenient sample of 156 young adults, we assessed improvement in HIV cognitive and transmission knowledge, hepatitis knowledge, and mental health at six-month follow-up. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed higher six-month scores in total HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV/AIDS cognitive knowledge, HIV transmission knowledge and HBV and HCV knowledge at 6 months in the Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) group compared to the Art Messaging (AM) group. Moreover, homeless young participants who reported having significant others in their lives, and excellent or very good health did better than their counterparts. Youth who were attempting to get their lives together had higher scores for all types of knowledge except HBV. Hallucinogen users had significantly worse scores on all knowledge measures than non-users. Lastly, the HHP group revealed an improvement in psychological well-being compared to the AM group. PMID:22797748

Nyamathi, Adeline; Kennedy, Barbara; Branson, Catherine; Salem, Benissa; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Marfisee, Mary; Getzoff, Daniel; Leake, Barbara

2013-04-01

81

Street careers: homelessness, drug use, and sex work among young men who have sex with men (YMSM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Hustling” or sex work is a common means of surviving on the streets and paying for drugs among homeless youth. In this article, we formulate the concepts of “street capital” and “street competencies” to describe how 10 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in New York City accumulated various knowledge and skills throughout their childhood and adolescence, and

Stephen E. Lankenau; Michael C. Clatts; Dorinda Welle; Lloyd A. Goldsamt; Marya Viost Gwadz

2005-01-01

82

Changes over time among homeless young people in drug dependency, mental illness and their co-morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-national survey was conducted among 358 recently homeless young people in Melbourne and Los Angeles. Drug dependence and mental illness were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. At each time point, participants were classified as no condition, drug dependent, having a mental illness or dual condition. Low levels of drug dependence or mental illness or both were reported

Doreen Rosenthal; Shelley Mallett; Lyle Gurrin; Norweeta Milburn; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus

2007-01-01

83

Risk factors for homelessness and sex trade among incarcerated women: A Structural equation model  

PubMed Central

Incarcerated women are among the most vulnerable and perhaps the least studied populations in the US. Significant proportions of female inmates are substance users, and many living in unstable housing conditions or being homeless. Female inmates are often at high risk of engaging in sex exchange for drugs or housing needs. While a disproportionate number of incarcerated women have experienced childhood household adversities and maltreatments, the effects of these childhood experiences on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of this population in later life. We apply a life course perspective to examine these pathways in a sample of incarcerated women in Cook County, Illinois. Findings demonstrated lasting, but differential, effects of household adversities and childhood abuse on subsequent life risks and opportunities among these women.

Kim, Seijeoung; Johnson, Timothy P.; Goswami, Samir; Puisis, Michael

2011-01-01

84

Does sexual coercion play a role in the high-risk sexual behavior of adolescent and young adult women?  

PubMed

Sexual coercion and its relationship to high-risk sexual behavior were examined in five samples of young women. Sample 1 (N = 22) consisted of sexually active adolescents aged 15 to 19. Samples 2 (N = 206) and 3 (N = 70) were recruited from among patients at three sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sample 4 (N = 51) consisted of young homeless women living on the street in a large city. Sample 5 (N = 51) was recruited from among young women on a college campus. Across all samples, 44.4% of women indicated that they had been forced into some form of sexual activity against their will. Self-reports of sexually coercive experiences were consistently related to risky sexual behavior. It appears that many young women are coerced into engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. This implies the need for greater attention to male coercive sexual behavior and women's skills for coping with such behavior. PMID:8749985

Biglan, A; Noell, J; Ochs, L; Smolkowski, K; Metzler, C

1995-12-01

85

Community Demonstration Grant Projects for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment of Homeless Individuals. Volume 3. Innovative Strategies for Treating Alcohol and Drug Abuse Problems among Homeless Men and Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The treatment interventions funded in the community demonstration grant program represented a mix of treatment approaches targeted in a variety of subpopulations of homeless persons with alcohol or other problems: older single men, women with children, na...

M. M. Murray

1992-01-01

86

Violence in the Lives of Homeless Mothers in a Substance Abuse Treatment Program: A Descriptive Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse programs for homeless women would benefit from knowing the degree of victimization and violence they may encounter in the population they serve. A substance abuse treatment program for homeless mothers with young children operating over a 2-year period encountered high rates of victimization and violence. Ongoing patterns of victimization and violence in these mothers continued during their time

CAROL S. NORTH; SANNA J. THOMPSON; ELIZABETH M. SMITH; LINDA M. KYBURZ

1996-01-01

87

Modeling Minority Stress Effects on Homelessness and Health Disparities among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population. PMID:24807702

Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

2014-06-01

88

Embodied Subjectivities: Nine Young Women Talking Dance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine nine Australian young women's embodied experiences of dance. The young women were all amateur dancers involved in weekly jazz, tap, and ballet dance classes at the same dance studio. In this paper, embodiment is defined as multidimensional (Burkitt 1999). The authors explore the ways the corporeal and…

O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Pryor, Zoe; Gray, Tonia

2013-01-01

89

The telling my story quilting workshop: innovative group work with older African American women transitioning out of homelessness.  

PubMed

This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences. PMID:19921762

Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean

2009-11-01

90

Young Women Online: Collaboratively Constructing Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I examine how young women construct their identities with others in online communities. I argue that the proliferation of social networking and its popularity among young people means that performed identities are increasingly collaboratively constructed, with the individual having less control over their public image than was…

Paechter, Carrie

2013-01-01

91

Predictors of Change in Self-Reported Social Networks among Homeless Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over 3 years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to fewer…

Falci, Christina D.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Rose, Trina

2011-01-01

92

Using Social Justice Group Work with Young Mothers Who Experience Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates (e.g., Bassuk et al., 1997) that women and children make up a large percentage of the total number of individuals living without permanent shelter. This article represents a reflective analysis of our work as group facilitators who conducted a series of personal growth groups for young mothers living in a residential facility…

Coker, Angela D.; Meyer, Dixie; Smith, Rachelle; Price, Amber

2010-01-01

93

In their own words: trauma and substance abuse in the lives of formerly homeless women with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 formerly homeless mentally ill women to capture their individual life trajectories of mental illness, substance abuse, and trauma in their own words. Cross-case analyses produced 5 themes: (a) betrayals of trust, (b) graphic or gratuitous nature of traumatic events, (c) anxiety about leaving their immediate surroundings (including attending group treatment programs), (d) desire for one's own space, and (e) gender-related status loss and stigmatization. Findings suggest formerly homeless mentally ill women need (and want) autonomy, protection from further victimization, and assistance in restoring status and devalued identity. Avenues for intervention include enhanced provider training, addressing experiences of betrayal and trauma, and more focused attention to current symptoms rather than previous diagnoses. PMID:17209714

Padgett, Deborah K; Hawkins, Robert Leibson; Abrams, Courtney; Davis, Andrew

2006-10-01

94

Predictors of Change in Self-Reported Social Networks among Homeless Young People  

PubMed Central

This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over three years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to fewer home ties, especially to parents, and a more rapid loss of emotional home ties over time. Homeless youth with major depression start out with small networks, but are more likely to maintain network ties. Youth with substance abuse problems are more likely to maintain instrumental home ties. Finally, homeless adolescents tend to reconnect with their parents for instrumental aid and form romantic relationship that provide emotional support.

Falci, Christina D.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Rose, Trina

2011-01-01

95

Comparability and Representativeness of Clinical Homeless, Community Homeless, and Domiciled Clinic Samples: Physical and Mental Health, Substance Use, and Health Services Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the representativeness of homeless samples is important for generalizing research findings on the homeless and designing interventions targeting their health needs. The present study contrasts homeless and domiciled free-clinic users (216 homeless [132 men, 84 women], 212 domiciled [102 men, 110 women]) and 531 community homeless persons (388 men, 143 women) on latent variables representing substance use, mental and

Judith A. Stein; Lillian Gelberg

1997-01-01

96

Perceptions of Students about Younger and Older Men and Women who May Be Homeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future human service providers will interact with homeless persons in health, mental health, and social service practice contexts. This study investigated the perceptions of students enrolled in social work courses who are pursuing degrees in human service programs toward older and younger female and male homeless individuals. Respondents (N = 207) were given one of four vignettes in which a

Michael N. Kane; Diane Green; Robin J. Jacobs

2010-01-01

97

Six Exceptional Young Women--At Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the hardships of six, highly intelligent young women, at risk during adolescence, at different stages in their lives. All six managed to perform at an adequate academic level throughout their difficulties allowing their problems to go unnoticed. Suggests that support groups would help these types of students. (MKA)

Peterson, Jean Sunde

1998-01-01

98

Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…

Frisco, Michelle L.

2005-01-01

99

Helping Young Women Turn Away from Tanning  

MedlinePLUS

... been diagnosed with a non-cancerous UV-related skin condition. But, she isn’t going to just hand young women a pamphlet; instead Ferrucci wants to reach this population where they are – online. With funding from a multi-year American Cancer ...

100

Screening Adolescents and Young Women  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Recent guidelines from multiple organizations, including the USPSTF, ACS/ASCCP/ASCP, ACOG and most recently the 2013 Update to the 2006 ASCCP Consensus Guidelines, all stress screening initiation no sooner than the age of 21 years and increased screening intervals for women aged 21 to 29 years. Primary prevention with HPV vaccination has the potential to significantly impact the development of high-grade cervical lesions, including cancer, and will likely affect screening guidelines in the future.

Boardman, Lori A.; Robison, Katina

2013-01-01

101

Does pornography influence young women’s sexual behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young women (n = 1,000), visiting a family planning clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, answered a questionnaire about their sexual behavior and if they had seen pornography. Four out of five had consumed pornography, and one-third of these believed that pornography had impacted their sexual behavior. As many as 47% had experienced anal intercourse, which was significantly more common among older

Christina Rogala; Tanja Tydén

2003-01-01

102

The Child Care Council of Westchester's "Hope for the Homeless."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of homelessness in Westchester County, New York has escalated sharply in the past few years. Estimates suggest that 5,000 people live in motels throughout the county. The largest segment of this population consists of families--women with young children. Mothers are often unable to participate in training programs due to a lack of…

McBride, Kathleen

103

"The second thing to hell is living under that bridge": narratives of women living with victimization, serious mental illness, and in homelessness.  

PubMed

The increasing rates of violence committed against homeless women living with serious mental illness (SMI) have been well documented. These increasing rates of violence need attention as they are a serious public health concern. The purpose of this qualitative study is to increase our understanding of victimization among this population as perceived by those who have lived the experience. The study sample consists of 15 homeless adult women who self-reported having been diagnosed with a SMI. The findings highlight the reality that, provided with the right type of resources, positive growth can occur among these women despite lifelong events of trauma, victimization, and loss. PMID:24131415

Bonugli, Rebecca; Lesser, Janna; Escandon, Socorro

2013-11-01

104

Young Women and the Co-Construction of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Young women's leadership is an area frequently overlooked in educational leadership development. This paper aims to bring young women's voices into educational leadership conversations and illustrate an alternative approach to young women's leadership development. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative action research study was…

McNae, Rachel

2010-01-01

105

Center for Young Women's Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children's Hospital Boston has created a health information site for teen girls that teaches them about important topics ranging from "Health & Development" to "Driving Safety" to "Emotional Health". Visitors will find that the "Ask Us!" feature is one that's vitally important for easily embarrassed teens, because it allows them to ask a health question without asking for their name or e-mail. This website also features three teen "Youth Advisors", participants in the Youth Advisory Program at the Children's Hospital Boston, who have been trained to educate their peers on health topics. They write and publish "Teen Talk", a quarterly newsletter with health information, and visit schools to give health presentations. Visitors will find that Children's Hospital Boston hasn't forgotten about teen boys' health, as they have their own site called "Young Men's Health", which can be accessed from this site by clicking on the "Guys' Guides" link on the left hand menu, near the bottom of the page.

106

Homeless Children and Youth: A New American Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 11 reports focus on policy responses to the needs of very young children who are part of a homeless family, and older young people who are homeless but on their own. The following chapters are included: (1) J. M. Molnar's introduction to the relationship between chronic poverty and homelessness; (2) "Beyond the Numbers: Homeless Families…

Kryder-Coe, Julee H., Ed.; And Others

107

The effectiveness of critical time intervention for abused women and homeless people leaving Dutch shelters: study protocol of two randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425

2013-01-01

108

Self Concepts of Mature and Young Women Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results showed as much variation within the groups of mature women and young women as between the two groups. Mature women found little in the academic or social life of the institution with which to identify; neither did the young women. (Author/CG)

Schofield, Larry F.; Caple, Richard B.

1971-01-01

109

Executive Function Skills and School Success in Young Children Experiencing Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the role of executive function (EF) skills as a predictor of kindergarten or first-grade adjustment in 138 children living in shelters for homeless families. During the summer, children completed a battery of six EF tasks and three IQ measures. Teachers later rated children's school adjustment in five domains of achievement…

Masten, Ann S.; Herbers, Janette E.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Cutuli, J. J.; McCormick, Christopher M.; Sapienza, Julianna K.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Zelazo, Philip David

2012-01-01

110

Supporting Positive Parenting for Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The PACT Therapeutic Nursery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensitive parenting and secure attachment can serve as protective factors against developmental risks associated with high-risk environments such as homelessness and shelter living. This article describes a program for mothers with children from birth to 3 years old whose families are living in shelters and who are enrolled in PACT: Helping…

Melley, Alison Heinhold; Cosgrove, Kim; Norris-Shortle, Carole; Kiser, Laurel J.; Levey, Eric B.; Coble, Catherine A.; Leviton, Audrey

2010-01-01

111

Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

2010-01-01

112

Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.  

PubMed

Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing. PMID:24572457

Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

2014-08-01

113

pynk : Breast Cancer Program for Young Women  

PubMed Central

Consider this scenario: A 35-year-old recently married woman is referred to a surgeon because of a growing breast lump. After a core biopsy shows cancer, she undergoes mastectomy for a 6-cm invasive lobular cancer that has spread to 8 axillary nodes. By the time she sees the medical oncologist, she is told that it is too late for a fertility consultation, and she receives a course of chemotherapy. At clinic appointments, she seems depressed and admits that her husband has been less supportive than she had hoped. After tamoxifen is started, treatment-related sexuality problems and the probability of infertility contribute to increasing strain on the couple’s relationship. Their marriage ends two years after the woman’s diagnosis. Six years after her diagnosis, this woman has completed all treatment, is disease-free, and is feeling extremely well physically. However, she is upset about being postmenopausal, and she is having difficulty adopting a child as a single woman with a history of breast cancer. Could this woman and her husband have been offered additional personalized interventions that might have helped them better cope with the breast cancer diagnosis and the effects of treatment? Compared with their older counterparts, young women with breast cancer often have greater and more complex supportive care needs. The present article describes the goals, achievements, and future plans of a specialized interdisciplinary program—the first of its kind in Canada—for women 40 years of age and younger newly diagnosed with breast cancer. The program was created to optimize the complex clinical care and support needs of this population, to promote research specifically targeting issues unique to young women, and to educate the public and health care professionals about early detection of breast cancer in young women and about the special needs of those women after their diagnosis.

Ali, A.; Warner, E.

2013-01-01

114

Interpersonal violence and the pregnant homeless woman.  

PubMed

Homelessness continues to increase in the United States. Families comprise the fastest growing segment of the homeless population, and estimates suggest that women head 90% of homeless families. Pregnant homeless women are exposed to more cumulative violence than are comparable low-income, housed women. Intervention strategies that may improve health care provided to pregnant homeless women include abuse and safety assessment protocols and the use of a hand-carried health record. These interventions are directed at efforts to preserve the woman's autonomy and confidentiality, reduce areas of client-provider conflict, and generally improve encounters between the client and the health care system. PMID:9836164

Robrecht, L C; Anderson, D G

1998-01-01

115

When, where, why and with whom homeless women engage in risky sexual behaviors: A framework for understanding complex and varied decision-making processes  

PubMed Central

Impoverished women worldwide are at high risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. This study explores how homeless women make risky sex decisions and the role that alcohol and drugs play in this process. We analyze 56 in-depth qualitative descriptions of recent sexual episodes among 28 women living in shelters in Los Angeles, California, USA. The sample (age 18–63) was 46% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latina, and 21% white. Findings suggest that: (1) homeless women engage in multiple types of relationships and sexual behaviors; (2) emotion and attachment play critical roles in women’s risky sex choices; and (3) the role of alcohol and drugs on such choices varies across relationship commitment. Understanding the complexity of sexual decision-making among this population has implications for developing successful risk reduction interventions.

Ryan, Gery W.; Stern, Stefanie A.; Hilton, Lara; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

2010-01-01

116

Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes Among Homeless Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about\\u000a how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared\\u000a those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a history of poor parenting

Kimberly A. TylerLisa; Lisa A. Melander

2010-01-01

117

Work with Girls and Young Women at Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the use of outdoor education activities with adolescent at-risk girls. Many young women in this age group unconsciously adopt stereotypical female roles and perceive their identities in terms of their relationships to males. A women-only group provides space in which girls and young women can search for their identities,…

Baker-Graham, Abigail

118

Ensuring Quality School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is composed of a number of publications of Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW) that relate to high quality school-to-work opportunities for young women. Contents include the following: myths and facts about nontraditional work; a list of nontraditional occupations (NTOs) for women; and women and nontraditional work factsheet with…

Watkins, Kristin; Milgram, Donna

119

Cardiac condition in young chagasic women  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Chagas disease is a complex disorder caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Most patients remain asymptomatic for several years and 30% of them progress quietly to developing cardiomyopathy. The factors that lead to chronic myocardial lesions are not fully understood. Objective: To investigate the association between clinical symptoms and single nucleotide polymorphisms in chagasic and non-chagasic women younger and older than 55 years of age. Methods and Results: we analyzed Ala-9Val and Ile58Thr polymorphisms of the SOD-Mn gene, 138ex1ins/del A of the endothelin-1 gene (ET-1) and H323H (T/C) of the endothelin receptor A gene (ETA), by PCR-RFLP using genomic DNA from leukocyte of 85 women. We also evaluated serum lipid profile, renal and liver function, chest X-rays, electrocardiograms (ECGs) and echocardiography (EchoCG). Biochemical profiling did not show differences between chagasic and non-chagasic patients. The polymorphisms analyses showed a significant association in the distribution of frequencies of the Mn-SOD Ile58Thr gene between both groups. Young chagasic patients had a significantly higher prevalence of abnormalities in X-rays, in ECGs and they showed grade II and III of NYHA functional classes. The chance of having an abnormal EchoCG was 5.87 higher in young chagasic patients (OR=5.87, 95% CI 1.47-23.4). Discussion: We concluded that the parasite affects young females by accelerating the deterioration of cardiac function, independent of other cardiovascular risk factors and the cardioprotective action of estrogens present in the premenopausal stage.

Lassen, O; Dotto, G; Ojeda, S; Garutti, A; Bertolotto, P; Tabares, S; Gallerano, R; Sembaj, A

2013-01-01

120

A TYPOLOGY OF DRUG-RELATED OFFENDING AMONG YOUNG HOMELESS INJECTION DRUG USERS  

PubMed Central

Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.

2011-01-01

121

Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

Farrugia, David

2011-01-01

122

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in young women.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and outcome of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Greek young women. A retrospective analysis was conducted of women aged 16 - 20 years with a histological diagnosis of CIN during the years 1999-2005. Management was individualised for each case. The rates of regression, persistence and progression were measured. A total of 80 adolescents were identified. Some 54 patients (67.5%) had CIN1 and 26 (32.5%) had CIN2/3. Regression of the CIN1 lesions expressed as negative cytological or histological follow-up was observed in 74% and 93% of the patients at 12 and 24 months, respectively. The majority of adolescents (92%) with CIN2/3 underwent conisation and in 79% of them, histology of the specimen confirmed the initial diagnosis. CIN1 lesions will most likely regress over a 2-year period following diagnosis in women aged 16 - 20 years. Nevertheless, close monitoring is mandatory, as 10 - 15% of these lesions will either persist or progress to high-grade CIN. Management for adolescents with high-grade CIN lesions should be individualised according to a variety of parameters and adjusted to the patients' safety. PMID:17999299

Haidopoulos, D; Voulgaris, Z; Protopapas, A; Rodolakis, A; Vlachos, G; Tsetsa, P; Antsaklis, A

2007-10-01

123

Homeless Youths and Young Adults in Los Angeles: Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and the Relationship Between Mental Health and Substance Abuse Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although understanding of the subsistence patterns, service utilization, and HIV-risk behaviors of homeless youths and young adults is increasing, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of mental health problems in this group or the relationships between mental health problems and substance use. This study measured symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, ADHD, suicidality, self-injurious behavior (SIB), and drug and alcohol

Jennifer B. Unger; Michele D. Kipke; Thomas R. Simon; Susanne B. Montgomery; Christine J. Johnson

1997-01-01

124

Correlates of Lifetime Physical Activity in Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study retrospectively examined physical activity patterns across three specific age periods (childhood, teenage, and young adulthood) in a cross sectional sample of young Caucasian undergraduate women (N = 44). All women (mean age = 22.27 plus or minus 3.14 years) completed questionnaire packets assessing transtheoretical model of behavior…

Wallace, Lorraine Silver

2003-01-01

125

Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

2010-01-01

126

Narrating Neighborhood: Denying Young Women's Public Voices about Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a youth-centered activist project with a group of young women in Brooklyn, NY, and the controversy surrounding it. In 1999 the young women created a neighborhood mural with anti-violence themes. Within 6 months of the mural's dedication, the mural was whitewashed by the corporate owner of the mural wall. Using content and…

Bertram, Corrine C.

2008-01-01

127

Ann Eliza Young: A Nineteenth Century Champion of Women's Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's…

Cullen, Jack B.

128

Homeless Children  

MedlinePLUS

... year. That's over 1.6 million children. While homeless, they experience high rates of acute and chronic ... of emotional and behavioral problems compared to non-homeless children. 3 Experiences of Violence Violence plays a ...

129

Experiences Associated with Intervening with Homeless, Substance-Abusing Mothers: The Importance of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists,…

Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C.

2012-01-01

130

Basic Subsistence Needs and Overall Health Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Homeless and Unstably Housed Women  

PubMed Central

Some gender differences in the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been attributed to delayed treatment among women and the social context of poverty. Recent economic difficulties have led to multiple service cuts, highlighting the need to identify factors with the most influence on health in order to prioritize scarce resources. The aim of this study was to empirically rank factors that longitudinally impact the health status of HIV-infected homeless and unstably housed women. Study participants were recruited between 2002 and 2008 from community-based venues in San Francisco, California, and followed over time; marginal structural models and targeted variable importance were used to rank factors by their influence. In adjusted analysis, the factor with the strongest effect on overall mental health was unmet subsistence needs (i.e., food, hygiene, and shelter needs), followed by poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, not having a close friend, and the use of crack cocaine. Factors with the strongest effects on physical health and gynecologic symptoms followed similar patterns. Within this population, an inability to meet basic subsistence needs has at least as much of an effect on overall health as adherence to antiretroviral therapy, suggesting that advances in HIV medicine will not fully benefit indigent women until their subsistence needs are met.

Riley, Elise D.; Moore, Kelly; Sorensen, James L.; Tulsky, Jacqueline P.; Bangsberg, David R.; Neilands, Torsten B.

2011-01-01

131

Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women  

PubMed Central

Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI. Conclusions Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of young women (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design.

2013-01-01

132

Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Young African American Women  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of selected factors to the consistent use of condoms among high-risk young African American women. A clinic-based, prospective, study of 242 young, African-American women (ages 15–21) was conducted. In multivariate analysis, consistent condom use was predicted by having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, lower fear of negotiating condom use, and having communicated with sex partners (during the recall period) about condom use. Relational variables were predictive of consistent condom use among young African American women. STD/HIV preventive interventions should target these factors, perhaps in dyad-level interventions.

DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Wingood, Gina M.; McDermott-Sales, Jessica; Young, April M.; Rose, Eve

2012-01-01

133

Homelessness and sexual assault Each issue of ACSSA Aware includes a profile that offers a perspective on current issues in service delivery. In this edition, ACSSA speaks to  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACSSA: Can you describe the work of SideStreet, and how the service responds to the issue of sexual assault? SideStreet: At the start of 2002, UnitingCare Wesley Adelaide began to operate SideStreet Counselling Service. SideStreet works with young women and men aged 12 to 25 who are homeless or at risk of homelessness and have experienced sexual and\\/or physical abuse.

DANIEL MOSS

134

Increasing Access to Higher Education for Unaccompanied Youth: Information for Colleges and Universities. Best Practices in Homeless Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…

National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

2010-01-01

135

Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Obstetric Healthcare Providers Healthy Pregnancy Healthy Baby Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants ... possible. Preparedness and Disaster Online Resources General Preparedness Information Get Disaster Information Ready.gov (U.S. Department of ...

136

Determinants and Consequences of Young Women's Attitudes Toward Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research is focused on the mechanisms through which young women develop attitudes toward and preferences for market work and on the consequences of these attitudes and tastes, once developed, for later labor market experiences. The impact of attitudes...

L. J. Waite

1979-01-01

137

Generalized anxiety disorder and clinical worry episodes in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This article presents epidemiological data on the prevalence of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and sub-threshold GAD (fulfilling three out of four GAD criteria) in young women together with data on co-morbidity and psychosocial functioning. The prevalence of clinically relevant worry and its predictive validity for the diagnosis of GAD were also examined. Method. Young women (N fl 2064),

J. Hoyer; J. Margraf

2002-01-01

138

"It's Good to Have Wheels!" Perceptions of Cycling among Homeless Young People in Sydney, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth. Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight…

Crawford, Belinda; Rissel, Chris; Yamazaki, Rowena; Franke, Elise; Amanatidis, Sue; Ravulo, Jioji; Bindon, Jenni; Torvaldsen, Siranda

2012-01-01

139

Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

Zhang, Jie

2010-01-01

140

Gender and Victimization Risk among Young Women in Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has documented the enhancement effects of gang involvement for criminal offending, but little attention has been given to victimization. This article examines how gang involvement shapes young women's risks of victimization. Based on interviews with active gang members, the author suggests that (1) gang participation exposes youths to victimization risk and (2) it does so in gendered ways. Young

JODY MILLER

1998-01-01

141

The Importance of Community Context for Young Women’s Occupational Aspirations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of community context on occupational aspirations are examined in a national sample of young women in high school\\u000a in the USA in 1979 (n?=?2,210). Multilevel statistical models indicate that young women living in counties with a lower divorce rate, a lower percentage\\u000a of women working, and more people employed in the wholesale and retail industrial sector tended to

Chardie L. Baird

2008-01-01

142

Homeless Women Veterans: Actions Needed to Ensure Safe and Appropriate Housing. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As more women serve in the military, the number of women veterans has grown substantially, doubling from 4 percent of all veterans in 1990 to 8 percent, or an estimated 1.8 million, today. The number of women veterans will continue to increase as servicem...

2011-01-01

143

Hopes and Fears: The Life Choices, Aspirations and Well-Being of Young Rural Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Australian study of 40,000 women found that the age at which young women have children is related to broader patterns of social inequality and to the disadvantagement of young rural women. Of particular concern is the increasing polarization between better-educated young women who defer motherhood and less-educated women who have children at a…

Warner-Smith, Penny; Lee, Christina

2001-01-01

144

Caffeine Use and Young Adult Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed college women and men and found that caffeine was consumed by a large proportion of the respondents. Women consumed a larger amount of caffeine and used more substances containing this drug. An increase in caffeine usage with increased psychic stress was observed for women only. (Author)

Vener, Arthur M.; Krupka, Lawrence R.

1982-01-01

145

Continuation of Reversible Contraception in Teenagers and Young Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of age on continuation rates of reversible contraceptive methods among teenagers and young women aged 14–19 years and women aged 20–25 years, compared to women older than 25 years of age. Methods We analyzed data from 7,472 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study of women offered no-cost contraception. Our primary objective was to compare 12-month continuation rates between teenagers and women aged 14–19, 20–25, and 26 years and older. We collected data about method continuation from telephone surveys and chart review. We used Kaplan-Meier survival curves to estimate continuation and Cox proportional hazard models to examine the risk of contraceptive method discontinuation. Results Twelve-month continuation of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods was over 75% for all age groups. Teenagers and young women aged 14–19 years using LARC methods had slightly lower continuation rates (81%) than older women (85–86%), but this did not reach statistical or clinical significance. Compared to women older than 25 years of age, teenagers and women aged 14–19 years had lower continuation rates for non-LARC methods (44% v. 53%; HRadj1.32, 95% CI 1.02–1.73). The teenagers and young women aged 14–19 years were less likely to be satisfied with non-LARC methods (42% v. 51%; RRadj 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.98), but not LARC methods (75% v. 83%; RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88–1.01) when compared to women over 25 years of age; however, the differences were small. Conclusion Teenagers and young women have high rates of LARC method continuation.

Rosenstock, Jessica R.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.; Madden, Tessa; Zhao, Qiuhong; Secura, Gina M.

2014-01-01

146

Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information  

PubMed Central

Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed.

Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

2010-01-01

147

The Challenge of Pregnancy among Homeless Youth: Reclaiming a Lost Opportunity  

PubMed Central

Young, homeless women often become pregnant, but little is known about how street youth experience their pregnancies. We documented 26 pregnancy outcomes among 13 homeless women (ages 18–26) and eight homeless men through interviews and participant-observation. Eight pregnancies were voluntarily terminated, three were miscarried, and fifteen were carried to term. Regardless of pregnancy outcome, street youths’ narratives focused on ambivalence about parenting, traumatic childhood experiences, and current challenges. Despite significant obstacles, almost all were convinced of their personal capacity to change their lives. While most wanted to be parents, the majority lost custody of their newborns and consequently associated contact with medical and social services with punitive outcomes. Most of the youth who chose to terminate successfully sought safe medical care. We offer recommendations for changing the approach of services to take full advantage of pregnancy as a potential catalyst event for change in this highly vulnerable and underserved population.

Smid, Marcela; Bourgois, Philippe; Auerswald, Colette L.

2011-01-01

148

Epidemiology and prognosis of breast cancer in young women  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women with 6.6% of cases diagnosed in young women below the age of 40. Despite variances in risk factors, Age Standardized Incidence Rates of breast cancer in young women vary little between different countries. Review of modifiable risk factors shows that long-term use of oral contraceptives, low body mass index (BMI) and high animal fat diet consumption are associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. Decreased physical activity and obesity increase risks of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but data on premenopausal women rather shows that high BMI is associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Non-modifiable risk factors such as family history and genetic mutations do account for increased risks of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Breast cancer in young women is associated with adverse pathological factors, including high grade tumors, hormone receptor negativity, and HER2 overexpression. This has a significant negative impact on the rate of local recurrence and overall survival. Moreover, younger women often tend to present with breast cancer at a later stage than their older counterparts, which further explains worse outcome. Despite these factors, age per se is still being advocated as an independent role player in the prognosis. This entails more aggressive treatment modalities and the need for closer monitoring and follow-up.

Assi, Hussein A.; Khoury, Katia E.; Dbouk, Haifa; Khalil, Lana E.; Mouhieddine, Tarek H.

2013-01-01

149

Epidemiology and prognosis of breast cancer in young women.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women with 6.6% of cases diagnosed in young women below the age of 40. Despite variances in risk factors, Age Standardized Incidence Rates of breast cancer in young women vary little between different countries. Review of modifiable risk factors shows that long-term use of oral contraceptives, low body mass index (BMI) and high animal fat diet consumption are associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. Decreased physical activity and obesity increase risks of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but data on premenopausal women rather shows that high BMI is associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Non-modifiable risk factors such as family history and genetic mutations do account for increased risks of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Breast cancer in young women is associated with adverse pathological factors, including high grade tumors, hormone receptor negativity, and HER2 overexpression. This has a significant negative impact on the rate of local recurrence and overall survival. Moreover, younger women often tend to present with breast cancer at a later stage than their older counterparts, which further explains worse outcome. Despite these factors, age per se is still being advocated as an independent role player in the prognosis. This entails more aggressive treatment modalities and the need for closer monitoring and follow-up. PMID:23819024

Assi, Hussein A; Khoury, Katia E; Dbouk, Haifa; Khalil, Lana E; Mouhieddine, Tarek H; El Saghir, Nagi S

2013-06-01

150

The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

2009-01-01

151

Homelessness Assistance and Resources  

MedlinePLUS

... Events Ask A Question Technical Assistance About Grantees Homelessness Assistance and Resources "Stable housing is the foundation ... Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness Homelessness Assistance Programs HUD's homeless assistance programs are categorized ...

152

Trauma-Informed Care for Women Veterans Experiencing Homelessness. A Guide for Service Providers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The number of women in the military both active duty and veteran populations is growing rapidly. They face unusual challenges because of their military experiences and for many, multiple roles as breadwinner, parent, and spouse. Often their return to civi...

2010-01-01

153

Depression prevalence in disadvantaged young black women  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Background Research with Mexican Americans suggests that immigrants have lower rates of mental disorders than U. S.-born Mexican Americans.We examine the prevalence of depression, somatization, alcohol use and drug use among black American women, comparing rates of disorders among U. S.-born, Caribbean-born, and African-born subsamples. Methods Wo men in Women, Infants and Children (WIC) programs, county-run Title X

Jeanne Miranda; Juned Siddique; Thomas R. Belin; Laura P. Kohn-Wood

2005-01-01

154

Mycoplasma genitalium among Young, Urban Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective. As the consequences of Mycoplasma genitalium in pregnant women are unknown, we examined the relationship between prenatal M. genitalium infection and SAB. Methods. The presence of M. genitalium was determined by PCR in urine from 82 women who subsequently experienced a SAB and 134 women who maintained their pregnancies past 22 weeks gestation. The relationships between M. genitalium and subsequent SAB, demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive health history characteristics were evaluated. Results. Compared to women without M. genitalium, women with M. genitalium were more likely to report nulliparity (41.7% versus 17.4%, P = .04), history of pelvic inflammatory disease (27.3% versus 8.8%, P = .08), prior C. trachomatis infection (63.6% versus 36.9%, P = .11,) and problems getting pregnant (18.2% versus 4.4%, P = .10). M. genitalium was not associated with SAB (AOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.2–3.8). Conclusions. Pregnant women who test positive for M. genitalium do not have an increased risk of SAB but report a history of reproductive morbidities.

Short, Vanessa L.; Jensen, J?rgen S.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Murray, Pamela J.; Ness, Roberta B.; Haggerty, Catherine L.

2010-01-01

155

The Unique and Combined Effects of Homelessness and School Mobility on the Educational Outcomes of Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the unique and combined associations of homelessness and school mobility with educational well-being indicators, as well as the mediating effect of absenteeism, for an entire cohort of third-grade students in Philadelphia. Using integrated archival administrative data from the public school district and the municipal Office of…

Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Chen, Chin-Chih; Rouse, Heather L.; Culhane, Dennis P.

2012-01-01

156

Middle-class young women: agentic sexual subjects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of gaps in current understandings of the links between young femininities, agency and social class. Building on recent work, we examine how closely young middle-class women in one fee-paying school in England take up so-called top girl discourses and explore whether and how such discursive positions are linked to agentic practice within sexual and intimate relationships.

Claire Maxwell; Peter Aggleton

2012-01-01

157

Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who…

Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

2013-01-01

158

Femininity and sexual agency among young unmarried women in Hanoi.  

PubMed

In contemporary Vietnam, young, unmarried, educated women are struggling to negotiate the contradictory expectations of femininity. Qualitative research conducted in Hanoi with 13 unmarried, educated women, aged from 25 to 34 years, explored women's sexual agency in a context of changing discourses on sexuality and gender roles. Interviews were conducted several times with each woman to enable in-depth understanding of sexual experiences and meanings. Either implicitly or explicitly, women in the research were found to resist the power of public discourses on femininity and sexuality. Notions of femininity can be interpreted as a temporary means for women to gain control over sexual relationships. It is crucial to acknowledge the sexual agency of unmarried, educated women and its diverse forms in order to understand complex sexual behaviours and to promote their sexual rights and health. PMID:18446560

Quach, Trang

2008-06-01

159

Psychosocial correlates of sunburn among young adult women.  

PubMed

Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801

Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S

2012-06-01

160

Technology Websites for Girls and Young Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is to help parents and teachers get girls interested in engineering and technology. It has a list of recommended activities, readings, websites, and much more. The content is appropriate for various ages and includes many interdisciplinary topics, such as biographies of women working for NASA and opportunities for girls in STEM education.

2011-09-05

161

Civic Engagement among Young Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political scientists and sociologists have long established significant differences in civic engagement between women and men. Utilizing data from the 2006 Civic and Political Health of the Nation Survey, and several other sources, new information is provided on the civic engagement of youth, confidence in government, and following public affairs…

Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Kirby, Emily Hoban

2007-01-01

162

Singing into Language: Sudanese Australian young women create public pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the ethnocinematic research project Cross-Marked: Sudanese Australian Young Women Talk Education, and its relationship to the evolving notion of public pedagogies. The project explores the potential of alternative pedagogies, which include popular culture, especially audiovisual forms, to engage teachers and learners with one another in collaborative pedagogical methods. The author's collaborative work with students from refugee backgrounds

Anne Harris

2011-01-01

163

Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

2009-01-01

164

General Prospectus of Agricultural Education for Young Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).

165

Invisible and Special: Young Women's Experiences as Undergraduate Mathematics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on young women students participation in their undergraduate mathematics degree programme: their gendered trajectory is characterized in terms of their being both "invisible" in the dominant university mathematics community and yet "special" in their self -conception. It draws on data collected from a three-year longitudinal…

Rodd, Melissa; Bartholomew, Hannah

2006-01-01

166

Hyperandrogenemia, psychological distress, and food cravings in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive disorders and psychological distress are common co-morbidities of obesity in young women. Psychological and reproductive disturbances may also be associated with increased food cravings but the relationships between these factors have not been explored. This study aimed to explore the pattern of food cravings and to determine the relationship between psychological distress, reproductive health and food cravings in overweight

Siew S. Lim; Robert J. Norman; Peter M. Clifton; Manny Noakes

2009-01-01

167

[Papillary-cystic tumor of the pancreas in young women].  

PubMed

A case of papillary-cystic (solid cystic) tumor of the pancreas in a 15-year-old woman is presented. This type of tumor is of low grade malignancy and is without endocrinological activity. It is usually found in young women. The treatment is surgical resection. PMID:3212427

Schroeder, R; Chessex, D; Genton, C Y; Queloz, J

1988-12-24

168

Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…

Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

2013-01-01

169

Computer Equity for Young Women in Rural Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors define computer equity as equal access to computer literacy for each person. It involves both awareness and ac­ tion; it implies differing approaches to meet differing needs. Their concern is for the unmet needs of young women - especially those in rural schools. many of whom continue to follow stereotyped role patterns that limit the definition of what

WALTER M. MATHEWSl; LINDA WYRICK WINKLE

170

Dieting Behaviors of Young Women Post-College Graduation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obesity is a major public health epidemic in the United States. During the past decade, obesity has increased across all education levels, including college graduates. The purpose of this research was to study the health decisions that young women, post-college graduation make regarding their food intake. The subjects in this study completed a…

Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

2007-01-01

171

[About the causes of inveterate cystitis in young women].  

PubMed

16 female patients,aged 28.6 +/- 3.2 years, with recrudescent inveterate cystitis were examined for the purpose of improvement of treatment of chronic cystitis. The examined patients noted relapse of disease after sex intercourse. Spectrum of diagnosed uropathogens in female patients corresponds to the structure of bacterio from urina taken after prostate milking and prostatic fluid of patients' intercourse partners. The given uropathogens also corresponds to the structure of contagium of urinary tract in young men. Connection between urogenital biotope and biotope of prostate as a vessel of persistence infection is related. Recrudescent inveterate cystitis in young women may be result from latent inveterate bacteritic prostatitis in their intercourse partners. Effectiveness of treatment and prophylaxis of recrudescence of inveterate cystitis in young women depends on timely diagnostics, treatment, and prophylaxis of inveterate bacteritic prostatitis in their intercourse partners. PMID:23156110

Plekhanov, V N

2012-09-01

172

Ischaemic heart disease in young hypertensive women.  

PubMed Central

The association between hypertension and ischaemic heart disease was explored in a retrospective analysis of 50 severely hypertensive premenopausal women (presenting diatolic pressure greater than or equal to 120 mmHg) under 45 years of age who were seen over a seven-year period. Twenty-two per cent of these patients had angina pectoris, and 38 per cent had Minnesota code 4-1 or 5-1 changes on the resting electrocardiogram. The contribution of other risk factors, including smoking habits, was assessed: 72 per cent of the patients smoked; significantly less smoking was found among two groups of age-matched women with less severe hypertension [diastolic pressures of 90 to 104 mmHg (n=50) and 105 to 119 mmHg (n=50)]. In these latter groups, only one patient had angina pectoris and none had 4-1 or 5-1 changes on the electrocardiogram.

Mackay, A; Cumming, A M; Brown, J J; Lever, A F; Robertson, J I

1980-01-01

173

Health-Seeking Challenges Among Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 1.5 to 2 million homeless young persons live on the streets in the United States. With the current economic situation, research is needed on quality of services geared toward homeless young adults. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore homeless young adults' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of health-care-seeking behavior and their perspectives on improving existing programs for homeless persons. Methods This article is a descriptive qualitative study using focus groups, with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using young adults. Results Identified themes were failing access to care based on perceived structural barriers (limited clinic sites, limited hours of operation, priority health conditions, and long wait times) and social barriers (perception of discrimination by uncaring professionals, law enforcement, and society in general). Discussion Results provide insight into programmatic and agency resources that facilitate health-seeking behaviors among homeless young adults and include implications for more research with providers of homeless health and social services.

Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Greengold, Barbara; Slagle, Alexandra; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Getzoff, Daniel

2010-01-01

174

High school physical education and physical activity in young women.  

PubMed

This study assessed if high school physical education experiences were related to physical activity behaviors of young women in college. Undergraduate women from three universities (N = 949) were surveyed concerning their experiences in high school physical education and their physical activity in six areas, aquatics, individual activities, physical conditioning, outdoor adventure, rhythmic activities, and team activities. Analysis indicated that women who completed courses with a diverse curriculum containing content from four of the six categories investigated reported significantly more cardiovascular endurance activities and individual/team sports participation than respondents who completed courses with low curriculum diversity. Results indicate that providing diverse curricular experiences for girls in high school physical education is associated with higher physical activity as young adults. PMID:17688140

Mears, Derrick

2007-06-01

175

Experiences associated with intervening with homeless, substance-abusing mothers: the importance of success.  

PubMed

This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists, experiences related to managing the chaotic nature of the client's lives, wanting to manage the client's lives, and frustration with client's life trajectories are reviewed. Observations related to the therapeutic process include the client's relationship to the therapist, balancing the client's independence and need for assistance, and unrealistic expectations among the clients. Recommendations for successfully approaching these clinical situations and experiences are offered. The purpose of this article is to document these therapy experiences to facilitate the work of future teams seeking to intervene in the lives of homeless families through homeless shelters or other settings. PMID:23285834

Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C

2012-10-01

176

Physical activity correlates in young women with depressive symptoms: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Young women are at high risk for developing depression and participation in physical activity may prevent or treat the disorder. However, the influences on physical activity behaviors of young women with depression are not well understood. The aim of this study was to gather in-depth information about the correlates of physical activity among young women with and without depressive

Denise Azar; Kylie Ball; Jo Salmon; Verity J Cleland

2010-01-01

177

Nontuberculous mycobacteria in women, young and old.  

PubMed

Lady Windermere syndrome is a unique entity within the spectrum of pulmonary NTM diseases. There are differences in several clinical aspects between Lady Windermere syndrome and the classic pulmonary NTM disease, including manifestations, pathogenesis, and natural history. Recently, emerging pieces of information provide a more scientific explanation of why women are more susceptible to this form of infection and how they develop clinical disease. As the result, these patients probably require quite different diagnostic and therapeutic approaches compared with those with the classic presentation. Studies exclusive to LWS are lacking and are absolutely necessary as they will enhance our understanding of, and hence successful management strategies for, this increasingly recognized disease. PMID:12371003

Chalermskulrat, Worakij; Gilbey, Jack G; Donohue, James F

2002-09-01

178

ART outcome in young women with premature ovarian aging  

PubMed Central

Background: Young women with signs of ovarian aging are a matter of concern as far as their reproductive performance is concerned. With more women approaching infertility centers with this problem, it becomes necessary to understand what reproductive outcomes are possible in such cases. Female age and basal Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level, both are strong independent predictors of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) outcome. Objective: To correlate age-related basal FSH with IVF outcome in women with premature ovarian aging in gonadotropins-induced cycles. Materials and Methods: Between January 2011 and October 2012, a total of 135 women undergoing IVF and ICSI cycles with antagonist protocol were included in this retrospective cohort study. Basal FSH concentrations were measured and the women's ages were calculated before they were undergoing pituitary desensitization and its correlation with assisted reproduction technique (ART) outcome was evaluated. Results: Increasing FSH was associated significantly with reduced number of oocytes retrieved, and embryos obtained. Young women with high FSH up to 20 produced less but good quality embryo's resulting in sound pregnancy rate. Conclusion: FSH is a quantitative and age is a qualitative measure of ovarian reserve. Both are equally important in predicting IVF outcome. Basal FSH concentration should be restricted to counseling of patients on probability of achieving pregnancy, but should not be used to exclude them from fertility treatment.

Dua, Meenakshi; Bhatia, Vandana; Malik, Sonia; Prakash, Ved

2013-01-01

179

Understanding SSI: Spotlight on Homelessness  

MedlinePLUS

... Spotlights Home / Spotlight on Homelessness WHAT IF I AM HOMELESS? If you are homeless, you have the ... MY SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME (SSI) BENEFITS IF I AM HOMELESS? If you are homeless, some of the ...

180

Urban Young Women’s Experiences of Discrimination and Community Violence and Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the interrelationships between urban young adult women’s experiences of discrimination and community violence\\u000a and their reports of involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV). We explore whether such experiences are independent risk\\u000a factors for IPV victimization and perpetration, even when accounting for aggressive behaviors and related risk taking, including\\u000a drinking and sexual initiation, during early adolescence. We use

Ann Stueve; Lydia O’Donnell

2008-01-01

181

Why Some Women Look Young for Their Age  

PubMed Central

The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

Gunn, David A.; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Murray, Peter G.; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Strongitharm, Barbara H.; Perrett, Dave I.; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Green, Martin R.; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

2009-01-01

182

Families Experiencing Homelessness  

MedlinePLUS

... compound the stress the family feels. Families experiencing homelessness: Are typically comprised of a mother in her ... than other low-income families. 4 Mothers Experiencing Homelessness: The impact of homelessness on mothers is profound. ...

183

Depression, suicidal ideation and STD-related risk in homeless older adolescents.  

PubMed

Goals of this study were to examine the frequency of depression and related constructs of suicidal ideation and hopelessness in a sample of homeless older adolescents and their associations with behaviors that may increase the risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD). Diagnostic interviews and blood/urine samples were obtained from 523 homeless adolescents (mean age=17.8). Overall, 12.2 per cent had a current DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression and 6.5 per cent had dysthymia, with higher rates for female and older participants. Depression appeared to precede rather than follow homelessness and was associated with biologically verified STDs (in older participants), infrequent condom use, a non-heterosexual orientation (in older participants), and lifetime homosexual experience. Unlike depression, suicidal ideation and hopelessness were associated with higher rates of intravenous drug use but lower rates of multiple sex partners and, in young homeless women, less sexual coercion. Depression is frequent in homeless older adolescents and has a complex association with STD-related behaviors. PMID:11549325

Rohde, P; Noell, J; Ochs, L; Seeley, J R

2001-08-01

184

Encouraging Young Women to Stay in the Mathematics Pipeline: Mathematics Camps for Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For two summers, week-long residential mathematics programs were held for high school women, with the primary goal of encouraging them to continue their study of mathematics. The activities were designed to rekindle their excitement about mathematics and to support the idea that women should learn advanced mathematics. This paper reports the…

Chacon, Paul; Soto-Johnson, Hortensia

2003-01-01

185

Young Women's Stroke Etiology Differs from that in Young Men: an Analysis of 511 Patients  

PubMed Central

Women are known to have particular heterogeneity in stroke etiology related to childbearing and hormonal factors. Although there are continued acute stroke treatment advances focusing on clot dissolution or extraction, effective secondary prevention of stroke, however, is dependent on an accurate etiological determination of the stroke. Otherwise, more strokes are likely to follow. Analysis of young women’s stroke etiology in a large stroke registry incorporating contemporary neurovascular and parenchymal imaging and cardiac imaging. Young people (18-49 years old) with stroke were consecutively accrued over a 4 year period and an investigative protocol prospectively applied that incorporated multimodality magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, cardiac echo and stroke relevant blood investigations. All patients were classified according to an expanded Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment – TOAST – classification and neurological deficit by the National Institute of Health stroke admission scores. In 511 registry derived, young stroke patients (mean age 39.8 years, 95% confidence interval: 39.1; 40.7 years), gender (women n=269, 53%) the etiological categories (women; men) included: i) small vessel disease (30/55;25/55), ii) cardioembolic (16/42;26/42), iii) large vessel cervical and intracranial disease (24/43;19/43), the other category (132/226; 91/226), which included, iv) substance abuse (15/41; 26/41, 4.6), v) prothrombotic states (22/37;15/37), vi) dissection (11/30;19/30), vii) cerebral venous thrombosis (15/19; 4/19, 12.4), viii) vasculitis (8/12; 4/12), ix) migraine related (10/11, 1/11) and x) miscellaneous vasculopathy (38/52;14/52). The latter entities comprised of aortic arch atheroma, vessel redundancy syndrome, vertebrobasilar hypoplasia, arterial fenestrations and dolichoectasia. Some conditions occurred solely in women, such as eclampsia (5), Call Fleming syndrome (4), fibromuscular dysplasia (3) and Moya Moya syndrome (2). Categories aside from bland infarction included: ii) intracerebral hemorrhage (43/106; 63/106) and xiii) stroke of undetermined etiology (6/10; 4/10). Admission mean National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores differed significantly between women and men (4.7; 6.0 t=1.8, P=0.03). Young women’s stroke is significantly different from men in 7/12 stroke etiological categories in addition to 4 unique subtypes that require specific management.

Nakagawa, Emily; Hoffmann, Michael

2013-01-01

186

The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

187

Young Women's Positive and Negative Perceptions of Self in Northern Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper represents analysis of one aspect of a larger research project examining the everyday lives and experiences of young women in Northern Ireland. As an introductory exercise within focus groups, 48 young women considered and discussed the good and not so good things about being a young woman in Northern Ireland. Through these accounts…

McAlister, Siobhan; Neill, Gail

2007-01-01

188

Losing self to the future? Young women's strategic responses to adulthood transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple and conflicting identity pressures that young women in western society face have been remarked upon in the literature. Adolescence is a time when identity development activity intensifies, and this process can present young people with challenges. In this paper a social constructionist and interpretive frame is applied to such challenges faced by young women, arguing that they are

Jackie Sanders; Robyn Munford

2008-01-01

189

Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the linkages between a variety of young women’s resources—including employment and material transfers from male partners—and sexual behaviors. Data on the first month of premarital relationships (N=551 relationships) were collected from a random sample of young adult women ages 18–24 in Kisumu, Kenya, using a retrospective life history calendar. Consistent with the hypotheses, results showed that young women’s income increases the likelihood of safer sexual activities, including delaying sex and using condoms consistently. Material transfers from the male partner displayed the opposite effect, supporting the view that resources obtained from within the relationship decrease young women’s negotiating power.

Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

2011-01-01

190

Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness.  

PubMed

The female physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported to contain both desirable (sociable, poised, interesting) and undesirable (snobbish, likely to request divorce and have extra-marital affairs) personal qualities. To investigate whether such an attractiveness stereotype is cross-cultural, I asked men and women from Azore Island, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, and the U.S. to judge the attractiveness of female figures differing in body weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to rank these figures according to perceived personal attributes. There was a strong cross-cultural consensus for attractiveness; figures with low WHR were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHR within each weight category. Participants also judged attractive figures as less faithful than less-attractive figures. To explore the basis of a possible 'darker side ' of the attractiveness stereotype, behavior tactics of young U.S. women were examined. Compared to women with high WHRs, low-WHR women reported engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous, suggesting some truth to the attractiveness stereotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that female attractiveness influences the type of mating strategies employed by women. PMID:15216423

Singh, Devendra

2004-02-01

191

Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

2010-01-01

192

Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors.

Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

2012-01-01

193

Young Women's Stroke Etiology Differs from that in Young Men: an Analysis of 511 Patients.  

PubMed

Women are known to have particular heterogeneity in stroke etiology related to childbearing and hormonal factors. Although there are continued acute stroke treatment advances focusing on clot dissolution or extraction, effective secondary prevention of stroke, however, is dependent on an accurate etiological determination of the stroke. Otherwise, more strokes are likely to follow. Analysis of young women's stroke etiology in a large stroke registry incorporating contemporary neurovascular and parenchymal imaging and cardiac imaging. Young people (18-49 years old) with stroke were consecutively accrued over a 4 year period and an investigative protocol prospectively applied that incorporated multimodality magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, cardiac echo and stroke relevant blood investigations. All patients were classified according to an expanded Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment - TOAST - classification and neurological deficit by the National Institute of Health stroke admission scores. In 511 registry derived, young stroke patients (mean age 39.8 years, 95% confidence interval: 39.1; 40.7 years), gender (women n=269, 53%) the etiological categories (women; men) included: i) small vessel disease (30/55;25/55), ii) cardioembolic (16/42;26/42), iii) large vessel cervical and intracranial disease (24/43;19/43), the other category (132/226; 91/226), which included, iv) substance abuse (15/41; 26/41, 4.6), v) prothrombotic states (22/37;15/37), vi) dissection (11/30;19/30), vii) cerebral venous thrombosis (15/19; 4/19, 12.4), viii) vasculitis (8/12; 4/12), ix) migraine related (10/11, 1/11) and x) miscellaneous vasculopathy (38/52;14/52). The latter entities comprised of aortic arch atheroma, vessel redundancy syndrome, vertebrobasilar hypoplasia, arterial fenestrations and dolichoectasia. Some conditions occurred solely in women, such as eclampsia (5), Call Fleming syndrome (4), fibromuscular dysplasia (3) and Moya Moya syndrome (2). Categories aside from bland infarction included: ii) intracerebral hemorrhage (43/106; 63/106) and xiii) stroke of undetermined etiology (6/10; 4/10). Admission mean National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores differed significantly between women and men (4.7; 6.0 t=1.8, P=0.03). Young women's stroke is significantly different from men in 7/12 stroke etiological categories in addition to 4 unique subtypes that require specific management. PMID:24147209

Nakagawa, Emily; Hoffmann, Michael

2013-01-01

194

Homelessness in Public Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a theoretical and practical approach in defining the "problem" of homelessness in libraries. The author examines three fundamental problems on homelessness. The three fundamental questions are: (a) Who are the homeless? (b) Why are they homeless? (c) What are their information needs in libraries? These questions are important in…

Wong, Yi Ling

2009-01-01

195

Pharmacologic ovarian preservation in young women undergoing chemotherapy.  

PubMed

The prognosis of malignancies in young women undergoing chemotherapy has dramatically improved recently, and more attention is given to the long term quality of life, including fertility and reproductive function preservation. Some chemotherapeutic drugs are known to be associated with gonadal toxicity (cyclophosphamide, L-phenylanine mustard, busulfan and nitrogen mustard) and others have less or un-quantified effects (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinca alkaloids, as vincristine and vinblastin, cisplatin, nitrosoureas, cytosine arabinoside). Women are in need to identify best options to minimize ovarian damage during chemotherapy through the administration of protective drugs, better choice of therapy and with advocating oncofertility preservation. We reviewed the possible options focusing on the most studied gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH-a) and the psychologically promising oral contraceptives (OC). Controversy exist on the benefit of gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) or combined oral contraceptive administered at time of cancer therapy in preventing premature ovarian failure in women and the available data from both human and animal studies have been mixed. The best way to preserve fertility and ovarian function in young women undergoing chemotherapy still remains to be determined. In the absence of a best approach, each case should be evaluated individually, considering patient's wishes and expectations, the type of chemotherapy, age, obstetric history, ovarian reserve (combining multiple indicators such as basal hormone profile, anti müllerian hormone -AMH- and antral follicle count), family history of premature ovarian failure. We present a review of the available evidence on the value of administering GnRH-a and OC use to minimize or prevent the effect of chemotherapy agents on reproductive function. PMID:24164203

Chahvar, S T; Al-Shawaf, T; Tranquilli, A L

2014-01-01

196

The Work of the Heart: Young Women and Emotion, 1780-1830  

Microsoft Academic Search

How did young American women construct and express their emotions between1780 and 1830? Before Oprah and therapy, how did they reconcile society’s demanding and often contradictory expectations? In The Work of the Heart:Young Women and Emotion, 1780-1830, Martha Tomhave Blauvelt looks to the often spirited diaries written by young women in America’s early republic,arguing that the continuous, demanding, and often

Martha Tomhave Blauvelt

2007-01-01

197

Does perceived financial strain predict depression among young women? Longitudinal findings from the Southampton Women's Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Social and financial environment has an influence on the incidence of depression. We studied perceived financial strain as a risk factor for development of depression among a large cohort of young women in Southampton, UK. Methods We recruited a large number of young women in Southampton in the Southampton Women's Survey, a longitudinal study looking at factors influencing the health of women and their offspring. Women were asked to complete a baseline questionnaire, which included the GHQ-12 (an assessment of mental health), as well as questions on perceived financial strain and past history of depression. They were followed up two years later through their general practitioner (GP) records for evidence of incident mental illness. Results A total of 7020 women completed the baseline questionnaire including the GHQ-12. Of these, 5237 (74.6%) had records available for follow-up. Among those developing depression, there was a higher proportion receiving benefits, and a higher level of perceived financial strain. There were also modest elevations in perceived stress, and poorer levels of educational attainment. Among women not depressed at baseline, and with no previous history of depression, those in receipt of state benefits at baseline had a significantly elevated risk of developing the disorder – hazard ratio 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–2.3). The risk associated with perceived financial strain was 2.16 (95% CI 1.14–4.11), but this did not remain statistically significant after adjustment was made for receipt of benefits, educational qualification, and perceived stress. Conclusion Financial hardship as evidenced by receipt of benefits is a strong independent predictor for the development of depression. Although perception of financial strain is also a predictor for incident depression, the risk associated with this subjective characteristic does not remain significantly elevated after adjustment. Future studies of the aetiology of depression should incorporate ascertainment of actual financial status.

