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1

Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.  

PubMed

This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. PMID:24215967

Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

2013-12-01

2

Risk Factors for Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background. Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Methods. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm

Donna L. Washington; Elizabeth M. Yano; James McGuire; Vivian Hines; Martin Lee; Lillian Gelberg

2010-01-01

3

Risk Factors for Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Methods. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm

MPH Elizabeth M. Yano MSPH Donna L. Washington; MSPH Lillian Gelberg

2010-01-01

4

Barriers to Psychosocial Services Among Homeless Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterans make up a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to 4 times more likely to be homeless than nonveteran women. This article provides a grounded description of barriers to psychosocial services among homeless women veterans. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. These women

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Vivian Hines; Donna L. Washington

2012-01-01

5

Correlates of adult assault among homeless women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076

Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary

2010-11-01

6

Homelessness and Trauma Go Hand-in-Hand”: Pathways to Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVeterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation’s homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans’ pathways into homelessness.

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Donna L. Washington

2011-01-01

7

Homeless women's experiences of service provider encounters.  

PubMed

Service providers are gatekeepers to health-sustaining services and resources, although little is known about service encounters from the perspective of homeless women. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 15 homeless women to better understand their experiences of service encounters. Using a phenomenological method, 160 significant statements were extracted from participant transcripts; more positive than negative interactions were reported. The 10 themes that emerged fall along a dehumanizing/humanizing continuum primarily separated by the power participants experienced in the interaction and the trust they felt in the service provider. Implications for nursing practice and research are offered. PMID:24528122

Biederman, Donna J; Nichols, Tracy R

2014-01-01

8

Health of the homeless street women in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a qualitative survey conducted among 88 homeless street women in Johannesburg inner city about their health profile. The survey analysis is a descriptive one that elicits information about the types and causes of diseases prevalent among the street homeless women as well as their access to health care services based on the experiences of the homeless

Olusola Olufemi

1999-01-01

9

The Health Circumstances of Homeless Women in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women have become the fastest growing segment of the homeless population in the United States, yet very little is known about their sociodemographic profile, health status, use of health services, or the relation between their homeless condition to these social and health factors. This study draws on descriptive statistics and the multivariate results from nine major papers produced using data

Lisa Arangua; Ronald Andersen; Lillian Gelberg

2005-01-01

10

Enabling Older Homeless Minority Women to Overcome Homelessness by Using a Life Management Enhancement Group Intervention  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness. PMID:19212866

Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.

2010-01-01

11

Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

2012-01-01

12

The Dynamics of Violence and Homelessness among Young Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…

Swick, Kevin James

2008-01-01

13

The HIV Risk Reduction Needs of Homeless Women in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Background Substance use, housing instability, and transactional sex all contribute to HIV risk engagement among homeless women. Because of the increased risk of HIV among homeless women, this study sought to understand the context of sexual behaviors and condom use among homeless women and elucidate modifiable factors that can be targeted by interventions. Methods Homeless women (n = 45) participated in focus groups (n = 6) at shelters throughout Los Angeles County. Thematic analyses revealed that similar to other high-risk women, homeless women engage in sex with multiple types of partners (steady, casual, and transactional). Findings Our findings indicate that, similar to use among other high-risk women, condom use by homeless women varied by type of partner. Substance use also contributed to condom non-use. In a departure from previous research, homeless women reported overarching feelings of hopelessness. Participants spoke of hopelessness contributing to risk engagement, specifically the number of ongoing stressors experienced because of homelessness contributing to despair. Without acknowledgement of this unique quality of homelessness, women felt their risk reduction needs would never truly be understood. Conclusions Interventions involving homeless women should include self-esteem building, acknowledgment and use of inherent resilience qualities gained during homelessness, respect for current knowledge and skills, and an exploration of when women choose to trust their partners and how they make safer sex choices. PMID:23541392

Cederbaum, Julie A.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Chereji, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

14

Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness  

PubMed Central

This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

2013-01-01

15

Feminisation of poverty among the street homeless women in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of poverty, deprivation and homelessness as a social ill that is eating deep into the society's fabric. It affirms that these concepts are inextricably linked, illustrating this with the case of the street homeless women. Furthermore, it describes the characteristics of street homeless women in Johannesburg inner city and their perception of poverty. It also

Olusola Olufemi

2000-01-01

16

Racial Differences in the Use of Antidepressants and Counseling for Depression Among Homeless Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine how African American race was related to the use of antidepressants and counseling among homeless depressed women. Women were recruited in 18 homeless shelters in four counties in central North Carolina. Head of household homeless mothers with psychiatric and\\/or substance abuse disorders who had dependent children were eligible to participate. One

Betsy L. Sleath; Elizabeth Jackson; Kathleen C. Thomas; James Galloway; Lisa Dumain; Joshua Thorpe; Angela Rollins; Joseph Morrissey

2006-01-01

17

The relationship between spiritual resources and life attitudes of African American homeless women.  

PubMed

Little is known about the relationships between spiritual resources and life attitudes of homeless African American women. Spiritual resources may serve as protective factors for women leaving homelessness. This descriptive study examines spiritual resources, life attitudes, and selected demographics of 160 African American women who were homeless in the Midwestern United States. Participants ranged in age from 30-62 years of age and reported being homeless 1-9 times, with a mean of 1.94 (SD = 1.53) times. The authors draw inferences for how spiritual resources and life attitudes can influence women's efforts to leave homelessness and identify implications for nursing practice. PMID:24702208

Gash, Jean; Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Feen-Calligan, Holly

2014-04-01

18

Homeless and Disabled: Rights, Responsibilities, and Recommendations for Serving Young Children with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…

Gargiulo, Richard M.

2006-01-01

19

Risk of death among homeless women: a cohort study and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Homeless people are at high risk for illness and have higher death rates than the general population. Patterns of mortality among homeless men have been investigated, but less attention has been given to mortality rates among homeless women. We report mortality rates and causes of death in a cohort of women who used homeless shelters in Toronto. We also compare our results with those of other published studies of homeless women and with data for women in the general population. Methods A cohort of 1981 women not accompanied by dependent children who used homeless shelters in Toronto in 1995 was observed for death over a mean of 2.6 years. In addition, we analyzed data from published studies of mortality rates among homeless women in 6 other cities (Montreal, Copenhagen, Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Brighton, UK). Results In Toronto, mortality rates were 515 per 100 000 person-years among homeless women 18–44 years of age and 438 per 100 000 person-years among those 45–64 years of age. Homeless women 18–44 years of age were 10 times more likely to die than women in the general population of Toronto. In studies from a total of 7 cities, the risk of death among homeless women was greater than that among women in the general population by a factor of 4.6 to 31.2 in the younger age group and 1.0 to 2.0 in the older age group. In 6 of the 7 cities, the mortality rates among younger homeless women and younger homeless men were not significantly different. In contrast, in 4 of the 6 cities, the mortality rates were significantly lower among older homeless women than among older homeless men. Interpretation Excess mortality is far greater among homeless women under age 45 years than among older homeless women. Mortality rates among younger homeless women often approach or equal those of younger homeless men. Efforts to reduce deaths of homeless women should focus on those under age 45. PMID:15078846

Cheung, Angela M.; Hwang, Stephen W.

2004-01-01

20

Art Messaging as a Medium to Engage Homeless Young Adults Art Messaging as a Medium to Engage Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. Yet, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Objectives The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Methods Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica. Results The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in person communication, flyers, music, documentary film and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. Conclusions The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real and truthful. . Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use. PMID:21441664

Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel

2013-01-01

21

Does experiencing homelessness affect women’s motivation to change alcohol or drug use??  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Homeless women are at high risk of drug and alcohol dependence and may receive less opportunity for treatment. Our objective was to examine the association between experiencing homelessness and motivation to change drug or alcohol use. Methods Women (n=154) participants in a study of substance dependence at an urban medical center (69 with some homeless days in the last 90 days; 85 continuously housed at baseline) completed 6 items rating motivation to change alcohol or drug use (i.e., importance, readiness, and confidence) at baseline and in 3, 6, and 12-month follow up interviews. Unadjusted, and longitudinal analyses controlling for covariates (e.g., demographics, insurance status, substance use consequences, mental health status, and participation in treatment), were conducted. Results There were no significant differences between women experiencing homeless days versus continuously housed women in the odds of reporting high motivation to change alcohol or drug use, either in unadjusted baseline analyses or longitudinal analyses adjusted for covariates. Covariates that were significantly associated with high importance, readiness or confidence to change behavior were higher life time consequences of substance use, and participation in 12-step programs. Discussion and Conclusions The findings suggest that clinicians should not make assumptions that homeless women have low motivation to change their substance use. Scientific Significance and Future Directions The same opportunities for addiction treatment should be offered to homeless as to housed women. PMID:24313245

Upshur, Carole C.; Weinreb, Linda; Cheng, Debbie M.; Kim, Theresa W.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Saitz, Richard

2013-01-01

22

Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

Ferguson, Kristin M.

2009-01-01

23

Social network characteristics and risky sexual and drug related behaviors among homeless young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research finds high rates of risky sexual and drug related behavior among homeless young people, little research had examined how the characteristics of their social networks encourage or constrain risky behaviors. Based on a sample of 145 homeless young adults in the Midwestern United States, results revealed that having used alcohol with at least one of their network members

Kimberly A. Tyler

2008-01-01

24

The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.  

PubMed

Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630

Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

2014-08-01

25

A qualitative study of pregnancy intention and the use of contraception among homeless women with children.  

PubMed

We undertook a qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory to explore pregnancy intention and the barriers to contraceptive use as perceived by homeless women with children. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were performed in English and in Spanish. The dominant theme emerging from the interviews was a strong desire to avoid pregnancy while homeless. However, few women in our sample used contraception or accessed reproductive health care consistently. There were multiple barriers to using contraception and to accessing reproductive health care services that homeless women reported: (1) inability to prioritize health due to competing demands, (2) shelter-related obstacles and restrictive provider practices that impede access to reproductive health care services and the use of contraception, and (3) change in the power dynamics of sexual relationships while homeless, making women more vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Findings suggest a multifactorial approach is needed to help homeless women use contraception and access reproductive health services. PMID:24858884

Kennedy, Sara; Grewal, Mandeep; Roberts, Elizabeth M; Steinauer, Jody; Dehlendorf, Christine

2014-05-01

26

Everyday Experiences of Homeless Young People in Supported Accommodation Programmes in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates young people's accounts of governance in their everyday lives within a Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP) in regional Australia. The SAAP is a joint Commonwealth and State/Territory programme for assisting people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness by providing transitional supported accommodation and…

Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann; Leiminer, Michele

2006-01-01

27

Decision-making about cervical cancer screening methods by homeless women.  

PubMed

To evaluate the perspectives and preferences of homeless women for traditional provider- and a novel low cost self-collected cytology screening technique, 17 interviews were conducted with women who participated in both phases of a comparative trial. Subjects were recruited from a comprehensive homeless service center and a residential program serving homeless women. Constructivist grounded theory guided data collection and analysis. Results showed self-collection was favored over provider-collected cytology, but that the women perceived that test accuracy trumped comfort. Although many women expressed inaccurate perceptions and beliefs about cervical cancer and screening, the women participated in and valued screening. Misconceptions about cervical malignancy and prevention strategies contributed to their complex appraisal of the two screening methods. Homeless women may partner with providers to develop and test effective interventions with high promise for improving their health and these insights may aid in developing effective interventions for diverse underserved communities. PMID:24218868

Pieters, Huibrie C; Wiley, Dorothy J

2013-07-01

28

Quilting in Self-Efficacy Group Work With Older African American Women Leaving Homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of quilting as an art therapy intervention in a self-efficacy group of African American women who were leaving homelessness is examined in this article. Two quilting workshops (n = 8; n = 12) contributed to a larger parent project (N = 530 over a 10-year period), entitled the “Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project,” conducted in a U.S. Midwestern

David P. Moxley; Holly R. Feen-Calligan; Olivia G. M. Washington; Lois Garriott

2011-01-01

29

Breast Cancer in Young Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Podcasts Health-e-Cards Web Badges Infographics Twitter Breast Cancer in Young Women Share Compartir Most breast cancers ... lower your risk. What Is CDC Doing about Breast Cancer in Young Women? CDC works with public, non- ...

30

Adapting an evidence-based intervention for homeless women: engaging the community in shared decision-making.  

PubMed

As interest grows in the diffusion of evidence-based interventions (EBIs), there is increasing concern about how to mitigate implementation challenges; this paper concerns adapting an EBI for homeless women. Complementing earlier focus groups with homeless women, homeless service providers (n = 32) were engaged in focus groups to assess capacity, needs, and barriers with implementation of EBIs. Deductive analyses of data led to the selection of four EBIs. Six consensus groups were then undertaken; three each with homeless women (n = 24) and homeless service providers (n = 21). The selected EBI was adapted and pretested with homeless women (n = 9) and service providers (n = 6). The structured consensus group process provided great utility and affirmed the expertise of homeless women and service providers as experts in their domain. Engaging providers in the selection process reduced the structural barriers within agencies as obstacles to diffusion. PMID:25418227

Cederbaum, Julie A; Song, Ahyoung; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L

2014-11-01

31

Predictors of Substance Abuse Treatment Need and Receipt Among Homeless Women  

PubMed Central

Many homeless women do not receive needed treatment for substance abuse. This study identified social network and other predisposing factors associated with perceived need for and receipt of substance abuse treatment among 273 homeless women who screened positive for past year substance abuse. Perceived treatment need was more likely among women with drug-using sex partners, a denser network, and an arrest history, but less likely for those with a minor child and longer history of homelessness. Receiving treatment was more likely among women who received informational support from their sex partners and who had an arrest history, but less likely among those who had a more street-based social network, had a minor child, considered themselves homeless, and recently needed mental health treatment. Treatment services researchers should attend more closely to social contextual factors, as well as the more traditional individual factors, to understand access and barriers to treatment. PMID:21185682

Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Green, Harold D.

2010-01-01

32

Homelessness and Young Children: Early Childhood Care and Education. Minibibliography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, states must have policies and procedures in place that ensure timely assessment, appropriate services, and continuity of services for children with disabilities who are homeless. IDEA 2004 specifically requires states to comply with the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance…

Goode, Susan, Comp.; Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.

2006-01-01

33

Psychiatric disorders and treatment among newly homeless young adults with histories of foster care  

PubMed Central

Objective While foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as childhood abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. However, whether a history of foster care elevates the likelihood of psychiatric disorders and treatment among homeless young adults, after adjustment for childhood abuse, is unknown. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults, controlling for childhood abuse and other covariates. Methods Among a consecutive sample of 424 newly homeless young adults (18 to 21 years) in a crisis shelter, logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, psychotic) and psychiatric treatment, adjusted for demographics, childhood abuse, substance abuse, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Results Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely to report any psychiatric disorder (AOR=1.70) and twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder (AOR=2.17), been prescribed psychiatric medication (AOR=2.26), and been hospitalized for psychiatric problems (AOR=2.15) than those without such histories. Conclusions Histories of foster care should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders among homeless young adults to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, hospitalization) tailored to their psychiatric needs. PMID:22706986

Thompson, Ronald G.; Hasin, Deborah S.

2013-01-01

34

Hospitalizations Among Homeless Women: Are There Ethnic and Drug Abuse Disparities?  

PubMed Central

This paper explores associations among the vulnerabilities of being female, being a member of a minority group, and being a drug abuser in homeless women’s hospitalizations. It uses a 1997 probability survey of 974 homeless females age 15–44 in Los Angeles. In unadjusted analyses, whites were more likely than other ethnic minority groups to be hospitalized, and drug abusers were more likely to be hospitalized than non-drug abusers. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that factors associated with hospitalization differed considerably among the ethnic and drug-abuse subgroups. For example, ethnic disparities in inpatient health care were found for drug-abusing women, but not for those who did not abuse drugs. Pregnancy was the only important determinant of hospitalization in all subgroups (OR, 2.9–17.4). Preventing unintended pregnancy appears to be the most inclusive means of reducing hospitalization and attendant costs among homeless women. PMID:18923904

Gelberg, Lillian; Andersen, Ronald; Longshore, Douglas; Leake, Barbara; Nyamathi, Adeline; Teruya, Cheryl; Arangua, Lisa

2013-01-01

35

Time Seizures and the Self: Institutional Temporalities and Self-preservation Among Homeless Women.  

PubMed

This article documents temporalities of homelessness as experienced by many homeless people today, those living in the midst of an urban "services ghetto"-where social service organizations abound, but such organizations fail to coordinate the provision or timing of services, producing an incoherent multiplicity of offerings and schedules. I analyzed distinct but related temporal modes by which institutional timetables controlled homeless women's existence, what I call empty time and overscheduled time. The paradoxes of institutionalized waiting and strict yet inconsistent timetables exacted profound material and psychological tolls. For homeless women in Chicago, many of whom experienced symptoms of severe mental illness, simply securing their daily needs was such a time-consuming endeavor that they had to focus on short-term self-preservation rather than seeking stable employment or housing. Using anthropological theories of self and subjectivity, I argue that what was at stake for many women was more than the exhaustion of shelter life-negotiating institutional timetables also threatened their sense of dignity and humanity. Through the everyday patterning of women's time, non-profit agencies whose stated aim was to eliminate homelessness paradoxically frustrated women's efforts to escape life on the streets. I conclude the analysis with policy suggestions to address these problems. PMID:25287573

Cooper, Amy

2014-10-01

36

Psychosocial Predictors of Rule Following in Hostels for Women Experiencing Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the psychosocial factors impacting upon the rule-following behaviour of residents of a hostel providing crisis accommodation to women who are homeless. After their arrival, residents of a women's hostel (N=83) completed questionnaires assessing the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived…

White, Katherine; Wood, Maria

2011-01-01

37

Bidirectional Partner Violence among Homeless Young Adults: Risk Factors and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most prevalent forms of violence in contemporary society is the victimization of intimate partners. Although it has been established that homeless young people experience high levels of victimization on the street, little is known about partner violence (PV) experiences among this group, especially bidirectional violence. As such, the…

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.; Noel, HarmoniJoie

2009-01-01

38

On the Road: Examining Self-Representation and Discourses of Homelessness in Young Adult Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors analyze representations of social issues within contemporary memoirs written for and marketed to a young adult audience and multimodal zines produced by homeless youth. To read across these distinctly different texts (mass marketed and do-it-yourself cultural productions) and genres (memoir and zines), the authors…

Rogers, Theresa; Marshall, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

39

How Attention to Family Stress Dynamics can Prevent Homelessness Among Very Young Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the pervasiveness of homelessness among young families, few early childhood professionals realize the exacerbated\\u000a stresses that push them into their circumstances. This chapter seeks to explore the etiology of risk factors (especially substances\\u000a abuse and illiteracy), elaborate on how they affect the lives of young families, highlight ways that they respond to these\\u000a factors, and detail possible avenues that

Kevin James Swick; Reginald Harrison Williams

40

Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

1991-01-01

41

New Visions of Me: Finding Joy in Recovery With Women Who Are Homeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shifting from a problem-based system of supports for those who are experiencing co-occurring substance and mental health disorders, there has been an increased need to explore the importance of fun, play, and pleasure's role in recovery. The following article describes an innovative intervention, New Visions of Me, with women in New Haven, Connecticut, who have experienced homelessness and dual disorders

Martha Staeheli Lawless; Michael Rowe; Rebecca Miller

2009-01-01

42

The Relationship Between Violence Dimensions and Symptom Severity Among Homeless, Mentally Ill Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the relationship between violence and symptomatology in the lives of homeless, mentally ill women. This study investigates the possibility that specific dimensions of violence—frequency, recentness and type—may be associated with severity of psychiatric symptomatology in this population. Results indicate that each of the abuse dimensions is associated with a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and, in

Lisa A. Goodman; Mary Ann Dutton; Maxine Harris

1997-01-01

43

A Randomized Control Trial of a Chronic Care Intervention for Homeless Women With Alcohol Use Problems.  

PubMed

A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a primary care provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a care manager (CM) for 6months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest that screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

2014-11-21

44

Factors associated with poor mental health status among homeless women with and without dependent children.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental health problems among a representative sample of homeless women with and without dependent children and determine if the effects of risk factors for mental health are modified by the presence of dependent children. Homeless women (n = 522) were recruited in 2004-2005 from shelters and meal programs in Toronto, Canada. Linear and logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with mental health status. Poor mental health was associated with low perceived access to social support, physical/sexual assault in the past 12 months, presence of a chronic health condition, and presence of a drug use problem in the past month. Efforts to improve mental health in this population will need to address the associated problems of victimization, substance abuse, and lack of social supports. PMID:23423484

Chambers, Catharine; Chiu, Shirley; Scott, Allison N; Tolomiczenko, George; Redelmeier, Donald A; Levinson, Wendy; Hwang, Stephen W

2014-07-01

45

Homelessness and drug abuse among young men who have sex with men in New York city: a preliminary epidemiological trajectory.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N = 569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and sexual risk, we compare and contrast three subgroups: (1) YMSM with no history of homelessness, (2) YMSM with a past history of homelessness but who were not homeless at the time of the interview, and (3) YMSM who were currently homeless. For each group, we describe the prevalence of a broad range of stressful life events (including foster care and runaway episodes, involvement in the criminal justice system, etc.), as well as selected mental health problems (including past suicide attempts, current depression, and selected help-seeking variables). Additionally, we examine the prevalence of selected drug and sexual risk, including exposure to a broad range of illegal substances, current use of illegal drugs, and prevalence of lifetime exposure to sex work. Finally, we use an event history analysis approach (time-event displays and paired t-test analysis) to examine the timing of negative life experiences and homelessness relative to the onset of drug and sexual risk. High levels of background negative life experiences and manifest mental health distress are seen in all three groups. Both a prior experience of homelessness and currently being homeless are both strongly associated with both higher levels of lifetime exposure to drug and sexual risk as well as higher levels of current drug and sexual risk. Onset of these risks occur earlier in both groups that have had an experience of housing instability (e.g., runaway, foster care, etc.) but are delayed or not present among YMSM with no history of housing instability. Few YMSM had used drug prior to becoming homeless. While causal inferences are subject to the limitations of a cross-sectional design, the findings pose an empirical challenge to the prevailing assumption that prior drug use is a dominant causal factor in YMSM becoming homeless. More broadly, the data illustrate the complexity of factors that must be accounted for, both in advancing our epidemiological understanding of the complexity of homelessness and its relationship to the onset of drug and sexual risk among high risk youth populations. PMID:15878043

Clatts, Michael C; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

2005-04-01

46

Risk factors for homelessness and sex trade among incarcerated women: A Structural equation model.  

PubMed

Incarcerated women are among the most vulnerable and perhaps the least studied populations in the US. Significant proportions of female inmates are substance users, and many living in unstable housing conditions or being homeless. Female inmates are often at high risk of engaging in sex exchange for drugs or housing needs. While a disproportionate number of incarcerated women have experienced childhood household adversities and maltreatments, the effects of these childhood experiences on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of this population in later life. We apply a life course perspective to examine these pathways in a sample of incarcerated women in Cook County, Illinois. Findings demonstrated lasting, but differential, effects of household adversities and childhood abuse on subsequent life risks and opportunities among these women. PMID:22162944

Kim, Seijeoung; Johnson, Timothy P; Goswami, Samir; Puisis, Michael

2011-01-01

47

Impact of nursing intervention on improving HIV, hepatitis knowledge and mental health among homeless young adults.  