2008-01-01

198

Relationship Between Androgen Levels and Blood Pressure in Young Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The role of testosterone on the development of hypertension is controversial, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,(PCOS) who have higher prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance than women,without PCOS. Little is known,about the association between serum testosterone level and blood pressure in young women,with PCOS. In the 151 young Taiwanese women with PCOS enrolled in this cross-sectional study, we

Mei-Jou Chen; Wei-Shiung Yang; Jehn-Hsiahn Yang; Chi-Ling Chen; Hong-Nerng Ho; Yu-Shih Yang

2010-01-01

199

Using Evidence-Based Programs to Support Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article was originally published (November 2011) as a brief created on behalf of the Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Coordinating Center, which is a partnership of The National Center on Family Homelessness, National Alliance to End Family Homelessness, and ZERO TO THREE. The article offers a definition of…

Siebel, Nancy L.; Bassuk, Ellen; Medeiros, Debra

2012-01-01

200

Responding to the needs of youth who are homeless: Calling for politicized trauma-informed intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trauma in the lives of youth who are homeless is a pervasive reality. In this article, a politicized understanding of trauma is taken up to explore the complex psychological, relational, and social\\/political challenges experienced by many young persons facing homelessness. Their needs are contrasted with the dominant framework for assessing and addressing homelessness among youth, which fails to adequately account

Suzanne McKenzie-Mohr; John Coates; Heather McLeod

201

Characteristics of Telephone Applicants to a Residential Rehabilitation Program for Homeless Veterans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gathered descriptive data on 163 telephone applicants to residential rehabilitation program for homeless veterans and compared data with general veteran and homeless populations. Found subjects to be young, educated group of homeless men with histories of relatively high, stable functioning and high rates of medical, substance abuse, psychiatric,…

Seidner, Andrea L.; And Others

1990-01-01

202

Keloids and Ultrasound Detected Fibroids in Young African American Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. Study Design The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF), is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic) scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid) and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number) and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. Results Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3%) and fibroids (23.3%) were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.7 (0.5-1.1)] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. Conclusion Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

Harmon, Quaker E.; Laughlin, Shannon K.; Baird, Donna D.

2013-01-01

203

Injection drug use among homeless adults with severe mental illness.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined injection drug use among homeless men and women with severe mental illness in two sites. METHODS: The data were drawn from related clinical trials conducted in Baltimore (101 men, 49 women) and Boston (85 men, 33 women). RESULTS: The percentages of homeless men with a history of injection drug use were 26% in Baltimore and 16% in Boston; the corresponding rates among homeless women were 8% and 6%. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these and previous results suggest high lifetime prevalences of injection drug use-and associated risks of HIV transmission-in this elusive population.

Susser, E; Betne, P; Valencia, E; Goldfinger, S M; Lehman, A F

1997-01-01

204

Prevalence of menstrual pain in young women: what is dysmenorrhea?  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to determine the frequency of dysmenorrhea, as identified by different definitions, in a population of young women, and to investigate factors associated with this complaint. Materials and methods A final group of 408 young women completed a self-assessment questionnaire. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Results Menstrual pain was reported by 84.1% of women, with 43.1% reporting that pain occurred during every period, and 41% reporting that pain occurred during some periods. Women with menstrual pain had an earlier menarche (P = 0.0002) and a longer menstrual flow (P = 0.006), and this group was characterized as having a higher prevalence of smokers (P = 0.031) and a lower prevalence of hormonal contraception users (P = 0.015). Pain intensity was correlated (r = 0.302, P < 0.0001) positively with menstrual flow length (CR = 0.336), history of abortions (CR = 3.640), and gynecological pathologies (CR = 0.948), and negatively with age at menarche (CR = ?0.225), use of hormonal contraception (CR = ?0.787), and history of gynecological surgery (CR = ?2.115). Considering the parameters of menstrual pain, a need for medication, and inability to function normally (absenteeism from study or social activities) alone or together, the prevalence of dysmenorrhea is 84.1% when considering only menstrual pain, 55.2% when considering the association between menstrual pain and need for medication, 31.9% when considering the association between menstrual pain and absenteeism, and 25.3% when considering the association between menstrual pain, need for medication, and absenteeism (P < 0.0001). The probability of having more severe dysmenorrhea is directly related to pain intensity as measured by a visual analog scale, but does not coincide with it. Conclusion Menstrual pain is a very common problem, but the need for medication and the inability to function normally occurs less frequently. Nevertheless, at least one in four women experiences distressing menstrual pain characterized by a need for medication and absenteeism from study or social activities.

Grandi, Giovanni; Ferrari, Serena; Xholli, Anjeza; Cannoletta, Marianna; Palma, Federica; Romani, Cecilia; Volpe, Annibale; Cagnacci, Angelo

2012-01-01

205

Young African women must have empowering and receptive social environments for HIV prevention.  

PubMed

This paper describes a study which explored the lives of young Ugandan women through their voices, and related the findings to HIV prevention paradigms. The research was conducted in the context of the continuing vulnerability of young Ugandan women to HIV; reflected in disproportionately high prevalence compared to young men. The participants of the study were 15 young women aged 15-19 years, from Busoga Region in Eastern Uganda. Given the focus on young women's voices within norms of gender inequality, a narrative methodology was used as a safe space for participants to speak about their lives, expanding on research experiences with young people. The methods used included drawing; written stories and drama; aspirational writing and diary keeping. Forty-eight narratives, in image and word form, represented everyday experiences in young women's lives, as well as difficult experiences of inequality and resistance. Young women portrayed considerable social barriers to empowerment, and a challenging environment of poverty and educational limitations. Young women's representations were analysed using a gender empowerment and positive sexuality framework. The resulting analysis was then critically applied to HIV prevention paradigms. Evidence from the study showed that prevailing HIV prevention paradigms reinforce the difficulties faced by young women in their sexual lives. This research adds to calls for alternative and wider approaches to HIV prevention, underpinned by gender empowerment. Alternative approaches need to build young African women's voices in the spaces of homes, schools and communities. It is vital, however, that such efforts are embedded in more radical change leading to social environments receptive to the needs of young women. PMID:22908853

Conn, Cath

2013-01-01

206

Urinary Melatonin and Risk of Incident Hypertension Among Young Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Administered in supra-physiologic doses, the hormone melatonin may reduce blood pressure, particularly nocturnal blood pressure. However, whether lower physiologic levels of melatonin are an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension has never been reported. Methods We examined the association between first morning urine melatonin levels and the risk of developing hypertension among 554 young women without baseline hypertension who were followed for 8 years. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status, urinary creatinine, and family history of hypertension. Results During 8 years of follow-up, a total of 125 women developed hypertension. The relative risk for incident hypertension among women in the highest quartile of urinary melatonin (>27.0 ng per mg creatinine) compared to the lowest quartile (<10.1 ng per mg creatinine) was 0.49 (95% confidence intervals, 0.28-0.85; p-trend<0.001). Conclusions First morning melatonin levels are independently and inversely associated with incident hypertension; low melatonin production may be a pathophysiologic factor in the development of hypertension.

Forman, John P.; Curhan, Gary C.; Schernhammer, Eva S.

2010-01-01

207

Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

2010-01-01

208

Sleep and 24 hour body temperatures: a comparison in young men, naturally cycling women and women taking hormonal contraceptives  

PubMed Central

Body temperature has a circadian rhythm, and in women with ovulatory cycles, also a menstrual rhythm. Body temperature and sleep are believed to be closely coupled, but the influence on their relationship of gender, menstrual cycle phase and female reproductive hormones is unresolved. We investigated sleep and 24 h rectal temperatures in eight women with normal menstrual cycles in their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases, and in eight young women taking a steady dose of oral progestin and ethinyl oestradiol (hormonal contraceptive), and compared their sleep and body temperatures with that of eight young men, sleeping in identical conditions. All subjects maintained their habitual daytime schedules. Rectal temperatures were elevated throughout 24 h in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase in the naturally cycling women, consistent with a raised thermoregulatory set-point. Rectal temperatures in the women taking hormonal contraceptives were similar to those of the naturally cycling women in the luteal phase. Gender influenced body temperature: the naturally cycling women and the women taking hormonal contraceptives attained their nocturnal minimum body temperatures earlier than the men, and the naturally cycling women had blunted nocturnal body temperature drops compared with the men. Sleep architecture was essentially unaffected by either menstrual cycle phase or gender. The women taking hormonal contraceptives had less slow wave sleep (SWS), however, than the naturally cycling women. Gender, menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptives significantly influenced body temperature, but had only minor consequences for sleep, in the young men and women in our study.

Baker, Fiona C; Waner, Jonathan I; Vieira, Elizabeth F; Taylor, Sheila R; Driver, Helen S; Mitchell, Duncan

2001-01-01

209

Empowered Positions? Listening to Sexually Experienced Young Women Talking about Sex, Disappointments, and Compromise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how sex and relationship education (SRE) could benefit from considering current levels of young women's empowerment in (hetero)sexual relationships and challenge popular notions of twenty-first century young women "having it all" and occupying powerful relational and sexual positions.…

Sieg, Ellen

2008-01-01

210

“Female Virginity Complex” Untied: Young Chinese Women's Experience of Virginity Loss and Sexual Coercion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article selects the critical moment of virginity loss in young Beijing women's lives to look at the meaning of sexual coercion in dating relationships. The authors observed that many young Chinese women presented their first experience of sex as containing some elements of sexual coercion that were being described as “minor,” do not involve obvious physical force, but are

Xiying Wang; Sik Ying Ho

2011-01-01

211

Recognition and therapy of eating disorders in young women in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in a general population sample of young German women, compare those to primary care diagnoses, and investigate their medical treatments. Methods In a prospective epidemiological study, a representative sample of young women (n=1555, between 18 and 25 years of age) was questioned twice during a structured psychological interview (F-DIPS) for mental

Isabel Hach; Uwe E. Ruhl; Anke Rentsch; Eni S. Becker; Veneta Türke; Jürgen Margraf; Wilhelm Kirch

2005-01-01

212

Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

Gillis, La Tonya L.

2011-01-01

213

Social Capital and the Successful Transition to Adulthood among "At Risk" Young Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a traditional status-attainment approach, this paper examines the attainments of young women in adult life across the four domains of education, labor-force participation, financial resources and avoidance of poverty, and experience with welfare. These life attainments were explored for a cohort of 62 young women, ages 14 to 25 in 1968,…

Sugland, Barbara W.; And Others

214

Embracing the dance: Integrating spirituality and sexuality in single young adult women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a humanistic study into philosophy of religious education that explores the integration of the sexual and the spiritual in the lives of single young Roman Catholic women. The central thesis of this study argues: that the integration of the spiritual and sexual in young adult women's lives is indispensable for living a meaningful and wholistic life. The work

Ilze Bulbika-King

2010-01-01

215

Managing Risk and Experiencing Danger: Tensions between Government AIDS Education Policy and Young Women's Sexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Government AIDS education programs in Britain have focused on nonheterosexual behavior. Protection of population depends on changes in high-risk sexual practices among heterosexuals. The part played by young women has received little attention. Reviews data from a survey of young women's sexual beliefs and behavior and suggests that appropriate…

Holland, Janet; And Others

1990-01-01

216

Care of the homeless: an overview.  

PubMed

Homelessness affects men, women, and children of all races and ethnicities. On any given night, more than 610,000 persons in the United States are homeless; a little more than one-third of these are families. Homeless persons are more likely to become ill, have greater hospitalization rates, and are more likely to die at a younger age than the general population. The average life span for a homeless person is between 42 and 52 years. Homeless children are much sicker and have more academic and behavioral problems. Insufficient personal income and the lack of affordable housing are the major reasons for homelessness. Complex, advanced medical problems and psychiatric illnesses, exacerbated by drug and alcohol abuse, in combination with the economic and social issues (such as the lack of housing and proper transportation) make this subset of the population a unique challenge for the health care system, local communities, and the government. An integrated, multidisciplinary health care team with an outreach focus, along with involvement of local and state agencies, seems best suited to address the components needed to ensure quality of care, to help make these patients self-sufficient, and to help them succeed. Family physicians are well suited to manage the needs of the homeless patient, provide continuity of care, and lead these multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24784122

Maness, David L; Khan, Muneeza

2014-04-15

217

Migraine and stroke in young women: case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between migraine and ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in young women. Design Hospital based case-control study. Setting Five European centres participating in the World Health Organisation Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception. Subjects 291 women aged 20-44 years with ischaemic, haemorrhagic, or unclassified arterial stroke compared with 736 age and hospital matched controls. Intervention Questionnaire. Main outcome measure Self reported history of headaches. Results Adjusted odds ratios associated with a personal history of migraine were 1.78 (95% confidence intervals, 1.14 to 2.77), 3.54 (1.30 to 9.61), and 1.10 (0.63 to 1.94) for all stroke, ischaemic stroke, and haemorrhagic stroke respectively. Odds ratios for ischaemic stroke were similar for classical migraine (with aura) (3.81, 1.26 to 11.5) and simple migraine (without aura) (2.97, 0.66 to 13.5). A family history of migraine, irrespective of personal history, was also associated with increased odds ratios, not only for ischaemic stroke but also haemorrhagic stroke. In migrainous women, coexistent use of oral contraceptives or a history of high blood pressure or smoking had greater than multiplicative effects on the odds ratios for ischaemic stroke associated with migraine alone. Change in the frequency or type of migraine on using oral contraceptives did not predict subsequent stroke. Between 20% and 40% of strokes in women with migraine seemed to develop directly from a migraine attack. Conclusions Migraine in women of childbearing age significantly increases the risk of ischaemic but not haemorrhagic stroke. The coexistence of oral contraceptive use, high blood pressure, or smoking seems to exert a greater than multiplicative effect on the risk of ischaemic stroke associated with migraine. Key messagesA personal history of migraine was associated with increased risk of ischaemic but not haemorrhagic strokeCoexistence of risk factors—use of oral contraceptives, high blood pressure, or smoking had more than multiplicative effects on odds ratios for ischaemic stroke associated with migraine aloneA family history of migraine, irrespective of a personal migraine history, was associated with increased risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokeUp to 40% of strokes in migrainous women develop directly out of a migraine attack—so called migrainous strokesA change in type or frequency of migraine with use of oral contraceptives did not predict subsequent stroke

Chang, C L; Donaghy, Michael; Poulter, Neil

1999-01-01

218

Factors related to induced abortion among young women in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest death rate from induced abortion in the world, and young women in southern Nigeria are particularly likely to terminate their pregnancies. This study assesses the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among 602 young women aged 15-24 who were surveyed in Edo State, Nigeria, in 2002. We find that 41 percent of all pregnancies reported by the young women surveyed were terminated, and we estimate the age-specific abortion rate for 15-19-year-olds in Edo State at 49 abortions per 1,000 women, which is slightly higher than previous local estimates and nearly double the countrywide estimate for women aged 15-49. We construct explanatory multivariate models to predict the likelihood that a young woman has experienced sexual intercourse, has become pregnant, and has undergone an induced abortion, controlling for important demographic and risk-behavior factors. Young women unmarried at the time of the interview are found to be significantly more likely than married women to have had an abortion. Young women who have experienced transactional or forced sex are also significantly more likely to report ever having had an abortion, as are young women who have experienced more than one pregnancy. We conclude with suggestions for modifying the content and target populations of behavioral change messages and programs in the area. PMID:17209283

Murray, Nancy; Winfrey, William; Chatterji, Minki; Moreland, Scott; Dougherty, Leanne; Okonofua, Friday

2006-12-01

219

Careers in Drug and Alcohol Research: AN Innovative Program for Young Appalachian Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the University of Kentucky's Center on Drug and Alcohol Research developed the Young Women in Science Program to encourage young women from Appalachia to pursue scientific careers ?? drug and alcohol research. This 3-year program, which involved 26 young women entering the ninth grade in 13 counties in southeastern Kentucky, included a summer residential program, community educational sessions, and matching students with mentors. When participants' scores prior to and after the 3-week residential program were compared, it was found that participants increased their science knowledge and improved their scores on confidence in science. Other significant changes occurred as well. These preliminary data indicated that some positive changes resulted from the program, even though contact time with the young women has been modest to date. The program shows considerable promise for providing the encouragement and skills needed for these young women to pursue careers in drug and alcohol research.

Noland, Melody Powers; Leukefeld, Carl; Reid, Caroline

220

Associations between Affect, Context, and Sexual Desire in Depressed Young Women.  

PubMed

We investigated associations of sexual desire with time of day, physical and social context, and positive and negative affect using momentary sampling in 44 depressed young women (mean age = 18). Analyses revealed that depressed young women experienced sexual desire when with their boyfriends and later in the evening. Sexual desire was also positively associated with positive affect. Sexual desire was not associated with negative affect or physical context. This research suggests that sexual desire is experienced by depressed young women in normative developmental social contexts. Our findings may help clinicians and sexual health educators in correcting the myth that depressed women do not have sexual desire. PMID:23631748

Mehta, Clare M; Walls, Courtney; Blood, Emily A; Shrier, Lydia A

2014-07-01

221

Examining the raunch culture thesis through young Australian women's interpretations of contradictory discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a series of recent accounts, the sex industry is now a key facet of youth culture and sexualised imagery has infiltrated both the public imagination and the most private of practices. Unsurprisingly, there is greater concern over the implications of this new ‘raunch culture’ for young women, than young men. Rather than resisting, it is argued that young

Emily Caroline Bishop

2012-01-01

222

The Markers and Meanings of Growing Up: Contemporary Young Women's Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood*  

PubMed Central

Growing up in the shadow of the women’s movement has created contradictory life course and identity possibilities for young women. Although prior research has examined the formal markers of adulthood, we know little about how young women themselves perceive these markers. Forty-two in-depth interviews revealed that the subjective meanings of young women’s transition to adulthood are actually far more complex than previously assumed. While becoming a parent and becoming financially independent were seen by interviewees as reflecting an adult orientation, completing schooling was tied to class-differentiated views of growing up. In addition, beginning full-time work was subjectively linked to future career uncertainty, and getting married did not diminish young women’s emphasis on self-development and independence from men. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is a disjuncture between women’s objective and subjective transition to adulthood. This study suggests that our previous understandings of the transition to adulthood do not reflect the full complexity of how young women subjectively experience it or the extent to which class impacts these perceptions.

Aronson, Pamela

2008-01-01

223

UCSF study finds few young women with cancer take steps to preserve fertility during treatments  

Cancer.gov

A new study has found that very few young women with cancer take steps to preserve their fertility while undergoing cancer therapy. Also, certain groups of young women are more likely to do so than others. Published early online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study indicates that efforts are needed to provide counseling on fertility preservation in reproductive-aged women diagnosed with cancer.

224

Why so few young women in mathematics, science, and technology classes?  

SciTech Connect

Many factors influence the success of women in scientific and technical careers. Women represent over 50% of the U.S. population, yet less than 16% of women are employed in scientific and technical careers. Research over the last decade makes it clear that disparities exist in the participation, achievement, and attitudes of young men and young women in science classes. Young women are as interested in science experiences as young men up until age nine. After that age, the number of young women interested in science, mathematics, and technology classes drops. Not enrolling in science and mathematics classes in high school limits career options for young women, and their chance to succeed in a scientific or technical field becomes remote. Why is this happening? What can we, as educators, scientists, and parents do to address this problem? The literature identifies three principal factors that relate to the lack of female involvement in science classes: culture, attitude, and education. This paper reviews these factors and provides examples of programs that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and others have developed to increase the number of young women entering college ready and wanting to pursue a career in a scientific or technical field.

Wieda, K.J.

1995-06-01

225

Bone density and young athletic women. An update.  

PubMed

High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the relationship between sports training and bone health, specifically bone mineral density, in young athletic women. PMID:17953469

Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V

2007-01-01

226

Life shocks and homelessness.  

PubMed

We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

2013-12-01

227

Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

228

Postponing Marriage: The Influence of Schooling, Working, and Work Plans for Young Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines trends of postponement of marriage among women in their early twenties. Data for the study were taken from a national longitudinal study of 5,159 women (ages 14 to 24) who were interviewed from 1968 to 1975. The author specifically examined the young women for three characteristics: current employment status, level of education,…

Cherlin, Andrew

229

Taking account of what young women want from school sex education : Two groups from Scotland and Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to explore what young women want from their school-based sex education. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Qualitative methods were used to explore the perspectives of two groups of young women from Uganda and Scotland. Findings – Of particular importance to all the young women were: a diverse sex education curriculum appropriate to the ages of the students, being

Sinead Cook

2010-01-01

230

Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women  

PubMed Central

In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women’s odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women’s risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women’s risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994–1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents’ odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women’s odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women’s odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools.

Kane, Jennifer B.; Frisco, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

231

A Population-Based Inquiry of Homeless Episode Characteristics and Early Educational Well-Being  

PubMed Central

Child homelessness and educational well-being is an area of national research that requires more precise investigation to address mixed findings. The aim of this study was to extend the investigation of the relations between homelessness and educational well-being by determining if timing and frequency of homeless episodes are differentially associated with children’s academic and classroom engagement outcomes. This investigation used a comprehensive research model to study the effects of these homeless episode characteristics within a large urban student cohort. Additionally, this study accounted for co-occurring early risk factors. Findings indicated that having a first homeless episode in early childhood was associated with non-proficiency in mathematics and academic engagement problems. Also more frequent homeless episodes were related to truancy in third grade. These results stress the importance of early intervention for homeless children and underscore the need to further understand the variation in young children’s homeless experiences.

Fantuzzo, John; LeBoeuf, Whitney; Brumley, Benjamin; Perlman, Staci

2013-01-01

232

Educating Homeless Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, the number of homeless children in America has more than doubled. Educators, however, are still legally obligated to enroll and support them, because of the passage of the "No Child Left Behind" Act of 2001, which reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Although schools cannot solve homelessness, they can…

Berliner, BethAnn

2002-01-01

233

Homelessness and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

HOMELESSNESS AFFECTS TENS OF THOUSANDS OF CANADIANS and has important health implications. Homeless people are at increased risk of dying prematurely and suffer from a wide range of health problems, including seizures, chronic obstructive pul- monary disease, musculoskeletal disorders, tuberculosis, and skin and foot prob- lems. Homeless people also face significant barriers that impair their access to health care. More

Stephen W. Hwang

234

Teaching Our Homeless Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

Sheldon, George H.

2011-01-01

235

Homelessness and theory reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory will not directly explain the development of policy and provision for homeless people, but it is an important consideration and one deserving of careful attention. In the UK, however, homelessness has often been explained simplistically and somewhat atheoretically as either a housing or a welfare problem, caused either by structural or by individual factors. Likewise, homeless people have been

Joanne Neale

1997-01-01

236

Veterans and Homelessness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have brought renewed attention to the needs of veterans, including the needs of homeless veterans. Homeless veterans initially came to the country's attention in the 1970s and 1980s, when homelessness generally was becomin...

L. Perl

2009-01-01

237

Laterality and age-level differences between young women and elderly women in controlled force exertion (CFE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine laterality and age-level differences in maximal handgrip strength and CFE using women as subjects. The subjects were 50 young women (mean age 20.9±1.9 years) and 50 elderly women (mean age 72.9±6.6 years). The maximal handgrip strength was measured twice with a 1-min interval, and the larger value was used in this study. In the CFE

Hiroshi Kubota; Shinichi Demura; Haruka Kawabata

238

Pregnancy and contraception in young women with congenital heart disease: General considerations  

PubMed Central

Young women with heart disease are increasingly being seen in obstetrical referral centres owing, in large part, to the dramatic improvements in survival of young adults with congenital heart disease in recent years. Although pregnancies in most women with heart disease result in favourable outcomes, there are important exceptions that must be recognized. These exceptions pose significant mortality risk to the mother and/or the fetus. The present article outlines cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy, general outcomes and management considerations for practitioners caring for pregnant young women with congenital heart disease. A lesion-specific review is published in a complementary article.

Wald, Rachel M; Sermer, Mathew; Colman, Jack M

2011-01-01

239

Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

We examined seven life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions were functioning comparatively well with respect to general health, depression, and self-esteem. In contrast, young women who followed pathways involving early motherhood were functioning less well. Fixed-effects models suggested that the differences were due to selection factors. Young women who followed the pathway of college to full-time employment exhibited an increase in heavy drinking, whereas women who became married mothers exhibited a decrease in the same. Involvement in illegal behavior declined for all groups but least so for women who attended college.

Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

2012-01-01

240

Who's There to Help? Assessment of Social Supports Received by Homeless and Unaccompanied Youth in High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how urban, young adults assessed received social supports (Vaux, 1988) during homelessness in high school. According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness (2007), approximately 1 to 1.5 million youth under the age of 18 in America experience at least one incident of homelessness each…

Brase, Monica Kay

2011-01-01

241

Urological abnormalities in young women with severe constipation.  

PubMed Central

Anorectal and urodynamic studies were carried out in 10 young women with severe constipation and the results compared with those obtained in controls. The lowest volumes that provoked a desire to defecate (constipated 200 +/- 50 v controls 110 +/- 10 [mean +/- SEM] ml: p less than 0.05), and a desire to micturate (constipated 560 +/- 40 v controls 295 +/- 15 [mean +/- SEM] ml: p less than 0.001), were significantly greater in constipated patients compared with controls. The maximum tolerable rectal volume (380 +/- 30 v 290 +/- 20 [mean +/- SEM] ml: p less than 0.05) and the bladder capacity (720 +/- 50 v 540 +/- 10 [mean +/- SEM] ml: p less than 0.001) were also increased in the constipated subjects compared with controls. Electromyographic studies show failure of relaxation of the external anal sphincter (EAS) on attempted defecation in all 10 patients; and eight of these patients actually contracted their EAS when they strained to defecate, causing a functional outlet obstruction. Urodynamic studies showed normal urinary flow rates, normal detrusor pressures and normal radiology during voiding. Thus, these studies suggest that constipated patients have an increase in capacity and a reduction in sensitivity in the urinary bladder as well as in the rectum, but showed no evidence of obstruction to urine flow.

Bannister, J J; Lawrence, W T; Smith, A; Thomas, D G; Read, N W

1988-01-01

242

The New Homelessness Revisited  

PubMed Central

The ‘new homelessness’ has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus.

Lee, Barrett A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Wright, James D.

2014-01-01

243

Attitudes Towards the Vaginal Ring and Transdermal Patch Among Adolescents and Young Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose The vaginal ring and the transdermal patch offer important contraceptive options for women at high risk of unintended pregnancy. Little is known about what adolescents and young women think about these methods and why use of the ring has been relatively low compared to the patch. We sought to examine young women’s attitudes and perceptions about the ring and the patch to better understand the relationship between perceptions of these methods and decisions to use them. Methods Sixteen focus groups of young women aged 15–26 years (n=113) from family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area were convened. Data from the focus groups were analyzed using standard content analysis. Results While young women expressed apprehension and doubt about both methods, for the most part women expressed more positive attitudes about the patch. Two related themes for the ring and the patch were identified: “lack of trust in effectiveness,” and “method use concerns. Two themes unique to the ring: “concerns regarding vaginal insertion” and “sexual partner perceptions” and three themes unique to the patch: “ease of remembering”, “visibility issues”, and “perceived health risk” were identified. Conclusions Increased provider education about apprehensions related to the ring and the patch may lead to increased use of the ring and counter recent declines in use of the patch. It would be unfortunate if these safe and effective options for young women are underutilized because negative attitudes and perceptions about these methods act as barriers to adoption.

Raine, Tina R.; Epstein, Laura B.; Harper, Cynthia C.; Brown, Beth A.; Boyer, Cherrie B.

2009-01-01

244

Work Commitment among Young Women: Its Relation to Labor Force Participation, Marriage, and Childbearing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research analyzes the relations between young women's attitudes and preferences about market work and their labor force and family-building experiences in early adulthood, focusing on the causal relations between early employment and work-related atti...

G. D. Spitze

1979-01-01

245

Young women's experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs.  

PubMed

Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20 and 39 years of age) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women's narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use. PMID:23820874

Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A; Steeves, Richard H; Danhauer, Suzanne C

2013-11-01

246

Sexual health, vulnerabilities and risk behaviours among homeless adults.  

PubMed

It is well known that homeless individuals are at risk for a variety of health problems, including sexually transmissible infections. Optimisation of health services for the homeless requires knowledge of their sexual health. The sexual health and sexual vulnerability factors of 500 homeless adults (196 women) were assessed in a cross-sectional survey in three Canadian cities. Our data indicate that a significant proportion of individuals and more women than men reported multiple experiences that compromise their sexual health exponentially. These findings may inform health policies related to sexuality to foster positive sexual health outcomes for all people, including marginalised populations. PMID:24670303

Strehlau, Verena; Torchalla, Iris; Linden, Isabelle; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael

2014-03-01

247

Helping the Homeless in School and Out  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

However much the recession might be receding, the effects remain deep and cruel to families living in poverty. Many have fallen through their communities' social safety nets. Today, families with young children comprise 41% of the nation's homeless population. According to the Institute of Children and Poverty, more than 1.35 million kids in the…

Holgersson-Shorter, Helena

2010-01-01

248

Offending, Homelessness, and the Life Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the role played by imprisonment in relation to homelessness in particular and to marginal society participation in general. Observations are offered about the concept of the "underclass," and an analysis of the impact of current British social policies on the life course is provided, with special focus on young offenders. (JPS)

Paylor, Ian

1995-01-01

249

First international consensus guidelines for breast cancer in young women (BCY1).  

PubMed

The 1st International Consensus Conference for Breast Cancer in Young Women (BCY1) took place in November 2012, in Dublin, Ireland organized by the European School of Oncology (ESO). Consensus recommendations for management of breast cancer in young women were developed and areas of research priorities were identified. This manuscript summarizes these international consensus recommendations, which are also endorsed by the European Society of Breast Specialists (EUSOMA). PMID:24767882

Partridge, Ann H; Pagani, Olivia; Abulkhair, Omalkhair; Aebi, Stefan; Amant, Frédéric; Azim, Hatem A; Costa, Alberto; Delaloge, Suzette; Freilich, Gloria; Gentilini, Oreste Davide; Harbeck, Nadia; Kelly, Catherine M; Loibl, Sibylle; Meirow, Dror; Peccatori, Fedro; Kaufmann, Bella; Cardoso, Fatima

2014-06-01

250

Evaluation of Magnesium Intake and Its Relation with Bone Quality in Healthy Young Korean Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have reported magnesium’s role in nutrition as a vital factor involved in bone health. However, not enough studies\\u000a have evaluated magnesium (Mg) intakes in young women. In this study, we evaluated Mg intake in healthy adults and its relation\\u000a with bone quality. A total of 484 healthy young women in their early 20s were enrolled into the study.

Mi-Hyun Kim; Jee-Young Yeon; Mi-Kyeong Choi; Yun Jung Bae

251

Children and Young People at Risk of Social Exclusion: Links between Homelessness, Child Protection and Juvenile Justice. Data Linkage Series. Number 13  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research demonstrates relationships between child abuse and neglect, homelessness and criminal activity. This report presents key findings from analysis of a data set linking three community-sector data collections: Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP), juvenile justice supervision, and child protection notifications and…

Aalders, Rachel

2012-01-01

252

Screening bleeding disorders in adolescents and young women with menorrhagia.  

PubMed

Objective: Chronic menorrhagia causes anemia and impairment of life quality. In this study the aim was the screening of bleeding disorders in adolescents and young women with menorrhagia. Materials and Methods: The study was performed prospectively by pediatric hematologists. A form including demographic characteristics of the patients, bleedings other than menorrhagia, familial bleeding history, characteristics of the menorrhagia, and impairment of life quality due to menorrhagia was filled out by the researcher during a face-to-face interview with the patient. A pictorial blood assessment chart was also used for evaluation of blood loss. All patients underwent pelvic ultrasound sonography testing and women also received pelvic examination by gynecologists. Whole blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood group, serum transaminases, urea, creatinine, ferritin, PFA-100, PT, aPTT, INR, TT, fibrinogen, VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, FVIII, and platelet aggregation assays were performed. Platelet aggregations were studied by lumiaggregometer. Results: Out of 75 patients enrolled, 60 patients completed the study. The mean age was 20.68±10.34 (range: 10-48) years and 65% (n=39) of the patients were younger than 18 years. In 18 (46%) of the adolescents, menorrhagia subsided spontaneously. In 20% (n=12) of the patients, a bleeding disorder was detected (1 case of type 3 von Willebrand disease, 2 patients with low VWF:Ag, 1 case of probable von Willebrand disease, 3 cases of Bernard-Soulier syndrome, 2 cases of Glanzmann thrombasthenia, 2 cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 1 case of congenital factor VII deficiency). Conclusion: In patients with menorrhagia, at least complete blood count, peripheral smear, aPTT, PT, VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, FVIII, and fibrinogen assays must be performed. When there is history of nose and gum bleeding, platelet function assay by lumiaggregometer must also be performed. In nearly 50% of adolescents, menorrhagia is dysfunctional and transient. Detailed coagulation assays can be postponed in adolescents if bleeding history other than menorrhagia and/or family history of bleeding and/or parental consanguinity is absent. All subjects with menorrhagia must consult with gynecologists and hematologists. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385781

Cak? K?l?ç, Suar; Sarper, Nazan; Zengin, Emine; Aylan Gelen, Sema

2013-06-01

253

Screening Bleeding Disorders in Adolescents and Young Women with Menorrhagia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Chronic menorrhagia causes anemia and impairment of life quality. In this study the aim was the screening of bleeding disorders in adolescents and young women with menorrhagia. Materials and Methods: The study was performed prospectively by pediatric hematologists. A form including demographic characteristics of the patients, bleedings other than menorrhagia, familial bleeding history, characteristics of the menorrhagia, and impairment of life quality due to menorrhagia was filled out by the researcher during a face-to-face interview with the patient. A pictorial blood assessment chart was also used for evaluation of blood loss. All patients underwent pelvic ultrasound sonography testing and women also received pelvic examination by gynecologists. Whole blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood group, serum transaminases, urea, creatinine, ferritin, PFA-100, PT, aPTT, INR, TT, fibrinogen, VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, FVIII, and platelet aggregation assays were performed. Platelet aggregations were studied by lumiaggregometer. Results: Out of 75 patients enrolled, 60 patients completed the study. The mean age was 20.68±10.34 (range: 10-48) years and 65% (n=39) of the patients were younger than 18 years. In 18 (46%) of the adolescents, menorrhagia subsided spontaneously. In 20% (n=12) of the patients, a bleeding disorder was detected (1 case of type 3 von Willebrand disease, 2 patients with low VWF:Ag, 1 case of probable von Willebrand disease, 3 cases of Bernard-Soulier syndrome, 2 cases of Glanzmann thrombasthenia, 2 cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 1 case of congenital factor VII deficiency). Conclusion: In patients with menorrhagia, at least complete blood count, peripheral smear, aPTT, PT, VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, FVIII, and fibrinogen assays must be performed. When there is history of nose and gum bleeding, platelet function assay by lumiaggregometer must also be performed. In nearly 50% of adolescents, menorrhagia is dysfunctional and transient. Detailed coagulation assays can be postponed in adolescents if bleeding history other than menorrhagia and/or family history of bleeding and/or parental consanguinity is absent. All subjects with menorrhagia must consult with gynecologists and hematologists. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Cak? K?l?c, Suar; Sarper, Nazan; Zengin, Emine; Aylan Gelen, Sema

2013-01-01

254

Weight Change and Depression Among US Young Women During the Transition to Adulthood  

PubMed Central

By using data from wave 2 (in 1996) and wave 3 (in 2000–2001) of the US-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we investigated the association between young women's body weight and depression during the transition to adulthood. Respondents (n = 5,243) were 13–18 years of age during wave 2 and 19–25 years of age during wave 3. We used Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores to classify young women as never depressed, consistently depressed, experiencing depression onset, or experiencing depression recovery from wave 2 to wave 3. Results from adjusted multinomial logistic regression models indicated that respondents who experienced significant weight gain were at risk of depression onset. Normal weight (adjusted odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 3.84) and overweight (adjusted odds ratio = 1.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.99) adolescent girls who were obese by young adulthood, as well as young women who were consistently obese during adolescence and young adulthood (adjusted odds ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.26), had roughly twice the odds of depression onset as did young women who were never overweight. We concluded that weight gain and obesity are risk factors for depression onset during the transition to adulthood. Policies prioritizing healthy weight maintenance may help improve young women's mental health as they begin their adult lives.

Frisco, Michelle L.; Houle, Jason N.; Lippert, Adam M.

2013-01-01

255

Weight change and depression among US young women during the transition to adulthood.  

PubMed

By using data from wave 2 (in 1996) and wave 3 (in 2000-2001) of the US-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we investigated the association between young women's body weight and depression during the transition to adulthood. Respondents (n = 5,243) were 13-18 years of age during wave 2 and 19-25 years of age during wave 3. We used Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores to classify young women as never depressed, consistently depressed, experiencing depression onset, or experiencing depression recovery from wave 2 to wave 3. Results from adjusted multinomial logistic regression models indicated that respondents who experienced significant weight gain were at risk of depression onset. Normal weight (adjusted odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 3.84) and overweight (adjusted odds ratio = 1.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.99) adolescent girls who were obese by young adulthood, as well as young women who were consistently obese during adolescence and young adulthood (adjusted odds ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.26), had roughly twice the odds of depression onset as did young women who were never overweight. We concluded that weight gain and obesity are risk factors for depression onset during the transition to adulthood. Policies prioritizing healthy weight maintenance may help improve young women's mental health as they begin their adult lives. PMID:23752915

Frisco, Michelle L; Houle, Jason N; Lippert, Adam M

2013-07-01

256

Life Transitions and Mental Health in a National Cohort of Young Australian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…

Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

2007-01-01

257

"Making a Way": Young Women Using Literacy and Language to Resist the Politics of Silencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban public schools are often contexts in which students are beset with silencing, surveillance, and low expectations. These conditions present distinct and critical challenges to young women. This article explores the language and literacy practices that emerged in an in-school elective writing and photography course designed with and for young

Wissman, Kelly K.

2007-01-01

258

Attitudes toward career and marriage and the development of life style in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first approximation to the relationship between 18 attitudes toward career and marriage and the life styles of 1237 girls and young women (67% of those sought). Cross-sectional representation of the developmental stages of early adolescence, adolescence and young adulthood. Life style represented by: (1) high school curriculum elected; and (2) plan for education, career and marriage throughout a decade

Ester Matthews; David V. Tiedeman

1964-01-01

259

Whey beverages decrease blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive young men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey protein beverages reduced blood pressure in young men and women in a six week controlled intervention. There were no differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), or mean arterial pressure (MAP) observed between groups consuming 28 g per day of either hydrolyzed or non-hydrolyzed whey protein in a beverage. However, in young adults with elevated DBP and

Susan M. Fluegel; Terry D. Shultz; Joseph R. Powers; Stephanie Clark; Celestina Barbosa-Leiker; Bruce R. Wright; Timothy S. Freson; Heidi A. Fluegel; Jonathan D. Minch; Lance K. Schwarzkopf; Ashley J. Miller; Michael M. Di Filippo

2010-01-01

260

The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…

Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

2012-01-01

261

Employment Inequality Revisited: Predictors of Better Employment Outcomes for Young Women with Disabilities in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined factors associated with better employment outcomes for young people with disabilities, especially young women. Factors predicting better outcomes included having two or more job experiences while in high school and having used the self-family-friend network to find their postschool job. Some factors, such as low household…

Doren, Bonnie; Benz, Michael R.

1998-01-01

262

The activity involvement of women and men in young and middle adulthood: A panel study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a secondary analyses of a 36?year panel study of 267 Euro?American women and men, this research examined gender differences in (a) the frequency of individuals’ involvement in discretionary or free?time activity in young and middle adulthood, (b) change in activity involvement between young and middle adulthood, and (c) predictors of activity involvement in young and middle adulthood. Activity involvement

Valeria J. Freysinger; Robert O. Ray

1994-01-01

263

Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their

Joyce Wamoyi; Daniel Wight; Mary Plummer; Gerry Hilary Mshana; David Ross

2010-01-01

264

Sex-Role Attitude Change of Young Women: Influential Factors from a Panel Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A panel of 294 non-metropolitan Pennsylvania women was studied first in 1970 when they were high school sophomores and again in 1981 to assess the relationship between traditional and nontraditional role behaviors and changes in sex-role attitudes. As adolescents in 1970, the women were either extremely liberal or traditional. As young adults in…

Tallichet, Suzanne E.; Willits, Fern K.

265

Environmental Exposure and Breast Cancer Among Young Women in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing breast cancer rates among young women (<40 years old) have been reported by the population-based cancer registries in Brazil. A case series study was carried out in Rio de Janeiro aiming to obtain epidemiological information allowing the generation of hypotheses to be further evaluated in analytical studies. One hundred and ten women 20–35 years old diagnosed with breast cancer

Guillermo Patricio Ortega Jacome; Rosalina Jorge Koifman; Gina Torres Rego Monteiro; Sergio Koifman

2010-01-01

266

Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

1992-01-01

267

Iron Intake in Relation to Diet and Iron Status of Young Adult Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To determine the iron intake and food sources of iron in young adult women and to compare women with high versus low iron intake on diet and iron status. Methods: Iron intake and food sources were assessed by a 2-day estimated food record. Iron status was determined by a fasting venous blood sample. Differences in diet and iron status

I. Pynaert; J. Delanghe; M. Temmerman; S. De Henauw

2007-01-01

268

Doing Something about Young Navajo Women Who Are School Dropouts. [A Project Evaluation).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an external evaluation of the "Career Education and High School Completion Project for Girls and Young Women" at the Crownpoint (New Mexico) Institute of Technology (CIT). The project, funded by the federal Women's Educational Equity Act Program (WEEAP), targeted primarily Navajo females age 18 and under in grades 7 through 12 who were…

Mokler, Mary M.; Hernandez, Francisca

269

Attempted Suicide among Young Rural Women in the People's Republic of China: Possibilities for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a sample of 147 young women living in rural areas in China who had attempted suicide. The women's suicidal behavior was characterized by high levels of impulsivity and low rates of mental illness, including depression. Detailed suggestions are made about ways to implement suicide prevention strategies within the particular social and…

Pearson, Veronica; Phillips, Michael R.; He, Fengsheng; Ji, Huiyu

2002-01-01

270

Adjuvant Therapy for Very Young Women With Breast Cancer: Need for Tailored Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer rarely occurs in women below the age of 35 years. Data from various sources indicate that diagnosis at such an age is associated with a dire prognosis mainly be- cause of a more aggressive presentation. Although the effect of chemotherapy for premenopausal patients is substantial, recent evidence on 2233 patients suggested that very young women with endocrine-responsive tumors

Aron Goldhirsch; Richard D. Gelber; Greg Yothers; Robert J. Gray; Stephanie Green; John Bryant; Shari Gelber; Monica Castiglione-Gertsch; Alan S. Coates

271

The factors influencing transactional sex among young men and women in 12 sub?Saharan African countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transactional sex may put young women and young men in sub?Saharan Africa at increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV\\/AIDS. This behavior may also put young women at higher risk of pregnancy and childbearing. Policymakers and program managers need to know what factors put youth at increased risk. We investigated this issue using logistic regression analyses of

Minki Chatterji; Nancy Murray; David London; Philip Anglewicz

2005-01-01

272

Interagency Council on Homelessness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the complex nature of addressing such a broad problem as that of homelessness, it is not so surprising that there exists a federal initiative in the United States to collaborate on "out of the box" approaches to alleviating this situation. In 1987, with the passage of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, Congress established the Interagency Council on Homelessness in order to provide organized leadership in the area of providing assistance to homeless families and individuals. From the homepage, visitors can read about the Council's latest activities, then continue on to learn about funding opportunities and information from states and local municipalities on their own homelessness-based initiatives. Specifically, visitors can learn about the various regional coordinators employed by the Council, and read some rather ambitious 10-year plans to end chronic homelessness adopted by cities such as Columbus, Ohio, Atlanta, San Francisco, and Chicago.

273

Assessing the Impact of a Science and Mathematics Workshop on the Educational and Career Choices of Young Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encouraging young women to study for, and enter careers in, science and mathematics continues to be a problem in American society. One program that introduces young women to successful adult women in the science and mathematics professions is the "Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics" (EYH) conference. Illinois State University has…

Hecht, Leslie B.; Hecht, Jeffrey B.

274

Knowledge, attitudes and experiences of sex trafficking by young women in Benin City, South-South Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benin City, the headquarters of Edo State, is known to have one of the highest rates of international sex trafficking of young women in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of young women in Benin City, towards international sex trafficking. A random household sample of 1456 women aged 15–25 years was interviewed with a

F. E. Okonofua; S. M. Ogbomwan; A. N. Alutu; Okop Kufre; Aghahowa Eghosa

2004-01-01

275

Non-consensual sex within pre-marital relationships: experiences of young women in India.  

PubMed

In India, little is known about the prevalence of non-consensual sex within pre-marital relationships and factors correlated with such experience, although a sizeable proportion of young people engage in pre-marital relationships. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data from a representative study of youth in six Indian states, this paper examines the extent to which young women who had had pre-marital sex had experienced non-consensual sex, that is, sex by persuasion or force, and factors associated with it. Analysis is restricted to 821 young women who reported pre-marital sex. Of those who had had pre-marital sex, 33% reported that they were either persuaded (14%) or forced (19%) to engage in sex. Young women residing in urban areas and in communities reportedly characterised by physical fights among youth were more likely than their respective counterparts to have experienced sex by persuasion. Young women who had delayed sexual initiation and those who displayed self-efficacy were less likely than others to experience forced sex. Young women who had experienced geographic mobility in adolescence and who had witnessed parental violence were more likely than others to report forced sex. Finally, those in southern states were less likely than their northern counterparts to experience forced sex. PMID:24261824

Santhya, K G; Francis Zavier, A J

2014-01-01

276

Young women's education and behavioural risk trajectories: clarifying their association with unintended-pregnancy resolution.  

PubMed

In the USA, most pregnancies occurring to teenage women are unplanned, making both the decisions regarding their resolution and the consequences of those decisions important topics of inquiry. Substantial debate surrounds the potential consequences for young women of either carrying an unintended pregnancy to term or voluntarily terminating it. The present study utilises data from The US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health prospectively to examine the predictors of pregnancy resolution decisions in terms of young women's educational goals and their engagement in risk behaviours. Additionally, the long-term consequences of these decisions for education and risk-taking behaviours are identified. Results indicate that young women with strong educational goals have a greater likelihood of terminating an unintended pregnancy than those with low aspirations, and that pregnancy termination predicts higher educational attainment compared to motherhood. Risk behaviours did not predict pregnancy-resolution decisions, but young women who became mothers reported lower rates of subsequent substance use and fewer sexual partners post-pregnancy than those who terminated the pregnancy or who had never been pregnant. Motherhood appears to be a catalyst for lifestyle change among young women, limiting substance use and sexual partnering, in contrast to abortion, which appears to allow adolescents to continue risk-taking trajectories. PMID:24735279

Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Cooney, Teresa M

2014-06-01

277

Child Abuse in Young, HIV-Positive Women: Linkages to Risk  

PubMed Central

In this article we explore the lives of young women living with HIV who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. Using a modified version of the Life Story Interview, 40 women recruited from HIV clinics in three different states participated in a qualitative interview. Interviews covered abuse experiences, cognitive and emotional consequences of abuse, coping strategies, and sexual behavior and relationships. Overall, these young women had complex abuse histories, often experiencing more than one type of abuse in the context of other difficult life events. Avoidance and substance use were frequently utilized as coping strategies for abuse-related distress. Young women reported sexual and relationship concerns, including avoidance of sex, sexual dysfunction, sex as a trigger for abuse memories, and difficulty establishing intimacy and trust. Relationships between abuse-related reactions and sexual risk behavior, as well as recommendations for interventions, are discussed.

Clum, Gretchen A.; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Ellen, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01

278

Relationship between ghrelin and energy expenditure in healthy young women.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is a novel peptide that has been isolated from human and rat stomach tissues. Despite its known stimulatory effects on appetite and eating behavior, little information is available regarding its relationship with energy expenditure in normal-weight humans. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between serum ghrelin and resting metabolic rate (RMR), the thermic effect of food (TEF), fasting and postprandial respiratory quotient, physical activity level, peak aerobic capacity (VO(2 peak)), energy intake, and psychological measures of feeding behavior. We recruited 65 young healthy women and determined RMR and TEF by indirect calorimetry after a 12-h fast. Physical activity was determined by a leisure time physical activity questionnaire; VO(2 peak) was determined by bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion; energy intake was determined by a 24-h dietary recall; and food behavior was determined by a three-factor eating questionnaire. Our cohort showed a broad range of body mass index (range, 16.8-28.3 kg/m2), RMR (range, 820-1550 kcal/d), TEF (range, 74.4-136.5 kcal/d), and percent body fat (range, 14.0-37.7%). We noted significant inverse correlations between ghrelin and RMR (r = -0.350, P = 0.004) and TEF (r = -0.396, P = 0.001). These inverse correlations persisted after statistical control for both fat-free mass and fat mass (ghrelin vs. RMR partial, r = -0.284, P = 0.024; and ghrelin vs. TEF partial, r = -0.329, P = 0.01) and insulin levels (ghrelin vs. RMR partial, r = -0.255, P = 0.046; and ghrelin vs. TEF partial, r = -0.287, P = 0.024) using partial correlation analysis. We also observed a significant inverse correlation between ghrelin and daily caloric intake (r = -0.266, P = 0.032), but ghrelin levels were not significantly correlated with fasting (r = -0.002), postprandial respiratory quotient (r = -0.016), leisure time physical activity (r = 0.104), VO(2 peak) (r = 0.138), dietary disinhibition (r = -0.071), dietary restraint (r = 0.051), or feeling of general hunger (r = -0.028). These results suggest that higher levels of ghrelin are associated with low levels of resting and postprandial thermogenesis, which is independent of individual differences in fat-free mass and fat mass. Although speculative, serum ghrelin may play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by acting as a hormonal marker of increased energy efficiency. PMID:15579749

St-Pierre, David H; Karelis, Antony D; Cianflone, Katherine; Conus, Florence; Mignault, Diane; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; St-Onge, Maxime; Tremblay-Lebeau, Andréanne; Poehlman, Eric T

2004-12-01

279

Risk Factors for Pregnancy and Childbearing in Single Young Women: Evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated psychosocial predictors of early pregnancy and childbearing in single young women, consistent with the Eriksonian developmental perspective. Two mail-out surveys assessing reproductive behaviour and sociodemographic, education/competence, psychosocial well-being, and aspiration factors were completed 4 years apart by 2635…

Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

2005-01-01

280

The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24?years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12?months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12?months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers.

2012-01-01

281

Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women.  

PubMed

In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools. PMID:23702216

Kane, Jennifer B; Frisco, Michelle L

2013-07-01

282

Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health, medicine, and substance abuse to proactively combat the “model minority” myth and to design and implement interventions targeting family dynamics, coping with immigration/acculturative stresses, mental illnesses, suicidal behaviors, and substance abuse among Asian-American populations across the developmental lifespan. Originality/value This paper provides specific suggestions for interventions to adequately respond to the mental health needs of young Asian-American women. These include addressing the cultural stigma and shame of seeking help, underlying family origin issues, and excessive alcohol and drug use as unsafe coping, as well as incorporating empowerment-based and mind-body components to foster an intervention targeting suicidality among Asian-American women in early adulthood.

Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

2014-01-01

283

Young women's decisions to accept chlamydia screening: influences of stigma and doctor-patient interactions  

PubMed Central

Background An understanding of the factors that encourage young women to accept, and discourage them from accepting, STI (sexually transmitted infection) testing is needed to underpin opportunistic screening programs for the STI Chlamydia trachomatis (opportunistic screening involves healthcare professionals offering chlamydia tests to people while they are attending health services for reasons that are usually unrelated to their sexual health). We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore: how young women would feel about being offered opportunistic tests for chlamydia?; how young women would like to be offered screening, and who they wanted to be offered screening by?; and what factors would influence young women's partner notification preferences for chlamydia (who they would notify in the event of a positive diagnosis of chlamydia, how they would want to do this). Methods Semi-structured interviews with 35 young women between eighteen and twenty nine years of age. The study was conducted in the Dublin and Galway regions of the Republic of Ireland. Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP) practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services. Results Respondents were worried that their identities would become stigmatised if they accepted screening. Younger respondents and those from lower socio-economic backgrounds had the greatest stigma-related concerns. Most respondents indicated that they would accept screening if it was offered to them, however; accepting screening was seen as a correct, responsible action to engage in. Respondents wanted to be offered screening by younger female healthcare professionals. Respondents were willing to inform their current partners about positive chlamydia diagnoses, but were more ambivalent about informing their previous partners. Conclusions If an effort is not put into reducing young women's stigma-related concerns the population coverage of Chlamydia screening might be reduced.

2010-01-01

284

Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

2011-01-01

285

Romance and sex: pre-marital partnership formation among young women and men, Pune district, India.  

PubMed

Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes. PMID:17101433

Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela

2006-11-01

286

Homelessness and food insecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous assistance programs are designed to alleviate homelessness and food insecurity in the US, two of the more severe possible consequences of poverty. While we expect families with a higher probability of homelessness to also be at higher risk of food insecurity, after controlling for observed factors the relationship is not immediately apparent. To analyze this relationship, we use a

Craig Gundersen; Linda Weinreb; Cheryl Wehler; David Hosmer

2003-01-01

287

Intellectual Disability and Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

2011-01-01

288

Homelessness and Dual Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

People who are dually diagnosed with severe mental illness and substance use disorders constitute 10%–20% of homeless persons. They are a heterogeneous and extremely vulnerable subgroup with complex, poorly understood needs. In this article recent research on the epidemiology, subject characteristics, and service needs of the dually diagnosed homeless population is reviewed. Also, the range of evolving approaches to providing

Robert E. Drake; Fred C. Osher; Michael A. Wallach

1991-01-01

289

Position-Specific HIV Risk in a Large Network of Homeless Youths  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined interconnections among runaway and homeless youths (RHYs) and how aggregated network structure position was associated with HIV risk in this population. Methods. We collected individual and social network data from 136 RHYs. On the basis of these data, we generated a sociomatrix, accomplished network visualization with a “spring embedder,” and examined k-cores. We used multivariate logistic regression models to assess associations between peripheral and nonperipheral network position and recent unprotected sexual intercourse. Results. Small numbers of nominations at the individual level aggregated into a large social network with a visible core, periphery, and small clusters. Female youths were more likely to be in the core, as were youths who had been homeless for 2 years or more. Youths at the periphery were less likely to report unprotected intercourse and had been homeless for a shorter duration. Conclusions. HIV risk was a function of risk-taking youths' connections with one another and was associated with position in the overall network structure. Social network–based prevention programs, young women's housing and health programs, and housing-first programs for peripheral youths could be effective strategies for preventing HIV among this population.

Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Monro, William

2012-01-01

290

SERUM AMYLOID A IN FOLLICULAR FLUID OF YOUNG AND OLDER WOMEN UNDERGOING IVF TREATMENT: POSSIBLE IMPLICATION FOR IVF OUTCOME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials: The study included thirty six women undergoing IVF treatment, representing a broad spectrum of typical infertility patients and two age groups; 18 young women (age 21-30 years) and 18 older women (age 38-45 years). SAA concentration in FF obtained from these women was measured using commercial enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Levels of SAA were compared to levels

Eldar I; Finci-Yeheskel Z; Lossos F; Hurwitz A; Levin M

291

Influence of a support group for young women with disabilities on sense of belonging.  

PubMed

Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group. PMID:24660692

Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

2014-04-01

292

Life transitions and mental health in a national cohort of young Australian women.  