PubMed

In a prospective two-group pilot study of a convenient sample of 156 young adults, we assessed improvement in HIV cognitive and transmission knowledge, hepatitis knowledge, and mental health at six-month follow-up. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed higher six-month scores in total HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV/AIDS cognitive knowledge, HIV transmission knowledge and HBV and HCV knowledge at 6 months in the Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) group compared to the Art Messaging (AM) group. Moreover, homeless young participants who reported having significant others in their lives, and excellent or very good health did better than their counterparts. Youth who were attempting to get their lives together had higher scores for all types of knowledge except HBV. Hallucinogen users had significantly worse scores on all knowledge measures than non-users. Lastly, the HHP group revealed an improvement in psychological well-being compared to the AM group. PMID:22797748

Nyamathi, Adeline; Kennedy, Barbara; Branson, Catherine; Salem, Benissa; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Marfisee, Mary; Getzoff, Daniel; Leake, Barbara

2013-04-01

48

Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

2008-01-01

49

Young women and politics: an oxymoron?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with the findings of the burgeoning literature on

Jacqueline Ellen Briggs

2008-01-01

50

Unwritten: Young Women Faculty in Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: As women professors of educational leadership who are involved with feminist research and the preparation of k-12 women leaders, the authors came to the realization that while they have dedicated their professional lives to advancing women leaders in the k-12 environment, they have neglected women like themselves, particularly young

Sherman, Whitney H.; Beaty, Danna M.; Crum, Karen S.; Peters, April

2010-01-01

51

Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population. PMID:24807702

Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

2014-06-01

52

Embodied Subjectivities: Nine Young Women Talking Dance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine nine Australian young women's embodied experiences of dance. The young women were all amateur dancers involved in weekly jazz, tap, and ballet dance classes at the same dance studio. In this paper, embodiment is defined as multidimensional (Burkitt 1999). The authors explore the ways the corporeal and…

O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Pryor, Zoe; Gray, Tonia

2013-01-01

53

Supporting Homeless Youth: Perspectives and Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homelessness among adolescents and young adults is a growing concern in Canada and other countries, yet little is known about their support needs and support intervention preferences from the perspectives of homeless youth or youth at risk of homelessness. The authors assessed these needs and preferences through individual and group interviews with homeless adolescents and young adults (n = 35)

Miriam Stewart; Linda Reutter; Nicole Letourneau; Edward Makwarimba; Krista Hungler

2010-01-01

54

Using Social Justice Group Work with Young Mothers Who Experience Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates (e.g., Bassuk et al., 1997) that women and children make up a large percentage of the total number of individuals living without permanent shelter. This article represents a reflective analysis of our work as group facilitators who conducted a series of personal growth groups for young mothers living in a residential facility…

Coker, Angela D.; Meyer, Dixie; Smith, Rachelle; Price, Amber

2010-01-01

55

Young Women Online: Collaboratively Constructing Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I examine how young women construct their identities with others in online communities. I argue that the proliferation of social networking and its popularity among young people means that performed identities are increasingly collaboratively constructed, with the individual having less control over their public image than was…

Paechter, Carrie

2013-01-01

56

Prevalence of osteopenia among sedentary young women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was evaluating prevalence of osteopenia in young women.40 young untrained women between the age of 20-25 years (obese n = 20, BMI > 30 and thin n = 20, BMI < 20) volunteered to participate in this study. Bone mass density (BMD), percentage body fat and lean mass (g/cm2) were measured with the dual X-ray absorptiometry scans (DEXA). Student's t-test was used for determining the amount of bone normalizing among subjects. The study finding showed that 20% of obese and 65% of thin women had osteopenia and thin groups 3.2% more than obese groups were at risk of bone loss. These findings will help educate the medical community and the public about the importance of prevention--targeting young women who are at risk while they still have time to change their habits and improve their bone health. PMID:22066288

Habibzadeh, N

2011-03-01

57

[Health status and medical care accessibility of single, homeless persons].  

PubMed

The homeless population in Germany is continually increasing. Featuring prominently among those on the increase are women, young persons and homeless people from East Germany. Studies of the health of homeless individuals in recent years show that indices of illness are far higher for many disorders than for comparable groups who are housed. One result from a recent study by the University of Mainz (1994) was that more than 90% of homeless people urgently need medical treatment. According this research, the main health problems of the homeless are: cardiac disease (hypertension, CAD) (52.5%), skin disease (scabies, lice, leg ulcers, abscesses, pyodermias) and acute infections (50%), lower respiratory tract (COAD) (47.5%) and trauma victims (50%), followed by liver (30%), kidney (25%) and gastrointestinal diseases (GU) (20%). The problems of alcoholism and mental disorders of various sorts are added to this picture. Violence to homeless people is increasing. A lot of homeless people are multi-morbid. The relationship between the time of homelessness and the state of illness was not linear. It was found that in the beginning of homelessness most of the homeless people were in a poor physical condition. The poor physical condition of homeless people does not stem from only one cause, but results from a combination of different factors: individual social conditions (social class; social relations; sedentary lifestyle), personal or family life crisis (life events and coping behaviour), the individual risk behaviour (for instance the bizarre sleeping accommodations, alcohol and cigarette consumption unemployment in a depressed economy, structure of the society (cutbacks in government welfare and social service programmes). As a result of bad experiences with existing medical institutions, homeless persons do not consult the doctor or too late. Many are afraid of large institutions; most are not members of a health insurance scheme (uninsured); and many are perceived in some sense to be "undesirable" as patients. Medical care offers for homeless people must be re-examined and changed appropriately in accordance with the requirements of the patients and the acceptability of the measures. Health care for the homeless is sorely needed. It is an urgent necessity to create special low-level acceptance medical care institutions. This health care service should be made available to homeless persons at the places where they gather (to set up a mobile medical service, medical streetwork, medical care ambulances). The interdisciplinary theme approach, which integrates the skills of physicians, nurses and social workers, is an invaluable strategy for establishing though and continuous care. Without good health, homeless people cannot resolve their other basic problems; and people simply cannot be healthy if they do not have a stable place to live. PMID:9333372

Trabert, G

1997-06-01

58

Perceptions of Students about Younger and Older Men and Women who May Be Homeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future human service providers will interact with homeless persons in health, mental health, and social service practice contexts. This study investigated the perceptions of students enrolled in social work courses who are pursuing degrees in human service programs toward older and younger female and male homeless individuals. Respondents (N = 207) were given one of four vignettes in which a

Michael N. Kane; Diane Green; Robin J. Jacobs

2010-01-01

59

Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

60

Special Populations of Homeless Americans Special Populations of Homeless Americans by  

E-print Network

Surveys conducted over the past two decades have demonstrated that homeless Americans are exceptionally diverse and include representatives from all segments of society—the old and the young; men and women; single people and families; city dwellers and rural residents; whites and people of color; and able-bodied workers and people with serious health problems. Veterans, who are among the most honored citizens in our society, appear in substantial numbers among the homeless, as do former criminal offenders and illegal immigrants. Each of these groups experiences distinctive forms of adversity resulting from both societal structures and personal vulnerabilities, and has unique service delivery needs. All, however, experience extreme poverty, lack of housing, and a mixture of internally impaired or externally inhibited functional capabilities. Attention to the distinctive characteristics of subgroups of the homeless is important in facilitating service delivery and program planning, but may also diffuse attention away from shared fundamental needs, and generate unproductive policy debate about deserving vs. undeserving homeless people. Lessons for Practitioners, Policy Makers, and Researchers People who are homeless reflect the nation’s diversity, and their special characteristics and needs must be identified, respected, and addressed. In addition to responding to basic needs for shelter, food, clothing and medical care, the unique needs of each subgroup of homeless person should be sensitively addressed. Systematic assessment is frequently required to identify the specific needs of each subgroup among the homeless population. Despite their diversity, almost all homeless people are extremely poor and lack decent affordable housing and an adequate income. Regardless of their other difficulties, practitioners must address their basic tangible needs for material resources. Although it is essential that providers help facilitate homeless people’s access to basic resources, they also should advocate for increasing the overall pool of resources. Providers are often in a position to be powerful advocates.

Robert Rosenheck M. D; Ellen Bassuk M. D; Amy Salomon Ph. D

61

Correlates of Self-Reported Incarceration Among Homeless Gay and Bisexual Stimulant-Using Young Adults.  

PubMed

Gay and bisexual (G/B) homeless adults face multiple challenges in life which may place them at high risk for incarceration. Yet, little is known about this understudied population in terms of risk for incarceration. Baseline data collected from a longitudinal study between October 2009 and March 2012 in Hollywood, California, explored correlates of self-reported incarceration among G/B homeless stimulant-using adults (N = 353). Findings revealed older age, less education, having children, as well as a history of injection drug use and being born in the United States were positively associated with incarceration. Moreover, having poor social support and having received hepatitis information were also correlated with a history of incarceration. Our findings help us gain a greater awareness of homeless G/B adults who may be at greater risk for incarceration, which may be used by health care providers to design targeted interventions for this underserved population. PMID:24733231

Nyamathi, Adeline; Reback, Cathy J; Salem, Benissa E; Zhang, Sheldon; Shoptaw, Steven; Branson, Catherine M; Leake, Barbara

2014-04-14

62

Sensual Sexuality Education with Young Parenting Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women

Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.

2014-01-01

63

Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…

Frisco, Michelle L.

2005-01-01

64

Young Men and Young Women. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood. ASPE Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet considers differences in behaviors and outcomes between young men and young women as they transition to adulthood. It also considers whether differences between young men and young women are related to the fact that some women are caring for children. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the analysis compares…

Zielewski, Erica H.

2009-01-01

65

Does pornography influence young women’s sexual behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young women (n = 1,000), visiting a family planning clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, answered a questionnaire about their sexual behavior and if they had seen pornography. Four out of five had consumed pornography, and one-third of these believed that pornography had impacted their sexual behavior. As many as 47% had experienced anal intercourse, which was significantly more common among older

Christina Rogala; Tanja Tydén

2003-01-01

66

The effectiveness of critical time intervention for abused women and homeless people leaving Dutch shelters: study protocol of two randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425

2013-01-01

67

Young Women and the Co-Construction of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Young women's leadership is an area frequently overlooked in educational leadership development. This paper aims to bring young women's voices into educational leadership conversations and illustrate an alternative approach to young women's leadership development. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative action research study was…

McNae, Rachel

2010-01-01

68

Cigarette, marijuana, and alcohol use and prior drug treatment among newly homeless young adults in New York City: relationship to a history of foster care  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with the risk for substance use among newly homeless young adults, controlling for demographics and other risk factors. Methods Multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for controls, among consecutive admissions of 424 newly homeless young adults (18 to 21 years), determined the association between foster care and substance use. Results A history of foster care was reported by 35% of the sample. Alcohol, marijuana, and cigarettes were the most frequently used substances. After adjusting for demographics, childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and family drug use, homeless young adults with histories of foster care were: three times as likely to smoke cigarettes (AOR=3.09); more than three times as likely to use marijuana (AOR=3.30); and almost nine times as likely to have been in drug treatment (AOR=8.81) than those without such histories. Conclusions It is important to screen homeless young adults who exited foster care for substance use, particularly cigarettes and marijuana. Risk reduction interventions should be targeted and tailored to their substance prevention needs. PMID:21288659

Thompson, Ronald G.; Hasin, Deborah S.

2011-01-01

69

Center for Young Women's Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children's Hospital Boston has created a health information site for teen girls that teaches them about important topics ranging from "Health & Development" to "Driving Safety" to "Emotional Health". Visitors will find that the "Ask Us!" feature is one that's vitally important for easily embarrassed teens, because it allows them to ask a health question without asking for their name or e-mail. This website also features three teen "Youth Advisors", participants in the Youth Advisory Program at the Children's Hospital Boston, who have been trained to educate their peers on health topics. They write and publish "Teen Talk", a quarterly newsletter with health information, and visit schools to give health presentations. Visitors will find that Children's Hospital Boston hasn't forgotten about teen boys' health, as they have their own site called "Young Men's Health", which can be accessed from this site by clicking on the "Guys' Guides" link on the left hand menu, near the bottom of the page.

2010-08-20

70

Center for Young Women's Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children's Hospital Boston has created a health information site for teen girls that teaches them about important topics ranging from "Health & Development" to "Driving Safety" to "Emotional Health". Visitors will find that the "Ask Us!" feature is one that's vitally important for easily embarrassed teens, because it allows them to ask a health question without asking for their name or e-mail. This website also features three teen "Youth Advisors", participants in the Youth Advisory Program at the Children's Hospital Boston, who have been trained to educate their peers on health topics. They write and publish "Teen Talk", a quarterly newsletter with health information, and visit schools to give health presentations. Visitors will find that Children's Hospital Boston hasn't forgotten about teen boys' health, as they have their own site called "Young Men's Health", which can be accessed from this site by clicking on the "Guys' Guides" link on the left hand menu, near the bottom of the page.

71

When, where, why and with whom homeless women engage in risky sexual behaviors: A framework for understanding complex and varied decision-making processes  

PubMed Central

Impoverished women worldwide are at high risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. This study explores how homeless women make risky sex decisions and the role that alcohol and drugs play in this process. We analyze 56 in-depth qualitative descriptions of recent sexual episodes among 28 women living in shelters in Los Angeles, California, USA. The sample (age 18–63) was 46% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latina, and 21% white. Findings suggest that: (1) homeless women engage in multiple types of relationships and sexual behaviors; (2) emotion and attachment play critical roles in women’s risky sex choices; and (3) the role of alcohol and drugs on such choices varies across relationship commitment. Understanding the complexity of sexual decision-making among this population has implications for developing successful risk reduction interventions. PMID:20485467

Ryan, Gery W.; Stern, Stefanie A.; Hilton, Lara; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

2010-01-01

72

Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.  

PubMed

Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing. PMID:24572457

Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

2014-08-01

73

Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Stroke in Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Antiphospholipid antibodies have been associated with ischemic stroke in some but not all studies. Methods—We performed a population-based case-control study examining antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulants) using stored frozen sera and plasma in 160 cases and 340 controls enrolled in the Stroke Prevention in Young Women study. We evaluated for the presence of anticardiolipin antibody (IgG,

Robin L. Brey; Christian L. Stallworth; David L. McGlasson; Marcella A. Wozniak; Robert J. Wityk; Barney J. Stern; Michael A. Sloan; Roger Sherwin; Thomas R. Price; Richard F. Macko; Constance J. Johnson; Christopher J. Earley; David W. Buchholz; J. Richard Hebel; Steven J. Kittner

74

The Everyday Violence of Hepatitis C Among Young Women Who Inject Drugs in San Francisco.  

PubMed

A theoretical understanding of the gendered contours of structural, everyday and symbolic violence suggests that young addicted women are particularly vulnerable to the infectious diseases caused by injection drug use-especially hepatitis C. Participant-observation fieldwork among heroin and speed addicts in San Francisco's Haight Ashbury neighborhood reveals that extreme levels of violence against women are normalized in the common sense of street-youth drug culture. Physical, sexual and emotional violence, as well as the pragmatics of income generation, including drug and resource sharing in the moral economy of street addicts, oblige most young homeless women to enter into relationships with older men. These relationships are usually abusive and economically parasitical to the women. Sexual objectification and a patriarchal romantic discourse of love and moral worth leads to the misrecognition of gender power inequities by both the men and women who are embroiled in them, as well as by many of the public services and research projects designed to help or control substance abusers. Despite deep epistemological, theoretical and logistical gulfs between quantitative and qualitative methods, applied public health research and the interventions they inform can benefit from the insights provided by a theoretical and cross-methodological focus on how social power contexts shape the spread of infectious disease and promote disproportional levels of social suffering in vulnerable populations. PMID:16685288

Bourgois, Philippe; Prince, Bridget; Moss, Andrew

2004-09-01

75

pynk : Breast Cancer Program for Young Women  

PubMed Central

Consider this scenario: A 35-year-old recently married woman is referred to a surgeon because of a growing breast lump. After a core biopsy shows cancer, she undergoes mastectomy for a 6-cm invasive lobular cancer that has spread to 8 axillary nodes. By the time she sees the medical oncologist, she is told that it is too late for a fertility consultation, and she receives a course of chemotherapy. At clinic appointments, she seems depressed and admits that her husband has been less supportive than she had hoped. After tamoxifen is started, treatment-related sexuality problems and the probability of infertility contribute to increasing strain on the couple’s relationship. Their marriage ends two years after the woman’s diagnosis. Six years after her diagnosis, this woman has completed all treatment, is disease-free, and is feeling extremely well physically. However, she is upset about being postmenopausal, and she is having difficulty adopting a child as a single woman with a history of breast cancer. Could this woman and her husband have been offered additional personalized interventions that might have helped them better cope with the breast cancer diagnosis and the effects of treatment? Compared with their older counterparts, young women with breast cancer often have greater and more complex supportive care needs. The present article describes the goals, achievements, and future plans of a specialized interdisciplinary program—the first of its kind in Canada—for women 40 years of age and younger newly diagnosed with breast cancer. The program was created to optimize the complex clinical care and support needs of this population, to promote research specifically targeting issues unique to young women, and to educate the public and health care professionals about early detection of breast cancer in young women and about the special needs of those women after their diagnosis. PMID:23443036

Ali, A.; Warner, E.

2013-01-01

76

Coping Mediates the Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and Alcohol Use in Homeless, Ethnically Diverse Women: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeless women are at increased risk for problematic alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While coping motives have been shown to mediate the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems in victims of sexual assault and domestic violence, it is unknown whether this relationship is evident in other trauma-exposed populations. The focus of this study was to examine whether

Elizabeth A. Yeater; Julia L. Austin; Monica J. Green; Jane Ellen Smith

2010-01-01

77

Young women's scientific identity formation in an urban context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we examine the scientific identity formation of two young women of color who attend an urban vocational high school. One young woman lives in an urban setting, while the other lives in a suburban setting. We describe how these young women's identities influence and respond to experiences in school science. In particular, we describe how the experience

Nancy W. Brickhouse; Jennifer T. Potter

2001-01-01

78

Modifiable determinants of bone status in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contributions of exercise, fitness, body composition, and calcium intake during adolescence to peak bone mineral density and bone structural measurements in young women. University Hospital and 75 healthy, white females in the longitudinal Penn State Young Women’s Health Study were included. Body composition, total body, and hip bone mineral density (BMD)

T Lloyd; T. J Beck; H.-M Lin; M Tulchinsky; D. F Eggli; T. L Oreskovic; P. R Cavanagh; E Seeman

2002-01-01

79

Romantic Relationships and Body Satisfaction among Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we examined associations between young women's romantic relationships and their body image. Ninety-five heterosexual couples (women's mean age=22.46 and men's mean age=24.38) participated in this study. We examined young women's satisfaction with their own bodies, their "perceptions" of their significant others' satisfaction…

Markey, Charlotte N.; Markey, Patrick M.

2006-01-01

80

Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

2011-01-01

81

A TYPOLOGY OF DRUG-RELATED OFFENDING AMONG YOUNG HOMELESS INJECTION DRUG USERS  

PubMed Central

Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21423855

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.

2011-01-01

82

Homelessness and Its Effects on Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homelessness influences every facet of children's lives, inhibiting their physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Homeless women face such obstacles to healthy pregnancies as chemical abuse, chronic health problems, and lack of prenatal care. Homeless infants are more likely to have low birth weights and are at greater…

Hart-Shegos, Ellen

83

Pushed Out: America's Homeless. Thanksgiving 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By winter 1987, up to three million men, women, and children will be homeless; the number of homeless persons will continue to increase at a rate of 25 percent. This report surveys the changes in the homeless population in the following 23 cities over the past year: Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Boston (Massachusetts), Chicago…

National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

84

Cardiac condition in young chagasic women  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Chagas disease is a complex disorder caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Most patients remain asymptomatic for several years and 30% of them progress quietly to developing cardiomyopathy. The factors that lead to chronic myocardial lesions are not fully understood. Objective: To investigate the association between clinical symptoms and single nucleotide polymorphisms in chagasic and non-chagasic women younger and older than 55 years of age. Methods and Results: we analyzed Ala-9Val and Ile58Thr polymorphisms of the SOD-Mn gene, 138ex1ins/del A of the endothelin-1 gene (ET-1) and H323H (T/C) of the endothelin receptor A gene (ETA), by PCR-RFLP using genomic DNA from leukocyte of 85 women. We also evaluated serum lipid profile, renal and liver function, chest X-rays, electrocardiograms (ECGs) and echocardiography (EchoCG). Biochemical profiling did not show differences between chagasic and non-chagasic patients. The polymorphisms analyses showed a significant association in the distribution of frequencies of the Mn-SOD Ile58Thr gene between both groups. Young chagasic patients had a significantly higher prevalence of abnormalities in X-rays, in ECGs and they showed grade II and III of NYHA functional classes. The chance of having an abnormal EchoCG was 5.87 higher in young chagasic patients (OR=5.87, 95% CI 1.47-23.4). Discussion: We concluded that the parasite affects young females by accelerating the deterioration of cardiac function, independent of other cardiovascular risk factors and the cardioprotective action of estrogens present in the premenopausal stage. PMID:23904881

Lassen, O; Dotto, G; Ojeda, S; Garutti, A; Bertolotto, P; Tabares, S; Gallerano, R; Sembaj, A

2013-01-01

85

Narrating Neighborhood: Denying Young Women's Public Voices about Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a youth-centered activist project with a group of young women in Brooklyn, NY, and the controversy surrounding it. In 1999 the young women created a neighborhood mural with anti-violence themes. Within 6 months of the mural's dedication, the mural was whitewashed by the corporate owner of the mural wall. Using content and…

Bertram, Corrine C.

2008-01-01

86

Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

2010-01-01

87

76 FR 9577 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women: Notice of Charter Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women: Notice of Charter...that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National Center...Officer, Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National...

2011-02-18

88

Impact of Poverty, Homelessness, and Drugs on Hispanic Women at Risk for HIV Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of AIDS among Hispanic women has been increasing more rapidly than among non-Hispanic women. Yet little is known about the crisesHispanic women at risk may experience and the ways they deal with their most immediate concerns. The purpose of this study was to assess the concerns and stresses experienced by Hispanic women, the coping responses commonly used, perceivedfeelings

Adeline Nyamathi; Rose Vasquez

1989-01-01

89

Sex role identification and young women's irrational beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to examine the relationship between young women's beliefs about approval, frustration, and dependency and their sex-role identification. Sixty-six college women responded to a questionnaire which contained the Irrational Beliefs Test (Jones, 1969) and the Multidimensional Sex Role Inventory (MSRI; Bernard, 1981). As predicted, women who score high in irrational beliefs concerning approval, frustration, and dependency

Tracy L. Vining; William P. Gaeddert; Naomi B. McCormick

1990-01-01

90

Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women  

PubMed Central

Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI. Conclusions Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of young women (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design. PMID:23886074

2013-01-01

91

Moving Here Saved My Life: The Experience of Formerly Chronically Homeless Women and Men in Quincy's Housing First Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past ten years, Father Bill’s Place (FBP) in Quincy, Massachusetts, has moved steadily towards providing permanent housing with supportive services rather than emergency shelter as a solution to ending homelessness. According to John Yazwinski, executive director of FBP, the vision for the future is to be able to independently house every homeless person entering FBP within a short

Tatjana Meschede

2006-01-01

92

The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

2009-01-01

93

Salience of physical appearance characteristics among young women in Thailand.  

PubMed

Our aim in the present study was to identify key components of physical appearance among young Thai women. Free listings, focus groups and pile sorting were used. One-hundred twenty young women generated 78 unique physical appearance characteristics. Ninety-four nursing students validated these characteristics in focus groups and then sorted them into piles that reflected separate domains of physical appearance and labeled them. Salience analysis revealed that facial appearance (e.g., bright facial skin, high nose bridge, big eyes) was the most important domain, followed by body weight and shape, skin color and texture, hair (color, texture, length), and 'other' physical appearance (e.g., slender neck, slim fingers). This is the first study to identify aspects of physical appearance that are most salient to young Thai women and that may differ from women in other cultural contexts. These findings could be used to develop culturally grounded measures of physical appearance in Thai women. PMID:21768001

Rongmuang, Daravan; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda L; Park, Chang G; Miller, Arlene; Gallo, Agatha

2011-09-01

94

Physical Fitness and Body Build of Young Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fitness index (FI), assessed by the Harvard Step Test, and height, weight and body fat (expressed as a percentage of body weight), were determined on young men and young women in Cape Town, South Africa, and in Richmond, Virginia. There was no significant difference in height, surface area, reciprocal ponderal index (RPI) or body fat between the two groups

A. W. SLOAN

1969-01-01

95

Northwestern University Archives Evanston, Illinois Records of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA),  

E-print Network

-front boxes 1 History The Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) is an international, non- denominationalNorthwestern University Archives Evanston, Illinois Records of the Young Women's Christian, Christian organization, patterned after, but independent of, the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA

96

Finding Our Stride: Young Women Professors of Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work is grounded in the literature on women in the academy and offers glimpses into four young women professors' experiences in the field of educational leadership. We utilized reflective practice and interpersonal communication to create a dialogue centered on three qualitative research questions that allows a window into our lives. We…

Hewcomb, Whitney Sherman; Beaty, Danna M.; Sanzo, Karen; Peters-Hawkins, April

2013-01-01

97

HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women  

MedlinePLUS

... in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended with either vaccine for ... help prevent fainting and injuries. Why is HPV vaccination only recommended for women through age 26? HPV ...

98

Caffeine Use and Young Adult Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed college women and men and found that caffeine was consumed by a large proportion of the respondents. Women consumed a larger amount of caffeine and used more substances containing this drug. An increase in caffeine usage with increased psychic stress was observed for women only. (Author)

Vener, Arthur M.; Krupka, Lawrence R.

1982-01-01

99

Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information  

PubMed Central

Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

2010-01-01

100

Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.  

PubMed

Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

2010-08-01

101

Young women’s experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs  

PubMed Central

Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20–39 years) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women’s narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including: awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use. PMID:23820874

Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A.; Steeves, Richard H.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.

2013-01-01

102

Homelessness Assistance and Resources  

MedlinePLUS

... are also available. Find local housing, food, and health care assistance agencies Resources for the chronically homeless Resources for homeless veterans Resources for homeless youth Resources for homeless veteran ...

103

Homeless Female-Headed Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeless female-headed families are affected by national and local policies which impact adversely on the parent-child relationship. The first section of this article examines the ways in which national and state family welfare laws affect the parenting capacities of the single mother. Our legal system?s response to do- mestic violence, the precipitating factor for roughly one-half of homeless women seeking

Marcia R. Steinbock

1994-01-01

104

Impact of Poverty, Homelessness, and Drugs on Hispanic Women at Risk for HIV Infection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overwhelming focus of the lives of 43 poor, at-risk Hispanic women was coping with threats to their role as providers for their children. Threats included poverty, potential loss of health, drug addiction, lack of social support, low self-esteem, helplessness, and loss of control. Contains 27 references. (SV)

Nyamathi, Adeline; Vasquez, Rose

1989-01-01

105

The Unique and Combined Effects of Homelessness and School Mobility on the Educational Outcomes of Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the unique and combined associations of homelessness and school mobility with educational well-being indicators, as well as the mediating effect of absenteeism, for an entire cohort of third-grade students in Philadelphia. Using integrated archival administrative data from the public school district and the municipal Office of…

Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Chen, Chin-Chih; Rouse, Heather L.; Culhane, Dennis P.

2012-01-01

106

Psychological pathways from childhood sexual and physical abuse to HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among homeless women: the role of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among 190 single homeless women in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Screening single homeless women who report childhood abuse histories for symptoms of both disorders may aid in the identification of individuals particularly vulnerable for HIV infection. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:23180873

Houston, Eric; Sandfort, Theo G M; Watson, Kalycia T; Caton, Carol L M

2013-10-01

107

Why so few young women in mathematics, science, and technology classes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors influence the success of women in scientific and technical careers. Women represent over 50% of the U.S. population, yet less than 16% of women are employed in scientific and technical careers. Research over the last decade makes it clear that disparities exist in the participation, achievement, and attitudes of young men and young women in science classes. Young

Wieda

1995-01-01

108

Indecent Exposure: Self-objectification and Young Women’s Attitudes Toward Breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexualization of the breast may lead women who internalize the sexual objectification of their bodies to have more negative\\u000a attitudes toward breastfeeding. The purpose of the present study was to examine self-objectification in relation to young\\u000a women’s attitudes toward and concerns about breastfeeding. Two hundred and seventy-five female undergraduates completed a\\u000a survey with questions that assessed their plans for

Ingrid Johnston-Robledo; Stephanie Wares; Jessica Fricker; Leigh Pasek

2007-01-01

109

Women's Status and Violence against Young Married Women in Rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Studies conducted around the world consistently show the existence of violence against women. Despite the increasing number of studies being conducted on violence against young married women elsewhere, this subject has received little attention from researchers and policy makers in Nepal. This paper assesses the prevalence of violence among young married women in rural Nepal. Specifically, it examines [factors related to] women's status in order to better understand the risk of violence. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among 1,296 young married women aged 15-24 years in four major ethnic groups. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between selected risk factors and violence. Results More than half the women (51.9%) reported having experienced some form of violence in their lifetime. One-fourth (25.3%) reported physical violence and nearly half (46.2%) reported sexual violence. Likewise, one-third (35.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of violence in the past 12 months. No or little inter-spousal communication and low autonomy of women significantly increases the odds of experiencing violence among married women. Conclusions The violence against women is quite common among young married women in rural Nepal. Although the Domestic Violence and Punishment Act 2066 has been enacted, equal attention needs to be given to increasing women's autonomy and activities that encourage inter-spousal communication. Furthermore, more research is required in Nepal that examines dynamics of violence perpetrated by husbands. PMID:21612603

2011-01-01

110

Peer education reaches young women factory workers in Thailand.  

PubMed

In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These young women are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the young women to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities. PMID:12288826

Cash, K

1993-12-01

111

Mild Cutaneous Manifestation in Two Young Women with Extraordinary Hyperandrogenemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperandrogenism with hyperandrogenemia should be considered in those with severe acne of sudden onset or conspicuous male-pattern baldness with hairline recession, although the majority of female patients with acne or androgenetic alopecia possess no endocrine disorder. Herein we describe on the contrary 2 young women with primary amenorrhea displaying prominent hyperandrogenemia but subtle cutaneous manifestation. The first one presenting vertical

WenChieh Chen; Guan-Yu Chen; Shaw-Jenq Tsai; Pei-Wen Wang; Hamm-Ming Sheu; Yen-Sheng Shen; Fen-Fen Chen

2005-01-01

112

"Singing into Language": Sudanese Australian Young Women Create Public Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the ethnocinematic research project "Cross-Marked: Sudanese Australian Young Women Talk Education", and its relationship to the evolving notion of public pedagogies. The project explores the potential of alternative pedagogies, which include popular culture, especially audiovisual forms, to engage teachers and learners with…

Harris, Anne

2011-01-01

113

Dieting Behaviors of Young Women Post-College Graduation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obesity is a major public health epidemic in the United States. During the past decade, obesity has increased across all education levels, including college graduates. The purpose of this research was to study the health decisions that young women, post-college graduation make regarding their food intake. The subjects in this study completed a…

Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

2007-01-01

114

Hyperandrogenemia, psychological distress, and food cravings in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive disorders and psychological distress are common co-morbidities of obesity in young women. Psychological and reproductive disturbances may also be associated with increased food cravings but the relationships between these factors have not been explored. This study aimed to explore the pattern of food cravings and to determine the relationship between psychological distress, reproductive health and food cravings in overweight

Siew S. Lim; Robert J. Norman; Peter M. Clifton; Manny Noakes

2009-01-01

115

Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

2009-01-01

116

Helping Young Women at Work: An Ideabook for Mentors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ideabook is one of three products that make up a complete mentorship program. The purpose of the program is to increase the motivation of minority young women to pursue occupations and careers that will be in demand in the future. This book is intended for use by the mentors during their 2-hour training session. It is the basis for the…

Ruzicka, Patricia; And Others

117

78 FR 57391 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...and emerging topics related to breast cancer in young women. These may...

2013-09-18

118

76 FR 787 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...and the public health aspects of breast cancer in young women including...

2011-01-06

119

76 FR 47590 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...tools and resources related to breast cancer in young women including...

2011-08-05

120

78 FR 75923 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...and emerging topics related to breast cancer in young women. These may...

2013-12-13

121

77 FR 16232 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in young women; and...

2012-03-20

122

Experiences Associated with Intervening with Homeless, Substance-abusing Mothers: The Importance of Success  

PubMed Central

This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists, experiences related to managing the chaotic nature of the client's lives, wanting to manage the client's lives, and frustration with client's life trajectories are reviewed. Observations related to the therapeutic process include the client's relationship to the therapist, balancing the client's independence and need for assistance, and unrealistic expectations among the clients. Recommendations for successfully approaching these clinical situations and experiences are offered. The purpose of this article is to document these therapy experiences to facilitate the work of future teams seeking to intervene in the lives of homeless families through homeless shelters or other settings. PMID:23285834

Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C.

2015-01-01

123

Effects of oral dehydroepiandrosterone on bone density in young women with anorexia nervosa: a randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have subnormal levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrogen that may be mechanistically linked to the bone loss seen in this disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 1-yr course of oral DHEA treatment vs. conventional hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in young women with AN. Sixty-one young women were

C. M. Gordon; E Grace; S J Emans; H A Feldman; E Goodman; K A Becker; C J Rosen; C M Gundberg; M S LeBoff

2002-01-01

124

Changing Times, Future Bodies? The Significance of Health in Young Women's Imagined Futures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of authors recognise the increasing expectations placed on young women as the vanguard of economic, social and cultural change. This paper explores how these imaginings have come to bear upon young women's bodies, as part of a special issue on pedagogical responses to the changing position of girls and young women. In examining…

Rich, Emma; Evans, John

2013-01-01

125

Changing character of cervical cancer in young women.  

PubMed Central

To examine the hypothesis that the pattern of cervical cancer is changing data on women presenting with the disease over 34 years were studied retrospectively. During 1953-86, 2628 women with cervical cancer were referred to a large tertiary referral hospital in Sydney; 418 were aged 35 or less. During the period of review the proportion of young women with the disease increased from under 9% in the 1950s and 1960s to about 25% in the 1970s and 1980s; a similar but less pronounced trend was apparent for the whole of New South Wales in the 1970s and 1980s. The prevalence of less common morphological types of cervical cancer increased throughout the period, particularly in the young. Pelvic lymph node metastases were identified in younger patients with stage Ib and IIa tumours more commonly in the later years of the study, suggesting that the disease was becoming more severe. Overall rates of recurrence improved over time, but an apparent increase in early recurrences was observed in young patients with Ib and IIa tumours and without nodal disease. The results suggest that the clinical and pathological behaviour of cervical cancer changed over the period of review. PMID:2493898

Elliott, P. M.; Tattersall, M. H.; Coppleson, M.; Russell, P.; Wong, F.; Coates, A. S.; Solomon, H. J.; Bannatyne, P. M.; Atkinson, K. H.; Murray, J. C.

1989-01-01

126

Homelessness in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3) "The Causes of Homelessness"…

Baumohl, Jim, Ed.

127

The Ecology of Homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes an ecological model of homelessness drawn from a broad review of the research and practice literature. The spectrum of biopsychosocial risks associated with pathways into homelessness is reviewed, followed by examination of social and individual consequences resulting from periods of homelessness. The temporal dimensions of homelessness, including “first-time,” “episodic,” and “chronic,” are defined and discussed along with

Roger M. Nooe; David A. Patterson

2010-01-01

128

Nest-Leaving Patterns and the Transition to Marriage for Young Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Men and Young Women provide some support for hypotheses that independent living among young adults delays marriage, effects of nonfamily living are smaller for persons in group quarters than for others, living away has larger effects if done early in adulthood, and effects are stronger for women

Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin; Waite, Linda J.

1987-01-01

129

Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

2010-01-01

130

Possible non-sexual transmission of genital human papillomavirus infections in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomaviruses were detected by an in vitro enzymatic DNA amplification method in cells obtained from vulvar swabs of 9 of 61 (14.8 %) young women without prior experience of sexual intercourse and in 7 of 57 (12.3 %) young women with prior experience. The prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in these two groups of women was not significantly different

C. C. Pao; P. L. Tsai; Y. L. Chang; T. T. Hsieh; J. Y. Jin

1993-01-01

131

[Determinants for diagnosis of young women with and without chilliness].  

PubMed

Chilliness in women is a symptom of menopause, but there is increasing evidence that young women also suffer from chilliness, which can lead to mental problems such as insomnia and mood disorders. We elucidated methodological issues related to recognizing young women suffering from chilliness. Ninety-seven female university students were divided into two groups by their self-awareness of chilliness. Using a new questionnaire, we evaluated the severity of their physical, mental and chilliness-related complaints. We also measured several physical parameters (BMI, body fat ratio, basal metabolism, blood pressure). The peripheral circulation dynamics were measured using a laser tissue blood flowmeter, while recovery of the skin surface temperature after mild cold-water immersion was determined using thermography. There were significant differences in the severity of the chilliness-related complaints, peripheral circulation dynamics, skin surface temperature, and the rate of skin surface temperature recovery between the control and chilliness groups. Using these items, discriminant analysis using the Mahalanobis generalized distance revealed that the discrimination hit ratio was approximately 84.5%, while the misclassification ratio was approximately 16.3%. We suggest that both the rate of skin surface temperature recovery after mild cold stress and the severity of chilliness-related complaints are essential items for discriminating between participants with and without chilliness. PMID:18154040

Yamada, Noriko; Bekku, Naoko; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

2007-11-01

132

Breast cancer in young women: special considerations in multidisciplinary care  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in females, and 5%–7% of breast cancer cases occur in women under 40 years of age. Breast cancer in the young has gained increased attention with an attempt to improve diagnosis and prognosis. Young patients tend to have different epidemiology, presenting with later stages and more aggressive phenotypes. Diagnostic imaging is also more difficult in this age group. Multidisciplinary care generally encompasses surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and social workers. Other special considerations include reconstruction options, fertility, genetics, and psychosocial issues. These concerns enlarge the already diverse multidisciplinary team to incorporate new expertise, such as reproductive specialists and genetic counselors. This review encompasses an overview of the current multimodal treatment regimens and the unique challenges in treating this special population. Integration of diagnosis, treatment, and quality of life issues should be addressed and understood by each member in the interdisciplinary team in order to optimize outcomes. PMID:25300196

Reyna, Chantal; Lee, Marie Catherine

2014-01-01

133

An Historical Study of Adult Education in Two Canadian Women's Organizations: The Federated Women's Institutes of Canada and the Young Women's Christian Association of Canada 1870-1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the adult education component of two Canadian women's organizations from a historical perspective. The two organizations chosen, the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada and the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) of Canada have traditionally emphasized the education of women. The six sections of the paper cover…

Witter, Susan R.

134

Oral Contraceptives Impair Muscle Gains In Young Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an APS press release on the findings of a new study entitled 'Oral Contraceptive Use Impairs Muscle Gains in Young Women'. It was conducted by Chang-Woock Lee and Steven E. Riechman, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX; and Mark A. Newman, Human Energy Research Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. The researchers will present their findings at the 122nd Annual Meeting of the American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-aps.org/press), which is part of the Experimental Biology 2009 scientific conference. The meeting was held April 18-22, 2009 in New Orleans.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2006-04-17

135

Characteristics of Telephone Applicants to a Residential Rehabilitation Program for Homeless Veterans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gathered descriptive data on 163 telephone applicants to residential rehabilitation program for homeless veterans and compared data with general veteran and homeless populations. Found subjects to be young, educated group of homeless men with histories of relatively high, stable functioning and high rates of medical, substance abuse, psychiatric,…

Seidner, Andrea L.; And Others

1990-01-01

136

Risk factors for unplanned pregnancy among young women in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background With effective contraceptives available, unplanned pregnancies are preventable and educational interventions have been cited as a promising platform to increase contraceptive use through improving knowledge. However, results from trials of educational interventions have been disappointing. In order to effectively target future interventions, this study aimed to identify risk factors for unplanned pregnancy among young women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods Data were analysed from the MEMA kwa Vijiana Trial Long-term Evaluation Survey, a cross-sectional study of 13?814 young adults aged 15–30?years in Mwanza, Tanzania. Potential risk factors for unplanned pregnancy were grouped under three headings: socio-demographic, knowledge of and attitude towards sexual health, and sexual behaviour and contraceptive use. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify predictors of reported unplanned pregnancy among all sexually active women. Results Increasing age, lower educational level, not being currently married, knowing where to access condoms, increasing number of sexual partners and younger reported age at sexual debut were associated with unplanned pregnancy. Discussion A number of demographic and sexual behaviour risk factors for pregnancy are identified which will help guide future intervention programmes aiming to reduce unplanned pregnancies. This study suggests effective measures to prevent unplanned pregnancies should focus on encouraging girls to stay in school. PMID:23902713

Calvert, Clara; Baisley, Kathy; Doyle, Aoife M; Maganja, Kaballa; Changalucha, John; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Hayes, Richard J; Ross, David A

2013-01-01

137

The determinants of young women's pregnancy-resolution choices.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study of young women's pregnancy resolution decision making provided evidence of the important role of significant others; also observed was a positive association between prior adoption socialization experiences and the choice of adoption. Conceptual approaches to decision making considered in the analysis included opportunity structures, socialization, social networks, and expectancy value theory. Subjects included 527 unmarried women 21 years of age or younger who were recruited from US maternity residences and prenatal clinics. Mean age was 17 years; 73% of subjects were White. On a descriptive level, the adoption choice was more frequent among White women (55%), and those with above-average educational aspirations (51%). When the subject's mother was in favor of placement, 75% chose adoption and only 18% kept the child; when the boyfriend wanted adoption, these statistics were 82% and 34%, respectively. If the subject or a close relative had been adopted, 59% chose adoption and 39% kept the child. Next, logistic regression was used to develop a multivariate analysis of pregnancy resolution decisions. The most significant (p 0.001) determinants of pregnancy choice were mother wants placement of child, close relative wants placement, and the expectancy that the quality of the mother and child's life would be adversely influenced by keeping the child. Significant at the 0.01 level were not having a boyfriend or having a boyfriend who wants placement. Only 1 demographic variable--women in an age-appropriate grade--was significantly associated with adoption. Since adoption is selected by less than 3% of US women, this outcome was overrepresented in this sample by the inclusion of maternity homes as a recruitment site. PMID:12345378

Namerow, P B; Kalmuss, D S; Cushman, L F

1993-01-01

138

Care of the homeless: an overview.  

PubMed

Homelessness affects men, women, and children of all races and ethnicities. On any given night, more than 610,000 persons in the United States are homeless; a little more than one-third of these are families. Homeless persons are more likely to become ill, have greater hospitalization rates, and are more likely to die at a younger age than the general population. The average life span for a homeless person is between 42 and 52 years. Homeless children are much sicker and have more academic and behavioral problems. Insufficient personal income and the lack of affordable housing are the major reasons for homelessness. Complex, advanced medical problems and psychiatric illnesses, exacerbated by drug and alcohol abuse, in combination with the economic and social issues (such as the lack of housing and proper transportation) make this subset of the population a unique challenge for the health care system, local communities, and the government. An integrated, multidisciplinary health care team with an outreach focus, along with involvement of local and state agencies, seems best suited to address the components needed to ensure quality of care, to help make these patients self-sufficient, and to help them succeed. Family physicians are well suited to manage the needs of the homeless patient, provide continuity of care, and lead these multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24784122

Maness, David L; Khan, Muneeza

2014-04-15

139

Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

2010-01-01

140

Voiding dysfunction in young, nulliparous women: symptoms and urodynamic findings.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine urodynamic findings in young, premenopausal, nulliparous women with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms and assess whether or not symptoms are predictive of specific urodynamic abnormalities. The records of 57 women were reviewed. Those with neurological disease or a primary complaint of stress incontinence were excluded. All completed the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and underwent videourodynamics. Symptoms were compared in patients with and without bladder dysfunction and/or voiding phase dysfunction. Bladder dysfunction was diagnosed in 86% of patients with urge incontinence vs. 17% of those without (p<0.0001). Patients with voiding phase dysfunction had higher total and voiding AUASI scores. Occult neurological disease was later diagnosed in 4 women (24%) with urge incontinence and bladder dysfunction. Urge incontinence and voiding symptoms are frequently associated with urodynamically demonstrable abnormalities. Urge incontinence and bladder dysfunction may be a sign of occult neurological disease in this population. The presenting symptoms are useful in determining the utility of urodynamics in this population. PMID:15278258

Rosenblum, Nirit; Scarpero, Harriette M; Nitti, Victor W

2004-01-01

141

Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men  

PubMed Central

Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men. PMID:25525800

Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

2014-01-01

142

Body height affects the strength of immune response in young men, but not young women.  

PubMed

Body height and other body attributes of humans may be associated with a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, we have little understanding of the relative role of each, and relationships between indices of physical appearance and general health. In this study we tested relationships between immune function and body height of young men and women. In men, we report a non-linear relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis-B vaccine and body height, with a positive relationship up to a height of 185?cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We did not find any significant relationship between body height and immune function in women. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits. PMID:25164474

Krams, Indrikis A; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Krama, Tatjana; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J

2014-01-01

143

"Are They Just Checking Our Obesity or What?" The Healthism Discourse and Rural Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural young women's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The young women's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE…

Lee, Jessica; Macdonald, Doune

2010-01-01

144

Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

2011-01-01

145

Empowered Positions? Listening to Sexually Experienced Young Women Talking about Sex, Disappointments, and Compromise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how sex and relationship education (SRE) could benefit from considering current levels of young women's empowerment in (hetero)sexual relationships and challenge popular notions of twenty-first century young women "having it all" and occupying powerful relational and sexual positions.…

Sieg, Ellen

2008-01-01

146

HIV prevention for young women of Uganda must now address poverty and gender inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to explore the perspectives of young women in Uganda with the aim of better informing re HIV prevention. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Group discussions and interviews were used to explore issues relating to HIV prevention. An inductive content analysis identified emerging themes and patterns in the participants' conversations. Findings – The study revealed that, although young women

Rebecca Nicholas

2010-01-01

147

Agency in action – young women and their sexual relationships in a private school  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agency among young women is often understood as fleeting in nature, and studies rarely offer insights into how agency could become a more sustained position. Using data from 54 young women discussing their sexual and intimate relationships, this paper suggests a new way of understanding agency beyond that found in work which stresses agentic practice as resistance or the challenging

Claire Maxwell; Peter Aggleton

2010-01-01

148

Substance Abuse and Homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To investigate whether substance abuse is a direct factor in the explanation of homelessness or one that operates indirectly through disaffiliation and human capital processes to place individuals at greater risk of the condition.METHODS: Analyses were conducted using data on substance abuse and homeless experiences from a random probability sample of 481 homeless persons and those at risk of

Jonathan B Vangeest; Timothy P Johnson

2002-01-01

149

UCSF study finds few young women with cancer take steps to preserve fertility during treatments  

Cancer.gov

A new study has found that very few young women with cancer take steps to preserve their fertility while undergoing cancer therapy. Also, certain groups of young women are more likely to do so than others. Published early online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study indicates that efforts are needed to provide counseling on fertility preservation in reproductive-aged women diagnosed with cancer.