PubMed

Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in health-related quality of life, optimism, depressive symptoms, stress, and life satisfaction, were examined in relation to these transitions among 7,619 young adult participants in the nationally representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Positive changes in mental health occurred for women moving into cohabitation and marriage, whereas reductions were observed among those experiencing marital separation or divorce and those taking on or remaining in traditionally "feminine" roles (out of the workforce, motherhood). The data suggest that women cope well with major life changes at this life stage, but reductions in psychological well-being are associated with some transitions. The findings suggest that preventive interventions to improve women's resilience and coping might target women undergoing these transitions and that social structures may not be providing sufficient support for women making traditional life choices. PMID:17605521

Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

2007-07-01

293

Intergenerational Systems Theory and Identity Development in Young Adult Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored via questionnaires how intergenerational family systems theory is related to identity development in 164 undergraduate women. Found intergenerational factors of intimacy, intimidation, and individuation along with autonomy versus fusion, contributed variance to various identity statuses. (Author/DLH)

Perosa, Linda M.; Perosa, Sandra L.; Tam, Hak Ping

2002-01-01

294

Recruitment and retention of young women into nutrition research studies: practical considerations  

PubMed Central

Background Successful recruitment and retention of participants into research studies is critical for optimising internal and external validity. Research into diet and lifestyle of young women is important due to the physiological transitions experienced at this life stage. This paper aims to evaluate data related to recruitment and retention across three research studies with young women, and present practical advice related to recruiting and retaining young women in order to optimise study quality within nutrition research. Methods Recruitment and retention strategies used in three nutrition studies that targeted young women (18 to 35 years) were critiqued. A randomised controlled trial (RCT), a crossover validation study and a cross-sectional survey were conducted at the University of Newcastle, Australia between 2010 and 2013Successful recruitment was defined as maximum recruitment relative to time. Retention was assessed as maximum participants remaining enrolled at study completion. Results Recruitment approaches included notice boards, web and social network sites (Facebook and Twitter), with social media most successful in recruitment. The online survey had the highest recruitment in the shortest time-frame (751 participants in one month). Email, phone and text message were used in study one (RCT) and study two (crossover validation) and assisted in low attrition rates, with 93% and 75.7% completing the RCT and crossover validation study respectively. Of those who did not complete the RCT, reported reasons were: being too busy; and having an unrelated illness. Conclusion Recruiting young women into nutrition research is challenging. Use of social media enhances recruitment, while Email, phone and text message contact improves retention within interventions. Further research comparing strategies to optimise recruitment and retention in young women, including flexible testing times, reminders and incentives is warranted.

2014-01-01

295

Cardiac abnormalities in young women with anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and

G. de Simone; L. Scalfi; M. Galderisi; A. Celentano; G. Di Biase; P. Tammaro; M. Garofalo; G. F. Mureddu; O. de Divitiis; F. Contaldo

1994-01-01

296

Risk factors for breast cancer among young women in southern Iran.  

PubMed

Age standardized incidence rates of breast cancer in developed countries is nearly threefold higher than in developing countries. Iran has had one of the lowest incidence rates for breast cancer in the world, but during the last four decades increasing incidence rates of breast cancer made it the most prevalent cancer in Iranian women. After adjustment for age, Iranian young women are at relatively higher risk of breast cancer than their counterparts in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate some established risk factors of breast cancer in Iranian young women. A hospital-based case control study comprising 521 women with histologically confirmed, incident breast cancer and 521 controls frequency-matched by age and province of residence was conducted. Logistic regression performed to investigate associations of reproductive and anthropometric factors with breast cancer risk. In multivariate analysis, family history [odds ratio (OR): 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.42], oral contraceptives (OC) usage (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.11-2.08), low parity (OR parity ? 3 vs. 1-2: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.23-0.49), employment (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.05-3.23) and shorter period of breast feeding (OR ? 37 months vs. < 37: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44-0.84) were related to a higher risk of breast cancer in young women. This was the first study focusing on risk factors of breast cancer in Iranian young women. The trend of decreasing parity and shortened duration of breast feeding along with OC usage might partly explain the rapid rising of breast cancer incidence in Iranian young women. PMID:21064105

Ghiasvand, Reza; Maram, Esfandiar Setoudeh; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Tabatabaee, Seyed Hamid Reza

2011-09-15

297

Temperature dependence of soleus H-reflex and M wave in young and older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of altered local temperature on soleus H-reflex and compound muscle action potential (M wave) in young and older women. H-reflex and M wave responses were elicited in 10 young (22.3±3.3 years) and 10 older (72.5±3.2 years) women at three muscle temperatures: control (34.2±0.3°C), cold (31.3±0.5°C) and warm (37.1±0.2°C). H-reflex output, expressed as

Susan Dewhurst; Philip E. Riches; Myra A. Nimmo; Giuseppe De Vito

2005-01-01

298

Correlates of intimate partner physical violence among young reproductive age women in Mysore, India.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) in south India. This article examines the frequency and correlates of IPPV among 898 young married women from urban, rural, and periurban areas of Mysore, India. Most (69.2%) of the participants were Hindus and 28.7% were Muslims. Overall, 50% of participants reported some type of IPPV. Factors that were independently associated with IPPV included being younger than 18 years at the time of marriage, contributing some household income, having anal sex, reporting sexual violence, and having a sex partner who drinks alcohol and smokes cigarettes. Women with skilled occupation were at reduced odds of experiencing IPPV compared with women who did not work. These findings suggest that IPPV is highly prevalent in this setting and that additional interventions are needed to reduce morbidity particularly among young women. These data also suggest that more studies are needed among men who perpetrate IPPV in south India. PMID:22186382

Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Reingold, Arthur

2014-03-01

299

Alcohol and drug abuse and risky sexual behaviours in young adult women.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To assess alcohol abuse as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adult women, a high-risk population for unintended pregnancies. Subjects: Totally 3163 adolescent and young adult women, 18-29 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Interventions: Participants answered a structured questionnaire on their leisure habits, drug and alcohol consumption, contraception and sexual behaviors. Results: Most of the young adult women perceive that sexuality is an important part of their life but not a main concern (77.6%) and that alcohol removes the barriers to have sex (62.3%). Additionally, 77.0% claimed that contraception had "a lot" (53.4%) and "quite" (23.6%) influence on the quality of their sexuality. However, up to a 38.4% of the interviewed women had had sex without using any contraception and 29.6% of them acknowledged that had taken alcohol and of these, 40.7% said that alcohol was responsible for not using contraception. Alcohol abuse predicted an increase in risky sexual behaviours (4.45 CI: 2.01-9.75, p?young adult women should discuss the link between alcohol and sexual risk behavior. PMID:24845414

Castelo-Branco, Camil; Parera, Nuria; Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Lete, Iñaki

2014-08-01

300

Use of the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (CHIAS) in Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Background Validated measures that can accurate describe young adults’ HPV vaccination attitudes and how these relate to vaccination intention and receipt are needed for developing interventions to improve low HPV vaccination levels. The Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes Scale (CHIAS) is a validated measure of these outcomes that was originally designed for parents. Objective To assess the performance of the CHIAS among young adult women using an exploratory factor analysis. Methods A convenience sample of 139 young adult women (age 18–26 years) were given the CHIAS measure at baseline. Factor analysis was used to determine attitudinal factor groupings and the association of these factors with HPV vaccination intention. A 6-month follow up assessment examined the stability of the CHIAS over time and the association of baseline vaccine factors with vaccine receipt. Results Five factors loaded on to the CHIAS in young adults - “Barriers,” “Harms,” “Effectiveness,” “Risk Denial” and “Uncertainty,” - which was similar to the factor loadings of CHIAS for parents. “Harms” was the factor most consistently associated with vaccination intention at all time points assessed. Only 5 women had received or made an appointment to receive the vaccine at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions In terms of categorizing HPV vaccination attitudes, the CHIAS appears to have similar performance among young adults as in parents. However, additional studies are needed to assess the utility of the CHIAS for predicting HPV vaccine receipt among the young adult population.

Dempsey, Amanda F.; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Konrath, Sara

2014-01-01

301

Neuroserpin polymorphisms and stroke risk in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. METHODS: A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224

John W Cole; Adam C Naj; Jeffrey R O'Connell; Oscar C Stine; John D Sorkin; Marcella A Wozniak; Barney J Stern; Manuel Yepes; Daniel A Lawrence; Laurie J Reinhart; Dudley K Strickland; Braxton D Mitchell; Steven J Kittner

2007-01-01

302

"Young women": the meaning of a collaborative program supporting young women's rehabilitation and reintegration into the labor market.  

PubMed

Women are at a higher risk for long-term sick leaves and mental ill health. The aim of this study was to explore a supportive program's meaning for women with anxiety/stress/depression problems that are unemployed and/or on a sick leave, and for the personnel involved. Seven women and the personnel (n = 5) were interviewed individually pre- and post-intervention. Data was analyzed using content analysis. The program appeared to provide participants with tools to handle their physical and mental health, and occupational support, improving their social situation. Collaboration between organizations appears to be beneficial for all parties involved. PMID:24074131

Stjernswärd, Sigrid; Bernce, Richard; Östman, Margareta

2013-01-01

303

Evaluation of lifestyle of underweight, normal weight and overweight young women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare eating and lifestyle habits between underweight, normal weight and overweight young women. Data obtained from a survey of 1129 students of the three higher education institutions in Kielce, Kraków and Opole (Southern Poland) were analysed. BMI was used to define underweight, overweight and obesity. Eating and lifestyle habits were assessed based on the information received from surveyed students. The study group consisted of women of childbearing-age and a special attention was paid to analyse habits correlated with the risk factor for pregnant women (low consumption of dairy products, meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, cigarette smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake). In the studied group, the prevalence of underweight was higher than the prevalence of overweight and obesity (11.1% vs. 7.0%). There were no significant differences in nutritional habits between the three weight groups. The responding students, regardless their weight status, presented numerous unhealthy eating habits. Underweight students more frequently took multivitamin supplements, less frequently followed an alternative diet, smoked cigarettes or drank larger amounts of coffee than normal weight and overweight women. Underweight and normal weight women more frequently participated in sports activities than overweight and obese women. However, 39.2 percent of the surveyed women declared that they seldom or never perform any sport activities. The results show that majority of young women present numerous unhealthy behaviours. Unhealthy habits occur with the same frequency among underweight students as among normal weight students or overweight ones. PMID:23940975

Wronka, Iwona; Suliga, Edyta; Pawliñska-Chmara, Romana

2013-06-01

304

Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by requiring couples to consider two STEM careers when making career decisions. Women's partners more often worked full time than did the partners of men. This may limit the possibility of work-related travel for female geoscientists and increase the burden of household duties on two working partners. In fact, women did report doing significantly more household upkeep and more parenting than men. Another barrier to retention and promotion of women includes a lack of mentors and role models. The example of women in senior positions is especially important, justifying young women's aspiration to be successful geoscientists. In our data, young female geoscientists less often saw women as adequately represented in senior roles than did male respondents. While ESWN cannot solve these problems for individuals, ESWN activities do seem to address these concerns. In discussions on the ESWN listserv, women share ideas and strategies for navigating these obstacles. Young female geoscientists may also find role models among the more experienced members. Knowledge of these obstacles also provides ESWN and other organizations aiming to advance women in science with the potential best practices in supporting women through these challenges.

Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

2011-12-01

305

The Power of Prestige: Why Young Men Report Having more Sex Partners than Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of 48 men and 61 women from a southwestern US college, the gender difference in reported number of sex partners\\u000a was mediated by the degree to which individuals felt that men and women who had many sexual partners were prestigious. In\\u000a addition, men cared about the quantity and quality of their sex partners more than women did

Peter K. Jonason; Terri D. Fisher

2009-01-01

306

Ischemic stroke occurring during intercourse in young women on oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Ischemic stroke occurring during intercourse in young patients is exceedingly rare. We present 2 cases of young women taking oral contraceptives, each presenting with an ischemic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale in one patient and an atrial septal defect in the other. The most likely cause of stroke in both patients is embolic. Despite conflicting evidence, young patients presenting with ischemic stroke and found to have a patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect should be considered for possible device-based closure. PMID:24931292

Miller, P Elliott; Brown, Lorrel; Khandheria, Paras; Resar, Jon R

2014-08-01

307

Who are the homeless?  

PubMed

To describe the demographic, social and medical morbidity and usage of health services of the population of single homeless individuals in Sheffield, a census was carried out over a 12-hour period at sites which homeless people frequent, as identified by those who work with the homeless. These sites included Salvation Army hostels, reception centres, probation day centres, voluntary organisation hostels, and cheap bed and breakfast accommodation. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 340 single homeless individuals were studied, constituting 80-90% of the single homeless population of Sheffield, as estimated by field workers. The population was younger than those of earlier studies and contained a higher proportion of females (14%). One-fifth of the population had been homeless for less than six months, and 60% had been at their present lodging for less than six months. The population has a higher proportion of both ex-prisoners (49%) and ex-inmates of psychiatric hospitals (36%). Over a quarter admit to a history of alcoholism, and 9% to a history of drug abuse; 65% of the population are registered locally with a GP, and 53% of the population see their GP. Those who are more likely to use an Accident and Emergency Department are less socially integrated and more likely to be alcoholic. This study of the single homeless highlights a need for social change to reduce poverty, provide cheap available housing and provide support for disadvantaged groups. PMID:8202580

Shanks, N J; George, S L; Westlake, L; al-Kalai, D

1994-01-01

308

Supporting Homeless Youth during the Transition to Adulthood: Housing-Based Independent Living Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many young people depend on parental financial and emotional support well past the age of 18, those who are homeless must make the transition to adulthood without that support. This article discusses the needs of homeless youth as they transition to adulthood. It then describes three housing-based independent living programs designed to…

Dworsky, Amy

2010-01-01

309

Pathways In and Out of Substance Use among Homeless-Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although high rates of alcohol and drug use have been found among homeless young people, less is known about who is responsible for their initiation, the reasons for their continued use, and why some individuals eventually transition out of using whereas others do not. Based on qualitative interviews with 40 homeless individuals 19 to 21 years of…

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Katherine A.

2006-01-01

310

A Home Away: Meeting the Needs of Infants, Toddlers, and Families Experiencing Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Families are one of the fastest-growing groups affected by homelessness in the U.S. Very young children are profoundly affected by the loss of a consistent living situation, most especially in the first 3 years when routine and familiarity confer a sense of safety and security. The stress of homelessness--and the multiple traumas that frequently…

Parlakian, Rebecca

2010-01-01

311

Autonomy and susceptibility to HIV\\/AIDS among young women living in a slum in Belo Horizonte, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Brazil in the last decade there has been an increase in the susceptibility of young women to HIV. This study explored the link between autonomy, or control over major domains of economic, social and sexual life, and susceptibility to HIV infection among poor young women living in an urban slum area of Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was carried out

Alessandra Sampaio Chacham; M. B. Maia; M. Greco; A. P. Silva; D. B. Greco

2007-01-01

312

Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Improving the reproductive health of young women in developing countries requires access to safe and effective methods of fertility control, but most rely on traditional rather than modern contraceptives such as condoms or oral\\/injectable hormonal methods. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to examine the limits to modern contraceptive use identified by young women in developing countries.

Lisa M Williamson; Alison Parkes; Daniel Wight; Mark Petticrew; Graham J Hart

2009-01-01

313

Changes in Total Body Water and Body Fat in Young Women in the Course of Menstrual Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the changes in total body water and body fat in young women in during the course of the menstrual cycle. We followed 40 young women with an average age of 21.52 years, and took bioelectrical impedance measurements during two menstrual cycles. The measurements were taken in three phases of the menstrual cycle. We found that body

Tatjana Tomazo-Ravnik; Vida Jakopi?

2006-01-01

314

Young Women’s Social and Occupational Development and Mental Health in the Aftermath of Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined social role functioning and depressive symptoms of young adults who were abused as children in data from a longitudinal\\u000a community sample. Sexually abused women and men were more depressed during their senior year of high school, and this difference\\u000a was more pronounced 2 years later. We then examined a mediational model to determine whether social functioning explained\\u000a the course

Elizabeth A. Schilling; Robert H. Aseltine Jr; Susan Gore

2007-01-01

315

Ethnic Differences in the Effects of Spiritual Well-Being on Long-Term Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes Within a Sample of Homeless Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines ethnicity as a moderator variable between spiritual well-being (SWB) and psychological and behavioral outcomes. Participants included in this analysis were 88 African American (46.6%) and 101 non-African American (total N = 189) homeless mothers. Through structured interviews conducted at 3-month intervals over a period of 15 months, data were collected on spiritual well-being, mental health, trauma

Amber N. Douglas; Sherlyn Jimenez; Hsiu-Ju Lin; Linda K. Frisman

2008-01-01

316

Interactions between risky decisions, impulsiveness and smoking in young tattooed women  

PubMed Central

Background According to previous studies, one of the common problems of everyday life of persons with tattoos is risky behavior. However, direct examination of the decision making process, as well as factors which determine women’s risk-taking decisions to get tattoos, have not been conducted. This study investigates whether risk taking decision-making is associated with the self-assessment impulsiveness in tattooed women. Methods Young women (aged 18–35 years) with (N?=?60) and without (N?=?60) tattoos, performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), as a measure of decision-making processes, as well as completing the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Results Tattooed women showed significantly higher scores in the BIS-11 and preference for disadvantageous decks on the IGT compared to non-tattooed women. There was no significant correlation between risky decision-making in the IGT and BIS-11 impulsivity measures. A significantly higher rate of smoking was observed in the tattooed women. However, the analysis did not reveal a group effect after adjustment for smoking in the IGT and the BIS-11 measures. Conclusions The present study was specifically designed to resolve questions regarding associations between impulsiveness and risky decision-making in tattooed women. It shows that in tattooed women, risky decisions are not a direct result of their self-reported impulsiveness. Smoking does not explain the psychometric differences between tattooed women and controls.

2013-01-01

317

Correlates of obesity in young black and white women: the CARDIA Study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Although differences in obesity between Blacks and Whites are well documented in adult women, less information is available on potential correlates of these differences, especially in young adults. METHODS. The association between behavioral and demographic factors and body size was assessed in 2801 Black and White women aged 18 to 30 years. RESULTS. Black women had significantly higher age-adjusted mean body mass index and subscapular skinfold thickness than did White women. Obesity had different associations with age and education across racial groups. A positive relationship between age and obesity was seen in Black women but not in White women, whereas a negative association between education and body size was noted only in White women. Potential contributing factors to the increased prevalence of obesity in Black women include a more sedentary lifestyle, higher energy intake, earlier menarche, and earlier age at first childbirth. CONCLUSIONS. The difference in obesity across race could not be explained completely by these factors, since within virtually all strata, Black women had higher body mass indexes. Further investigation is needed to develop interventional strategies to prevent or reduce excess levels of obesity in Black women.

Burke, G L; Savage, P J; Manolio, T A; Sprafka, J M; Wagenknecht, L E; Sidney, S; Perkins, L L; Liu, K; Jacobs, D R

1992-01-01

318

Bringing Young Minority Women to the Threshold of Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project was designed to encourage ninth and tenth grade minority women to develop scientific interests through a series of Saturday seminars and a 10-day summer residential program. Pedagogical and environmental keys to project success included cooperative learning models, computer skills, research skills, communication skills, networking,…

Heller, Rachelle S.; Martin, C. Dianne

1992-01-01

319

Women and men authors' portrayal of curiosity in young children's literature.  

PubMed

45 women and 20 men authors' portrayal of curiosity in young children's literature (116 instances) was studied using the same stories examined in an earlier analysis. Chi-squared analyses showed no significant difference between the two groups of authors in how they portrayed curiosity. PMID:1565730

Holmes, C B; Holmes, D A

1992-02-01

320

Early Pubertal Timing and the Union Formation Behaviors of Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether the transition into adolescence, proxied by pubertal timing, shaped the transition into adulthood, proxied by union formation behaviors, among contemporary American women. In a sample drawn from Add Health (n = 7,523), early maturing girls reported an accelerated transition to marriage and cohabitation in young

Cavanagh, Shannon E.

2011-01-01

321

Home Journeys: Im/mobilities in Young Refugee and Asylum-Seeking Women's Negotiations of Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research with refugees and asylum seekers tends to be divided into research with adults or research with children under the age of 18. This is despite relational approaches to studying age that contest such dichotomous and fixed understandings of "life-stages". This article seeks to provide an insight into the experiences of young women who in…

Sirriyeh, Ala

2010-01-01

322

Uneasy Hybrids: Psychosocial Aspects of Becoming Educationally Successful for Working-Class Young Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on a longitudinal study of middle class and working class girls growing up to examine those few working class girls who managed to get to the university and face the prospect of a professional career. Explores the complexities of the losses and gains involved in the educational success and upward mobility for working-class young women and…

Lucey, Helen; Melody, June; Walkerdine, Valerie

2003-01-01

323

Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

2003-01-01

324

Being Seen and Heard: Listening to Young Women in Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed young women in an alternative school regarding their disconnection from high school and reconnection in the alternative program. Students noted the importance of not focusing fixed notions of what at-risk students needed but instead emphasizing the complicated sense of students' identities to better understand the schooling experiences…

Loutzenheiser, Lisa W.

2002-01-01

325

"Two's up and Poncing Fags": Young Women's Smoking Practices, Reciprocity and Friendship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small-scale doctoral research…

Cullen, Fin

2010-01-01

326

Genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with vulvar and vestibular papillomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible involvement of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in the development of vulvar and vestibular papillomatosis was investigated by using PCR to determine whether HPV DNA was present in lesions. Fourteen of 272 (5.1 %) young women studied were found on gross and histological examination to have vulvar or vestibular papillomatosis. HPV DNA sequences were detected in cervicovaginal lavage specimens of 2

C. C. Pao; J. J. Hor; Y. L. Fu

1994-01-01

327

Health inequalities in early adulthood: A comparison of young men and women in Britain and Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have recently reported that social class differences in ill-health during adolescence are almost non-existent or invisible. The aims of this comparative study of two different welfare states are first, to compare whether the relationship between social class and health is similar among young men and women at different age groups in these two welfare states; second, to examine

Ossi Rahkonen; Sara Arber; Eero Lahelma

1995-01-01

328

Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

2011-01-01

329

Treatment helps young women preserve their fertility during breast cancer chemotherapy  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago are from the Prevention of Early Menopause Study (POEMS), a clinical trial sponsored by NCI.

330

Why do young women smoke? II. Role of traumatic life experience, psychological characteristics and serotonergic genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking is a complex behavioral phenotype to which environmental, psychological and genetic factors contribute. The purpose of this study was to investigate these multifactorial effects with a specific focus on young women and on genes that encode serotonin (5-HT) receptors and the 5-HT transporter. A case–control sample of female Israeli college students provided comprehensive background data and details of

E Lerer; K Kanyas; O Karni; R P Ebstein; B Lerer

2006-01-01

331

Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Osteoporosis Prevention Intervention in Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred…

Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.

2014-01-01

332

Serum relaxin levels in young athletic men are comparable with those in women.  

PubMed

Relaxin was originally described as a reproductive hormone that mediated joint laxity in pregnant women and has been minimally studied in men. The purpose of this descriptive laboratory and clinical study was to evaluate serum relaxin in a young, primarily male population and compare levels between the sexes. In addition, the authors evaluated the relationship between relaxin and generalized laxity. PMID:23379736

Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Cameron, Kenneth L; Clifton, Kari B; Owens, Brett D

2013-02-01

333

Relationships and Betrayal among Young Women: Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescent Dating Abuse  

PubMed Central

AIMS Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this paper presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. BACKGROUND Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists within nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. DATA SOURCES A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. DISCUSSION Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Gender, relationship, and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. CONCLUSION Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women.

Burton, Candace W.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H.; Rehm, Roberta S.; Humphreys, Janice C.

2010-01-01

334

Melanoma Incidence Among Young Women in the U.S. Is Rising  

Cancer.gov

The annual incidence of invasive cutaneous melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, increased among young Caucasian women in the U.S. by 50 percent between 1980 and 2004, according to an article published online July 10, 2008, by the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

335

Designing from Their Own Social Worlds: The Digital Story of Three African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I examine the literacy work of three African American young women (through data drawn from a larger qualitative study), particularly their ways of knowing, such as double consciousness (Du Bois, 1989), and the multiple subject positions they occupy as they write themselves into a digitally created story. My analysis is guided by the…

Hall, Ted

2011-01-01

336

Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

2013-01-01

337

Early Pubertal Timing and the Union Formation Behaviors of Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the transition into adolescence, proxied by pubertal timing, shaped the transition into adulthood, proxied by union formation behaviors, among contemporary American women. In a sample drawn from Add Health (n = 7,523), early maturing girls reported an accelerated transition to marriage and cohabitation in young adulthood, net of family structure history, academic achievement in high school,

Shannon E. Cavanagh

2011-01-01

338

Changes in Young Women's Awareness, Attitudes, and Perceived Barriers to Using Emergency Contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn a 1996 survey, most young women ages 13–20 years from an urban, hospital-based clinic and a drug treatment center had inadequate awareness of emergency contraception (EC), and perceived several barriers to its use. Since that time, the FDA has approved two products for EC, media coverage has increased, and physicians have provided more counseling about EC.

Allison M. Aiken; Melanie A. Gold; Andrew M. Parker

2005-01-01

339

Material Realities in the Basic Writing Classroom: Intersections of Discovery for Young Women Reading "Persepolis 2"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay focuses on how young women students in a first-year, first-quarter basic reading and writing course wrote about their connections to the process of identity development as portrayed in the graphic novel "Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return" by Marjane Satrapi. While the circumstances of becoming a student in a required…

Bernstein, Susan Naomi

2008-01-01

340

Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

2007-01-01

341

"Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

2006-01-01

342

She makes love just like a woman: Romantic love narratives and young women in state care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article has been designed to stimulate discussion about romantic love. Despite appearing to be a rather peculiar topic for social workers to contemplate, the author contends that romantic love may be an important site for social work intervention, particularly when working with young women residing within the substitute care system. Findings generated from a) unstructured interviews conducted with five

Heather Fraser

1999-01-01

343

Final height in young women with Turner syndrome after GH therapy: an open controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

GH therapy has been applied to patients with Turner syndrome for over a decade, but small sample size, delayed initiation of therapy into adolescent age and comparison with historical control subjects limit the usefulness of these studies for appraisal of the effect of GH on final adult height. We report 49 young women with Turner syndrome who completed a clinical

Ze' ev Hochberg; Zvi Zadik

1999-01-01

344

"Too Pretty to Do Math!" Young Women in Movement and Pedagogical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article points out some pedagogical challenges in supporting girls and young women in their emancipatory movements today. It spotlights a specific section in gender pedagogy by focusing on the aim of self-determination (rather than achievement) in the field of social-pedagogy and it refers to the concept of "girls work" in Germany. A critical…

Graff, Ulrike

2013-01-01

345

Urban Young Women' sE xperiences of Discrimination and Community Violence and Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the interrelationships between urban young adult women's experiences of discrimination and community violence and their reports of involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV). We explore whether such experiences are independent risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration, even when accounting for aggressive behaviors and related risk taking, including drinking and sexual initiation, during early adolescence. We use

Ann Stueve; Lydia O'Donnell

346

75 FR 61860 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...readjustment counseling, women Veterans' legislative issues, special health initiatives, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. Interested persons may attend, appear before, or file...

2010-10-06

347

Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Young Women: A Matched Comparison--Do Outcomes Justify Treatment Intensity?  

PubMed Central

Background. The incidence of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) in young women is increasing with uncertain outcomes compared to traditional patients. Published outcomes data are at odds in this cohort of young women. Methods. Retrospective analysis comparing demographic, clinicopathologic, and outcomes data of women OTSCC patients younger than 45 years old matched 1?:?2 by stage with men both younger and older than 45 and women older than 45. Results. No disease-free or overall survival differences were found between cohorts. Young women were significantly more likely to receive radiation therapy, particularly in stage I disease, even when controlling for common pathologic indications. Conclusions. OTSCC in young women was not associated with worse outcomes compared to a matched cohort of other patients. Increased frequency of radiation treatment for this cohort may not be justified.

Goepfert, Ryan P.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Wang, Steven J.

2014-01-01

348

Veterans and Homelessness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have brought renewed attention to the needs of veterans, including the needs of homeless veterans. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) estimates that it has served approximately 300 returning veterans in i...

L. Perl

2007-01-01

349

Elevated body mass index (BMI) does not adversely affect in vitro fertilization outcome in young women  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if elevated body mass index in young women with normal ovarian reserve was associated with poorer ovarian response, difficulty at embryo transfer, and lower clinical pregnancy rates. Materials and methods Retrospective study of 417 first, fresh in vitro fertilization cycles performed between October 2004 and December 2006. All women were under the age of 35 and had normal cycle day 3 follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. Subjects were divided into groups by BMI: <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, ?30. Results Cancellation rates, peak estradiol levels, and mean number of oocytes retrieved were similar in all groups. There was a trend toward increasing difficulty in visualizing the air bubble at time of embryo transfer and lower implantation rates at higher body mass indices. Clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates were similar among groups. Conclusion Obesity in young women does not adversely affect clinical pregnancy rates in patients treated with in vitro fertilization.

Ryan, Sarah; Luna, Martha; Copperman, Alan B.

2008-01-01

350

Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.  