150

Homeless In America, Homeless In California  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally believed that the increased incidence of homelessness in the United States has arisen from broad societal factors, such as changes in the institutionalization of the mentally ill, increases in drug addiction and alcohol usage, and so forth. This paper presents a comprehensive test of the alternate hypothesis that variations in homelessness arise from changed circumstances in the

John M. Quigley; Steven Raphael; Eugene Smolensky

2001-01-01

151

Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.  

PubMed

The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context. PMID:24967887

Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

2015-01-01

152

Bone density and young athletic women. An update.  

PubMed

High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the relationship between sports training and bone health, specifically bone mineral density, in young athletic women. PMID:17953469

Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V

2007-01-01

153

Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

154

Robocamp: Encouraging Young Women to Embrace STEM Dr. Robert Akl, Associate Professor  

E-print Network

Robocamp: Encouraging Young Women to Embrace STEM Dr. Robert Akl, Associate Professor David Keathly programs in STEM fields. Women, for example, earn less that 11 percent of engineering degrees, and only 24 women and minorities to engage in STEM academic pursuits and careers is critical to the future of our

Akl, Robert

155

The Young Women's Christian Association: Activism and Gender Identity in Postwar America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on archival research in the collection of the Young Women?s Christian Association of Los Angeles at California State University, Northridge, and the microfilm collection of the YWCA of the USA from Smith College, this project explores the activism of the YWCA as it relates to the gender consciousness of the women of the YW during the period of 1945

Teigynn Knight

2011-01-01

156

78 FR 26698 - Report: Strategies for Serving Our Women Veterans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...outreach to women Veterans; MST; access to...services (access to VA health care); homeless women Veterans; culture change...transitional housing for homeless women Veterans-for those who...suffering with mental health issues and...

2013-05-07

157

The New Homelessness Revisited  

PubMed Central

The ‘new homelessness’ has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus. PMID:24910495

Lee, Barrett A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Wright, James D.

2014-01-01

158

What HIV-Positive Young Women Want from Behavioral Interventions: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Abstract Young women living with HIV in the United States face many social and psychological challenges, including involvement in health care and secondary prevention efforts. The factors that put these young women at risk for HIV acquisition initially, such as poverty, gender roles, cultural norms, and limited perceived control over sexual relationships, continue to place them at risk for both adverse mental and physical health outcomes that impact their daily lives and secondary prevention efforts. This study utilized focus groups with young HIV-positive women in order to better understand their perceived problems and pressures and to inform a developmentally appropriate secondary prevention intervention for young HIV-positive women that could be implemented in clinical care settings. Focus groups with young HIV-positive women were convened in three U.S. cities: Baltimore, Chicago, and Tampa. A total of 17 young, HIV-positive women, age range 17–24 (mean age=21), participated in the focus groups. This article describes the psychological and social challenges these young women face as well as their suggestions regarding secondary HIV prevention intervention components. PMID:22675725

Brothers, Jennifer; Lemos, Diana

2012-01-01

159

Relationships between body mass index and well-being in young Australian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To explore relationships between body mass index (BMI, kg\\/m2) and indicators of health and well-being in young Australian women.DESIGN: Population based cohort study—baseline cross sectional data.SUBJECTS: 14,779 women aged 18–23 who participated in the baseline survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in 1996.MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported height, weight, medical conditions, symptoms and SF-36.RESULTS: The majority of women (68%)

WJ Brown; G Mishra; J Kenardy; A Dobson

2000-01-01

160

Clothing preference affects vitamin D status of young women.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several chronic diseases, which include cardiovascular, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Several factors such as exposure to sunlight, skin color, dietary habits, and cultural factors affect serum vitamin D levels. We hypothesized that serum vitamin D levels in young women are associated with clothing styles and investigated this via a cross-sectional study that included 100 female students at Istanbul Medipol University. Our study used a questionnaire in order to collect demographic information. Serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined via standard laboratory tests. We deployed bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition, and we then determined the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat values. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.1 years. Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups based on their clothing styles: covered (Muslim style clothing) and uncovered. Muslim style clothing, which covers the whole body but leaves the face and hands exposed, was worn by 40.0% of the undergraduate students. The mean BMI (in kilograms per meter squared) of the subjects was 23.0 ± 3.6. The BMI value for the covered students was 24.0 ± 4.0, and that for the uncovered students was 22.3 ± 3.1. Of the subjects, 28.0% had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m(2) (overweight). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (in nanograms per milliliter), parathyroid hormone (in picograms per milliliter), alkaline phosphatase (in units per liter), and calcium levels (in milligrams per deciliter) were 21.1 ± 6.7, 27.5 ± 9.2, 65.9 ± 10.9, and 9.0 ± 0.2 for covered students, respectively, and 29.7 ± 3.1, 24.3 ± 6.1, 62.8 ± 13.2, and 9.0 ± 0.4, respectively, for uncovered students. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies was 55.0% for covered and 20.0% for uncovered students. The vitamin D status was found to be statistically significant and had a negative correlation with the duration of Islamic dressing (P < .05, r = -0.334). We concluded that the vitamin D levels of young women are associated with clothing style, and the age at which a female begins wearing Muslim style clothing is related. PMID:25156789

Buyukuslu, Nihal; Esin, Kubra; Hizli, Hilal; Sunal, Nihal; Yigit, Pakize; Garipagaoglu, Muazzez

2014-08-01

161

Pregnancy and contraception in young women with congenital heart disease: General considerations  

PubMed Central

Young women with heart disease are increasingly being seen in obstetrical referral centres owing, in large part, to the dramatic improvements in survival of young adults with congenital heart disease in recent years. Although pregnancies in most women with heart disease result in favourable outcomes, there are important exceptions that must be recognized. These exceptions pose significant mortality risk to the mother and/or the fetus. The present article outlines cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy, general outcomes and management considerations for practitioners caring for pregnant young women with congenital heart disease. A lesion-specific review is published in a complementary article. PMID:22468131

Wald, Rachel M; Sermer, Mathew; Colman, Jack M

2011-01-01

162

PHYSIOLOGICAL DEMANDS OF YOUNG WOMEN'S COMPETITIVE GYMNASTIC ROUTINES  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological indices of competitive routines in women's artistic gymnastics by characterizing post-exercise heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2) and peak blood lactate concentration (Lmax) in a group of eight young elite-oriented female gymnasts. HR was continuously monitored with Polar RS400 monitors during the test event simulating a competition environment. Within 5 s of the end of each routine, the breath-by-breath gas analyser mask was placed on the face to record VO2. VO2max was calculated by the backward extrapolation method of the VO2 recovery curve. Lmax was obtained during recovery (min 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10) subsequent to each event. One week later, HR, VO2 and Lmax were measured during an incremental continuous treadmill test. The treadmill test was confirmed as the assessment with the highest physiological demand. The gymnasts reached their highest values of HR (183-199 beats · min-1), VO2/Bm (33-44 ml · kg-1 · min-1) and Lmax (7-9 mmol · l-1) in the floor and uneven bars exercises. The vault was the event with the lowest HR (154-166 beats · min-1) and Lmax (2.4-2.6 mmol · l-1), and the balance beam had the lowest VO2 (27-35 ml · kg-1 · min-1). The mean relative peak intensities attained in the different events, which ranged from 65 to 85% of the individual VO2max and HRmax recorded in the laboratory, suggest that cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands are higher than previously indicated. The high percentage of VO2 measured, particularly after the floor event, suggests that aerobic power training should not be neglected in women's artistic gymnastics. PMID:25177100

Rodríguez, F.A.

2014-01-01

163

Physiological demands of young women's competitive gymnastic routines.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological indices of competitive routines in women's artistic gymnastics by characterizing post-exercise heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2) and peak blood lactate concentration (Lmax) in a group of eight young elite-oriented female gymnasts. HR was continuously monitored with Polar RS400 monitors during the test event simulating a competition environment. Within 5 s of the end of each routine, the breath-by-breath gas analyser mask was placed on the face to record VO2. VO2max was calculated by the backward extrapolation method of the VO2 recovery curve. Lmax was obtained during recovery (min 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10) subsequent to each event. One week later, HR, VO2 and Lmax were measured during an incremental continuous treadmill test. The treadmill test was confirmed as the assessment with the highest physiological demand. The gymnasts reached their highest values of HR (183-199 beats · min(-1)), VO2/Bm (33-44 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) and Lmax (7-9 mmol · l(-1)) in the floor and uneven bars exercises. The vault was the event with the lowest HR (154-166 beats · min(-1)) and Lmax (2.4-2.6 mmol · l(-1)), and the balance beam had the lowest VO2 (27-35 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). The mean relative peak intensities attained in the different events, which ranged from 65 to 85% of the individual VO2max and HRmax recorded in the laboratory, suggest that cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands are higher than previously indicated. The high percentage of VO2 measured, particularly after the floor event, suggests that aerobic power training should not be neglected in women's artistic gymnastics. PMID:25177100

Marina, M; Rodríguez, F A

2014-08-01

164

Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless

Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

2011-01-01

165

Predicted and measured resting energy expenditure in healthy young women.  

PubMed

Basal energy expenditure (BEE) was either measured by indirect calorimetry or predicted by different formulae in 104 young women: 74 lean and overweight subjects (normal weight, NWt) and 30 obese subjects. The predictive equations were based on weight alone (Owen, FAO-1, Schofield-1) or on weight and height (Harris-Benedict, Mifflin, Kleiber, and again FAO-2 and Schofield-2). With the exception of the Owen equation all the equations over-estimated measured BEE in both study groups. The ratio between measured and predicted value (% MP) varied between 102.3 (Owen) and 87.7 (Kleiber) in the NWt subjects and between 113.2 (Owen) and 89.3 (Schofield-1) in the obese subjects. The range including 95% of the predicted-measured differences (PMdiff) was larger than 1700 kJ/d in the NWt group and 2300 kJ/d in the obese group. In both study groups most of the equations showed a significant relationship between PMdiff and/or % MP with body weight and the magnitude of BEE. In conclusion, these equations are of little help in predicting BEE in a single subject and should be used with caution when assessing energy requirements in populations or groups of subjects. PMID:16843268

Scalfi, L; Coltorti, A; Sapio, C; Di Biase, G; Borrelli, R; Contaldo, F

1993-02-01

166

77 FR 22788 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW); Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW); Correction Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on March...

2012-04-17

167

78 FR 64504 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) Cancellation: This notice...Federal Official, Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, CDC, 5770 Buford Hwy...

2013-10-29

168

78 FR 18601 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/what_cdc_is_doing/conference...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those...

2013-03-27

169

77 FR 68782 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/what_cdc_is_doing/conference...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those...

2012-11-16

170

Young women's experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs.  

PubMed

Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20 and 39 years of age) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women's narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use. PMID:23820874

Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A; Steeves, Richard H; Danhauer, Suzanne C

2013-11-01

171

The Continued Illegalization of Compassion: United States v. Millis and its Effects on Humanitarian Work with the Homeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, more cities enact food sharing restrictions that punish individuals who try to feed the homeless. These laws are often part of a general scheme to solve a city’s homelessness problem by making life so unbearable for homeless men and women that they will be forced to move elsewhere. Humanitarian aid like food sharing, however, is a form of

Matthew M. Cummings

2011-01-01

172

Factors associated with consistent condom use among rural young women in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite high levels of awareness of HIV, condom use, particularly consistent use, is suboptimal among young South African women. This paper aims to investigate the factors associated with both any condom use and consistent use by young rural women.In this study 1204 sexually active female volunteers, aged 15–26 years, were selected using a two-stage procedure in which firstly 70 clusters

Nwabisa Jama Shai; R. Jewkes; Jonathan Levin; K. Dunkle; Mzikazi Nduna

2010-01-01

173

Evaluation of Magnesium Intake and Its Relation with Bone Quality in Healthy Young Korean Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have reported magnesium’s role in nutrition as a vital factor involved in bone health. However, not enough studies\\u000a have evaluated magnesium (Mg) intakes in young women. In this study, we evaluated Mg intake in healthy adults and its relation\\u000a with bone quality. A total of 484 healthy young women in their early 20s were enrolled into the study.

Mi-Hyun Kim; Jee-Young Yeon; Mi-Kyeong Choi; Yun Jung Bae

174

Gender dynamics in the primary sexual relationships of young rural South African women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of South African research describes the importance of gender dynamics within sexual relationships as factors underlying HIV risk, yet we know little about these factors among young adults—a group at exceptionally high risk of infection. Our primary objective was to explore the ways that young adult men and women interpret and enact gender roles within their established

Lucia F. OSullivan; Abigail Harrison; Robert Morrell; Muriel Kubeka

2006-01-01

175

Losing Self to the Future? Young Women's Strategic Responses to Adulthood Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The multiple and conflicting identity pressures that young women in western society face have been remarked upon in the literature. Adolescence is a time when identity development activity intensifies, and this process can present young people with challenges. In this paper a social constructionist and interpretive frame is applied to such…

Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

2008-01-01

176

Routes Into Education and Employment for Young Pakistani and Bangladeshi Women in the UK. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Routes into education and employment for young Pakistani and Bangladeshi women in Oldham, England, were examined. The data sources were as follows: group discussions with Pakistani and Bangladeshi young people at different stages in the educational system and at an early stage of labor market participation; interviews with public and voluntary…

Dale, Angela; Shaheen, Nusrat; Kalra, Virinder; Fieldhouse, E.

177

The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…

Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

2012-01-01

178

"I Was the Special Ed. Girl": Urban Working-Class Young Women of Colour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of young women of…

Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

2010-01-01

179

Negotiating Intimacies in a Globalized Space: Identity and Cohesion in Young Oromo Refugee Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the paradoxical processes in how young Oromo refugee women negotiate identity and cohesion in a globalized space. It argues that these women's experiences reveal the interplay of local and global forces of identity and cohesion.The myth that contemporary migration has diversified and expanded the pool from which people choose intimate partners is challenged, and the multiple boundaries

Martha Kuwee Kumsa

2002-01-01

180

Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

1992-01-01

181

Attempted Suicide among Young Rural Women in the People's Republic of China: Possibilities for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a sample of 147 young women living in rural areas in China who had attempted suicide. The women's suicidal behavior was characterized by high levels of impulsivity and low rates of mental illness, including depression. Detailed suggestions are made about ways to implement suicide prevention strategies within the particular social and…

Pearson, Veronica; Phillips, Michael R.; He, Fengsheng; Ji, Huiyu

2002-01-01

182

Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

2011-01-01

183

Admitted to College, Restricted from Work: A Conflict for Young Iranian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the phenomenon of young Iranian women who are encouraged to pursue higher education but who are deterred from entering the labor market. It identifies the factors that college women themselves recognize as motivating or inhibiting their participation in these two public realms. The research reported suggests that the…

Shavarini, Mitra K.

2006-01-01

184

Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their

Joyce Wamoyi; Daniel Wight; Mary Plummer; Gerry Hilary Mshana; David Ross

2010-01-01

185

Severe chronic constipation of young women: 'idiopathic slow transit constipation'  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 64 women complaining of severe constipation is described, in each of whom delayed elimination of markers from the colon was demonstrated but a barium enema was normal. All completed a detailed questionnaire and the responses are compared with those obtained in an age-matched series of healthy women with no bowel complaint. In each group 40 women also

D M Preston; J E Lennard-Jones

1986-01-01

186

Growing up heartsick: The experiences of young women with congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young women with congenital heart disease (CHD) now survive to confront issues of sexuality, contraception, and pregnancy. Researchers have examined reproductive abilities and infant outcomes in these women, but have not addressed quality?of?life issues. Grounded?theory techniques were used to interview 13 women about the experience of growing up with CHD. The core variable identified was “growing up heartsick.”; This variable

Laura T. Gantt

1992-01-01

187

'Anyone can be homeless'.  

PubMed

Being homeless often makes it difficult for people to access the health care they need. Award-winning nurse consultant in substance abuse Louise Poley is bringing services to homeless clients instead of expecting them to fit into a system designed for people with conventional lifestyles. PMID:23540061

Moore, Alison

188

Homeless Families and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

ublic concern about homelessness in the United States has increased in recent years. A late 1995 Gallup poll found that 86% of Americans feel sympathy for the homeless, and 33% report that they feel more sympathy now than they did five years ago. According to the same poll, one reason for this apparent increase in sympathy is that 17% of

Eugene M. Lewit; Linda Schuurmann Baker; Linda Schuurmann

189

Homeless in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way public authorities presently define the homeless in the United States carries forward a complex historical legacy. The causal and moral assessments of the homeless, grounded in the work ethic of our capitalist society, have left behind four interpretations of the homeless as vagrant, deviant, sick or victim. Analysis of recent studies of the homeless, while uncovering the presence

Charles Hoch

1986-01-01

190

The Rights of Homeless Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents information concerning homelessness and the education of homeless children nationwide and in Illinois. Estimates of the number of homeless children vary widely. Reasons for homeless children's failure to attend school include school residency requirements, delays in transfer of documents, and lack of transportation. The…

Strong, Penny

191

Dyadic Case Management as a Strategy for Prevention of Homelessness Among Chronically Debilitated Men and Women with Alcohol and Drug Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The PROUD Homelessness Prevention Project of Arapahoe House, Inc. in Denver, Colorado uses a pair or dyad of case managers to address the individualized client needs of a target population characterized chiefly by chronic utilization of public detoxification services. The local political and economic contexts affecting this population include a recent increase in poverty and decreased housing available to

Michael W. Kirby Jr; G. Nicholas Braucht; Ellen Brown; Sigmund Krane; Mary McCann; Nancy Vandemark

1999-01-01

192

Child Abuse in Young, HIV-Positive Women: Linkages to Risk  

PubMed Central

In this article we explore the lives of young women living with HIV who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. Using a modified version of the Life Story Interview, 40 women recruited from HIV clinics in three different states participated in a qualitative interview. Interviews covered abuse experiences, cognitive and emotional consequences of abuse, coping strategies, and sexual behavior and relationships. Overall, these young women had complex abuse histories, often experiencing more than one type of abuse in the context of other difficult life events. Avoidance and substance use were frequently utilized as coping strategies for abuse-related distress. Young women reported sexual and relationship concerns, including avoidance of sex, sexual dysfunction, sex as a trigger for abuse memories, and difficulty establishing intimacy and trust. Relationships between abuse-related reactions and sexual risk behavior, as well as recommendations for interventions, are discussed. PMID:19949224

Clum, Gretchen A.; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Ellen, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01

193

Homelessness and Hunger*  

PubMed Central

We employ data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients to examine the character and correlates of hunger among homeless people. Our analysis, couched in an adaptation framework, finds more support for the differentiation hypothesis than for the leveling hypothesis: Complex patterns of food insecurity exist at the individual level, and they vary with the resources available (e.g., higher monthly income, regular shelter use) and obstacles faced (e.g., alcohol, drug, and physical and mental health problems). The chronically homeless, who suffer from multiple deficits, appear particularly food-insecure, a finding that favors the desperation hypothesis over its street-wisdom alternative. We conclude that hunger is not uniformly experienced by members of the homeless population. Rather, some individuals are better situated than others to cope with the stressful nature of homelessness when addressing their sustenance needs. PMID:18418982

Lee, Barrett A; Greif, Meredith J

2014-01-01

194

Young women partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than VLDL-TAG synthesis, compared with young men.  

PubMed

Before the menopause, women are relatively protected against CVD compared with men. The reasons for this sex difference are not completely understood, but hepatic fatty acid metabolism may play a role. The present study aimed to investigate the utilisation of plasma NEFA by the liver and to determine whether they are partitioned differently into ketone bodies and VLDL-TAG in healthy, lean young men and women. Volunteers were studied during a prolonged overnight fast (12-19 h) using an intravenous infusion of [U-¹³C]palmitate. After 12 h fasting, the women had a more advantageous metabolic profile with lower plasma glucose (P < 0·05) and TAG (P < 0·05) but higher plasma NEFA (P < 0·05) concentrations. Plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) concentrations rose more in women than in men, and the transfer of ¹³C from [U-¹³C]palmitate to plasma [¹³C]3-OHB reached a plateau 6-7 h after the start of the infusion in women but was still increasing at 6 h in men. This implies a slower 3-OHB production rate and/or dilution by other precursor pools in men. In women, the high isotopic enrichment of plasma 3-OHB suggested that systemic plasma fatty acids were the major source of 3-OHB production. However, in men, this was not observed during the course of the study (P < 0·01). There were no sex differences for the incorporation of ¹³C into VLDL1- or VLDL2-TAG. The ability of young women to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than VLDL-TAG may contribute to their more advantageous metabolic profile compared with young men. PMID:21251339

Marinou, Kyriakoula; Adiels, Martin; Hodson, Leanne; Frayn, Keith N; Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A

2011-03-01

195

The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24?years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12?months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12?months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers. PMID:22695085

2012-01-01

196

Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health, medicine, and substance abuse to proactively combat the “model minority” myth and to design and implement interventions targeting family dynamics, coping with immigration/acculturative stresses, mental illnesses, suicidal behaviors, and substance abuse among Asian-American populations across the developmental lifespan. Originality/value This paper provides specific suggestions for interventions to adequately respond to the mental health needs of young Asian-American women. These include addressing the cultural stigma and shame of seeking help, underlying family origin issues, and excessive alcohol and drug use as unsafe coping, as well as incorporating empowerment-based and mind-body components to foster an intervention targeting suicidality among Asian-American women in early adulthood. PMID:25031627

Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

2014-01-01

197

Influence of a support group for young women with disabilities on sense of belonging.  

PubMed

Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group. PMID:24660692

Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

2014-04-01

198

Introduction Young women faced with an unwanted sexual proposition must  

E-print Network

and young adults evaluate their options on only one outcome.For example, a rape prevention program may limit efforts of committed professionals, rape prevention programs have had limited impact on the rate of sexual

Fischhoff, Baruch

199

Life transitions and mental health in a national cohort of young Australian women.  

PubMed

Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in health-related quality of life, optimism, depressive symptoms, stress, and life satisfaction, were examined in relation to these transitions among 7,619 young adult participants in the nationally representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Positive changes in mental health occurred for women moving into cohabitation and marriage, whereas reductions were observed among those experiencing marital separation or divorce and those taking on or remaining in traditionally "feminine" roles (out of the workforce, motherhood). The data suggest that women cope well with major life changes at this life stage, but reductions in psychological well-being are associated with some transitions. The findings suggest that preventive interventions to improve women's resilience and coping might target women undergoing these transitions and that social structures may not be providing sufficient support for women making traditional life choices. PMID:17605521

Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

2007-07-01

200

Recognizing the Needs of the Homeless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes reports and research on the homeless in the United States, presents findings of a survey of Red Cross chapters on services to the homeless, and describes programs for the homeless of selected Red Cross chapters. Section 1 discusses definitions of homelessness and methodologies used to count homeless people. The homeless are…

France, Joseph B.

201

Intergenerational Systems Theory and Identity Development in Young Adult Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored via questionnaires how intergenerational family systems theory is related to identity development in 164 undergraduate women. Found intergenerational factors of intimacy, intimidation, and individuation along with autonomy versus fusion, contributed variance to various identity statuses. (Author/DLH)

Perosa, Linda M.; Perosa, Sandra L.; Tam, Hak Ping

2002-01-01

202

Responding to the needs of the homeless mentally ill.  

PubMed Central

The homeless mentally ill represent a pivotal and urgent challenge to the mental health field in the 1980s. Those homeless who have extended histories of psychiatric hospitalization stand as harsh reminders of the failures of deinstitutionalization, while young mentally ill homeless adults who never have been treated as inpatients testify to the gaps and unrealized promises of community-based care under deinstitutionalization. Homelessness and mental illness are social and clinical problems, respectively, distinct in some ways but intertwined in others. Some of the factors that contribute to homelessness--such as economic deprivations, a dearth of low-cost housing, discontinuities in social service systems, and radical changes in the composition of American families--are felt particularly keenly by many persons who are mentally ill. And symptoms of mental disorders, in turn, frequently impede an individual's capacities to cope with those, as well as other, stressors. Developing appropriate and effective responses to the needs of homeless people who are mentally ill requires precise definition and identification of the target population, innovations in the mental health service system, encouragement of those who staff it to work with homeless mentally ill patients, and public education. Ultimately, however, fundamental answers will be found in an improved understanding of severe mental illness, enhanced treatment capacities, and greater attention to the rehabilitative needs of mentally ill persons. PMID:3931159

Frazier, S H

1985-01-01

203

HIV Risk, Partner Violence, and Relationship Power Among Filipino Young Women: Testing a Structural Model  

PubMed Central

A person’s ability to minimize HIV risk is embedded in a complex, multidimensional context. In this study, we tested a model of how relationship power impacts IPV victimization, which in turn impacts HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed data from 474 young adult women (aged 15–31) in Cebu Province, Philippines, using structural equation modeling, and demonstrated good fit for the models. High relationship power is directly associated with increased IPV victimization, and IPV victimization is positively associated with increased HIV risk. We highlight in this article the complex dynamics to consider in HIV risk prevention among these young women. PMID:22420674

LUCEA, MARGUERITE B.; HINDIN, MICHELLE J.; KUB, JOAN; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.

2012-01-01

204

Psychosocial risk factors for pregnancy risk-taking in young women in emerging adulthood: Evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the first longitudinal investigation of distal psychosocial predictors of pregnancy risk-taking in young Australian women. Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Two mail-out surveys assessing sociodemographic, education\\/competence, psychosocial wellbeing, and aspiration\\/identity factors, were completed at ages 18 and 22 by 1647 young women in emerging adulthood, and a third survey assessing pregnancy risk-taking

Lauren Miller-Lewis; Tracey Wade; Christina Lee

2006-01-01

205

Homeless Health Concerns  

MedlinePLUS

... why the health of homeless people in the United States is worse than that of the general population. Common health problems include Mental health problems Substance abuse problems Bronchitis and pneumonia ...

206

People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness  

MedlinePLUS

... a Community Strategic Plan Steps 1-3: Organizing Leadership Developing a Community Strategic Plan Steps 4-7: ... for Coordinated Assessment Wichita Police Department: Making a Difference for People Experiencing Homelessness Houston Partners Dedicated to ...

207

Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by requiring couples to consider two STEM careers when making career decisions. Women's partners more often worked full time than did the partners of men. This may limit the possibility of work-related travel for female geoscientists and increase the burden of household duties on two working partners. In fact, women did report doing significantly more household upkeep and more parenting than men. Another barrier to retention and promotion of women includes a lack of mentors and role models. The example of women in senior positions is especially important, justifying young women's aspiration to be successful geoscientists. In our data, young female geoscientists less often saw women as adequately represented in senior roles than did male respondents. While ESWN cannot solve these problems for individuals, ESWN activities do seem to address these concerns. In discussions on the ESWN listserv, women share ideas and strategies for navigating these obstacles. Young female geoscientists may also find role models among the more experienced members. Knowledge of these obstacles also provides ESWN and other organizations aiming to advance women in science with the potential best practices in supporting women through these challenges.

Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

2011-12-01

208

The Homeless Mentally Ill: No Longer Out of Sight and Out of Mind. Human Resources Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing presence of the mentally ill among the nation's homeless is the topic of this report. The problems presented by deinstitutionalization are discussed, including: (1) the homeless mentally ill as a disruptive element of society; (2) mentally ill persons who shuttle between the hospital and the community; (3) young chronic patients who…

Paterson, Andrea; Craig, Rebecca T.

1985-01-01

209

Young women's meanings of health and physical activity: the body, schooling, and the discursive constitution of gendered and classed subjectivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines, from a Foucauldian perspective, the complex ways fourteen young women managed their subject positions and subjectivities in relation to health and physical activity discourses. It also explores how the young womens different school contexts impacted on this process. Foucauldian, post-structural conceptualisations of the self, as constituted through power\\/knowledge relations, and, in particular, Foucaults analytics of the technologies

Gabrielle Holly OFlynn

2004-01-01

210

Boost radiotherapy in young women with ductal carcinoma in situ: a multicentre, retrospective study of the Rare Cancer Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Outcome data in young women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are rare. The benefi ts of boost radiotherapy in this group are also unknown. We aimed to assess the eff ect of boost radiotherapy in young patients with DCIS. Methods We included 373 women from 18 institutions who met the following inclusion criteria: having tumour status Tis and

Aurelius Omlin; Maurizio Amichetti; David Azria; Bernard F Cole; Philippe Fourneret; Philip Poortmans; Diana Naehrig; Robert C Miller; Marco Krengli; Cristina Gutierrez Miguelez; David Morgan; Hadassah Goldberg; Luciano Scandolaro; Pauline Gastelblum; Mahmut Ozsahin; Dagmar Dohr; David Christie; Ulrich Oppitz; Ufuk Abacioglu; Guenther Gruber

211

Functional health and well-being of relatively young women with peripheral arterial disease is decreased but stable after diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study was undertaken to investigate the extent to which health-related quality of life (HQOL) is reduced in young women with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) compared with age-matched and gender-matched control subjects. Moreover, potential determinants of HQOL in young women with PAD were studied, ie, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, location of stenosis and time since diagnosis.

Daisy G. M Bloemenkamp; Willem P. Th. M Mali; Bea C Tanis; Maurice A. A. J van den Bosch; Jeanet M Kemmeren; Ale Algra; Yolanda van der Graaf

2003-01-01

212

Designing Cost-Effective Cash Transfer Programs To Boost Schooling among Young Women in Sub-Saharan Africa  

E-print Network

Designing Cost-Effective Cash Transfer Programs To Boost Schooling among Young Women in Sub-Saharan Africa Sarah Baird, Craig McIntosh, and Berk Ã?zler1 October 10, 2009 Abstract As of 2007, 29 developing experiment among teenage girls and young women in Malawi, which was designed to address these shortcomings

Silver, Whendee

213

Breast cancer in young women and its impact on reproductive function  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries, and 12% of breast cancer occurs in women 20–34 years. Survival from breast cancer has significantly improved, and the potential late effects of treatment and the impact on quality of life have become increasingly important. Young women constitute a minority of breast cancer patients, but commonly have distinct concerns and issues compared with older women, including queries regarding fertility, contraception and pregnancy. Further, they are more likely than older women to have questions regarding potential side effects of therapy and risk of relapse or a new primary. In addition, many will have symptoms associated with treatment and they present a management challenge. Reproductive medicine specialists and gynaecologists commonly see these women either shortly after initial diagnosis or following adjuvant therapy and should be aware of current management of breast cancer, the options for women at increased genetic risk, the prognosis of patients with early stage breast cancer and how adjuvant systemic treatments may impact reproductive function. METHODS No systematic literature search was done. The review focuses on the current management of breast cancer in young women and the impact of treatment on reproductive function and subsequent management. With reference to key studies and meta-analyses, we highlight controversies and current unanswered questions regarding patient management. RESULTS Chemotherapy for breast cancer is likely to negatively impact on reproductive function. A number of interventions are available which may increase the likelihood of future successful pregnancy, but the relative safety of these interventions is not well established. For those who do conceive following breast cancer, there is no good evidence that pregnancy is detrimental to survival. We review current treatment; effects on reproductive function; preservation of fertility; contraception; pregnancy; breastfeeding and management of menopausal symptoms following breast cancer. CONCLUSION This paper provides an update on the management of breast cancer in young women and is targeted at reproductive medicine specialists and gynaecologists. PMID:19174449

Hickey, M.; Peate, M.; Saunders, C.M.; Friedlander, M.

2009-01-01

214

Contraceptive Embarrassment and Contraceptive Behavior among Young Single Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper determined factors predictive of contraceptive embarrassment, and the relationship of contraceptive embarrassment to contraceptive use among young unmarried females. The most important predictors found were parental attitude to premarital intercourse and sexual guilt. The embarrassment scale had significant correlations with…

Herold, Edward S.

1981-01-01

215

Contextualising the medical risks of cigarette smoking: Australian young women’s perceptions of anti-smoking campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a qualitative analysis of the perceptions Australian young women cigarette smokers have of the medical health messages espoused through anti-smoking campaigns. The study aims to show that the deployment of medico-scientific knowledges in the most recent series of anti-smoking campaigns disseminated in New South Wales Australia (those which emerged in the 1990s under the auspices

Emilee Gilbert

2005-01-01

216

Young Women’s Social and Occupational Development and Mental Health in the Aftermath of Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined social role functioning and depressive symptoms of young adults who were abused as children in data from a longitudinal\\u000a community sample. Sexually abused women and men were more depressed during their senior year of high school, and this difference\\u000a was more pronounced 2 years later. We then examined a mediational model to determine whether social functioning explained\\u000a the course

Elizabeth A. Schilling; Robert H. Aseltine Jr; Susan Gore

2007-01-01

217

Total Versus Split Body Resistance Training In Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty women (20-22 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 10: a total body (TB) and a split body (SB) training groups and control group. The SB group performed 4 strength training sessions per week (two upper and two lower body), while the TB group trained both upper and lower body muscle groups together, twice weekly. It took 45-60

Aaron Calder

1992-01-01

218

ORIGINAL PAPER Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women  

E-print Network

@psy.utexas.edu 123 Arch Sex Behav (2007) 36:831­843 DOI 10.1007/s10508-007-9199-7 #12;Khalife´, & Cohen, 1997 Received: 14 November 2005 / Revised: 14 September 2006 / Accepted: 28 October 2006 / Published online: 3) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain com- pared to pain free

Meston, Cindy

219

National Coalition for Homeless Veterans  

MedlinePLUS

... President’s FY 2016 Proposed Budget Jeopardizes Services for Homeless and At-Risk Veterans Feb. 4, 2015 On ... of the federal government, including those that serve homeless and at-risk... continue VA Announces Availability of ...

220

75 FR 61860 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...readjustment counseling, women Veterans' legislative issues, special health initiatives, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. Interested persons may attend, appear before, or file...

2010-10-06

221

A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.  

PubMed

Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

2015-02-01

222

Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Young Women: A Matched Comparison—Do Outcomes Justify Treatment Intensity?  

PubMed Central

Background. The incidence of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) in young women is increasing with uncertain outcomes compared to traditional patients. Published outcomes data are at odds in this cohort of young women. Methods. Retrospective analysis comparing demographic, clinicopathologic, and outcomes data of women OTSCC patients younger than 45 years old matched 1?:?2 by stage with men both younger and older than 45 and women older than 45. Results. No disease-free or overall survival differences were found between cohorts. Young women were significantly more likely to receive radiation therapy, particularly in stage I disease, even when controlling for common pathologic indications. Conclusions. OTSCC in young women was not associated with worse outcomes compared to a matched cohort of other patients. Increased frequency of radiation treatment for this cohort may not be justified. PMID:24734200

Goepfert, Ryan P.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Wang, Steven J.

2014-01-01

223

Treatment helps young women preserve their fertility during breast cancer chemotherapy  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago are from the Prevention of Early Menopause Study (POEMS), a clinical trial sponsored by NCI.

224

"Two's up and Poncing Fags": Young Women's Smoking Practices, Reciprocity and Friendship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small-scale doctoral research…

Cullen, Fin

2010-01-01

225

Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Osteoporosis Prevention Intervention in Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred…

Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.

2014-01-01

226

Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…

Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

2010-01-01

227

A Qualitative Exploration of Autonomy and Engagement for Young Women of Color in Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the nationwide concern about college persistence and graduation rates, this article reviews pertinent literature related to autonomous learning as well as social and academic engagement. It also presents findings of a qualitative study of young community college women of color, an understudied population. The article, part of a larger…

Rose, Lisa Hale; Sellars-Mulhern, Precious; Jones, Cynthia; Trinidad, America; Pierre-Louis, Joanne; Okomba, Adhiambo

2014-01-01

228

Relationships and Betrayal among Young Women: Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescent Dating Abuse  

PubMed Central

AIMS Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this paper presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. BACKGROUND Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists within nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. DATA SOURCES A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. DISCUSSION Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Gender, relationship, and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. CONCLUSION Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. PMID:21261691

Burton, Candace W.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H.; Rehm, Roberta S.; Humphreys, Janice C.

2010-01-01

229

Designing from Their Own Social Worlds: The Digital Story of Three African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I examine the literacy work of three African American young women (through data drawn from a larger qualitative study), particularly their ways of knowing, such as double consciousness (Du Bois, 1989), and the multiple subject positions they occupy as they write themselves into a digitally created story. My analysis is guided by the…

Hall, Ted

2011-01-01

230

Shifting Selves: The Struggle for Identity and Spirituality in the Work of Three Young Women Artists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay looks at contemporary art works produced by three young women who took part in a research project that was exploring the spiritual meanings of art in the lives of adolescents. Nineteen students were interviewed and we asked them to tell us about their art works which we then analysed in relation to a set of descriptors that we developed…

McPhillips, Kathleen; Mudge, Peter; Johnston, Jay

2007-01-01

231

Giving young Emirati women a voice: Participatory action research on physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

International evidence on health promotion indicates the importance of regular physical activity for preventing and reducing the incidence of obesity and chronic diseases. This study investigated the relationship between physical activity and the social milieu of young Muslim women in the United Arab Emirates. This participatory action research project included semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus groups and yielded qualitative data.

Gabriella Berger; Anita Peerson

2009-01-01

232

Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

233

Non-Traditional School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women. Resource Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin presents an overview of strategies that practitioners identify as methods of increasing young women's access to and success in school-to-work programs in nontraditional occupations. These strategies are discussed: outreach to female students; career information and advising; training for teachers and counselors; math and science…

National School-to-Work Opportunities Office, Washington, DC.

234

Understanding Young Women's Sexual Relationship Experiences: The Nature and Role of Vulnerability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to operationalise the concept of social "vulnerability" and explore its usefulness as a framework for understanding sexual relationships. Data from 30 vulnerable and less vulnerable young women in one UK city were collected through in-depth interviews and focus groups. An analysis of differences and similarities in participants'…

Maxwell, Claire

2006-01-01

235

Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

2013-01-01

236

Early Pubertal Timing and the Union Formation Behaviors of Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether the transition into adolescence, proxied by pubertal timing, shaped the transition into adulthood, proxied by union formation behaviors, among contemporary American women. In a sample drawn from Add Health (n = 7,523), early maturing girls reported an accelerated transition to marriage and cohabitation in young

Cavanagh, Shannon E.

2011-01-01

237

Infected Lives: A Heideggerian Phenomenological Study of Young African American Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Women  

E-print Network

the lived experiences of young African American HIV infected women, the meaning of spirituality in their lives, and how they engaged in self-care practices to manage their disease. One pattern, Infected Lives, and four themes, Living Alone with HIV, Living...

Peltzer, Jill Nicole

2012-05-31

238

Young Thai women who use methamphetamine: Intersection of sexual partnerships, drug use, and social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGiven high rates of methamphetamine (MA) use among young people in Thailand and evidence of an association between MA and increased sexual risk behaviour, we examined the association between women's recent sexual partnerships, social network characteristics and drug and alcohol use.

Danielle German; Susan G. Sherman; Carl A. Latkin; Bangorn Sirirojn; Nicholas Thomson; Catherine G. Sutcliffe; Apinun Aramrattana; David D. Celentano

2008-01-01

239

Teaching Cooking Skills to Young Women with Mild Intellectual Disability: The Effectiveness of Internet Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using streaming video websites to improve, maintain, and generalize the cooking (meal-making) skills of four young women (18-22 years old) diagnosed with intellectual disabilities. A pre-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based multimedia…

Alqahtani, Hanadi Hussein; Schoenfeld, Naomi A.

2014-01-01

240

"Too Pretty to Do Math!" Young Women in Movement and Pedagogical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article points out some pedagogical challenges in supporting girls and young women in their emancipatory movements today. It spotlights a specific section in gender pedagogy by focusing on the aim of self-determination (rather than achievement) in the field of social-pedagogy and it refers to the concept of "girls work" in Germany. A critical…

Graff, Ulrike

2013-01-01

241

Helping Young Women at Work: Workshop Leader's Guide for Mentor Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is one of three products that make up a complete mentorship program. The purpose of the program is to increase the motivation of minority young women to pursue occupations and careers that will be in demand in the future. This presenters' manual contains background information about the mentor experience, tips about training, and…

Ruzicka, Patricia; And Others

242

Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

2007-01-01

243

Exploring the experiences of violence among individuals who are homeless using a consumer-led approach.  

PubMed

Homelessness increases vulnerability to violence victimization; however, the precise factors associated with victimization and injury are not clearly understood. Thus, this study explores the prevalence of and characteristics associated with violence victimization among homeless individuals by surveying approximately 500 individuals experiencing homelessness in 5 cities across the United States. Our findings reveal that nearly one-half of our sample reported experiencing violence and that prolonged duration of homelessness (greater than 2 years) and being older increased the risk of experiencing a violent attack. In addition, increased length of homelessness and female gender predicted experiencing rape. Women were also significantly more likely to know one's perpetrator and experience continued suffering after a violent attack. We conclude that certain subpopulations within the homeless population are at an increased risk for victimization and, subsequently, require added protective services; implications for health care and policy recommendations are also discussed. PMID:24672998

Meinbresse, Molly; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Grassette, Amy; Benson, Joseph; Hamilton, Reginald; Malott, Marianne; Jenkins, Darlene

2014-01-01

244

Suffering in silence: consequences of sexual violence within marriage among young women in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the grave consequences of sexual violence, and it's persistence both within and outside marriages, this subject has received relatively little attention from researchers, policy makers, and programme managers in Nepal. This paper explores the definition of sexual violence and its various forms and consequences as reported by young married women in Nepal. In addition, it describes the coping mechanisms used by young married women to avoid sexual violence perpetrated against them by their husbands. Methods This paper analyzes data collected during the qualitative study on "Sexual violence among young couples in Nepal", conducted amongst two major ethnic groups - Brahmin/Chhetri and Tharu - between 2006 and 2007. The data is comprised of 39 free-lists and 15 in-depth case histories with married women aged 15-24 years. The average rank and Smith's Salience were calculated from the free-listing data. The thematic analysis approach was used for the analysis of information from the case histories. Results Approximately three-quarters (74%) of the young women mentioned 'sex against one's wishes' as sexual violence within marriage (SVWM). Sixty-two percent of respondents described 'forced sex during illness' and 'forced sex after consumption of alcohol' as SVWM. About half of young women (48.7%) who participated in the free-listing exercise reported having experienced SVWM. The types of SVWM ranged from unwanted sexual touch to forced sex. Backache, headache, lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and thoughts of suicide were the most commonly reported negative physical and psychological health consequences of SVWM. Women reported various coping strategies including 'trying to convince husbands', 'sleeping in a separate room', 'visiting maternal home', 'waking up the children', and 'using pretexts such as being ill or menstruating', to avoid SVWM. However, in most cases, women reported that these coping strategies were unsuccessful. Almost all women experiencing SVWM were socially isolated and did not turn to institutions, relatives or friends for advice and support. Conclusions Sexual violence within marriage is common in Nepal. Findings provide circumstantial evidence of links between sexual violence and negative general and reproductive health outcomes for women. Various actions are required to prevent SVWM and provide immediate support to the victims. PMID:21223603

2011-01-01

245

Reproductive health characteristics of young Malawian women seeking post-abortion care.  

PubMed

Abortion is illegal in Malawi except when the pregnancy endangers the mother's life, yet complications of abortion account for the majority of admissions to gynecological wards. This study collected data on all post-abortion care (PAC) cases reporting to all PAC-providing health facilities in Malawi over a 30-day period. Of a total of 2,028 PAC clients, 20.9% were adolescents (age 10-19) and 29.6% were young adults (age 20-24). More than half of adolescents and almost 80% of young adults were married. Less than 5% of adolescents and 22.5% of young adults reported using contraception when they became pregnant. Being unmarried was associated with previous abortion and contraceptive use among young adults. These statistics indicate a high proportion of unwanted pregnancy and lack of access to modern contraception among young women. Programs to increase access to pregnancy prevention services and protect young women from unsafe abortions are greatly needed. PMID:22916557

Levandowski, Brooke A; Pearson, Erin; Lunguzi, Juliana; Katengeza, Hans R

2012-06-01

246

Young Women's Knowledge and Beliefs about Osteoporosis: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of College Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: About 40% of White American women over age 50 experience osteoporosis-related fracture of the hip, spine, or wrist during their lives. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of osteoporosis knowledge and beliefs among young women. Methods: University women (n=302) completed a self-administered osteoporosis risk…

Kasper, Mark J.; Garber, Michele; Walsdorf, Kristie

2007-01-01

247

Young women with PD: a group work experience.  

PubMed

Parkinson's Disease (PD) prior to the age of 40 affects between 5-10% of the PD population. The psychosocial changes that patients with early PD encounter, may be more devastating and disabling than the actual motor disability. The paper describes a unique experience in groupwork with young female PD patients treated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. The paper focuses on the special issues which characterized this group's experience: stigma, body and sexual image, and personality traits. PMID:11291893

Posen, J; Moore, O; Tassa, D S; Ginzburg, K; Drory, M; Giladi, N

2000-01-01

248

Physical attractiveness, attitudes toward career, and mate preferences among young Chinese women.  

PubMed

We examined young Chinese women's mate preferences as a function of their self-perceived attractiveness and career attitudes. A total of 264 young Chinese women rated their own attractiveness, reported their attitudes toward career, and rated the importance of 20 mate characteristics. The characteristics encompassed four facets that individuals typically consider when seeking a long-term mate: good-genes indicators, good investment ability indicators, good parenting indicators, and good partner indicators. We found that both self-perceived attractiveness and attitudes toward career were positively associated with the importance attached to several of the characteristics. Moreover, women who had high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to intelligence, ambition, and industriousness than women who had low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness; women with low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to physical attractiveness in a mate than women with high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness. We discussed the limitations of our research and directions for future research. PMID:24525338

Zhang, Hong; Teng, Fei; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Denghao

2014-01-01

249

Knowledge, attitude and practice in primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention among young adult Italian women.  

PubMed

In Italy since 2007 vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is offered to 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. To assess Italian young women's knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention a cross-sectional study among young women aged 18-26 years was conducted in 2008. The survey collected information on in-depth awareness and knowledge regarding Pap testing, HPV infection, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer. The response rate was 57.7% with a wide range of variability (34-84%) amongst local health units. Among 667 women who participated in the survey poor awareness and various misconceptions regarding HPV and cervical cancer prevention were detected. Overall women were found to be more knowledgeable about Pap smears and cervical cancer than about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine. Respondents pointed to their healthcare providers as their most trusted source for medical information. Understanding women's knowledge on cervical cancer prevention, as well as related factors is important in helping to achieve and maintain adherence to cervical cancer preventive strategies. Moreover in order to minimize cervical cancer risk by improving women's adherence to preventive strategies, appropriate and adequate information dissemination, and guidance from health professionals appear to be crucial elements. PMID:22300719

Donati, Serena; Giambi, Cristina; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Filia, Antonietta; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Gallicchio, Giuseppina; Bella, Antonino

2012-03-01

250

Childbearing is not associated with young women’s long-term obesity risk  

PubMed Central

Contemporary childbearing is associated with greater gestational weight gain and post-partum weight retention than in previous decades, potentially leading to a more pronounced effect of childbearing on women’s long-term obesity risk. Previous work on the association of childbearing with women’s long-term obesity risk mostly examined births in the 1970s and 1980s and produced mixed results. OBJECTIVE We estimated the association of childbearing and obesity incidence in a diverse, contemporary sample of 2,731 U.S. women. DESIGN AND METHODS Propensity-score (PS) matching was used for confounding control when estimating the effect of incident parity (1996 to 2001) on 7-year incident obesity (BMI?30 kg/m2) (2001 to 2008). RESULTS In the sample, 19.3% of parous women became obese while 16.1% of unmatched nulliparous women did. After PS matching without and with replacement, the differences in obesity incidence were, respectively, 0.0 percentage points (ppts) (95% CI: ?4.7 to 4.7) and 0.9 ppts (95% CI: ?4.9 to 6.7). Results were similar in analyses of prevalent parity and obesity in 2008 (n=6601) conducted to explore possible selection bias. CONCLUSIONS These results imply that, in contemporary U.S. parous women in their late 20s and early 30s, childbearing may not increase obesity incidence. PMID:23929637

Robinson, Whitney R.; Cheng, Mariah C.; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Stürmer, Til; Siega-Riz, Anna M.