PubMed

Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits. PMID:21153441

Ferguson, Christopher J

2011-09-01

351

Permanent homelessness in America?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to determine the approximate number of homeless persons in the U.S., the rate of change in the number, and whether or not the problem is likely to be permanent or transitory. It makes particular use of a new 1985 survey of over 500 homeless people in New York City. It finds that:(1)the much-maligned 1984 study by the

Richard B. Freeman; Brian Hall

1987-01-01

352

Suffering in silence: consequences of sexual violence within marriage among young women in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the grave consequences of sexual violence, and it's persistence both within and outside marriages, this subject has received relatively little attention from researchers, policy makers, and programme managers in Nepal. This paper explores the definition of sexual violence and its various forms and consequences as reported by young married women in Nepal. In addition, it describes the coping mechanisms used by young married women to avoid sexual violence perpetrated against them by their husbands. Methods This paper analyzes data collected during the qualitative study on "Sexual violence among young couples in Nepal", conducted amongst two major ethnic groups - Brahmin/Chhetri and Tharu - between 2006 and 2007. The data is comprised of 39 free-lists and 15 in-depth case histories with married women aged 15-24 years. The average rank and Smith's Salience were calculated from the free-listing data. The thematic analysis approach was used for the analysis of information from the case histories. Results Approximately three-quarters (74%) of the young women mentioned 'sex against one's wishes' as sexual violence within marriage (SVWM). Sixty-two percent of respondents described 'forced sex during illness' and 'forced sex after consumption of alcohol' as SVWM. About half of young women (48.7%) who participated in the free-listing exercise reported having experienced SVWM. The types of SVWM ranged from unwanted sexual touch to forced sex. Backache, headache, lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and thoughts of suicide were the most commonly reported negative physical and psychological health consequences of SVWM. Women reported various coping strategies including 'trying to convince husbands', 'sleeping in a separate room', 'visiting maternal home', 'waking up the children', and 'using pretexts such as being ill or menstruating', to avoid SVWM. However, in most cases, women reported that these coping strategies were unsuccessful. Almost all women experiencing SVWM were socially isolated and did not turn to institutions, relatives or friends for advice and support. Conclusions Sexual violence within marriage is common in Nepal. Findings provide circumstantial evidence of links between sexual violence and negative general and reproductive health outcomes for women. Various actions are required to prevent SVWM and provide immediate support to the victims.

2011-01-01

353

A practice improvement intervention increases chlamydia screening among young women at a women's health practice.  

PubMed

Annual chlamydia trachomatis screening of all sexually active women younger than age 26 is a recommended standard practice. Yet most women are not being tested. The author describes a successful practice change intervention to increase routine chlamydia screening rates in a women's health primary care setting. Screening rates increased from 53.4% to 76.1% following the intervention. Results suggest a combination of education, provider feedback, and clinic prompts can influence chlamydia screening behavior among providers. PMID:23181977

Kettinger, Lindsey Diane

2013-01-01

354

Estrogen, medroxyprogesterone acetate, endothelial function, and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in young women  

PubMed Central

Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is widely known for its use in combination hormone therapy for postmenopausal women. However, MPA is also commonly used in young women for contraception and treatment of a number of gynecological conditions. Despite its widespread use, the cardiovascular effects of MPA in young women are unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of MPA when used in combination with estradiol on markers of cardiovascular risk in young women. We suppressed endogenous estrogens and progesterone in 10 premenopausal women using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHa) for 10 days. On day 4 of GnRHa subjects received 0.1 mg of estradiol (GnRHa+E2), and on day 7 5 mg of MPA was added (GnRHa+E2+MPA). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation and endothelium-independent vasodilation of the brachial artery, lipids, homocysteine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and endothelin-1 were assessed during treatment with GnRHa, GnRHa+E2, and GnRHa+E2+MPA. Four additional subjects were tested to validate the efficacy of the GnRHa model and confirm the findings. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was greater during GnRHa+E2 than during GnRHa or GnRHa+E2+MPA (P = 0.006). Endothelin-1 was lower during GnRHa+E2 than GnRHa alone (P = 0.039). Endothelin-1 increased with the addition of MPA and was not significantly different from GnRHa alone. There were no differences in the other markers of cardiovascular risk between hormone treatment days. These data suggest that acute MPA administration negates the beneficial effects of estradiol on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young women. In addition, these data suggest that estradiol decreases endothelin-1 concentrations and the addition of MPA may counteract the effect of estradiol on endothelin-1.

Meendering, Jessica R.; Torgrimson, Britta N.; Miller, Nicole P.; Kaplan, Paul F.; Minson, Christopher T.

2010-01-01

355

Exploring the experiences of violence among individuals who are homeless using a consumer-led approach.  

PubMed

Homelessness increases vulnerability to violence victimization; however, the precise factors associated with victimization and injury are not clearly understood. Thus, this study explores the prevalence of and characteristics associated with violence victimization among homeless individuals by surveying approximately 500 individuals experiencing homelessness in 5 cities across the United States. Our findings reveal that nearly one-half of our sample reported experiencing violence and that prolonged duration of homelessness (greater than 2 years) and being older increased the risk of experiencing a violent attack. In addition, increased length of homelessness and female gender predicted experiencing rape. Women were also significantly more likely to know one's perpetrator and experience continued suffering after a violent attack. We conclude that certain subpopulations within the homeless population are at an increased risk for victimization and, subsequently, require added protective services; implications for health care and policy recommendations are also discussed. PMID:24672998

Meinbresse, Molly; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Grassette, Amy; Benson, Joseph; Hamilton, Reginald; Malott, Marianne; Jenkins, Darlene

2014-01-01

356

Purposeful Exercise and Lifestyle Physical Activity in the Lives of Young Adult Women: Findings from a Diary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to know how physical activity is incorporated in women's lives to assess ways they can feasibly attain and maintain lifelong healthy practices. This study aimed to determine whether patterns of activity differed among young women whose physical activity met nationally recommended levels from those who did not. The sample was 42 women (aged 18–30 years) who had

Maureen ODougherty; Andrea Arikawa; Beth C. Kaufman; Mindy S. Kurzer; Kathryn H. Schmitz

2010-01-01

357

A Comparison of Homeless and Non-Homeless Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to extend what is currently understood regarding attitudes toward the homeless population. The study focused on how homeless and nonhomeless adolescents attribute the causes of homelessness. Grounded in attribution theory, the study hypothesized that nonhomeless adolescents would ascribe causality to dispositional or…

LeClair, Mary C.; Hansen, James C.

358

Religiosity, denomination, and mental health among young men and women.  

PubMed

The relations among religiosity, denomination, and mental health were studied. Comparisons of groups high, medium, and low in religiosity were made possible by extracting data from a large data set for three denominational groups and gender in a three-way analysis of variance design. There were significant main effects, with higher scores on three mental health measures for high religious groups, Mormons, and men. There were interactions resulting from highly religious Mormon women, but not highly religious Mormon men scoring higher. The three scores were self-esteem, emotional maturity, and nondepression. PMID:8337319

Jensen, L C; Jensen, J; Wiederhold, T

1993-06-01

359

Association between adolescent marriage and marital violence among young adult women in India  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether a history of adolescent marriage (<18 years) places women in young adulthood in India at increased risk of physical or sexual marital violence. Methods Cross-sectional analysis was performed on data from a nationally representative household study of 124 385 Indian women aged 15–49 years collected in 2005–2006. The analyses were restricted to married women aged 20–24 years who participated in the marital violence (MV) survey module (n=10 514). Simple regression models and models adjusted for participant demographics were constructed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between adolescent marriage and MV. Results Over half (58%) of the participants were married before 18 years of age; 35% of the women had experienced physical or sexual violence in their marriage; and 27% reported such abuse in the last year. Adjusted regression analyses revealed that women married as minors were significantly more likely than those married as adults to report ever experiencing MV (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.61–1.95) and in the last 12 months (adjusted OR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.36–1.67). Conclusions Women who were married as adolescents remain at increased risk of MV into young adulthood.

Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Lawrence, Danielle; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G.

2010-01-01

360

Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.  

PubMed

African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

2013-12-01

361

Young women's perceived health and lifetime sexual experience: Results from The National Survey of Family Growth  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sexuality is a component of health and wellbeing for all women, including adolescents. Yet relationships between young women’s health perceptions and sexual behavior are unclear. Aim We examined associations between perceived health and lifetime sexual experiences among young U.S. women. Methods We used data from 4,413 young women ages 15–24 years in the National Survey of Family Growth, 2002–2008. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistics estimated relationships between categories of perceived health and types of lifetime sexual experience. Main outcome measures A self-rated health Likert item and sexual history questions were administered with a computer-assisted survey instrument. Results Young women reported excellent (30%), very good (41%), good (23%) and fair-poor (6%) health. Sexual experiences included vaginal (64%), oral (64%) and anal (20%) sex. Negative experiences included involuntary sex (11%) and STI history (8%). In multivariate logistic regression models, lower perceived health (“good” rather than “excellent”) was positively associated with vaginal (OR 1.5, CI 1.1–2.1, p=0.02), oral (OR 1.5, CI 1.1–2.1, p=0.005) and anal (OR 1.4, CI 1.0–2.0, p=0.03) sex. In models stratified by age, point estimates for vaginal (OR 1.8, CI 1.2–2.6, p=0.002) and oral (OR 1.9, CI 1.4–2.6, p<0.001) sex were higher among adolescents ages 15–19 years but associations were insignificant among young adults ages 20–24 years. When controlling for negative sexual experiences, point estimates were stable in models including STI history but statistically insignificant when including involuntary sexual experience. Other characteristics associated with sexual experiences varied by type of experience and included age, race/ethnicity, employment situation, poverty level, insurance status, childhood family situation, religious service participation, cohabitation/marital experience and body mass index. Conclusions Further investigation is warranted to disentangle potentially negative relationships between perceived health (as well as response bias and more objective health outcomes), sociodemographic factors and diverse sexual experiences among young women in the United States.

Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James

2012-01-01

362

Housing the Homeless, July 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper estimates the number, location, and characteristics of the homeless in the United States and analyzes their reactions to current shelters and Government programs. Some of the homeless are elderly, physically disabled, or alcoholic, while many a...

P. Burke

1984-01-01

363

National Coalition for Homeless Veterans  

MedlinePLUS

1 2 3 4 NCHV will end homelessness among veterans by shaping public policy, promoting collaboration, and building the capacity of service providers. CFC #50917 You have helped reduce veteran homelessness ...

364

Examining the Determinants of Sexual Violence Among Young, Married Women in Southern India  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of sexual violence is increasingly being studied in India. Yet the determinants of sexual violence, irrespective of physical violence, remain largely unexplored. Here the authors identify the determinants of sexual violence, and additionally, explore how the presence of physical violence modifies these determinants. A cross-sectional analysis is conducted using baseline data from a longitudinal study involving young married women attending reproductive health clinics in Southern India. A multivariable logistic regression analysis is conducted to first identify determinants of sexual violence and then repeated after stratifying elements based on presence or absence of physical violence identified from participants’ reports. 36% and 50% of the participants report experiencing sexual and physical violence, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, women’s partners’ characteristics are found most significantly associated with their odds of experiencing sexual violence. These characteristics include husbands’ primary education, employment as drivers, alcohol consumption, and having multiple sex partners. Women’s contribution to household income also increases their odds of experiencing sexual violence by almost twofold; however, if they are solely responsible for “all” household income, the relationship is found to be protective. Physical violence modifies the determinants of sexual violence, and among women not experiencing physical violence, husbands’ primary education and employment as drivers increase women’s odds of experiencing sexual violence nearly threefold, and women who contribute “all” the household income (n = 62) do not experience sexual violence. These relationships are not significant among women experiencing physical violence. Study findings improve the understanding of the determinants of sexual violence. Future research is needed to examine the risk factors for different types of GBV independently and to tease apart the differences in risk factors depending on women’s experiences. The significance of male partners’ characteristics warrants in-depth research, and in order to promote gender-equitable norms, future interventions need to focus on male behaviors and men’s day-to-day survival challenges, all of which likely influence conflicts in marital relationships.

Chibber, Karuna S.; Krupp, Karl; Padian, Nancy; Madhivanan, Purnima

2013-01-01

365

Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation  

PubMed Central

Background Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their relationships, and the implications of these negotiations for the HIV epidemic. Method An ethnographic research design was used, with information collected primarily using participant observation and in-depth interviews in a rural community in North Western Tanzania. The qualitative approach was complemented by an innovative assisted self-completion questionnaire. Findings Transactional sex underlay most non-marital relationships and was not, per se, perceived as immoral. However, women's motivations varied, for instance: escaping intense poverty, seeking beauty products or accumulating business capital. There was also strong pressure from peers to engage in transactional sex, in particular to consume like others and avoid ridicule for inadequate remuneration. Macro-level factors shaping transactional sex (e.g. economic, kinship and normative factors) overwhelmingly benefited men, but at a micro-level there were different dimensions of power, stemming from individual attributes and immediate circumstances, some of which benefited women. Young women actively used their sexuality as an economic resource, often entering into relationships primarily for economic gain. Conclusion Transactional sex is likely to increase the risk of HIV by providing a dynamic for partner change, making more affluent, higher risk men more desirable, and creating further barriers to condom use. Behavioural interventions should directly address how embedded transactional sex is in sexual culture.

2010-01-01

366

Women’s vulnerability to sexual assault from adolescence to young adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To study the vulnerability to sexual assault among undergraduate women.Methods: The respondents were demographically representative of undergraduate women in state-supported universities in the United States. Participants (N = 1569) were surveyed using the Sexual Experiences Survey at the beginning and end of their 1st year and at the end of each of the next 3 years of their undergraduate

John A Humphrey; Jacquelyn W White

2000-01-01

367

Rapid endocrine responses of young men to social interactions with young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-established that males of many nonhuman vertebrate species exhibit hormonal reactions to stimuli from potential mates. The present studies were designed to test replication of preliminary findings suggesting that human males may exhibit such reactions as well. In Experiment 1, young men (n=115) provided saliva samples before and after either conversing with a woman confederate or sitting alone

James R. Roney; Aaron W. Lukaszewski; Zachary L. Simmons

2007-01-01

368

Acculturation and metabolic syndrome risk factors in young Mexican and Mexican-American women.  

PubMed

Little is known about effects of acculturation on disease risk in young Mexican and Mexican-American women living in a border community. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between acculturation and features of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mexican and Mexican-American women (n = 60) living in the largest US-Mexico border community. Acculturation was measured by the short acculturation scale for Hispanics and birthplace. Body composition was measured by Bod Pod and daily physical activity was measured by questionnaire and accelerometer. Increased acculturation was related to individual features of MetS and increased risk of MetS. These relationships were mediated by fat mass rather than inactivity. Fat mass mediates the relationships between acculturation and individual features of MetS in young Mexican and Mexican-American women. These findings suggest that fat mass, rather than inactivity, is an important contributor to disease risk in young Mexican and Mexican-American women living in a large US/Mexico border community. PMID:19911277

Vella, Chantal A; Ontiveros, Diana; Zubia, Raul Y; Bader, Julia O

2011-02-01

369

No Homeless Child Left behind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is difficult to determine the precise number of homeless children, the National Coalition for the Homeless reports that there are more than 1.3 million children lacking a permanent residence on any given night. Further, 39 percent of the homeless population was comprised of children under the age of 18 in July 2009, the most recent…

Saxberg, David

2011-01-01

370

Very young adolescent women in Georgia: has abortion or contraception lowered their fertility?  

PubMed Central

Despite a state law enacted in 1972 which allowed minors to obtain contraceptive services without parental consent, births to very young women in Georgia (age 14 and less) have risen in recent years. Beginning in 1974, however, this trend has reversed. Increased access to induced abortion following the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision appears to have been responsible for the decline. Supporting this assertion are: 1) the temporal relationship between increased access to abortion and the decline in births, 2) the geographic evidence that the decline in births occurred first in Atlanta where abortion utilization is the highest and then followed in areas with somewhat more limited utilization, and 3) a similar observation that the decline occurred earlier and more markedly among young white teenagers whose abortion utilization is higher. Although abortion appears to have had the most visible impact on births, most people would probably agree that efforts toward providing contraception to these young women remain worth the challenge. The ratio of young teenegers accepting contraceptives to young teenegers getting pregnant is suggested as a useful intermediator of the success of family planning programs.

Shelton, J D

1977-01-01

371

The impact of obesity in the kinematic parameters of gait in young women  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the population, particularly in women. Obesity has an impact on the musculoskeletal system, leading to knee and ankle overexertion, difficulty with balance, and functional disability. The aim of this study was to identify changes in kinematic parameters of gait in obese young women. Methods A case-control study with 24 obese women (mean age 35.20 ± 9.9 years and mean body mass index of 31.85 ± 2.94 kg/m2) and 24 eutrophic women (mean age of 36.33 ± 11.14 and mean body mass index of 21.82 ± 1.58 kg/m2). The gait of women was evaluated by the system Vicon Motus® 9.2. The linear parameters of speed, cadence, right and left step, and stride lengths were studied, as well as the angular parameters of knee and ankle. Results There was a decrease in linear gait parameters (P < 0.001), speed, cadence, right and left step, and stride lengths. In regard to the angular parameters of the knee and ankle, there were also differences between the analyses (P < 0.001). At the knee joint, obese women have delayed onset of the second wave of flexion, exacerbating such movement in order to compensate. In regard to the ankle, both groups showed curves of normal plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, but there was a delay in the path graph in the ankle of obese women indicating a reduced range of motion and possible over-exertion of the pretibial muscles and soleus muscles simultaneously. Conclusion The results of this study revealed that obesity is a factor that negatively influences the kinematic parameters of gait of young women.

da Silva-Hamu, Tania Cristina Dias; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto; Gervasio, Flavia Martins; Ribeiro, Darlan Martins; Christofoletti, Gustavo; de Franca Barros, Jonatas

2013-01-01

372

'She met her (boy)friend online': Negotiating gender identity and sexuality among young Thai women in online space.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the experiences of women 15-24 years old living in one suburban district in Bangkok. Its objectives are to analyse processes of building and negotiating social identity and femininity in online spaces by young women; the ways in which young women express their sexuality using online technologies; connections between the 'online' and 'offline' worlds in terms of emotions as well as social and sexual networks; and traditional values regarding female sexuality reproduced through online media and how young women negotiate and resist these. Content and narrative analyses were conducted using qualitative data from 9 focus-group discussions and 14 narrative interviews. Findings indicated that the online media serve as tools that help young women develop and express their gender identities. Mobile phones and the Internet facilitate communication in order to express love, responsibility, intimacy and sexual desires. Discourse on women's chastity, which puts pressure on women to maintain their virginity, still influences online and mobile contents, messages and images among young women. However, women also exerted agency in negotiating and expressing their sexuality, both online and offline. PMID:23885969

Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Ojanen, Timo T; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Iamsilpa, Rachawadee; Topananan, Soifa; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas E

2013-01-01

373

Priority: Home! A true priority? An analysis of the Federal Plan to Break the Cycle of Homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homelessness pervades every fabric of American society: it has plagued individuals and families, young and old, males and\\u000a females. This paper analyzes and discusses the feasibility of a current proposal, Priority: Home? The Federal Plan to Break\\u000a the Cycle of Homelessness, and the intended effects of its policies pertaining to the homeless. Specifically, the plan outlines\\u000a the need for a

Shannon E. Couzens

1997-01-01

374

Is Mastectomy Superior to Breast-Conserving Treatment for Young Women?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine whether modified radical mastectomy (MRM) improves outcomes compared with breast-conserving treatment (BCT) in young women. Methods and Materials: Women aged 20-49 years, diagnosed with early breast cancer between 1989 and 1998, were identified. Management with BCT or MRM was compared for local (L), locoregional (LR), and distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) by age group (20-39 years, 40-49 years). The analysis was repeated for patients considered 'ideal' candidates for BCT: tumor size {<=}2 cm, pathologically negative axillary nodes, negative margins, and no reported ductal carcinoma in situ. Results: A total of 1,597 women received BCT, and 801 had MRM. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, the outcomes (L, LR, BCSS) were worse for the younger age group; however, the outcomes were not statistically different by type of local treatment. For women aged 20-39 years considered 'ideal' for BCT, those treated with BCT had slightly lower LRFS compared with those treated with MRM (p = 0.3), but DRFS and BCSS were similar. Conclusions: A difference in LRFS at 10 years potentially favored MRM among women aged 20-39 years considered 'ideal' BCT candidates but was not statistically significant and did not translate into a noticeable difference in DRFS or BCSS. Our data suggest that young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

Coulombe, Genevieve [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada) and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada) and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]. E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca; Speers, Caroline B.A. [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Paltiel, Chuck M.Sc. [Population and Preventive Oncology Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA), Vancouver, BC (Canada); Aquino-Parsons, Christina [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Bernstein, Vanessa [Systemic Therapy Program, BCCA, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Truong, Pauline T. [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Radiation Therapy Program, BCCA, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Keyes, Mira [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Radiation Therapy Program, BCCA, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2007-04-01

375

Strategies and outcomes of HIV status disclosure in HIV-positive young women with abuse histories.  

PubMed

Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualitative interviews with 40 HIV-positive young women with childhood physical and/or sexual abuse were conducted; some women had also experienced adult victimization. Results suggest that HIV-positive women with abuse histories use a host of strategies to deal with disclosure of HIV status, including delaying disclosure, assessing hypothetical responses of partners, and determining appropriate stages in a relationship to disclose. Stigma was an important theme related to disclosure. We discuss how these disclosure processes impact sexual behavior and relationships and discuss intervention opportunities based on our findings. PMID:23596649

Clum, Gretchen A; Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L; Ellen, Jonathan M

2013-03-01

376

Strategies and Outcomes of HIV Status Disclosure in HIV-Positive Young Women with Abuse Histories  

PubMed Central

Abstract Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualitative interviews with 40 HIV-positive young women with childhood physical and/or sexual abuse were conducted; some women had also experienced adult victimization. Results suggest that HIV-positive women with abuse histories use a host of strategies to deal with disclosure of HIV status, including delaying disclosure, assessing hypothetical responses of partners, and determining appropriate stages in a relationship to disclose. Stigma was an important theme related to disclosure. We discuss how these disclosure processes impact sexual behavior and relationships and discuss intervention opportunities based on our findings.

Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

2013-01-01

377

Sleep difficulties and the development of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of young Australian women.  

PubMed

Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that poor sleep may precede depression and anxiety. The current study examined the association between self-reported sleeping difficulties and new onset depression and anxiety in young women. A nationally representative sample of 9,683 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health was analyzed. Women were surveyed in 2000 (aged 22 to 25 years), 2003, 2006, and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between sleeping difficulties in 2000 and new-onset depression (excluding postnatal depression) and anxiety at each subsequent survey. Significant increased risk of new onset depression (odds ratio (OR)?=?2.6 in 2003; OR?=?4.4 in 2006; OR?=?4.4 in 2009) and anxiety (OR?=?2.4 in 2006; OR?=?2.9 in 2009) was found at each follow-up survey in women who reported sleeping difficulties "often" in 2000. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the link between sleep problems and mental health. PMID:24647705

Jackson, Melinda L; Sztendur, Ewa M; Diamond, Neil T; Byles, Julie E; Bruck, Dorothy

2014-06-01

378

Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity Over Time and Across Contexts  

PubMed Central

This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18–30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were interviewed. For the majority of women (n = 24), obligation to the study prevailed as the motivator during the intervention. Some (n = 15) became physically active for their own benefit. Afterward, exercisers and controls said they were physically active to feel better and/or healthy (n = 20), for body image and/or weight loss (n = 20), or both. Women expressed motivations for physical activity in ways that resonated with self-determination theory. Their commentaries expand on theory to include experiencing multiple motivations simultaneously and motivations shifting over time and in differing contexts. Social motivations were compelling, both those associated with societal values (research, health) and cultural trends (body image).

O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

2012-01-01

379

Perpetrators of early physical and sexual abuse among homeless and runaway adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine abuse specific variables among homeless and runaway adolescents and to look at perpetrators of childhood abuse.Method: A total of 372 homeless and runaway adolescents were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers in youth service agencies.Results: Approximately one-half of these young people

Kimberly A Tyler; Ana Mari Cauce

2002-01-01

380

Impact of Nursing Intervention on Decreasing Substances among Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol use, and in particular, binge drinking, and methamphetamine use is pervasive among homeless youth and remains a social pressure among this vulnerable population. However, there is no compelling evidence that specific interventions for reducing drug and alcohol use are effective for homeless youth. Objectives This community-based participatory action pilot study assessed the impact of an intervention study focused on decreasing use of drugs and alcohol among a sample of homeless young adults (N=154) visiting a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The two programs consisted of a HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) program led by nurses and an Art Messaging (AM) program led by artists. Six-month follow-up data were obtained from 100 of these individuals. Results Findings revealed significant reductions in alcohol and marijuana use and binge drinking in both the HHP and AM programs. However, homeless youth in the HHP program reported additional reductions in methamphetamine, cocaine and hallucinogen use at six-month follow-up. Conclusions Reductions in drugs and alcohol are important as these substances are linked to HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and other health risks in homeless youth. Scientific Significance The successful outcomes of the study intervention validate the utility of nurse-led and artistic health promotion strategies to decrease drug and alcohol use and other risky behaviors in homeless youth populations.

Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine; Kennedy, Barbara; Salem, Benissa; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Marfisee, Mary; Getzoff, Daniel; Leake, Barbara

2013-01-01

381

Knowledge, Practices, and Restrictions Related to Menstruation among Young Women from Low Socioeconomic Community in Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4?years and 30–40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24?years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls.

Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

382

Secretion of biliary lipids in young Chilean women with cholesterol gallstones.  

PubMed Central

The early appearance of cholesterol gallstones is very common in Chile. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, the size of the bile acid pool and the secretion of biliary lipids were studied in two groups of young women with normal weights and radiologically functioning gallbladders: nine with cholesterol gallstones and 14 healthy volunteers. The bile acid pool was similar in control and gallstone patients. The secretory rates of bile acids and phospholipids were comparable and significantly correlated in both groups. On the other hand, cholesterol output was higher in gallstone patients. In controls there was a significant correlation between the output of bile acids and cholesterol, but no correlation was found in the gallstone group. This study suggests that cholesterol hypersecretion into the bile is a major factor in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease in young Chilean women with normal weights.

Valdivieso, V; Palma, R; Nervi, F; Covarrubias, C; Severin, C; Antezana, C

1979-01-01

383

Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young\\u000a and middle-aged Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health\\u000a checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and

Xin Ying; Zhen-ya Song; Chang-jun Zhao; Yan Jiang

2010-01-01

384

A Hand Up Is a Hands-Down Must for Young Women Entering the Field of Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Hand Up, Women Mentoring Women in Science is a 500-plus page compendium with nearly 60 contributors. The book is essential reading for every young woman considering a career in the sciences as well as for anyone established in her or his career who wants to reach out to assist the next generation of female scientists. Its examples and practical suggestions will help women form supportive communities with their counterparts and overcome many of the barriers placed in their paths toward professional growth. In short, the book offers assistance to young women entering careers in the science and technology fields and sustenance for those who support them.

Dewall, Marily

2006-12-01

385

Mothering and self-othering: the impact of uncertain reproductive capability in young women after hematological malignancy.  

PubMed

We explored the experiences of uncertain fertility, pregnancy, and motherhood in 12 young women treated for hematological malignancy during their reproductive years. It is demonstrated how, through interpretations of the women's own words, these women lived and coped with a sense of "otherness" in relation to their peers. The concept of otherness is described and discussed in relation to relevant existing literature and it is concluded that, regardless of their cancer history, young women's uncertainty in this context has a broad impact on their psychosocial health and requires sensitive and empathic information, discussion, and support. PMID:23659327

Halliday, Lesley E; Boughton, Maureen A; Kerridge, Ian

2014-01-01

386

Effect of zinc supplementation on inflammatory markers and adipokines in young obese women.  

PubMed

Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state characterized by altered adipokine production and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. The study explored the effect of zinc supplementation on inflammatory markers and adipocyte hormones in young obese women. Twenty five non-obese women and forty obese women (body mass index ?25 kg/m(2)) aged 19-28 years were recruited for this study. Twenty obese women of the study group took 30 mg/day of supplemental zinc as zinc gluconate for 8 weeks and 20 obese women of control group took placebo. Usual dietary zinc intake was estimated from 3-day diet records. Serum zinc and urinary zinc concentration were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin (IL)-6 and adipocyte hormones such as lepin and adiponectin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Inflammatory markers and leptin were significantly higher, but adiponectin was significantly lower in obese women than non-obese women. Zinc supplementation increased serum zinc by 15% and urinary zinc by 56% (P?young adults. PMID:24402636

Kim, Jihye; Ahn, Juhee

2014-02-01

387

Mood Changes in Response to Psychosocial Stress in Healthy Young Women: Effects of Pretreatment With Cortisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of cortisol on human mood during stress situations are still incompletely understood, although this topic has important clinical implications. In this experiment, the mood of 44 healthy young women (all oral contraceptive users) was examined. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled time series paradigm was used. Subjects were treated with either 30-mg cortisol or placebo orally. Forty-five minutes later, subjects attended

Serkan Het; Oliver T. Wolf

2007-01-01

388

Differentiated perceptions of exertion and energy cost of young women while carrying loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Differentiated local ratings of perceived exertion from the legs and central ratings from the chest, and oxygen consumption, were determined during load carriage in seven young women. Subjects walked for 6 min at 3.22, 4.83, 6.44, or 8.05 km·h–1 carrying (1) no load, (2) a load equal to 7.5% of body weight (mean: 4.66 kg) or (3) a load equal

Robert J. Robertson; Carl J. Caspersen; Thomas G. Allison; Gary S. Skrinar; R. Anne Abbott; Kenneth F. Metz

1982-01-01

389

Deadly in pink: the impact of cigarette packaging among young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study sought to examine the impact of cigarette packaging on young women, including the impact of ‘plain’ packaging.MethodsParticipants were randomised to view eight cigarette packs designed according to one of four experimental conditions: fully-branded female brands; the same brands without descriptors (eg, ‘slims’); the same brands without brand imagery or descriptors (ie, ‘plain’ packs); and fully branded non-female brands

Juliana Doxey; David Hammond

2011-01-01

390

Bone Mineral Density and Leg Muscle Strength in Young Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) of ethnically diverse populations are usually attributed to anthropometric characteristics, but may also be due to life style or diet. We studied healthy young sedentary women with Asian (ASN, n=40), Hispanic (HIS, n=39), or Caucasian (CAU, n=36) backgrounds. Body composition and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic) or PIXI (Lunar GE)

Michael T. C. Liang; Stanley Bassin; Darren Dutto; William Braun; Nathan Wong; Andria M. Pontello; Dan M. Cooper; Sara B. Arnaud

2007-01-01

391

New treatment option for young women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

A drug used for treating breast cancer, known as exemestane, is more effective than a common breast cancer prevention drug, tamoxifen, in preventing breast cancer recurrence in young women who also receive post-surgical treatment to suppress ovarian function. The combined results of the Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial and Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial were presented at the 2014 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago.