2013-01-01

251

The Other America: Homeless Families in the Shadow of the New Economy. Family Homelessness in Kentucky, Tennessee and the Carolinas. A Report of Homes for the Homeless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a survey of homeless families from shelters in Kentucky, Tennessee, and the Carolinas. The typical family included a 32-year-old single woman with two young children who was more likely to be African American, had a high school education, and had a 50-50 chance of being employed. Most children attended preschool, most were…

Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

252

Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation  

PubMed Central

Background Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their relationships, and the implications of these negotiations for the HIV epidemic. Method An ethnographic research design was used, with information collected primarily using participant observation and in-depth interviews in a rural community in North Western Tanzania. The qualitative approach was complemented by an innovative assisted self-completion questionnaire. Findings Transactional sex underlay most non-marital relationships and was not, per se, perceived as immoral. However, women's motivations varied, for instance: escaping intense poverty, seeking beauty products or accumulating business capital. There was also strong pressure from peers to engage in transactional sex, in particular to consume like others and avoid ridicule for inadequate remuneration. Macro-level factors shaping transactional sex (e.g. economic, kinship and normative factors) overwhelmingly benefited men, but at a micro-level there were different dimensions of power, stemming from individual attributes and immediate circumstances, some of which benefited women. Young women actively used their sexuality as an economic resource, often entering into relationships primarily for economic gain. Conclusion Transactional sex is likely to increase the risk of HIV by providing a dynamic for partner change, making more affluent, higher risk men more desirable, and creating further barriers to condom use. Behavioural interventions should directly address how embedded transactional sex is in sexual culture. PMID:20429913

2010-01-01

253

Living the reality of forced sex work: perspectives from young migrant women sex workers in northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Young women are often lured or forced into selling sex as a result of migrating from rural to urban areas to find work. In this setting, they are exposed to high-risk situations, which may leave them vulnerable to exploitation. Using interviews with young migrant women currently working as sex workers in northern Vietnam, we recorded the perspectives of their initiation into sex work and life as a sex worker. The study found that high levels of forced sex and sexual exploitation were experienced by the majority of the young women interviewed. The young women describe their entry into sex work, first sexual experience (intercourse), violence, and condom negotiation and use. Although access to health care was available, the young women perceived the stigma attached to sex work as a barrier to receiving health care, and thus, preferred health education and care from peers. Health education programs focusing on peer education and support are essential for protecting and empowering these young women. In addition, policies and programs must work toward effective strategies to protect young migrant women. PMID:15973256

Rushing, Rosanne; Watts, Charlotte; Rushing, Sharon

2005-01-01

254

Impact of Nursing Intervention on Decreasing Substances among Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol use, and in particular, binge drinking, and methamphetamine use is pervasive among homeless youth and remains a social pressure among this vulnerable population. However, there is no compelling evidence that specific interventions for reducing drug and alcohol use are effective for homeless youth. Objectives This community-based participatory action pilot study assessed the impact of an intervention study focused on decreasing use of drugs and alcohol among a sample of homeless young adults (N=154) visiting a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The two programs consisted of a HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) program led by nurses and an Art Messaging (AM) program led by artists. Six-month follow-up data were obtained from 100 of these individuals. Results Findings revealed significant reductions in alcohol and marijuana use and binge drinking in both the HHP and AM programs. However, homeless youth in the HHP program reported additional reductions in methamphetamine, cocaine and hallucinogen use at six-month follow-up. Conclusions Reductions in drugs and alcohol are important as these substances are linked to HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and other health risks in homeless youth. Scientific Significance The successful outcomes of the study intervention validate the utility of nurse-led and artistic health promotion strategies to decrease drug and alcohol use and other risky behaviors in homeless youth populations. PMID:23082836

Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine; Kennedy, Barbara; Salem, Benissa; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Marfisee, Mary; Getzoff, Daniel; Leake, Barbara

2013-01-01

255

Epidemiology and Natural Course of Eating Disorders in Young Women From Adolescence to Young Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo describe the epidemiology of eating disorders (ED) in a community sample of adolescent girls; to compare the clinical characteristics of full-syndrome (FS) and partial-syndrome (PS) ED cases; and to provide information about the continuity between adolescent ED and young adult psychopathology.

PETER M. LEWINSOHN; RUTH H. STRIEGEL-MOORE; JOHN R. SEELEY

2000-01-01

256

'She met her (boy)friend online': Negotiating gender identity and sexuality among young Thai women in online space.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the experiences of women 15-24 years old living in one suburban district in Bangkok. Its objectives are to analyse processes of building and negotiating social identity and femininity in online spaces by young women; the ways in which young women express their sexuality using online technologies; connections between the 'online' and 'offline' worlds in terms of emotions as well as social and sexual networks; and traditional values regarding female sexuality reproduced through online media and how young women negotiate and resist these. Content and narrative analyses were conducted using qualitative data from 9 focus-group discussions and 14 narrative interviews. Findings indicated that the online media serve as tools that help young women develop and express their gender identities. Mobile phones and the Internet facilitate communication in order to express love, responsibility, intimacy and sexual desires. Discourse on women's chastity, which puts pressure on women to maintain their virginity, still influences online and mobile contents, messages and images among young women. However, women also exerted agency in negotiating and expressing their sexuality, both online and offline. PMID:23885969

Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Ojanen, Timo T; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Iamsilpa, Rachawadee; Topananan, Soifa; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas E

2013-01-01

257

Strategies and Outcomes of HIV Status Disclosure in HIV-Positive Young Women with Abuse Histories  

PubMed Central

Abstract Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualitative interviews with 40 HIV-positive young women with childhood physical and/or sexual abuse were conducted; some women had also experienced adult victimization. Results suggest that HIV-positive women with abuse histories use a host of strategies to deal with disclosure of HIV status, including delaying disclosure, assessing hypothetical responses of partners, and determining appropriate stages in a relationship to disclose. Stigma was an important theme related to disclosure. We discuss how these disclosure processes impact sexual behavior and relationships and discuss intervention opportunities based on our findings. PMID:23596649

Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

2013-01-01

258

Is Mastectomy Superior to Breast-Conserving Treatment for Young Women?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine whether modified radical mastectomy (MRM) improves outcomes compared with breast-conserving treatment (BCT) in young women. Methods and Materials: Women aged 20-49 years, diagnosed with early breast cancer between 1989 and 1998, were identified. Management with BCT or MRM was compared for local (L), locoregional (LR), and distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) by age group (20-39 years, 40-49 years). The analysis was repeated for patients considered 'ideal' candidates for BCT: tumor size {<=}2 cm, pathologically negative axillary nodes, negative margins, and no reported ductal carcinoma in situ. Results: A total of 1,597 women received BCT, and 801 had MRM. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, the outcomes (L, LR, BCSS) were worse for the younger age group; however, the outcomes were not statistically different by type of local treatment. For women aged 20-39 years considered 'ideal' for BCT, those treated with BCT had slightly lower LRFS compared with those treated with MRM (p = 0.3), but DRFS and BCSS were similar. Conclusions: A difference in LRFS at 10 years potentially favored MRM among women aged 20-39 years considered 'ideal' BCT candidates but was not statistically significant and did not translate into a noticeable difference in DRFS or BCSS. Our data suggest that young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

Coulombe, Genevieve [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada) and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada) and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]. E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca; Speers, Caroline B.A. [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Paltiel, Chuck M.Sc. [Population and Preventive Oncology Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA), Vancouver, BC (Canada); Aquino-Parsons, Christina [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Bernstein, Vanessa [Systemic Therapy Program, BCCA, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Truong, Pauline T. [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Radiation Therapy Program, BCCA, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Keyes, Mira [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Radiation Therapy Program, BCCA, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2007-04-01

259

Sleep difficulties and the development of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of young Australian women.  

PubMed

Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that poor sleep may precede depression and anxiety. The current study examined the association between self-reported sleeping difficulties and new onset depression and anxiety in young women. A nationally representative sample of 9,683 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health was analyzed. Women were surveyed in 2000 (aged 22 to 25 years), 2003, 2006, and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between sleeping difficulties in 2000 and new-onset depression (excluding postnatal depression) and anxiety at each subsequent survey. Significant increased risk of new onset depression (odds ratio (OR)=2.6 in 2003; OR=4.4 in 2006; OR=4.4 in 2009) and anxiety (OR=2.4 in 2006; OR=2.9 in 2009) was found at each follow-up survey in women who reported sleeping difficulties "often" in 2000. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the link between sleep problems and mental health. PMID:24647705

Jackson, Melinda L; Sztendur, Ewa M; Diamond, Neil T; Byles, Julie E; Bruck, Dorothy

2014-06-01

260

Abnormal eating behaviors in adolescent and young adult women from southern Brazil: Reassessment after four years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate whether abnormal eating behaviors in young women could predict eating disorders after 4 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  56 women were identified as presenting abnormal eating behaviors in a cross-sectional study (Eating Attitudes Test-26 and\\u000a Edinburgh Bulimic Investigation Test). They were matched for age and neighborhood to two controls (n = 112). Four years later, they were re-assessed with the two screening questionnaires plus the

Maria Angélica Nunes; Maria Teresa A. Olinto; Suzi Camey; Christina Morgan; Jair de Jesus Mari

2006-01-01

261

Breast Cancer in Young Women in a Limited-Resource Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Despite the higher incidence of breast cancer in young women in developing countries, there is a paucity of data on their\\u000a management. We present the clinicopathological features and outcome of treatment of women 35 years or younger with breast\\u000a cancer in a resource-restricted environment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 141 patients who were diagnosed with primary breast cancer at 35 years or younger from

Sarinah Basro; Justus P. Apffelstaedt

2010-01-01

262

HPV Vaccination Among Young Adult Women: A Perspective From Appalachian Kentucky  

PubMed Central

Introduction Few studies have assessed barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and adherence, particularly among women of Appalachian Kentucky, a population with higher rates of cervical cancer, lower rates of HPV vaccination, and lower socioeconomic status compared with the rest of the nation. The objective of this study was to address women’s reasons for declining the HPV vaccine and, among women who initiated the vaccine series, barriers to completion of the 3-dose regimen. Methods We recruited 17 women aged 18 to 26 from a Federally Qualified Health Center who participated in in-depth, semistructured telephone interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim; analysis of the interview transcripts was an iterative process conducted by all 3 authors. Results We identified 3 primary barriers: 1) a knowledge gap wherein women are both uninformed and misinformed about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine, all of which affect vaccination behaviors; 2) environmental and tangible barriers (transportation and prioritizing health over other responsibilities such as child care, work, and school); and 3) ambiguous information sources, which contribute to misinformation and subsequently affect vaccination decisions. Conclusion Health professionals should use clear and purposeful communication about how cervical cancer develops, the purpose and safety of the HPV vaccine, and the necessity of completing the 3-dose series. Health promotion campaigns and services tailored for young women in Appalachian Kentucky that focus on increasing knowledge and eliminating barriers are needed. PMID:23391293

Head, Katharine J.; Vanderpool, Robin C.

2013-01-01

263

A cross-sectional examination of the mental health of homeless mothers: does the relationship between mothering and mental health vary by duration of homelessness?  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study draws on baseline data from the At Home/Chez Soi demonstration project to examine the association between parenting status and mental health among homeless women and whether the association varies by duration of homelessness. Setting Structured interviews were conducted with participants in five cities across Canada including Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver and Winnipeg. Participants Eligibility criteria included those with legal adult status, with a mental illness, and who lacked a regular, fixed shelter. All 713 women who participated in the larger project were selected for inclusion in this analysis. Measures The mental health conditions of interest include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol dependence and substance dependence. Results The relationship between parenting status and depression, as well as PTSD, varied by duration of homelessness. Among women who had been homeless for less than 2?years, no relationship was found between parenting status and depression, or PTSD. However, among women who had been homeless for 2 or more years, the odds of depression was twice as high among parenting women compared with others (aOR=2.05, p?0.05). A similar relationship was found between parenting status and PTSD (aOR=2.03, p?0.05). The odds of substance dependence was found to be 2.62 times greater among parenting women compared with others and this relationship did not vary by duration of homelessness (aOR=2.62; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.69). No relationship was found between parenting and alcohol dependence. Conclusions Overall, the findings from this study suggest that there is a relationship between long-term homelessness and mothers’ risk of poor mental health. Given the multiple demands mothers face, a failure to recognise their unique needs is likely to contribute to intergenerational legacies of homelessness and mental health problems. Trial registration number World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ISRCTN66721740 and ISRCTN57595077). PMID:25492272

Zabkiewicz, Denise M; Patterson, Michelle; Wright, Alexandra

2014-01-01

264

The Approach to Ovarian Dermoids in Adolescents and Young Women  

PubMed Central

Background Mature cystic teratomas (MCTs) are the most common ovarian neoplastic lesions found in adolescents. MCTs are usually asymptomatic and are often discovered incidentally on exam or imaging. The recurrence rate of MCTs following cystectomy is 3–4% and incidence of malignant transformation is estimated to be 0.17–2%. Given the accuracy with which MCTs can be diagnosed preoperatively, studies suggest that these lesions can be treated surgically using laparoscopic techniques. The management of MCTs in the adolescent population poses unique challenges given the potential impact on sexual development and fertility. Case A 17 year-old female was found to have bilateral adnexal masses consistent in appearance with MCTs on computed tomography after a motor vehicle accident. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with pathology confirming the presence of bilateral ovarian MCTs. Three years later she returned to the office with occasional abdominopelvic pain. Ultrasound revealed bilateral complex cysts suggestive of recurrent MCTs. She was expectantly managed with serial ultrasounds and after 24 months, slow but visible growth of the MCTs was confirmed. The patient is now 22 years old and asymptomatic. What is the most appropriate management? Summary and Conclusion The risks of expectant management in women like the one presented are small. This suggests that although the traditional treatment for MCTs is laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy, in children and adolescents with MCTs we should consider close follow-up without intervention to preserve ovarian function and future fertility. PMID:21751454

O’Neill, Kathleen E.; Cooper, Amber R.

2014-01-01

265

Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young\\u000a and middle-aged Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health\\u000a checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and

Xin Ying; Zhen-ya Song; Chang-jun Zhao; Yan Jiang

2010-01-01

266

Homelessness During Pregnancy: A Unique, Time-Dependent Risk Factor of Birth Outcomes.  

PubMed

Evaluate homelessness during pregnancy as a unique, time-dependent risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. 9,995 mothers of children <48 months old surveyed at emergency departments and primary care clinics in five US cities. Mothers were classified as either homeless during pregnancy with the index child, homeless only after the index child's birth, or consistently housed. Outcomes included birth weight as a continuous variable, as well as categorical outcomes of low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm delivery (<37 weeks). Multiple logistic regression and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, comparing prenatal and postnatal homelessness with the referent group of consistently housed mothers, controlling for maternal demographic characteristics, smoking, and child age at interview. Prenatal homelessness was associated with higher adjusted odds of LBW (AOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.80, p < 0.01) and preterm delivery (AOR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.56, p = 0.08), and a 53 g lower adjusted mean birth weight (p = 0.08). Postnatal homelessness was not associated with these outcomes. Prenatal homelessness is an independent risk factor for LBW, rather than merely a marker of adverse maternal and social characteristics associated with homelessness. Targeted interventions to provide housing and health care to homeless women during pregnancy may result in improved birth outcomes. PMID:25404405

Cutts, Diana B; Coleman, Sharon; Black, Maureen M; Chilton, Mariana M; Cook, John T; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Heeren, Timothy C; Meyers, Alan; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Frank, Deborah A

2014-11-18

267

Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

Einbinder, Susan; And Others

268

Counting the Homeless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These seven articles focus on Shelter and Street Night, a recent Census Bureau effort to include components of the nation's homeless population in the 1990 census count. The success of investigators in Chicago (Illinois), New York City, Los Angeles (California), Phoenix (Arizona), and New Orleans (Louisiana) is analyzed. (SLD)

Wright, James D., Ed.

1992-01-01

269

Neural-humoral responses during head-up tilt in healthy young white and black women.  

PubMed

Young black women have higher prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy compared to white women, which may be attributable to differences in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We hypothesized that young normotensive black women would demonstrate augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and renal-adrenal responses to orthostasis. Fifteen white and ten black women (30 ± 4 vs. 32 ± 6 years; means ± SD) had haemodynamics and MSNA measured during baseline (BL), 30 and 60° head-up tilt (HUT), and recovery. Blood was drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone. BL brachial systolic BP (SBP: 107 ± 6 vs. 101 ± 9 mmHg) and diastolic BP (DBP: 62 ± 4 vs. 56 ± 7 mmHg) were higher in white women (both p < 0.05). ? DBP (60° HUT-BL) was greater in black women compared to white (p < 0.05). Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance were similar between groups. MSNA burst frequency was higher in whites (BL: 16 ± 10 vs. 14 ± 9 bursts/min, main effect p < 0.05) and increased in both groups during HUT (60°: 39 ± 8 vs. 34 ± 13 bursts/min, p < 0.05 from BL). Noradrenaline was higher in white women during 60° HUT (60° HUT: 364 ± 102 vs. 267 ± 89 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Direct renin was higher and vasopressin and ? aldosterone tended to be higher in blacks (BL, direct renin: 12.1 ± 5.0 vs. 14.4 ± 3.7 pg/ml, p < 0.05; BL, vasopressin: 0.4 ± 0.0 vs. 1.6 ± 3.6 pg/ml, p = 0.065; ? aldosterone: -0.9 ± 5.1 vs. 3.8 ± 7.5 ng/ml; p = 0.069). These results suggest that young normotensive white women may rely on sympathetic neural activity more so than black women who have a tendency to rely on the renal-adrenal system to regulate BP during an orthostatic stress. PMID:24624092

Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

2014-01-01

270

Neural-humoral responses during head-up tilt in healthy young white and black women  

PubMed Central

Young black women have higher prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy compared to white women, which may be attributable to differences in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We hypothesized that young normotensive black women would demonstrate augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and renal-adrenal responses to orthostasis. Fifteen white and ten black women (30 ± 4 vs. 32 ± 6 years; means ± SD) had haemodynamics and MSNA measured during baseline (BL), 30 and 60° head-up tilt (HUT), and recovery. Blood was drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone. BL brachial systolic BP (SBP: 107 ± 6 vs. 101 ± 9 mmHg) and diastolic BP (DBP: 62 ± 4 vs. 56 ± 7 mmHg) were higher in white women (both p < 0.05). ? DBP (60° HUT-BL) was greater in black women compared to white (p < 0.05). Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance were similar between groups. MSNA burst frequency was higher in whites (BL: 16 ± 10 vs. 14 ± 9 bursts/min, main effect p < 0.05) and increased in both groups during HUT (60°: 39 ± 8 vs. 34 ± 13 bursts/min, p < 0.05 from BL). Noradrenaline was higher in white women during 60° HUT (60° HUT: 364 ± 102 vs. 267 ± 89 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Direct renin was higher and vasopressin and ? aldosterone tended to be higher in blacks (BL, direct renin: 12.1 ± 5.0 vs. 14.4 ± 3.7 pg/ml, p < 0.05; BL, vasopressin: 0.4 ± 0.0 vs. 1.6 ± 3.6 pg/ml, p = 0.065; ? aldosterone: ?0.9 ± 5.1 vs. 3.8 ± 7.5 ng/ml; p = 0.069). These results suggest that young normotensive white women may rely on sympathetic neural activity more so than black women who have a tendency to rely on the renal-adrenal system to regulate BP during an orthostatic stress. PMID:24624092

Jarvis, Sara S.; Shibata, Shigeki; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi

2014-01-01

271

Effect of zinc supplementation on inflammatory markers and adipokines in young obese women.  

PubMed

Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state characterized by altered adipokine production and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. The study explored the effect of zinc supplementation on inflammatory markers and adipocyte hormones in young obese women. Twenty five non-obese women and forty obese women (body mass index ?25 kg/m(2)) aged 19-28 years were recruited for this study. Twenty obese women of the study group took 30 mg/day of supplemental zinc as zinc gluconate for 8 weeks and 20 obese women of control group took placebo. Usual dietary zinc intake was estimated from 3-day diet records. Serum zinc and urinary zinc concentration were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin (IL)-6 and adipocyte hormones such as lepin and adiponectin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Inflammatory markers and leptin were significantly higher, but adiponectin was significantly lower in obese women than non-obese women. Zinc supplementation increased serum zinc by 15% and urinary zinc by 56% (P?young adults. PMID:24402636

Kim, Jihye; Ahn, Juhee

2014-02-01

272

77 FR 20849 - Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program AGENCY: Veterans' Employment...reauthorizes the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP) through fiscal year...and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless veterans into the...

2012-04-06

273

New treatment option for young women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

A drug used for treating breast cancer, known as exemestane, is more effective than a common breast cancer prevention drug, tamoxifen, in preventing breast cancer recurrence in young women who also receive post-surgical treatment to suppress ovarian function. The combined results of the Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial and Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial were presented at the 2014 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago.