392

Problems of Girls and Young Women with Mental Retardation (Intellectual Disabilities)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues of girls and young women—or even of sex differences in general—within mental retardation are woefully underexplored.\\u000a To this day, we continue to lack even the most basic information about the course, associated features, and links of mental\\u000a retardation to emotional or behavioral problems or other psychiatric diagnoses in girls. In specific areas, researchers and\\u000a practitioners are uncertain whether

Robert M. Hodapp; Elisabeth M. Dykens

393

Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and related compounds: The blood levels of young Japanese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated PCDDs and related compounds in the blood of young Japanese women, approximately 20 years of age, who had not yet had children, and discussed how the TEQ level of PCDDs and related compounds in their blood may affect the next generation. Means of total TEQ levels were 0.063 pg\\/g for whole blood basis and 21 pg\\/g for lipid

Takao Iida; Hironori Hirakawa; Takahiko Matsueda; Shigeyuki Takenakal; Junya Nagayama

1999-01-01

394

Simultaneous cannabis and tobacco use and cannabis-related outcomes in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to those who reported a lifetime co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use, individuals who report simultaneous use of cannabis and tobacco are more likely to also report higher rates of substance-related problems and psychopathology. In a sample of young women, we examine (a) co-occurring use, or whether regular cigarette smoking is associated with increased cannabis involvement and (b) simultaneous

Arpana Agrawal; Michael T. Lynskey; Pamela A. F. Madden; Michele L. Pergadia; Kathleen K. Bucholz; Andrew C. Heath

2009-01-01

395

Evaluation of metabolic syndrome frequency and premature carotid atherosclerosis in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic syndrome frequency, cardiovascular risk profile and premature carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) especially during early adulthood. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on 43 young women (18-22 years of age) with PCOS and 43 age-matched volunteer controls. Anthropometrical measurements, hormone levels, lipid and glucose profile

Birol Vural; Eray Caliskan; Erkan Turkoz; Teoman Kilic; Ali Demirci

2005-01-01

396

Perceptions of sexual responsibility: do young men and women agree?  

PubMed

A nonprobability, convenience sample of 248 subjects of a large midwestern university agreed to participate in this study designed to investigate the perception of responsibility for contraception among late adolescents (over age 17), to determine whether age, gender, or sexual activity influences perceptions of responsibility, and to explore the relationship between perceived contraceptive responsibility and subsequent contraceptive choice among late adolescent males and females. The students were enrolled in an undergraduate public health class during the 1984 spring quarter. After initial data examination, 28 married subjects were eliminated from analysis. Of the final sample size of 220 students, 131 were female and 89 were male. The majority of the students, 57.5%, were between the ages of 20-22; 19% were between the ages of 17-19; and the remaining 23% were older than 22. The students completed a questionnaire anonymously as part of the development of a slide-tape program entitled "Young Men's Sexual Responsibility." Contraceptive responsibility was defined as perceived responsibility for pregnancy control, perceived responsibility to initiate conversation about contraception in a dating relationship, and perceived responsibility for who should pay for contraceptives. 63% of the students indicated that they had engaged in sexual intercourse at least once. Male students were significantly more likely to have had sexual intercourse than female students. Only 7% of the entire sample reported having had intercourse before the age of 15, but this sample consisted primarily of white, middle-class college students who may not represent students in inner-city school districts reported to have had 1st intercourse at earlier ages. 91% of the students perceived contraceptive responsibility as a shared responsibility. Of the small number of students who perceived 1 sex or the other responsible for pregnancy control, most (7%) perceived that it was the woman's responsibility. No relationship was found between age or intercourse experience and perceived contraceptive responsibility. 52.3% of the students reported using effective birth control methods at 1st intercourse, but 37.2% reported not using contraceptives. The remaining students used 2 of the least effective methods for adolescents (withdrawal, 7.2%; rhythm, 3.5%). No relationship was found between the students' perception of responsibility for pregnancy control or responsibility for initiating a conversation about contraception and the type of contraceptive used at most recent intercourse. If the concept of shared responsibility is in fact an emerging value, health professionals and educators must reconsider sex education curricula for adolescents. PMID:3633068

Sheehan, M K; Ostwald, S K; Rothenberger, J

1986-01-01

397

Influence of moderately intense strength training on flexibility in sedentary young women.  

PubMed

The present study is the first to examine whether moderately intense resistance training improves flexibility in an exclusively young, sedentary women population. Twenty-four, young, sedentary women were divided into 3 groups as follows: agonist/antagonist (AA) training group, alternated strength training (AST) group, or a control group (CG). Training occurred every other day for 8 weeks for a total of 24 sessions. Training groups performed 3 sets of 10 to 12 repetitions per set except for abdominal training where 3 sets of 15 to 20 reps were performed. Strength (1 repetition maximum bench press) and flexibility were assessed before and after the training period. Flexibility was assessed on 6 articular movements: shoulder flexion and extension, horizontal shoulder adduction and abduction, and trunk flexion and extension. Both groups increased strength and flexibility significantly from baseline and significantly when compared with the CG (p ? 0.05). The AST group increased strength and flexibility significantly more than the AA group (p ? 0.05) in all but one measurement. This study shows that resistance training can improve flexibility in young sedentary women in 8 weeks. PMID:20940647

Santos, Elisa; Rhea, Matthew R; Simão, Roberto; Dias, Ingrid; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Novaes, Jefferson; Leite, Thalita; Blair, Jeff C; Bunker, Derek J

2010-11-01

398

Long-term survival after venous thromboembolism: a retrospective selected cohort study among young women.  

PubMed

Few data are available on long-term survival following venous thromboembolism. We performed a retrospective survival analysis covering the period January 1985 to December 2006 in 728 young women (median age 28.7 years; interquartile range 21.6-36.3 years) with a history of venous thromboembolism who visited our clinic between 1985 and 1998. Mortality information was obtained from the Austrian Central Death Register. Survival of our patients was compared to the general Austrian female population after adjustment for age and calendar period. Overall, 23 patients (3.2%) died, the cumulative relative survival was 1.03 (95% CI 0.99-1.04). Site of venous thromboembolism or triggering factors had no significant influence. Venous thromboembolism does not reduce long-term survival in young women considering our median follow up of 14 years. The risk of fatal bleeding and quality of life should be assessed versus that of fatal recurrent venous thromboembolism when deciding on long-term anticoagulation in young women. PMID:20511663

Reitter, Sylvia; Laczkovics, Clarissa; Waldhoer, Thomas; Mayerhofer, Michaela; Vutuc, Christian; Pabinger, Ingrid

2010-08-01

399

Long-term survival after venous thromboembolism: a retrospective selected cohort study among young women  

PubMed Central

Few data are available on long-term survival following venous thromboembolism. We performed a retrospective survival analysis covering the period January 1985 to December 2006 in 728 young women (median age 28.7 years; interquartile range 21.6–36.3 years) with a history of venous thromboembolism who visited our clinic between 1985 and 1998. Mortality information was obtained from the Austrian Central Death Register. Survival of our patients was compared to the general Austrian female population after adjustment for age and calendar period. Overall, 23 patients (3.2%) died, the cumulative relative survival was 1.03 (95% CI 0.99–1.04). Site of venous thromboembolism or triggering factors had no significant influence. Venous thromboembolism does not reduce long-term survival in young women considering our median follow up of 14 years. The risk of fatal bleeding and quality of life should be assessed versus that of fatal recurrent venous thromboembolism when deciding on long-term anticoagulation in young women.

Reitter, Sylvia; Laczkovics, Clarissa; Waldhoer, Thomas; Mayerhofer, Michaela; Vutuc, Christian; Pabinger, Ingrid

2010-01-01

400

Unintended pregnancy among unmarried adolescents and young women in Anambra State, south east Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study identified the characteristics and factors influencing unintended pregnancy among unmarried young women in a rural community in south-east Nigeria. One hundred and thirty six unmarried teens with unintended pregnancy attending a Christian hospital in Ozubulu, a rural community in south-east Nigeria, from January 1998 to December 2001 were included in the study. Information was obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interview. Over 75% of the girls had their first sexual intercourse by 19 years, and over 69% had multiple partners. Over 95% had sex for economic reasons and exchanged sex for money or gifts. Only 13.5% ever used condoms. Ninety seven per cent suffered violence such as beating and verbal abuse from family members because of the pregnancy. Most of the adolescents or young women experienced major stressors, most importantly school and job termination, partner's negative attitude, religious sanction, discrimination and stigmatisation as a result of the unintended pregnancy. Unmarried pregnant adolescents or young women have particular health and psychosocial problems. Stakeholders in adolescent health, namely, parents, teachers, religious groups and health care providers, should recognise these problems and advocate for the provision of appropriate care and youth-friendly services to help youths navigate through these problems. PMID:17348328

Ilika, Amobi; Igwegbe, Anthony

2004-12-01

401

Neighborhood food store availability in relation to food intake in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K, Japan Dietetic Students' Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. Neighborhood food store availability in relation to food intake in young Japanese women.

402

Impact of breast cancer subtypes on 3-year survival among adolescent and young adult women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Young women have poorer survival after breast cancer than do older women. It is unclear whether this survival difference relates to the unique distribution of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-defined molecular breast cancer subtypes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women aged 15 to 39 years. The purpose of our study was to examine associations between breast cancer subtypes and short-term survival in AYA women, as well as to determine whether the distinct molecular subtype distribution among AYA women explains the unfavorable overall breast cancer survival statistics reported for AYA women compared with older women. Methods Data for 5,331 AYA breast cancers diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Survival by subtype (triple-negative; HR+/HER2-; HR+/HER2+; HR-/HER2+) and age-group (AYA versus 40- to 64-year-olds) was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards regression with follow-up through 2010. Results With up to 6 years of follow-up and a mean survival time of 3.1 years (SD?=?1.5 years), AYA women diagnosed with HR-/HER?+?and triple-negative breast cancer experienced a 1.6-fold and 2.7-fold increased risk of death, respectively, from all causes (HR-/HER?+?hazard ratio: 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10 to 2.18; triple-negative HR: 2.75; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.66) and breast cancer (HR-/HER?+?hazard ratio: 1.63; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.36; triple-negative hazard ratio: 2.71; 95% CI, 1.98 to 3.71) than AYA women with HR+/HER2- breast cancer. AYA women who resided in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods, had public health insurance, and were of Black, compared with White, race/ethnicity experienced worse survival. This race/ethnicity association was attenuated somewhat after adjusting for breast cancer subtypes (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.82). AYA women had similar all-cause and breast cancer-specific short-term survival as older women for all breast cancer subtypes and across all stages of disease. Conclusions Among AYA women with breast cancer, short-term survival varied by breast cancer subtypes, with the distribution of breast cancer subtypes explaining some of the poorer survival observed among Black, compared with White, AYA women. Future studies should consider whether distribution of breast cancer subtypes and other factors, including differential receipt of treatment regimens, influences long-term survival in young compared with older women.

2013-01-01

403

Autonomy and susceptibility to HIV/AIDS among young women living in a slum in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil in the last decade there has been an increase in the susceptibility of young women to HIV. This study explored the link between autonomy, or control over major domains of economic, social and sexual life, and susceptibility to HIV infection among poor young women living in an urban slum area of Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a random sample of 356 young women between 15 and 24 years old. The study found that indicators of autonomy that relate to sexuality, mobility and freedom from threat by partners were significantly correlated with practices linked to HIV prevention and with access to health services promoting prevention, especially among adolescents. Young women who talked to their partner about condom use before first intercourse and co-decided with them on condom use were more likely to use condoms. In contrast, those who had ever been victim of physical violence by a partner or whose partners restricted their mobility were less likely to use condoms. The study found that young women were more likely to have accessed health services for gynaecological examinations, family planning services and HIV testing if they had ever been pregnant. The findings indicate that structural gender inequalities translate into unequal relationships and reduced autonomy, increasing young women's susceptibility to HIV. A bias in HIV testing and reproductive health services towards pregnant women leaves many susceptible youth without early access. The study suggests the development of a reproductive health policy that ensures that young women access services before they get pregnant and that also reaches young males. PMID:17364383

Chacham, A S; Maia, M B; Greco, M; Silva, A P; Greco, D B

2007-01-01

404

Impact of acute sleep restriction on cortisol and leptin levels in young women.  

PubMed

Sleep restriction alters hormone patterns and appetite in men, but less is known about effects on women. We assessed effects of overnight sleep restriction on cortisol and leptin levels and on appetite in young women. Participants' baseline sleep duration and eating habits were monitored for a week before the study. Salivary cortisol and leptin were sampled from fifteen healthy women (aged 18-25) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline day) and then after a night including only 3h sleep (Post sleep-restriction day). Participants also completed appetite questionnaires on both days. Sleep restriction significantly reduced morning cortisol levels (p=0.02), elevated morning leptin levels (p=0.04), elevated afternoon/evening cortisol area under the curve values (p=0.008), and slowed the decline in cortisol concentration during the day (p=0.04). Hunger and craving scores did not differ significantly between days. A single night of restricted sleep affected cortisol rhythms and morning leptin levels in young women. PMID:20138072

Omisade, Antonina; Buxton, Orfeu M; Rusak, Benjamin

2010-04-19

405

Pleasure Reading: Associations between Young Women's Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women's Magazines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between magazine use and sexual attitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexual attitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…

Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

2004-01-01

406

Effects of neighbourhood-level educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Investigations of the association between socio-economic position indicators and HIV in East, Central and Southern Africa have chiefly focused on factors that pertain to individual-level characteristics. This study investigated the effect of neighbourhood educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in selected urban and rural areas in Zambia. Methods This study re-analysed data from a cross-sectional population survey conducted in Zambia in 2003. The analyses were restricted to women aged 15–24 years (n = 1295). Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A measure for neighbourhood-level educational attainment was constructed by aggregating individual-level years-in-school. Multi-level mixed effects regression models were run to examine the neighbourhood-level educational effect on HIV prevalence after adjusting for individual-level underlying variables (education, currently a student, marital status) and selected proximate determinants (ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). Results HIV prevalence among young women aged 15–24 years was 12.5% in the urban and 6.8% in the rural clusters. Neighbourhood educational attainment was found to be a strong determinant of HIV infection in both urban and rural population, i.e. HIV prevalence decreased substantially by increasing level of neighbourhood education. The likelihood of infection in low vs. high educational attainment of neighbourhoods was 3.4 times among rural women and 1.8 times higher among the urban women after adjusting for age and other individual-level underlying variables, including education. However, the association was not significant for urban young women after this adjustment. After adjusting for level of education in the neighbourhood, the effect of the individual-level education differed by residence, i.e. a strong protective effect among urban women whereas tending to be a risk factor among rural women. Conclusion The findings suggested structural effects on HIV prevalence. Future research should include more detailed mapping of neighbourhood factors of relevance to HIV transmission as part of the effort to better understand the causal mechanisms involved.

Kayeyi, Nkomba; Sand?y, Ingvild F; Fylkesnes, Knut

2009-01-01

407

Streamlining Cutaneous Melanomas in Young Women of the Belgian Mosan Region  

PubMed Central

Sporadic cutaneous melanoma (SCM) has shown a dramatic increase in incidence in Caucasian populations over the past few decades. A particular epidemiological increase was reported in women during their childbearing age. In the Belgian Mosan region, a progressive unremitting increase in SCM incidence was noticed in young women for the past 35 years. The vast majority of these SCMs were of the superficial type without any obvious relationship with a large number of melanocytic nevi or with signs of frequent and intense sunlight exposures as disclosed by the extent in the mosaic subclinical melanoderma. A series of investigations pointed to a possible relationship linking the development of some SCM to the women hormonal status including the effect of hormonal disruptors. These aspects remain, however, unsettled and controversial. It is possible to differentiate and clearly quantify the SCM shape, size, scalloped border, and variegated pigmentation using computerized morphometry as well as fractal and multifractal methods.

Hermanns-Le, Trinh; Pierard, Sebastien

2014-01-01

408

Common Prediction Equations Overestimate Measured Resting Metabolic Rate in Young Hispanic Women  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of 6 resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction equations to indirect calorimetry was compared in 38 Hispanic women (age = 30 ± 7 years; body mass index = 28.9 ± 7.2 kg/m2; body fat = 42% ± 8%). Paired t tests examined differences between predicted and measured RMR; significance defined as P < 0.05. Bias and agreement were displayed using Bland-Altman plots. Accuracy was defined when the predicted RMR was ± 10% of the measured RMR. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 19). Only the equation of Owen et al was not significantly different from the measured RMR (1336 ± 142 and 1322 ± 203 kcal/d, respectively). The equation of Owen et al was accurate for 84.2% of women; RMR prediction equations had limited applicability for young Hispanic women.

Miller, Shirley; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen

2013-01-01

409

Demand for Contraception to Delay First Pregnancy among Young Married Women in India.  

PubMed

In India, evidence is sparse regarding the demand for contraception to delay first pregnancy among married young people. Using data drawn from a study conducted in six Indian states among 9,572 women aged 15-24 who were married for five or fewer years, we explore the scope of this demand, the extent to which it has been satisfied, and, using logistic regression analyses, the factors correlated with contraceptive use to delay first pregnancy among those reporting demand. Findings confirm considerable demand for contraception to postpone first pregnancy (51 percent). Of those with demand, only 10 percent had practiced contraception. Contraception was more likely to have been practiced by educated women, those aware of family planning methods before they were married, those exposed to quality sexuality education, and those who participated in marriage-related decisionmaking. Women who reported feeling pressure to prove their fertility were less likely to have practiced contraception. PMID:24931075

Jejeebhoy, Shireen J; Santhya, K G; Zavier, A J Francis

2014-06-01

410

Homeless, Street-Involved Emerging Adults: Attitudes toward Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has indicated that a high proportion of homeless emerging adults use substances. This article aims to understand the attitudes of these young adults concerning their substance use and its effect on their lives. A mixed methods study using semistructured interviews and self-report instruments was conducted with 87 emerging adults who…

Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.; Gomez, Rebecca; Dreyer, Lauren; Popham, Amelia

2010-01-01

411

Helping Unaccompanied Homeless Youth Access College Financial Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unaccompanied homeless youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public…

National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2007

2007-01-01

412

'The family is only one part …': understanding the role of family in young Thai women's sexual decision making.  

PubMed

This study aims to understand young Thai women's perspectives about family influences on their sexual decisions with the goal of informing the future development of HIV programmes and interventions for young Thai women in urban areas. Eight focus groups were conducted with 40 young single women aged 18-25 years, recruited through a peer network of key informants from four sites across Bangkok: universities, government offices, slums and garment factories. Predetermined topics relating to family, sexual decisions and HIV were discussed with 4-5 participants in each group. Qualitative thematic and framework-analysis techniques were used to explore participants' narratives. Findings suggest that young Thai women's sexual decisions are complex and take place under a wide range of personal, familial and social influences. Parents were perceived as a barrier to parent-child communication about sex and HIV. Young women regarded mothers as more supportive and receptive than fathers when discussing sensitive topics. Young Thai women described a tension between having a strong sense of self and modern sexual norms versus traditionally conservative relational orientations. Future HIV interventions could benefit by developing strategies to consider barriers to parent-child communication, strengthening family relationships and addressing the coexistence of conflicting sexual norms in the Thai context. PMID:24597979

Bangpan, Mukdarut; Operario, Don

2014-01-01

413

Policy commitments vs. lived realities of young pregnant women and mothers in school, Western Cape, South Africa.  

PubMed

Reproductive rights in South Africa continue to be undermined for young women who fall pregnant and become mothers while still at school. Before 1994, exclusionary practices were common and the majority of those who fell pregnant failed to resume their education. With the adoption of new policies in 2007, young pregnant women and mothers are supposed to be supported to complete school successfully. Notwithstanding these new policies, there are incongruities between policy implementation and young women's lived experience in school. This paper explores the experiences of pregnancy and parenting among a group of 15 young women who fell pregnant and became mothers while attending three high schools in Khayelitsha township, a working-class community in the Western Cape of South Africa. Qualitative, in-depth interviews, conducted between 2007 and 2008, highlighted two key areas of concern: continuing exclusionary practices on the part of schools, based on conservative interpretations of policy, and negative and moralistic responses from teachers and peers. Such practices resulted in secrecy and shame about being pregnant, affecting the young women's emotional and physical well-being and their decisions whether to remain in school during pregnancy and return after having the baby. Further attention is required to ensure appropriate implementation of policies aimed at supporting pregnant and parenting young women to complete their education successfully. PMID:23684193

Ngabaza, Sisa; Shefer, Tamara

2013-05-01

414

The experience of girls and young women with inherited bleeding disorders.  

PubMed

Haemophilia carriers and women with inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) experience menorrhagia, bleed following dentistry, surgery, injury or childbirth. Symptoms are easily treated leading to full and active lives. Nevertheless, some girls and women suffer with abnormal bleeding for many years before diagnosis. We explored the experiences of girls and young women (aged 9-34 years) with IBD by means of focus groups which consisted of moderated discussion addressing specific aspects of bleeding, management and coping strategies. Subsequently, these issues were explored further though a paper-based questionnaire distributed via five specialist haemophilia centres in the UK. The study suggested that young women with IBD who are managed at haemophilia centres receive appropriate care and feel well supported. Although the clinic-based literature available to these women is "fit for purpose", it does not fully address the perceived needs specifically regarding sex, menorrhagia, conception and childbirth, the Pill, tattoos/piercings and so on, leading many to turn to other information sources. Most of those who responded to our survey are confident in their lives, able to manage their IBD and take pragmatic views towards the inherited nature of their condition. But there is a substantial subgroup of women who experience stigmatization, isolation and bullying and express concerns relating to fertility and conception. Overall, this cohort would benefit from opportunities for mutual support. This could be via Internet-based social networking and may be of particular value to those who are unable to seek help from traditional medical services due to religious or other cultural barriers. PMID:23607927

Khair, K; Holland, M; Pollard, D

2013-09-01

415

24 CFR 576.405 - Homeless participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Homeless participation. 576.405 Section... Program Requirements § 576.405 Homeless participation. (a) Unless the...the participation of not less than one homeless individual or formerly...

2013-04-01

416

Homeless Mothers and Children: Longitudinal Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Homelessness is a complex and tragic social problem. Various macro- and micro-economic forces affect the prevalence of homelessness in the general population and determine individual vulnerability. Although family homelessness has grown dramatically over ...

E. L. Bassuk

1999-01-01

417

Estrangement Factors Associated with Addiction to Alcohol and Drugs among Homeless Youth in Three U. S. Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance use is highly prevalent among homeless, street-involved young people. Societal estrangement is often associated with substance use, particularly among this population. The current study sought to identify four domains of social estrangement (disaffiliation, human capital, identification with homeless culture, and psychological…

Thompson, Sanna; Jun, Jina; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Pollio, David E.

2010-01-01

418

General malaise and physical symptoms in young women with untouched toe.  

PubMed

Untouched toe is a condition in which a toe does not touch the ground while standing. It is frequently observed in women even under physiological conditions. Deformities or symptoms of the toes are not observed in these women. The clinical significance of untouched toe has not been fully elucidated. Two hundred young healthy women were recruited into the present study after informed consent. We evaluated the prevalence of untouched toe by measuring various indexes of the toe using a foot-sole-measuring equipment. We also conducted a self-administered questionnaire regarding general malaise. Untouched toe was observed in 114 of these 200 women (57.0%). The fifth toe was more frequently affected than the other toes. There were no significant differences in size of foot except the area and proportion touching the ground between women with untouched toe and those without untouched toe. The prevalence of general malaise was significantly higher in women with at least one untouched toe (57.0%) compared with those without untouched toe (43.0%) (p?0.05). Twelve symptoms-irritability, headache, tired eyes, hazy vision, congested or runny nose, irregular menstruation or menstrual pain, shoulder stiffness, neck stiffness, low back pain, cold hands, swollen feet, and cold feet-were more frequently observed in women with at least one untouched toe compared with those without untouched toes. Untouched toe was associated with various symptoms of general malaise. However, the pathological mechanism by which untouched toe causes these symptoms has not been determined. Further analysis of gait and exercise habits in women with untouched toe is necessary. PMID:24942791

Akamatsu, Megumi; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

2014-06-01

419

Soap Opera Video on Handheld Computers to Reduce Young Urban Women’s HIV Sex Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a soap opera video, A Story about Toni, Mike, and Valerie, designed to communicate HIV risk reduction themes. The study evaluated viewing the video and responding to audio computer\\u000a assisted self-interview (ACASI) on a handheld computer. The sample was 76 predominately African American women, aged 18–29,\\u000a in sexual relationships with men. Data

Rachel Jones

2008-01-01

420

The Absent Brother: The Effect of Sex of Siblings on Aspirations and Parental Encouragement of Young Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project focuses on the socialization of young women, and whether that socialization is affected by the sex of the siblings with whom a girl is reared. Specifically, it is argued that sex role differentiation will be stronger when the family includes both male and female children. Subjects were 939 women, 14 to 24 years of age, who…

Lin, Sheila Seubold; Oliver, Pamela

421

Effects of panel sex composition on the physiological stress responses to psychosocial stress in healthy young men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men and women differ in regard to psychosocial stress responses. Biological and contextual factors are known to mediate these differences; however, few studies investigated their interaction. In the present study, we examined contributions of both contextual and biological factors to the stress response of young healthy adults. Men and women were exposed to a modified version of Trier Social Stress

A. Duchesne; E. Tessera; K. Dedovic; V. Engert; J. C. Pruessner

422

Should We Take Anodyspareunia Seriously? A Descriptive Analysis of Pain During Receptive Anal Intercourse in Young Heterosexual Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anal sex is becoming increasingly prevalent among heterosexual women and men. Although pain related to receptive anal intercourse is not uncommon, little is known about its phenomenology. This article aims to assess the prevalence and correlates of pain during anoreceptive intercourse, including anodyspareunia, its most severe form, among young women. An online survey focusing on anal eroticism was carried out

Aleksandar Štulhofer; Dea Ajdukovi?

2011-01-01

423

The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

2005-01-01

424

Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

2012-01-01

425

People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness  

MedlinePLUS

... already stretched to its limit. The physical and mental health needs of this population are prevalent and acute, and must ... the determinants of street homelessness by developing and... Prevalence and ... of Mental Health Services Among 10,340 Patients With Serious Mental ...

426

"If I buy the Kellogg's then he should [buy] the milk": young women's perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women’s decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24 year old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women’s expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power, and how this influences HIV risk. We found that the majority of young women reported expectations of power in relationships that conform to a model of femininity marked by financial independence, freedom to make decisions, including over sexuality, and equality (resistant femininity). The majority of young women, however, were in relationships marked by intimate partner violence, infidelity or lack of condom use. In spite of this, more young women who subscribed to a resistant model of femininity were in less risky relationships than young women who subscribed to acquiescent models, in which power was vested in their male partners. Further, young women who subscribed to resistant femininity had more education than women who subscribed to an acquiescent model. The disconnect between expectations of relationships and young women’s lived realities emphasises the need for structural changes that afford women greater economic and thus decision making power.

Pettifor, Audrey; MacPhail, Catherine; Anderson, Althea D.; Maman, Suzanne

2012-01-01

427

Gender Power Control, Sexual Experiences, Safer Sex Practices, and Potential HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Asian-American Women  

PubMed Central

We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.

Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2012-01-01

428

Caring capacity in the management of the nutrition crisis in infants, young children and women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria's nutrition crisis has been shown to have a considerable negative impact on infants, young children and women. Available evidence suggests that 'caring capacity' when properly planned and targeted at the most-at-risk can help. Strategies that can achieve this care are increasing women's income and control over income, increasing investment in women's education and improving access to credit facilities. Others are the aggressive promotion of gender-biased labour saving technology, increasing women's access to basic health and family planning services and implementing reforms in land ownership while instituting social security for women. PMID:8738875

Igbedioh, S O

1996-01-01

429

Measuring the nature and duration of symptoms of cervical cancer in young women: developing an interview-based approach  

PubMed Central

Background Some young women experience delays in diagnosis of cervical cancer, but little research about ways of studying these delays has been published. A major challenge is that gynaecological symptoms are common in young women, but cervical cancer is rare. This study describes the development and testing of a measure for studying delays in diagnosis in young women with cervical cancer. Methods Prospective development of an interview measure and testing of its ability to reliably and systematically collect relevant data in two large hospitals in London, UK using 27 women aged 18–40 diagnosed with cervical cancer in the previous two years. We developed a semi-structured interview schedule and data extraction form to systematically collect data on symptoms (including nature and duration) and risk factors for delayed diagnosis from young women with cervical cancer. We piloted the measure among young women with cervical cancer (audiorecording it with their permission), refining it iteratively. To complete the measure, we developed a database for managing the data and a manual for using the schedule. Two researchers extracted data from the recorded interviews to assess inter-rater reliability. Results The final interview schedule yielded quantitative data on the nature and duration of symptoms and risk factors for delayed diagnosis. Inter-rater reliability was high. In the pilot, 12 of the 27 women were diagnosed via symptomatic presentation. Median time from the symptom triggering presentation to presentation was one month (interquartile range 0–4 months). Median time from presentation to diagnosis was three months (interquartile range 1–8.5 months). Conclusions We have developed a reliable tool for measuring the nature and duration of symptoms in young women with cervical cancer. Pilot data suggest that a substantial proportion of women experience delay between first presentation and diagnosis.

2013-01-01

430

Predictors of Substance Use Severity among Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

Problem This cross-sectional study identified a number of factors that were correlated with drug-use severity among homeless youth. Method To examine a commonly-used measure of substance-use severity, the TCU Drug Screen II, in a convenience sample of 156 homeless youth, ages 15–25 from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. Findings Higher drug-use severity scores were independently related to low levels of perceived health and maladaptive coping strategies. Conclusions The findings from this study are particularly relevant in that they support previous results showing that psychosocial variables are related to substance use behavior among young populations.

Nyamathi, Adeline; Hudson, Angela; Greengold, Barbara; Slagle, Alexandra; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Leake, Barbara

2010-01-01

431

Oral contraceptive use and bone density in adolescent and young adult women  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the millions of oral contraceptive (OC) users are under age 30 years and in the critical period for bone mass accrual. Study Design This cross-sectional study of 606 women aged 14–30 years examined both OC duration and estrogen dose and their association with bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, spine, and whole-body (DEXA). Results Of 389 OC users and 217 nonusers enrolled, 50% were adolescents (14–18 years). Of OC users, 38% used “low-dose” OCs [<30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)]. In adolescents, mean BMD differed by neither OC duration nor EE dose. However, 19–30 year-old women’s mean BMD was lower with longer OC use for spine and whole-body (p=0.004, p=0.02, respectively) and lowest for >12 months of low-dose OCs for the hip, spine and whole-body (p=0.02, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Prolonged use of today’s OCs, particularly <30 mcg EE, may adversely impact young adult women’s bone density while ingesting these agents.

Scholes, Delia; Ichikawa, Laura; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Spangler, Leslie; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Reed, Susan; Ott, Susan M.

2009-01-01

432

Breast size, bra fit and thoracic pain in young women: a correlational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction A single sample study was undertaken to determine the strength and direction of correlations between: a) breast size and thoracic spine or posterior chest wall pain; b) bra fit and thoracic spine or posterior chest wall pain and; c) breast size and bra fit, in thirty nulliparous women (18–26 years), with thoracic spine or posterior chest wall pain, who wore bras during daytime. Measures Pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire), bra size (Triumph International), bra fit (Triumph International). Results Most (80%) women wore incorrectly sized bras: 70% wore bras that were too small, 10% wore bras that were too large. Breast size was negatively correlated with both bra size (r = -0.78) and bra fit (r = -0.50). These results together indicate that large breasted women were particularly likely to be wearing incorrectly sized and fitted bras. Negligible relationships were found between pain and bra fit, and breast size and pain. Menstrual cycle stage was moderately positively correlated with bra fit (r = 0.32). Conclusion In young, nulliparous women, thoracic pain appears unrelated to breast size. Bra fit is moderately related to stage of menstrual cycle suggesting that this research may be somewhat confounded by hormonal changes or reproductive stage. Further research is needed to clarify whether there is a relationship between breast size or bra fit and thoracic pain in women during times of hormonal change.

Wood, Katherine; Cameron, Melainie; Fitzgerald, Kylie

2008-01-01

433

CHOICES. A Resource for Literacy Providers and Homeless Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CHOICES, a literacy program for homeless families, piloted a program at the Women's Emergency Shelter in Champaign, Illinois and later expanded its services to A Woman's Place, a domestic violence shelter, in Urbana, Illinois. The CHOICES program offered weekly language activities for the children and gave mothers information about developing…

Koehler, Gwen; And Others

434

Development and validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for young adult women in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a multicultural food frequency questionnaire1 (FFQ) for young women in the southwestern United States. The instrument was validated against 3-day diet records in 95 college women, and cross-validated against the mean of two 24-hour recalls and 4-day food records in 50 low-income postpartal women. Internal consistency reliability was assessed via

Goldy Chacko George; Tracey J Milani; Henry Hanss-Nuss; Minseong Kim; Jeanne H Freeland-Graves

2004-01-01

435

Prognostic factors for local recurrence following breast-conserving treatment in young women.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a rare disease in young women. Its incidence has remained remarkably constant over the last decades, contrary to what has happened in older patients. Age is a major prognostic factor for local control after breast-conserving treatments, which does not seem to be entirely explained by the poor prognostic features that are more commonly associated with breast cancers in young women. A better knowledge of the prognostic factors for local control, and, whenever possible, those pertaining specifically to the young age group, is key, not only to better select the patients who would benefit the most from a breast-conserving approach but also to enhance the local control when this option has been elected. These prognostic factors can be related to the patient, the tumor and the treatment they receive. Finally, we will present a perspective of what the future could hold, both in terms of the selection of the patients and of a more customized therapeutic approach. PMID:20735308

Bollet, Marc A; Kirova, Youlia M; Fourquet, Alain; de Cremoux, Patricia; Reyal, Fabien

2010-08-01

436

Salmon cycles: Influences of a science field study immersion experience with Native American young women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native Americans, and particularly Native women, are not proportionally represented in higher education, or in science, mathematics, technology, and engineering fields. This study examined an out-of-school science education program which combined traditional Native American cultural and ecological knowledge with Western science in conducting authentic field studies. A qualitative, embedded case study approach was used to explore how young Native American women were influenced by an out-of-school program integrating a culturally responsive approach and experiential research projects. Within this context of combined cultures, three significant domains emerged: field study in science, sense of place, and networks of supportive relationships. These domains interacted with the aspirations of the eight Native women in the study. Using interview transcripts, reflective writings, and participant data, the study explored the blending of Indigenous and Western science in "communities of practice" (e.g., fisheries biology, restoration ecology, and forestry). The eight Native women in this study participated as young adolescents and later returned as counselors. Interviews focused on their postsecondary aspirations and choices. Findings validated previous research on the value of infusing Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Western science for Native students. The study found the combination of culturally responsive pedagogy and authentic experiences in "communities-of-practice" held a beneficial influence on postsecondary pathways. The importance of respect and friendships fostered through the program was associated with resilience and perseverance in educational aspirations. Immersion in field study with Native peers as well as Native and non-Native researchers was a catalyst for all the women, in a number of different ways, such as: deeper involvement with the Native community, strengthening cultural and academic identity, inspiration to learn more about their cultural heritage, and interest in pursuing science or science-related careers. Commitments to "giving back" to the community, stewardship, and activism emerged as significant outcomes. The experience created a safe, empowering place to be Native, "crazy, a scientist, and a fish geek"---all at once.

Ault, Phyllis Campbell

437

Young women requesting emergency contraception are, despite contraceptive counseling, a high risk group for new unintended pregnancies.  

PubMed

Since its introduction in Sweden in 1994, emergency contraception has become a welcome addition to the campaign against unwanted pregnancy. In addition to an unplanned pregnancy, unprotected sexual intercourse may also involve the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The aim of this study was to assess the short- and long-term risk of unintended pregnancy and to determine the frequency of chlamydia infections in women receiving emergency contraception. Between September 1998 and February 1999 young women aged 15-25 years had the opportunity to obtain emergency contraception (Yuzpe method) at a youth clinic in the city of Orebro where the opening hours were extended to include Saturdays and Sundays. A follow-up visit 3 weeks after treatment, which included contraceptive counseling, was offered to all participants. At both visits, a pregnancy test and a chlamydia test were performed, and the women completed a questionnaire. After the initial visit, the young women where monitored for new pregnancies during the following 12 months. One pregnancy occurred in the 134 young women who received emergency contraception during the study period. None of the women had a positive chlamydia test. Of those requesting emergency contraception, 54% did so because no contraception was used, 32% because of a ruptured condom, 11% because of missed oral contraceptives (OC), and 5% had mixed reasons. At long-term follow-up 1 year after the initial visit, 10 of the 134 young women had experienced an unplanned pregnancy that terminated in legal abortion in 9 women. All these women had either started and terminated OC or had never commenced the prescribed OC. Young women who request emergency contraception are, despite a planned follow-up with contraceptive counseling, a high risk group for new unintended pregnancies. In Sweden they do not seem to be a high risk group for STD. PMID:11535209

Falk, G; Falk, L; Hanson, U; Milsom, I

2001-07-01

438

AIDS and the transition to adulthood of young seropositive women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).  

PubMed

Since the early 1990 s, the means of attaining adult status have undergone a transformation due to a variety of socioeconomic changes. Exploring the status of 'youth', in this context, through the prism of AIDS sheds light on how a pathology can reveal social change in the 'youth' category undergoing the process of transition to adulthood. The data for this article are drawn from an anthropological study carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) based on 21 single young women (16 to 28 years old) infected with HIV. The data analysis highlighted issues of relationship to self (biographical disruption and jeopardized female identity) and to others (weakening of social ties in situations of dependency and of pursuit of social advancement) that arise after they discover their seropositive status. The different forms of vulnerability (identity-related, relational and situational) engendered by their status as seropositive women in a context of socioeconomic change, where there are a variety of issues at stake, raise the question of how these young women manage the risk of HIV transmission, and lead to a re-examination of the problem of the vulnerability of youth dealing with HIV. PMID:23549698

Ouedraogo, Ramatou

2013-03-01

439

Homelessness in female-headed families: childhood and adult risk and protective factors.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To identify risk and protective factors for family homelessness, a case-control study of homeless and low-income, never-homeless families, all female-headed, was conducted. METHODS: Homeless mothers (n = 220) were enrolled from family shelters in Worcester, Mass. Low-income housed mothers receiving welfare (n = 216) formed the comparison group. The women completed an interview covering socioeconomic, social support, victimization, mental health, substance use, and health domains. RESULTS: Childhood predictors of family homelessness included foster care placement and respondent's mother's use of drugs. Independent risk factors in adulthood included minority status, recent move to Worcester, recent eviction, interpersonal conflict, frequent alcohol or heroin use, and recent hospitalization for a mental health problem. Protective factors included being a primary tenant, receiving cash assistance or a housing subsidy, graduating from high school, and having a larger social network. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that compromise an individual's economic and social resources are associated with greater risk of losing one's home.

Bassuk, E L; Buckner, J C; Weinreb, L F; Browne, A; Bassuk, S S; Dawson, R; Perloff, J N

1997-01-01

440

Health care of homeless veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to understand the needs of those veterans who are homeless. We describe characteristics of homeless male veterans\\u000a and factors associated with needing VA benefits from a two-city, community survey of 531 homeless adults. Overall, 425 were\\u000a male, of whom 127 were veterans (29.9%). Significantly more veterans had a chronic medical condition and two or more mental\\u000a health

Thomas P. O’Toole; Alicia Conde-Martel; Jeanette L. Gibbon; Barbara H. Hanusa; Michael J. Fine

2003-01-01

441

The Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Effects on Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use among Young Rural Women in Mexico  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Oportunidades is a large conditional cash transfer program in Mexico. It is important to examine whether the program has any direct effect on pregnancy experience and contraceptive use among young rural women, apart from those through education. METHODS Data from the 1992, 2006 and 2009 waves of a nationally representative, population-based survey were used to describe trends in pregnancy experience, contraceptive use and education among rural adolescent (15–19) and young adult (20–24) women in Mexico. To examine differences in pregnancy experience and current modern contraceptive use among young women, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted among matched 2006 samples of women with and without exposure to Oportunidades, predicted probabilities were calculated and indirect effects were estimated. RESULTS Over the three survey waves, the proportion of adolescent and young adult women reporting ever being pregnant stayed flat (33–36%) and contraceptive use increased steadily (from 13% in 1992 to 19% in 2009). Educational attainment rose dramatically: The proportion of women with a secondary education increased from 28% in 1992 to 46% in 2009. In multivariable analyses, exposure to Oportunidades was not associated with pregnancy experience among adolescents. Educational attainment, marital status, pregnancy experience and access to health insurance—but not exposure to Oportunidades—were positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among adolescent and young adult women. CONCLUSION Through its effect on education, Oportunidades indirectly influences fertility among adolescents. It is important for Mexico to focus on strategies to increase contraceptive use among young rural nulliparous women, regardless of whether they are enrolled in Oportunidades.

Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G.; Walker, Dilys; Servan-Mori, Edson; Prager, Sarah; Gakidou, Emmanuela

2014-01-01

442

Ovarian reserve status in young women is associated with altered gene expression in membrana granulosa cells  

PubMed Central

Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is a challenging diagnosis of infertility, as there are currently no tests to predict who may become affected with this condition, or at what age. We designed the present study to compare the gene expression profile of membrana granulosa cells from young women affected with DOR with those from egg donors of similar age and to determine if distinct genetic patterns could be identified to provide insight into the etiology of DOR. Young women with DOR were identified based on FSH level in conjunction with poor follicular development during an IVF cycle (n = 13). Egg donors with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) comprised the control group (n = 13). Granulosa cells were collected following retrieval, RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate genetic differences between the groups. Confirmatory studies were undertaken with quantitative RT–PCR (qRT–PCR). Multiple significant differences in gene expression were observed between the DOR patients and egg donors. Two genes linked with ovarian function, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), were further analyzed with qRT–PCR in all patients. The average expression of AMH was significantly higher in egg donors (adjusted P-value = 0.01), and the average expression of LHCGR was significantly higher in DOR patients (adjusted P-value = 0.005). Expression levels for four additional genes, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) (PTGER3), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 4 (StarD4), were validated in a group consisting of five NOR and five DOR patients. We conclude that gene expression analysis has substantial potential to determine which young women may be affected with DOR. More importantly, our analysis suggests that DOR patients fall into two distinct subgroups based on gene expression profiles, indicating that different mechanisms may be involved during development of this pathology.

Skiadas, Christine C.; Duan, Shenghua; Correll, Mick; Rubio, Renee; Karaca, Nilay; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Quackenbush, John; Racowsky, Catherine

2012-01-01

443

Ovarian reserve status in young women is associated with altered gene expression in membrana granulosa cells.  

PubMed

Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is a challenging diagnosis of infertility, as there are currently no tests to predict who may become affected with this condition, or at what age. We designed the present study to compare the gene expression profile of membrana granulosa cells from young women affected with DOR with those from egg donors of similar age and to determine if distinct genetic patterns could be identified to provide insight into the etiology of DOR. Young women with DOR were identified based on FSH level in conjunction with poor follicular development during an IVF cycle (n = 13). Egg donors with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) comprised the control group (n = 13). Granulosa cells were collected following retrieval, RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate genetic differences between the groups. Confirmatory studies were undertaken with quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Multiple significant differences in gene expression were observed between the DOR patients and egg donors. Two genes linked with ovarian function, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), were further analyzed with qRT-PCR in all patients. The average expression of AMH was significantly higher in egg donors (adjusted P-value = 0.01), and the average expression of LHCGR was significantly higher in DOR patients (adjusted P-value = 0.005). Expression levels for four additional genes, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) (PTGER3), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 4 (StarD4), were validated in a group consisting of five NOR and five DOR patients. We conclude that gene expression analysis has substantial potential to determine which young women may be affected with DOR. More importantly, our analysis suggests that DOR patients fall into two distinct subgroups based on gene expression profiles, indicating that different mechanisms may be involved during development of this pathology. PMID:22355044

Skiadas, Christine C; Duan, Shenghua; Correll, Mick; Rubio, Renee; Karaca, Nilay; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Quackenbush, John; Racowsky, Catherine

2012-07-01

444

Dairy intakes in older girls and risk of benign breast disease in young women.  

PubMed

Previous investigations found high dairy intakes in girls associated with rapid height growth and excess weight gain, which had opposite relationships with benign breast disease (BBD) in young women. We use data from the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) to investigate whether dairy intakes, in older children/adolescents, are associated with BBD risk in young women. GUTS includes 9,039 females, ages 9-15 years in 1996, who completed questionnaires annually through 2001, then in 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2010. Dietary food frequencies (1996-2001) obtained milk, yogurt, and cheese intakes. On 2005-2010 surveys, 7,011 females (18-29 years) reported whether a health care provider ever diagnosed them with BBD (n = 250) and if confirmed by breast biopsy (n = 105). Logistic regression models estimated associations between prevalent biopsy-confirmed BBD and dairy intakes, adjusted for age and energy. Multivariable-adjusted models additionally included menarche age, childhood adiposity, adolescent alcohol consumption, and pregnancy. Further analyses stratified by family history. Age-energy-adjusted models of dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese, total dairy servings, dairy protein, dairy fat) intakes at 14 yr found no significant associations with BBD risk [milk: OR, 0.90/(serving/d); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-1.05; dairy protein: OR, 0.98/(10 g/d); 95% CI, 0.82-1.17). Separate analyses of dairy intakes at 10 yr, intakes before the growth spurt, during the growth spurt, before menses-onset, and after menses-onset provided no significant associations with BBD. Multivariable adjustment, and family history stratification, did not alter the above findings. We conclude that dairy intakes by older girls have no strong relation with BBD risk in young women. Because of small number of cases, it is important to continue follow-up and re-examine later. PMID:23542805

Berkey, Catherine S; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard; Frazier, A Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A

2013-04-01

445

Power loss is greater following lengthening contractions in old versus young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with isometric and dynamic velocity-constrained (isokinetic) tasks, less is known regarding velocity-dependent (isotonic)\\u000a muscle power and recovery in older adults following repeated fatiguing lengthening contractions. We investigated voluntary\\u000a and evoked neuromuscular properties of the dorsiflexors in nine old (68.3?±?6.1 years) and nine young women (25.1?±?1.3 years)\\u000a during and following 150 lengthening contractions for up to 30 min of recovery. At baseline, the

Geoffrey A. Power; Brian H. Dalton; Charles L. Rice; Anthony A. Vandervoort

446

Preservation of ovarian function during chemotherapy and radiotherapy in young women with malignancies  

PubMed Central

Malignancies are not rare in girl and women during their reproductive years. Over the past three decades, the survival rate for cancer has been improving due to progress in cancer diagnosis and treatment. These patients frequently experience a variety of treatment, and disease-related side effects that diminish their quality of life during and after treatment; among these are loss of fertility and sexual dysfunction. There have been recent advances in the field of fertility preservation, which can allow many of these genital cancer survivors to have children in the future. This topic review discusses available options and specific strategies for fertility preservation in adolescent and young women with malignancies who wish to preserve their ability to become pregnant in the future.

Eftekhar, Maryam; Pourmasumi, Soheila; Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan

2014-01-01

447

A qualitative study of attitudes toward public breastfeeding among young Canadian men and women.  

PubMed

This research aims to explore, in qualitative terms, attitudes held by a sample of university-educated young men and women residing in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia about breastfeeding in public places. In sum, 20 women and 27 men between the ages of 18 and 23 participated in moderated single-sex focus groups that discussed breastfeeding, following a list of prepared questions and using photographs as discussion cues. Although participants uniformly stated that they desired their future children to be breastfed, 31 of 47 expressed restrictive attitudes toward exposure of the breast (eg, "should use washrooms," "okay if discreet") and breastfeeding in restaurants. Eight expressed positive unrestricted statements about breastfeeding in public spaces. Addressing widely held attitudes toward breastfeeding in public spaces, in addition to providing information about breastfeeding's health benefits, may be helpful in campaigns promoting breastfeeding. PMID:21196495

Spurles, Patricia Kelly; Babineau, Jessica

2011-05-01

448

Influence of high ovarian hormones on QT interval duration in young African women  

PubMed Central

Abstract The longer QT interval duration observed in women compared to men is usually attributed to sexual hormones. The aim of our study was to investigate, among black African women, the influence of hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle on the duration of the QT interval. Fourteen young black African women, healthy, sedentary, aged 24 ± 1.7 years, with a regular menstrual cycle (28 ± 1 days) were selected from 59 volunteers. At each phase of their menstrual cycle, menstrual 2.9 ± 0.6 days, follicular 13 ± 1.5 days, and luteal 23.1 ± 1.4 days, an electrocardiogram was performed in supine position after a resting period of 30 min, to measure QT interval duration. QT interval was corrected by Bazett's (QTcb) and Fridericia's (QTcf) formulae. Then, blood samples were obtained to measure estradiol, progesterone, and serum electrolytes (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). There was no significant difference in uncorrected QT intervals between the three phases of the menstrual cycle. It was the same for QTcb and QTcf. Moreover, during the menstrual cycle, we did not observe any correlation between each QT, QTcb, QTcf, and estradiol levels which raised during the follicular phase (356.61 ± 160.77 pg/mL) and progesterone levels which raised during the luteal phase (16.38 ± 5.88 ng/mL). Finally, the method of Bland and Altman demonstrated that the corrections of QT by Bazett and Fridericia formulae were not interchangeable. The results of this study showed that high levels of estradiol and progesterone in young black African women did not influence the QT, QTcb and QTcf intervals duration during the menstrual cycle.

Balayssac-Siransy, Edwige; Ouattara, Soualiho; Adoubi, Anicet; Kouame, Chantal; Hauhouot-Attoungbre, Marie-Laure; Dah, Cyrille; Bogui, Pascal

2014-01-01

449

Influence of high ovarian hormones on QT interval duration in young African women.  

PubMed

Abstract The longer QT interval duration observed in women compared to men is usually attributed to sexual hormones. The aim of our study was to investigate, among black African women, the influence of hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle on the duration of the QT interval. Fourteen young black African women, healthy, sedentary, aged 24 ± 1.7 years, with a regular menstrual cycle (28 ± 1 days) were selected from 59 volunteers. At each phase of their menstrual cycle, menstrual 2.9 ± 0.6 days, follicular 13 ± 1.5 days, and luteal 23.1 ± 1.4 days, an electrocardiogram was performed in supine position after a resting period of 30 min, to measure QT interval duration. QT interval was corrected by Bazett's (QTcb) and Fridericia's (QTcf) formulae. Then, blood samples were obtained to measure estradiol, progesterone, and serum electrolytes (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). There was no significant difference in uncorrected QT intervals between the three phases of the menstrual cycle. It was the same for QTcb and QTcf. Moreover, during the menstrual cycle, we did not observe any correlation between each QT, QTcb, QTcf, and estradiol levels which raised during the follicular phase (356.61 ± 160.77 pg/mL) and progesterone levels which raised during the luteal phase (16.38 ± 5.88 ng/mL). Finally, the method of Bland and Altman demonstrated that the corrections of QT by Bazett and Fridericia formulae were not interchangeable. The results of this study showed that high levels of estradiol and progesterone in young black African women did not influence the QT, QTcb and QTcf intervals duration during the menstrual cycle. PMID:24760517

Balayssac-Siransy, Edwige; Ouattara, Soualiho; Adoubi, Anicet; Kouamé, Chantal; Hauhouot-Attoungbré, Marie-Laure; Dah, Cyrille; Bogui, Pascal

2014-01-01

450

Young women's attitudes towards, and experiences of, long-acting reversible contraceptives.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives To identify factors involved in women's decisions to choose particular contraceptive methods and more specifically, incentives and disincentives to use three long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods: injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices/systems (IUDs/IUSs). Methods A total of 502 women aged 18 to 30 completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire. Results The three most important factors in choosing a contraceptive method were: high efficacy at preventing pregnancy, protection against sexually transmitted infections, and non-interference with sexual intercourse. The most common incentives for LARC use were the high efficacy and long duration of action. Disincentives included the possibility of irregular bleeding and concerns about effects on fertility; fear of needles and pain was a particular disincentive for IUD/IUS use. Only 93 (18%) of the participants reported ever having used a LARC. Conclusions Reported disincentives to LARC use (e.g., concern about effects on future fertility) indicated that many young women hold inaccurate beliefs about these methods. The relatively high proportions of women who held neutral attitudes about LARCs (21-40%, depending on the method) highlight the importance of education and contraceptive counselling to improve knowledge about the advantages of these methods. Chinese Abstract ?LARC???/(IUDs / IUSs)? 50218?30? ???LARC??IUDs / IUSs ?93?18%?LARC? LARC???LARCs?21-40%?,?? PMID:24882426

Bracken, Jennifer; Graham, Cynthia A

2014-08-01

451

Stability and Change in Fertility Preferences Among Young Women in Malawi  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Although studies have demonstrated change in fertility preferences over time, there is a lack of definitive knowledge about the level and direction of change among individuals, especially young and unmarried women. Furthermore, little is known about the factors associated with changes in fertility preferences over time. METHOD The analysis uses the first five waves of data from a longitudinal study of a random sample of women aged 15–25 in southern Malawi. The data were collected four months apart over an 18-month period, between June 2009 and December 2010. Multinomial logit regression models were used to calculate relative risk ratios and identify associations between four categories of life events—reproductive, relationship, health and economic— and shifts in fertility timing preferences. RESULTS In each four-month period, more than half of the women reported changes in the desired timing of their next birth, and delays and accelerations in timing desires were common. Several life events, including having a child, entering a serious relationship and changes in household finances were associated with changes in the level and direction of fertility preference. CONCLUSION Shifts in fertility timing preferences often occur in response to changes in life circumstances. Understanding the reasons for these shifts may aid family planning providers in meeting women's contraceptive needs.

Sennott, Christie; Yeatman, Sara

2012-01-01

452

Growing up heartsick: the experiences of young women with congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

Young women with congenital heart disease (CHD) now survive to confront issues of sexuality, contraception, and pregnancy. Researchers have examined reproductive abilities and infant outcomes in these women, but have not addressed quality-of-life issues. Grounded-theory techniques were used to interview 13 women about the experience of growing up with CHD. The core variable identified was "growing up heartsick." This variable included manifestations of growing up with heart disease, such as feeling different from others, parental overprotectiveness, and fears of death. Two other related variables were also found: "growing up female" and "living against the body." "Growing up female" was characterized by concerns about fertility, contraception, and pregnancy in relation to CHD. Many of the participants were uninformed about their heart disease and reproductive matters. "Living against the body" was expressed in the women's feelings about their body size and their surgical scars. There were overlapping aspects of the categories; for example, manifestations of "growing up heartsick" appeared in each of the other categories. PMID:1399864

Gantt, L T

1992-01-01

453

Ethnic differences in C-peptide/insulin/glucose dynamics in young pregnant women.  

PubMed

There are ethnic differences in insulin secretion and resistance in healthy nondiabetic adults, children, and adolescents. It is not known whether these ethnic differences are also detectable during normal pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine whether ethnic differences in glucose homeostasis (C-peptide/insulin/glucose dynamics) are present in nondiabetic pregnant women. Fasting serum C-peptide, insulin, and plasma glucose were measured in the second and third trimesters in 773 pregnant women (343 African-Americans, 312 Hispanics, and 118 Caucasians), and a 50-g oral glucose challenge test was performed in the third trimester. Significantly reduced C-peptide levels and C-peptide to insulin ratio and elevated fasting insulin to glucose ratios were observed in African-American women compared with Caucasians and/or Hispanics. Similar results were found after a 50-g glucose load. In addition, African-Americans had greater insulin and lower glucose levels at glucose challenge test. There were ethnic differences in insulin production and resistance in both fasting and glucose-stimulated conditions in normal young nondiabetic pregnant women. PMID:12364450

Chen, Xinhua; Scholl, Theresa O

2002-10-01

454

Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains the Oregon state plan for educating homeless children and youth required by the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. Data on the number and location of homeless children and homeless youth in the state and the barriers they face in obtaining a free public education are discussed. Section 1 provides an overview…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Student Services Section.

455

Addressing Homelessness: Recent Happenings--Iowa, 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on the following resources available to the homeless in Iowa: (1) Funding Sources for School District Programs Serving Homeless Students; (2) Local Educational Liaison for Homeless Children and Youth; (3) Homeless Advisory Committee; (4) Identification, Counting, and Maintaining Data at the Local School District…

Iowa Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01