274

Simultaneous cannabis and tobacco use and cannabis-related outcomes in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to those who reported a lifetime co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use, individuals who report simultaneous use of cannabis and tobacco are more likely to also report higher rates of substance-related problems and psychopathology. In a sample of young women, we examine (a) co-occurring use, or whether regular cigarette smoking is associated with increased cannabis involvement and (b) simultaneous

Arpana Agrawal; Michael T. Lynskey; Pamela A. F. Madden; Michele L. Pergadia; Kathleen K. Bucholz; Andrew C. Heath

2009-01-01

275

Personality correlates of sexual risk taking in adolescent girls and young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the relationship between sexual risk-taking, Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), and Kaplan's Individuation-Attachment questionnaire (IAQ). Alcohol use and Rotter's Locus of Control were also included. Participants were 141 sexually experienced adolescent girls and young women, ages 16–24. Results indicated that sexual risk-taking was related to three of the SSS sub-scales but unrelated to the Thrill and

Susan Lynn Weldon

2002-01-01

276

Relationship Between Nutritional Habits and Hair Calcium Levels in Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status\\u000a parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using\\u000a no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements\\u000a were collected with 4-day records. The calcium

Marta Jeruszka-Bielak; Anna Brzozowska

277

Homeless, Street-Involved Emerging Adults: Attitudes toward Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has indicated that a high proportion of homeless emerging adults use substances. This article aims to understand the attitudes of these young adults concerning their substance use and its effect on their lives. A mixed methods study using semistructured interviews and self-report instruments was conducted with 87 emerging adults who…

Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.; Gomez, Rebecca; Dreyer, Lauren; Popham, Amelia

2010-01-01

278

Immigration and Schools: Supporting Success for Undocumented Unaccompanied Homeless Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…

National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010

2010-01-01

279

Impact of breast cancer subtypes on 3-year survival among adolescent and young adult women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Young women have poorer survival after breast cancer than do older women. It is unclear whether this survival difference relates to the unique distribution of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-defined molecular breast cancer subtypes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women aged 15 to 39 years. The purpose of our study was to examine associations between breast cancer subtypes and short-term survival in AYA women, as well as to determine whether the distinct molecular subtype distribution among AYA women explains the unfavorable overall breast cancer survival statistics reported for AYA women compared with older women. Methods Data for 5,331 AYA breast cancers diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Survival by subtype (triple-negative; HR+/HER2-; HR+/HER2+; HR-/HER2+) and age-group (AYA versus 40- to 64-year-olds) was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards regression with follow-up through 2010. Results With up to 6 years of follow-up and a mean survival time of 3.1 years (SD?=?1.5 years), AYA women diagnosed with HR-/HER?+?and triple-negative breast cancer experienced a 1.6-fold and 2.7-fold increased risk of death, respectively, from all causes (HR-/HER?+?hazard ratio: 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10 to 2.18; triple-negative HR: 2.75; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.66) and breast cancer (HR-/HER?+?hazard ratio: 1.63; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.36; triple-negative hazard ratio: 2.71; 95% CI, 1.98 to 3.71) than AYA women with HR+/HER2- breast cancer. AYA women who resided in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods, had public health insurance, and were of Black, compared with White, race/ethnicity experienced worse survival. This race/ethnicity association was attenuated somewhat after adjusting for breast cancer subtypes (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.82). AYA women had similar all-cause and breast cancer-specific short-term survival as older women for all breast cancer subtypes and across all stages of disease. Conclusions Among AYA women with breast cancer, short-term survival varied by breast cancer subtypes, with the distribution of breast cancer subtypes explaining some of the poorer survival observed among Black, compared with White, AYA women. Future studies should consider whether distribution of breast cancer subtypes and other factors, including differential receipt of treatment regimens, influences long-term survival in young compared with older women. PMID:24131591

2013-01-01

280

Unintended pregnancy among unmarried adolescents and young women in Anambra State, south east Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study identified the characteristics and factors influencing unintended pregnancy among unmarried young women in a rural community in south-east Nigeria. One hundred and thirty six unmarried teens with unintended pregnancy attending a Christian hospital in Ozubulu, a rural community in south-east Nigeria, from January 1998 to December 2001 were included in the study. Information was obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interview. Over 75% of the girls had their first sexual intercourse by 19 years, and over 69% had multiple partners. Over 95% had sex for economic reasons and exchanged sex for money or gifts. Only 13.5% ever used condoms. Ninety seven per cent suffered violence such as beating and verbal abuse from family members because of the pregnancy. Most of the adolescents or young women experienced major stressors, most importantly school and job termination, partner's negative attitude, religious sanction, discrimination and stigmatisation as a result of the unintended pregnancy. Unmarried pregnant adolescents or young women have particular health and psychosocial problems. Stakeholders in adolescent health, namely, parents, teachers, religious groups and health care providers, should recognise these problems and advocate for the provision of appropriate care and youth-friendly services to help youths navigate through these problems. PMID:17348328

Ilika, Amobi; Igwegbe, Anthony

2004-12-01

281

“It's my own stuff”: The Negotiations and Multiplicity of Ethnic Identities among Young Women of Middle Eastern Backgrounds in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This quote, expressed by one of the participants in this study, points to a dominant stereotype of young immigrant women in\\u000a Sweden today. This category of young women is primarily identified as originating from the Middle East. Their voices have\\u000a not been considered enough in the official debate, for instance in the news media. Previous research has shown that the

Serine Haghverdian

282

Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

2014-12-01

283

Common Prediction Equations Overestimate Measured Resting Metabolic Rate in Young Hispanic Women  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of 6 resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction equations to indirect calorimetry was compared in 38 Hispanic women (age = 30 ± 7 years; body mass index = 28.9 ± 7.2 kg/m2; body fat = 42% ± 8%). Paired t tests examined differences between predicted and measured RMR; significance defined as P < 0.05. Bias and agreement were displayed using Bland-Altman plots. Accuracy was defined when the predicted RMR was ± 10% of the measured RMR. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 19). Only the equation of Owen et al was not significantly different from the measured RMR (1336 ± 142 and 1322 ± 203 kcal/d, respectively). The equation of Owen et al was accurate for 84.2% of women; RMR prediction equations had limited applicability for young Hispanic women. PMID:24058263

Miller, Shirley; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen

2013-01-01

284

Streamlining Cutaneous Melanomas in Young Women of the Belgian Mosan Region  

PubMed Central

Sporadic cutaneous melanoma (SCM) has shown a dramatic increase in incidence in Caucasian populations over the past few decades. A particular epidemiological increase was reported in women during their childbearing age. In the Belgian Mosan region, a progressive unremitting increase in SCM incidence was noticed in young women for the past 35 years. The vast majority of these SCMs were of the superficial type without any obvious relationship with a large number of melanocytic nevi or with signs of frequent and intense sunlight exposures as disclosed by the extent in the mosaic subclinical melanoderma. A series of investigations pointed to a possible relationship linking the development of some SCM to the women hormonal status including the effect of hormonal disruptors. These aspects remain, however, unsettled and controversial. It is possible to differentiate and clearly quantify the SCM shape, size, scalloped border, and variegated pigmentation using computerized morphometry as well as fractal and multifractal methods. PMID:24716193

Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Piérard, Sébastien

2014-01-01

285

Youth and Young Adult Physical Activity and Body Composition of Young Adult Women: Findings From the Dietary Intervention Study in Children.  

PubMed

This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend=0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (?=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p=0.02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; VanHorn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

2014-11-10

286

CHOICES. A Resource for Literacy Providers and Homeless Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CHOICES, a literacy program for homeless families, piloted a program at the Women's Emergency Shelter in Champaign, Illinois and later expanded its services to A Woman's Place, a domestic violence shelter, in Urbana, Illinois. The CHOICES program offered weekly language activities for the children and gave mothers information about developing…

Koehler, Gwen; And Others

287

Health care of homeless veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to understand the needs of those veterans who are homeless. We describe characteristics of homeless male veterans\\u000a and factors associated with needing VA benefits from a two-city, community survey of 531 homeless adults. Overall, 425 were\\u000a male, of whom 127 were veterans (29.9%). Significantly more veterans had a chronic medical condition and two or more mental\\u000a health

Thomas P. O’Toole; Alicia Conde-Martel; Jeanette L. Gibbon; Barbara H. Hanusa; Michael J. Fine

2003-01-01

288

Devotion and Friendship through Facebook: An Ethnographic Approach to Language, Community, and Identity Performances of Young Turkish-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation explores the incorporation of Facebook into everyday live activities and practices of a group of young Turkish-American women affiliated with a faith-based movement, known as the "Hizmet" (volunteer's service) movement. In particular, I examine the emergent communicative practices and performances of these young

Akkaya, Aslihan

2012-01-01

289

Examining the determinants of sexual violence among young, married women in Southern India.  

PubMed

The prevalence of sexual violence is increasingly being studied in India. Yet the determinants of sexual violence, irrespective of physical violence, remain largely unexplored. Here the authors identify the determinants of sexual violence, and additionally, explore how the presence of physical violence modifies these determinants. A cross-sectional analysis is conducted using baseline data from a longitudinal study involving young married women attending reproductive health clinics in Southern India. A multivariable logistic regression analysis is conducted to first identify determinants of sexual violence and then repeated after stratifying elements based on presence or absence of physical violence identified from participants' reports. 36% and 50% of the participants report experiencing sexual and physical violence, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, women's partners' characteristics are found most significantly associated with their odds of experiencing sexual violence. These characteristics include husbands' primary education, employment as drivers, alcohol consumption, and having multiple sex partners. Women's contribution to household income also increases their odds of experiencing sexual violence by almost twofold; however, if they are solely responsible for "all" household income, the relationship is found to be protective. Physical violence modifies the determinants of sexual violence, and among women not experiencing physical violence, husbands' primary education and employment as drivers increase women's odds of experiencing sexual violence nearly threefold, and women who contribute "all" the household income (n = 62) do not experience sexual violence. These relationships are not significant among women experiencing physical violence. Study findings improve the understanding of the determinants of sexual violence. Future research is needed to examine the risk factors for different types of GBV independently and to tease apart the differences in risk factors depending on women's experiences. The significance of male partners' characteristics warrants in-depth research, and in order to promote gender-equitable norms, future interventions need to focus on male behaviors and men's day-to-day survival challenges, all of which likely influence conflicts in marital relationships. PMID:22279129

Chibber, Karuna S; Krupp, Karl; Padian, Nancy; Madhivanan, Purnima

2012-08-01

290

The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

2005-01-01

291

The Work-to-College Transition: Postsecondary Expectations and Enrolment for Young Men and Women in the US Labour Force  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates early employment influences on postsecondary expectations and enrolment for working men and women who have recently completed high school in the United States. We find that young workers still have very high expectations for postsecondary education, but that women are more likely to enrol. However, this difference is…

Wells, Ryan S.; Bills, David B.; Devlin, Maura E.

2014-01-01

292

Predictors of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in young women at risk for unintended pregnancy in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Young women receiving family planning services are at risk for both unintended pregnancy and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis using data from a previously published randomized controlled trial evaluating access to emergency contraception on reproductive health outcomes. Women aged 15 to 24 years were recruited from two Planned Parenthood clinics and

Nicholas J Moss; Cynthia C Harper; Katherine Ahrens; Katherine Scott; Susan Kao; Nancy Padian; Tina Raine; Jeffrey D Klausner

2007-01-01

293

Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

2012-01-01

294

“If I buy the Kellogg’s then he should [buy] the milk”: young women’s perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women’s decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24 year old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women’s expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power, and how this influences HIV risk. We found that the majority of young women reported expectations of power in relationships that conform to a model of femininity marked by financial independence, freedom to make decisions, including over sexuality, and equality (resistant femininity). The majority of young women, however, were in relationships marked by intimate partner violence, infidelity or lack of condom use. In spite of this, more young women who subscribed to a resistant model of femininity were in less risky relationships than young women who subscribed to acquiescent models, in which power was vested in their male partners. Further, young women who subscribed to resistant femininity had more education than women who subscribed to an acquiescent model. The disconnect between expectations of relationships and young women’s lived realities emphasises the need for structural changes that afford women greater economic and thus decision making power. PMID:22449022

Pettifor, Audrey; MacPhail, Catherine; Anderson, Althea D.; Maman, Suzanne

2012-01-01

295

Pastoral care and counseling with the "un-homeless homeless": understanding cultures of homelessness.  

PubMed

This article presents a subset of findings from a larger study exploring the lived experiences of 16 former residents of a 90-day emergency family shelter program in Los Angeles County. Interpretative phenomenological analysis serves as a qualitative method for understanding the cultural uniqueness of the "un-homeless homeless." The findings offer implications for culturally competent pastoral care and counseling in the context of family homelessness and attend to both the process and content of caregiving. PMID:25241491

Snodgrass, Jill

2014-01-01

296

Sources of Psychological Pain and Suicidal Thoughts Among Homeless Adults.  

PubMed

Homeless adults experience problems in multiple areas of their lives. It was hypothesized that adults who were troubled by problems in more areas of their lives would be more likely to report suicidal thoughts. The sample included 457 homeless men and women who resided in three emergency shelters. The number of sources of psychological pain, past suicide attempts, and being a man predicted current suicidal thoughts, but being diagnosed with a depressive disorder did not. Shelter workers should ask adults whether they have attempted suicide in the past and how troubled they are by each area of their lives. PMID:25255999

Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D; Kong, Jooyoung; Bockenstedt, Julie K W

2014-09-25

297

Breast size, bra fit and thoracic pain in young women: a correlational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction A single sample study was undertaken to determine the strength and direction of correlations between: a) breast size and thoracic spine or posterior chest wall pain; b) bra fit and thoracic spine or posterior chest wall pain and; c) breast size and bra fit, in thirty nulliparous women (18–26 years), with thoracic spine or posterior chest wall pain, who wore bras during daytime. Measures Pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire), bra size (Triumph International), bra fit (Triumph International). Results Most (80%) women wore incorrectly sized bras: 70% wore bras that were too small, 10% wore bras that were too large. Breast size was negatively correlated with both bra size (r = -0.78) and bra fit (r = -0.50). These results together indicate that large breasted women were particularly likely to be wearing incorrectly sized and fitted bras. Negligible relationships were found between pain and bra fit, and breast size and pain. Menstrual cycle stage was moderately positively correlated with bra fit (r = 0.32). Conclusion In young, nulliparous women, thoracic pain appears unrelated to breast size. Bra fit is moderately related to stage of menstrual cycle suggesting that this research may be somewhat confounded by hormonal changes or reproductive stage. Further research is needed to clarify whether there is a relationship between breast size or bra fit and thoracic pain in women during times of hormonal change. PMID:18339205

Wood, Katherine; Cameron, Melainie; Fitzgerald, Kylie

2008-01-01

298

Greater oxidative stress in healthy young men compared with premenopausal women.  

PubMed

Coronary risk factors, including age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, are associated with enhanced oxidative stress, which is implicated as a potential mechanism for atherogenesis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Male sex is one of the well-known cardiovascular risk factors. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress is greater in men than in women. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and urinary 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) were measured in 52 young men and 51 age-matched women. The subjects were healthy, were not smokers, and were not taking any medications or vitamins. Age, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, and glucose did not differ between the groups. Baseline TBARS (2.32 +/- 0.11 [men] versus 1.87 +/- 0.09 [women] nmol/mL, P<0.01) and 8-iso-PGF2alpha (292 +/- 56 [men] versus 164 +/- 25 [women] pg/mg creatinine, P<0.05) were higher in men than in women. Supplementation of antioxidant vitamins for 4 weeks in men produced a significant reduction in TBARS and 8-iso-PGF2alpha by 34% (P<0.01) and 48% (P<0.05), respectively. Plasma superoxide dismutase, catalase, and vitamin E levels were comparable between the groups. Enhanced oxidative stress in men may provide a biochemical link between male sex and atherosclerotic diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:11884287

Ide, Tomomi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Noriko; Hayashidani, Shunji; Suematsu, Nobuhiro; Tsuchihashi, Miyuki; Tamai, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Akira

2002-03-01

299

Poverty, Food Insufficiency and HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviour among Young Rural Zimbabwean Women  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18–22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. Objective To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Methods Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. Results 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7–8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9–12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. Conclusions This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should be developed and evaluated alongside behaviour and biomedical interventions, as a component of HIV prevention programming and policy. PMID:25625868

Pascoe, Sophie J. S.; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Mavhu, Webster; Hargreaves, James; Jaffar, Shabbar; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M.

2015-01-01

300

Association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and dietary intake in Vietnamese young women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a strong independent predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the relationship between hsCRP and dietary intake in apparently healthy young women living in southern Vietnam. SUBJECTS/METHODS Serum hsCRP was measured and dietary intake data were obtained using the 1-day 24-hour recall method in women (n = 956; mean age, 25.0 ± 5.7 years) who participated in the International Collaboration Study for the Construction of Asian Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) in 2011. RESULTS Women in the high risk group (> 3 mg/L) consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, total plant food, potassium, and folate than those in the low risk group (< 1 mg/L). A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates revealed a significant negative association between hsCRP and fruit and vegetable consumption. A logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) of having a high hsCRP level in women with the highest quartiles of consumption of fruits and vegetables [OR, 0.391; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.190-0.807], potassium [OR, 0.425; 95% CI, 0.192-0.939] and folate [OR, 0.490; 95% CI, 0.249-0.964] were significantly lower than those in the lowest quartiles. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that, in young Vietnamese women, an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables might be beneficial for serum hsCRP, a risk factor for future CVD events. PMID:25110566

Ko, Ahra; Kim, Hyesook; Han, Chan-Jung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Chung, Hye-Won

2014-01-01

301

Coping with an Acute Psychosocial Challenge: Behavioral and Physiological Responses in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Despite the relevance of behavior in understanding individual differences in the strategies used to cope with stressors, behavioral responses and their relationships with psychobiological changes have received little attention. In this study on young women, we aimed at analyzing the associations among different components of the stress response and behavioral coping using a laboratory psychosocial stressor. The Ethological Coding System for Interviews, as well as neuroendocrine, autonomic and mood parameters, were used to measure the stress response in 34 young women (17 free-cycling women in their early follicular phase and 17 oral contraceptive users) subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic, negative mood and anxiety responses to the stressor were observed between the two groups of women. However, women in the follicular phase showed a higher cortisol response and a larger decrease in positive mood during the social stress episode, as well as greater anxiety overall. Interestingly, the amount of displacement behavior exhibited during the speaking task of the TSST was positively related to anxiety levels preceding the test, but negatively related to baseline and stress response values of heart rate. Moreover, the amount of submissive behavior was negatively related to basal cortisol levels. Finally, eye contact and low-aggressiveness behaviors were associated with a worsening in mood. Overall, these findings emphasize the close relationship between coping behavior and psychobiological reactions, as well as the role of individual variations in the strategy of coping with a psychosocial stressor. PMID:25489730

Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Mastorci, Francesca; Sgoifo, Andrea; Salvador, Alicia

2014-01-01

302

Oncofertility for gynecologic and non-gynecologic cancers: Fertility sparing in young women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

About ten percent of all female cancer survivors is younger than 40 years of age. For these young women the primary goal is to ensure the highest possibility of cure and to maintain the reproductive functions as well. Oncofertility is a new concept including both oncology and reproductive medicine. By this recently defined concept young women will have maximal chance to make an optimal decision without any significant impact and delay in oncologic outcome. Oncofertility concept could be applied for genital cancer as well as non-genital cancer of reproductive age. Currently sperm and embryo banking are the standard methods used for young patients with cancer whose future fertility is under risk. In contrary oocyte banking, ovarian tissue cryopreservation are all controversial procedures and still accepted as experimental by many authors although American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) consideres oocyte cryopreservation "no longer experimental". For genital cancers procedures for oncofertility depends on the type of the cancer and the treatment of choice. In this review the current data and concepts regarding oncofertility concept including the gynecologic oncologic perspective is reviewed. PMID:25090914

Dursun, Polat; Do?an, N Utku; Ayhan, Ali

2014-12-01

303

'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.  

PubMed

Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia. PMID:25115988

Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

2015-01-01

304

Interference of high-heeled shoes in static balance among young women.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the use of high-heeled shoes on static balance in young adult women. Fifty-three women between 18 and 30 years of age and accustomed to wearing high-heeled shoes participated in the study. None of the participants had any orthopedic or neurologic alterations. Static balance was assessed using a force plate. Oscillations from the center of pressure in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions were measured both when barefoot and when wearing high-heeled shoes [7 centimeters (cm) in height and 1cm in diameter] under the conditions of eyes open and eyes closed. Two-way analysis of variance was employed for the statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p<.05). The results revealed statistically significant differences between tests when barefoot and when wearing high-heeled shoes as well as with eyes open and eyes closed (p<.01). With the use of high-heeled shoes, there was a significant increase in mediolateral oscillation with eyes closed (p<.01). The present study demonstrates that the use of seven-cm high heels altered static balance in the healthy young women analyzed, increasing the oscillation of the center of pressure, regardless of visual restriction. PMID:22742722

Gerber, Susana Bacelete; Costa, Rafael Vital; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Pasini, Hugo; Marconi, Nádia Fernanda; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

2012-10-01

305

Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

2015-01-01

306

The Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Effects on Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use among Young Rural Women in Mexico  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Oportunidades is a large conditional cash transfer program in Mexico. It is important to examine whether the program has any direct effect on pregnancy experience and contraceptive use among young rural women, apart from those through education. METHODS Data from the 1992, 2006 and 2009 waves of a nationally representative, population-based survey were used to describe trends in pregnancy experience, contraceptive use and education among rural adolescent (15–19) and young adult (20–24) women in Mexico. To examine differences in pregnancy experience and current modern contraceptive use among young women, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted among matched 2006 samples of women with and without exposure to Oportunidades, predicted probabilities were calculated and indirect effects were estimated. RESULTS Over the three survey waves, the proportion of adolescent and young adult women reporting ever being pregnant stayed flat (33–36%) and contraceptive use increased steadily (from 13% in 1992 to 19% in 2009). Educational attainment rose dramatically: The proportion of women with a secondary education increased from 28% in 1992 to 46% in 2009. In multivariable analyses, exposure to Oportunidades was not associated with pregnancy experience among adolescents. Educational attainment, marital status, pregnancy experience and access to health insurance—but not exposure to Oportunidades—were positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among adolescent and young adult women. CONCLUSION Through its effect on education, Oportunidades indirectly influences fertility among adolescents. It is important for Mexico to focus on strategies to increase contraceptive use among young rural nulliparous women, regardless of whether they are enrolled in Oportunidades. PMID:24393726

Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G.; Walker, Dilys; Servan-Mori, Edson; Prager, Sarah; Gakidou, Emmanuela

2014-01-01

307

The Homeless in Contemporary Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of 15 chapters on understanding and helping the homeless. The first seven chapters present the "new" homeless in historical context and describe this population and its situation. The remaining eight chapters discuss policy and program options of the government and other organizations in attempting to alleviate the problems of…

Bingham, Richard D.; And Others

308

Public Policy and the Homeless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes regional and federal responses to the homelessness crisis, including the author-sponsored White House Conference on Homelessness Act. Supports legislative measures to accomplish the following goals: (1) increased low-income housing; (2) treatment of mentally ill and alcohol- and drug-dependent individuals; and (3) new approaches to…

Gore, Albert, Jr.

1990-01-01

309

Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

Roman, Nan

2010-01-01

310

Young women, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and human papillomavirus: risk factors for persistence and recurrence.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young women. They can occur in one or multiple areas of the female genitalia. Usually, the vulva is the initial site of implantation for HPV. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the epidemiological aspects, incidence of single or multiple lesions in the lower genital tract, correlation between sexual behaviour and their localization and behaviour risk factors for persistence and recurrence of HPV lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) in a long-term follow-up among young women. We recruited 268 patients aged 11-21 years who previously had cytology and/or physical examination suspicious for HPV infection. The women were interviewed and asked information about lifestyle, sexual behaviour, work, personal or family history of genital warts and school attendance. We considered individuals to be 'smokers' if they smoked more than five cigarettes/day. No specific data were recorded about oral contraception, nevertheless, no woman had used oral contraceptives (OCs) for more than 2 years. Young women included in the study were between the age of 12 and 21 years who had HVP lesions after entry examinations and had undergone no treatment for HPV lesions prior to entry. Other exclusion criteria relevant to this study included cervical excisional treatment prior to entry or later. Two hundred and thirty-four young women were included in our study group. Our diagnostic schedule for a complete evaluation included exo- and endocervical cytology, colposcopy, directed biopsy and microcolpohysteroscopy. The treatment was performed with a LASER CO2 Coherent 400, model 451, with Zeiss photocolposcopy attachment. The finding that, among 126/234 (53.8%) adolescents using contraceptives, only 85 (36.3%) have used condom, the only barrier form of contraceptive effectively protecting against virus, shows a low awareness of the high risk for contracting HPV infection among young sexually active women. The sites most frequently affected in our study were vulva, perianus and perineum (194/234), 82.9% and the cervix (125/234), 53.4%. Vaginal lesions were detected only in 29/234 patients (12.3%). According to our data, in 161 patients, sexual habits, age at the first intercourse (P=0.68), frequency of intercourses (P=0.49) and number of lifetime partners (P=0.27) as well as age (P=0.26) play a role in transmission and incidence of HPV infection but not on the location of the lesions. This can be due to a coexistent clinical and subclinical multiple infection as well as a transmission via intercourse or from other sources, including tampons. Abnormal Pap test was related to HPV infection, but the low correlation with colposcopic and histological findings in this study justify the support of other examinations such as colposcopy and punch biopsy for diagnosis. Moreover, according to our data, cytology alone shows to be not suitable to exclude CIN (seven underestimated cases of CIN) and a closer correspondence were found between colposcopy and the result of histological sample after punch biopsy in CIN detection. More attention must be paid to psychological aspect of diagnoses and treatment among adolescents, more than older women as the high rate of patients lost shows in our study: 75/234 (32.05%) before LASER surgery and 55/159 (34.59%) during follow-up. International data shows that only 12-45% of sexually active adolescent girls have obtained Pap smear screening. In our study, we found no correlation between treatment failure and cigarette smoking or between the use of oral contraceptives and persistence/recurrence after LASER CO2 surgery. Because the small sample of our study group, further analyses were required. PMID:12860270

Frega, Antonio; Stentella, Patrizia; De Ioris, Andrea; Piazze, Juan Josè; Fambrini, Massimiliano; Marchionni, Mauro; Cosmi, Ermelando Vinicio

2003-07-10

311

Dairy intakes in older girls and risk of benign breast disease in young women.  

PubMed

Previous investigations found high dairy intakes in girls associated with rapid height growth and excess weight gain, which had opposite relationships with benign breast disease (BBD) in young women. We use data from the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) to investigate whether dairy intakes, in older children/adolescents, are associated with BBD risk in young women. GUTS includes 9,039 females, ages 9-15 years in 1996, who completed questionnaires annually through 2001, then in 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2010. Dietary food frequencies (1996-2001) obtained milk, yogurt, and cheese intakes. On 2005-2010 surveys, 7,011 females (18-29 years) reported whether a health care provider ever diagnosed them with BBD (n = 250) and if confirmed by breast biopsy (n = 105). Logistic regression models estimated associations between prevalent biopsy-confirmed BBD and dairy intakes, adjusted for age and energy. Multivariable-adjusted models additionally included menarche age, childhood adiposity, adolescent alcohol consumption, and pregnancy. Further analyses stratified by family history. Age-energy-adjusted models of dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese, total dairy servings, dairy protein, dairy fat) intakes at 14 yr found no significant associations with BBD risk [milk: OR, 0.90/(serving/d); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-1.05; dairy protein: OR, 0.98/(10 g/d); 95% CI, 0.82-1.17). Separate analyses of dairy intakes at 10 yr, intakes before the growth spurt, during the growth spurt, before menses-onset, and after menses-onset provided no significant associations with BBD. Multivariable adjustment, and family history stratification, did not alter the above findings. We conclude that dairy intakes by older girls have no strong relation with BBD risk in young women. Because of small number of cases, it is important to continue follow-up and re-examine later. PMID:23542805

Berkey, Catherine S; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard; Frazier, A Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A

2013-04-01

312

Power loss is greater following lengthening contractions in old versus young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with isometric and dynamic velocity-constrained (isokinetic) tasks, less is known regarding velocity-dependent (isotonic)\\u000a muscle power and recovery in older adults following repeated fatiguing lengthening contractions. We investigated voluntary\\u000a and evoked neuromuscular properties of the dorsiflexors in nine old (68.3?±?6.1 years) and nine young women (25.1?±?1.3 years)\\u000a during and following 150 lengthening contractions for up to 30 min of recovery. At baseline, the

Geoffrey A. Power; Brian H. Dalton; Charles L. Rice; Anthony A. Vandervoort

313

Giving young Emirati women a voice: participatory action research on physical activity.  

PubMed

International evidence on health promotion indicates the importance of regular physical activity for preventing and reducing the incidence of obesity and chronic diseases. This study investigated the relationship between physical activity and the social milieu of young Muslim women in the United Arab Emirates. This participatory action research project included semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus groups and yielded qualitative data. Set within a context of rapid social change, perceived barriers to daily exercise influenced participants' physical activity levels and overall well-being. Results indicated a lack of physical exercise and strategies were proposed for implementation by college staff and students. PMID:18515171

Berger, Gabriella; Peerson, Anita

2009-03-01

314

Chlamydia trachomatis Incidence and Re-Infection among Young Women – Behavioural and Microbiological Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to estimate rates of chlamydia incidence and re-infection and to investigate the dynamics of chlamydia organism load in prevalent, incident and re-infections among young Australian women. Methods 1,116 women aged 16 to 25 years were recruited from primary care clinics in Australia. Vaginal swabs were collected at 3 to 6 month intervals for chlamydia testing. Chlamydia organism load was measured by quantitative PCR. Results There were 47 incident cases of chlamydia diagnosed and 1,056.34 person years of follow up with a rate of 4.4 per 100 person years (95% CI: 3.3, 5.9). Incident infection was associated with being aged 16 to 20 years [RR?=?3.7 (95%CI: 1.9, 7.1)], being employed [RR?=?2.4 (95%CI: 1.1, 4.9)] and having two or more new sex partners [RR?=?5.5 (95%CI: 2.6, 11.7)]. Recent antibiotic use was associated with a reduced incidence [RR:0.1 (95%CI: 0.0, 0.5)]. There were 14 re-infections with a rate of 22.3 per 100 person years (95%CI: 13.2, 37.6). The median time to re-infection was 4.6 months. Organism load was higher for prevalent than incident infections (p<0.01) and for prevalent than re-infections (p<0.01). Conclusions Chlamydia is common among young women and a high proportion of women are re-infected within a short period of time, highlighting the need for effective partner treatment and repeat testing. The difference in organism load between prevalent and incident infections suggests prevalent infection may be more important for ongoing transmission of chlamydia. PMID:22662220

Walker, Jennifer; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Twin, Jimmy; Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M.; McNamee, Kathleen; Urban, Eve; Walker, Sandra; Currie, Marian; Birden, Hudson; Bowden, Francis; Gunn, Jane; Pirotta, Marie; Gurrin, Lyle; Harindra, Veerakathy; Garland, Suzanne M.; Hocking, Jane S.

2012-01-01

315

Influence of high ovarian hormones on QT interval duration in young African women  

PubMed Central

Abstract The longer QT interval duration observed in women compared to men is usually attributed to sexual hormones. The aim of our study was to investigate, among black African women, the influence of hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle on the duration of the QT interval. Fourteen young black African women, healthy, sedentary, aged 24 ± 1.7 years, with a regular menstrual cycle (28 ± 1 days) were selected from 59 volunteers. At each phase of their menstrual cycle, menstrual 2.9 ± 0.6 days, follicular 13 ± 1.5 days, and luteal 23.1 ± 1.4 days, an electrocardiogram was performed in supine position after a resting period of 30 min, to measure QT interval duration. QT interval was corrected by Bazett's (QTcb) and Fridericia's (QTcf) formulae. Then, blood samples were obtained to measure estradiol, progesterone, and serum electrolytes (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). There was no significant difference in uncorrected QT intervals between the three phases of the menstrual cycle. It was the same for QTcb and QTcf. Moreover, during the menstrual cycle, we did not observe any correlation between each QT, QTcb, QTcf, and estradiol levels which raised during the follicular phase (356.61 ± 160.77 pg/mL) and progesterone levels which raised during the luteal phase (16.38 ± 5.88 ng/mL). Finally, the method of Bland and Altman demonstrated that the corrections of QT by Bazett and Fridericia formulae were not interchangeable. The results of this study showed that high levels of estradiol and progesterone in young black African women did not influence the QT, QTcb and QTcf intervals duration during the menstrual cycle. PMID:24760517

Balayssac?Siransy, Edwige; Ouattara, Soualiho; Adoubi, Anicet; Kouamé, Chantal; Hauhouot?Attoungbré, Marie?Laure; Dah, Cyrille; Bogui, Pascal

2014-01-01

316

The assessment of maximal aerobic power with the multistage fitness test in young women soccer players.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to assess the criterion validity and the accuracy in estimating maximal aerobic power (VO2max) of a popular shuttle running field test (multistage fitness test [MSFT]) in women soccer players. Twenty-six women soccer players (age 12.1+/-0.9 years, body mass 50+/-9.2 kg, and height 155+/-5.7 cm) were tested over separate occasions for VO2max (VO2max test) and MSFT performances with (MSFT peak oxygen uptake) or without (MSFT) gas analysis. Data showed that the VO2max estimation using the MSFT predicting nomogram was significantly lower than MSFT VO2peak (32.7+/-3.9 vs. 40.1+/-5.9 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); p<0.001). No significant difference between VO2max test and MSFT for maximal VO2 and heart rate (HR) was observed (38.7+/-4.7 vs. 40.1+/-5.9 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) and 203+/-5.3 vs. 200+/-9.8 beats.min(-1); p>0.05; n=15). The MSFT performance (950+/-213 m) results significantly correlated with MSFT-VO2peak (r=0.70; p<0.001). This study results showed that the MSFT predicting nomogram significantly underestimated VO2peak. Average difference being in the order of 23% of the estimated value. Resulting MSFT-VO2peak significantly related to MSFT performance, and this test may be considered as an indirect measure of individual VO2max in young women soccer players. Furthermore, MSFT may be used as a valid test to assess VO2peak and HRmax when a portable gas analyzer and a HR monitor are available. However, great individual differences may occur. In light of this study results, it is suggested to consider MSFT performance (distance covered) and not estimated VO2max when dealing with young women soccer players. PMID:20508449

Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Manzi, Vincenzo; Ditroilo, Massimiliano

2010-06-01

317

Association between Blood Lipid Levels and Personality Traits in Young Korean Women  

PubMed Central

Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age ?=?24.9±4.6 years (range 17–39)] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between blood lipid levels and personality traits may have a beneficial effect for the managing of dyslipidemia. PMID:25268499

Roh, Seung-Ju; Shim, Unjin; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Su-Jin; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah

2014-01-01

318

Associations of endogenous 17-?-estradiol with theta amplitude and performance in semantic categorization in young women  

PubMed Central

In semantic categorization processes, individuals form a relation between perceived or imagined objects and knowledge about these objects. In the present semantic categorization study, we correlated endogenous 17-?-estradiol levels (E2) with performance as well as amplitude of theta oscillations in young women (age 23.1 ± 3.4 years). The semantic categorization task consisted of nouns representing either living or non-living items. Each item was characterized either by many or by few features. We identified parameters associated or not associated with menstrual cycle phases. Irrespective of the menstrual cycle phase, women (1) responded faster to living items as well as to nouns characterized by many features compared to non-living items and items characterized by few features, (2) showed higher accuracy to non-living items and items having many features, and (3) showed negative correlation between response time (RT) and theta amplitude. RT, accuracy and post-stimulus theta amplitude were not statistically significantly different among early follicular, late follicular or luteal women. In early follicular but not in late follicular or luteal women, we observed (1) a positive correlation between E2 and latency in RT, (2) a negative correlation between E2 and accuracy, and (3) a negative correlation between E2 and post-stimulus theta amplitude. A mosaic of menstrual cycle phase-dependent and -independent associations may indicate that a similar performance in each menstrual cycle phase is related to different modulation of synaptic activity by hormones. PMID:25451285

Brötzner, C.P.; Klimesch, W.; Kerschbaum, H.H.

2015-01-01

319

Associations of endogenous 17-?-estradiol with theta amplitude and performance in semantic categorization in young women.  

PubMed

In semantic categorization processes, individuals form a relation between perceived or imagined objects and knowledge about these objects. In the present semantic categorization study, we correlated endogenous 17-?-estradiol levels (E2) with performance as well as amplitude of theta oscillations in young women (age 23.1±3.4years). The semantic categorization task consisted of nouns representing either living or non-living items. Each item was characterized either by many or by few features. We identified parameters associated or not associated with menstrual cycle phases. Irrespective of the menstrual cycle phase, women (1) responded faster to living items as well as to nouns characterized by many features compared to non-living items and items characterized by few features, (2) showed higher accuracy to non-living items and items having many features, and (3) showed negative correlation between response time (RT) and theta amplitude. RT, accuracy and post-stimulus theta amplitude were not statistically significantly different among early follicular, late follicular or luteal women. In early follicular but not in late follicular or luteal women, we observed (1) a positive correlation between E2 and latency in RT, (2) a negative correlation between E2 and accuracy, and (3) a negative correlation between E2 and post-stimulus theta amplitude. A mosaic of menstrual cycle phase-dependent and -independent associations may indicate that a similar performance in each menstrual cycle phase is related to different modulation of synaptic activity by hormones. PMID:25451285

Brötzner, C P; Klimesch, W; Kerschbaum, H H

2015-01-22

320

Lipid profiling of follicular fluid from women undergoing IVF: young poor ovarian responders versus normal responders.  

PubMed

This study identified possible lipid biomarkers in follicular fluid from women with poor ovarian response. These biomarkers indicate pathophysiological pathways and have potential diagnostic applications. An observational case-control study of young women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization was conducted. The participants were categorized into a poor ovarian response group and a normal ovarian response to stimulation group. All of the women underwent the same ovarian stimulation protocol, and follicular fluid was collected after ovarian aspiration. Analyses were performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and Volcano plots were used to describe follicular fluid classification models based on the lipid profiles. A total of 10 lipids were differentially expressed between the study and control groups. Of these lipid ions, three belonged to the phosphatidylcholine subclass and were present in higher concentrations in the control group. The other seven differential lipids were present in the study group and classified into four lipid subclasses: phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols, and diacylglycerols. These distinctive lipids may be involved in hormonal responses and oocyte development processes and may be useful as biomarkers for therapeutic intervention in women with poor ovarian response. PMID:24295230

Cataldi, Thais; Cordeiro, Fernanda Bertuccez; Costa, Lívia do Vale Teixeira da; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Ferreira, Christina Ramires; Gozzo, Fábio Cesar; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta; Cedenho, Agnaldo Pereira; Turco, Edson Guimarães Lo

2013-12-01

321

Clinical, radiological and cytological diagnosis of breast cancer in young women.  

PubMed

In women over the age of 35 years, an accurate diagnosis of breast cancer can be made in over 95 per cent of patients using a 'triple assessment' system collating information from clinical examination, mammography, sonomammography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology. These methods have not been specifically evaluated in women aged 35 years or less, hence a study was undertaken on 30 such patients. Clinical examination was unreliable in predicting malignancy with a sensitivity of only 37 per cent. Thirty per cent of patients presented with a lump which had the clinical features of a fibroadenoma. Radiological methods were less sensitive in detecting malignancy in this age group than in older patients. The sensitivity of aspiration cytology was 78 per cent which was higher than that for breast cancer at all ages. Histology showed that there were fewer low grade tumours and fewer scirrhous tumours in this age group than in a control group of women aged over 35 years. This study indicates that cytological confirmation of apparently benign focal breast lesions in young women is essential, especially when these are managed conservatively. PMID:2670059

Ashley, S; Royle, G T; Corder, A; Herbert, A; Guyer, P B; Rubin, C M; Taylor, I

1989-08-01

322

Butch/Femme Differences in Substance Use and Abuse Among Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Examination and Potential Explanations  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the role of gender atypical self-presentation on the alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, as well as symptoms of substance abuse, of an ethnically diverse sample of 76 young (ages 14 – 21 years) lesbian and bisexual women who were interviewed between 1993-95 in New York City. Even after controlling for age, sexual identity, and social desirability, young butch women reported drinking alcohol more frequently and in greater quantity, smoking more cigarettes, and using marijuana more frequently than young femme women. Experiences of gay-related stressful events, internalized homophobia, and emotional distress were found to largely account for the butch/femme differences in tobacco and marijuana use, but not in higher levels of alcohol use. Despite the small convenience sample, these findings suggest that intervention efforts to address the higher levels of substance use among young lesbian and bisexual women may increase effectiveness by also addressing experiences of gay-related stress and emotional distress of young butch women. PMID:18649226

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

2011-01-01

323

Unintended Pregnancies among Young Women Living in Urban Slums: Evidence from a Prospective Study in Nairobi City, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. This paper aims to fill this research gap by examining the levels of and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young women aged 15–22 in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods We use data from two waves of a 3-year prospective survey that collected information from adolescents living in the two slums in 2007–2010. In total, 849 young women aged 15–22 were considered for analysis. We employed Cox and logistic regression models to investigate factors associated with timing of pregnancy experience and unintended pregnancy among adolescents who were sexually active by Wave 1 or Wave 2. Findings About two thirds of sexually experienced young women (69%) have ever been pregnant by Wave 2. For 41% of adolescents, the pregnancies were unintended, with 26% being mistimed and 15% unwanted. Multivariate analysis shows a significant association between a set of factors including age at first sex, schooling status, living arrangements and timing of pregnancy experience. In addition, marital status, schooling status, age at first sex and living arrangements are the only factors that are significantly associated with unintended pregnancy among the young women. Conclusions Overall, this study underscores the importance of looking at reproductive outcomes of early sexual initiation, the serious health risks early fertility entail, especially among out-of school girls, and sexual activity in general among young women living in slum settlements. This provides greater impetus for addressing reproductive behaviors among young women living in resource-poor settings such as slums. PMID:25080352

Beguy, Donatien; Mumah, Joyce; Gottschalk, Lindsey

2014-01-01

324

Partner Age Differences and Concurrency in South Africa: Implications for HIV-Infection Risk Among Young Women.  

PubMed

Partner-age difference is an HIV-risk factor among young women in Africa, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We used nationally representative data among black South Africans (men: 3,530; women: 3,946) to examine the proportion of women in partnerships involving male partner concurrency by age of female partners and by age-disparate (?5 years) partnerships. Of all partners reported by men, 35 % of young (16-24) women were in partnerships involving male partner concurrency of 4 weeks or longer during the past 12 months. Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to be in partnerships with men who had other concurrent partners (9 %; OR 1.88 p < 0.01) and more likely to be connected to an older sexual network. Our results suggest that the relationship between male concurrency and age-disparate relationships may increase HIV risk for young women by connecting them to larger and older sexual networks. PMID:25047687

Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Kenyon, Chris; Lurie, Mark N

2014-12-01

325

Prothrombotic gene variants as risk factors of acute myocardial infarction in young women  

PubMed Central

Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in young women represent an extreme phenotype associated with a higher mortality compared with similarly aged men. Prothrombotic gene variants could play a role as risk factors for AMI at young age. Methods We studied Factor V Leiden, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T and beta-fibrinogen -455G>A variants by real-time PCR in 955 young AMI (362 females) and in 698 AMI (245 females) patients. The data were compared to those obtained in 909 unrelated subjects (458 females) from the general population of the same geographical area (southern Italy). Results In young AMI females, the allelic frequency of either FV Leiden and of FII G20210A was significantly higher versus the general population (O.R.: 3.67 for FV Leiden and O.R.: 3.84 for FII G20210A; p<0.001). Among AMI patients we showed only in males that the allelic frequency of the MTHFR C677T variant was significantly higher as compared to the general population. Such difference was due to a significantly higher frequency in AMI males of the MTHFR C677T variant homozygous genotype (O.R. 3.05). Discussion and conclusion Our data confirm that young AMI in females is a peculiar phenotype with specific risk factors as the increased plasma procoagulant activity of FV and FII. On the contrary, the homozygous state for the 677T MTHFR variant may cause increased levels of homocysteine and/or an altered folate status and thus an increased risk for AMI, particularly in males. The knowledge of such risk factors (that may be easily identified by molecular analysis) may help to improve prevention strategies for acute coronary diseases in specific risk-group subjects. PMID:23171482

2012-01-01

326

Health-Related Quality of Life of Young Addict Women in Mashhad, IR Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Quality of life (QoL) stands for to the general well-being of the populations in the societies. Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of living, which is based primarily on income. Instead, standard indicators of the QOL include not only wealth and employment, but also built environment, physical and mental health, education, recreation and leisure time and social belonging. Objectives This study attempted to evaluate the QoL of the young addicted women compared to non-addict controls. Materials and Methods This case-control study was conducted on young addict women aged between 16-25 years old using with BREF-WHOQOL questionnaire. The subgroups included vulnerable addicts, non-vulnerable addicts and healthy controls. Results The findings of the current study demonstrated that drug abuse led to reduce health-related QoL in all aspects of health compared with control group. Conclusions Health-related QoL was lower in all aspects of health compared with control group. PMID:24971281

Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Assadi, Reza; Dadgar Moghadam, Maliheh

2013-01-01

327

Acute Bone Marker Responses to Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Exercise in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high intensity RE and high intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, cross-over repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak–peak displacement, separated by 1 minute of rest) prior to RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately post WBV (PostVib), immediately post RE (IP), and 30 minutes post RE (P30). Bone ALP did not change at any time point. TRAP5b significantly (p<0.05) increased from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. CTX significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6 ± 4.7% vs. -1.13 ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with resistance exercise alone in young women. PMID:22902255

Sherk, Vanessa D.; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C.; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G.; Bemben, Debra A.

2014-01-01

328

Acute bone marker responses to whole-body vibration and resistance exercise in young women.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high-intensity RE and high-intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, crossover repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak-peak displacement, separated by 1 min of rest) before RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately after WBV (PostVib), immediately after RE (IP), and 30-min after RE (P30). Bone alkaline phosphatase did not change at any time point. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b significantly increased (p<0.05) from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6% ± 4.7% vs -1.13% ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with RE alone in young women. PMID:22902255

Sherk, Vanessa D; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

2013-01-01

329

Oral Health and Bone Density in Adolescents and Young Women with Anorexia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the dental and periodontal health of adolescents and young women with restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN), and relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and dental radiographs. Study Design Twenty-three young women, median age 17.6 years (range 14.4-27.2), were studied within three months of entering a clinical trial. DXA BMD measurements were obtained and subjects underwent a comprehensive dental examination, including panoramic and bitewing dental radiographs. Three observers assessed mandibular cortical width (MCW) in the mental foramen region on panoramic radiographs. Results Dental findings included very good to excellent oral hygiene. Gingival recession was evident in 10 participants (43%). Dental erosion was not seen and the mean decayed missing or filled teeth (DMFT) was 8.6. There was a weak positive correlation between BMD by DXA and MCW on radiographs. Conclusions We report dental manifestations associated with restrictive AN, and the association between bone assessments by DXA and dental radiographs in this patient group. Despite subnormal DXA measurements in most patients, essentially all adolescents had a normal dental examination. Dental providers should be cognizant of the fact that many patients with eating disorders may not display the “classic” findings reported in the literature. PMID:19358371

Shaughnessy, Brian F.; Feldman, Henry A.; Cleveland, Robert; Sonis, Andrew; Brown, Julia N.; Gordon, Catherine M.

2011-01-01

330

Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU) and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20), progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking. PMID:20509965

2010-01-01

331

Disability pension among young women in Sweden, with special emphasis on family structure: a dynamic cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The influence of family structure on the risk of going on disability pension (DP) was investigated among young women by analysing a short-term and long-term effect, controlling for potential confounding and the ‘healthy mother effect’. Design and participants This dynamic cohort study comprised all women born in Sweden between 1960 and 1979 (1.2 million), who were 20–43?years of age during follow-up. Their annual data were retrieved from national registers for the years 1993–2003. For this period, data on family structure and potential confounders were related to the incidence of DP the year after the exposure assessment. Using a modified version of the COX proportional hazard regression, we took into account changes in the study variables of individuals over the years. In addition, a 5-year follow-up was used. Results Cohabiting working women with children showed a decreased risk of DP in a 1-year perspective compared with cohabiting working women with no children, while the opposite was indicated in the 5-year follow-up. Lone working women with children had an increased risk of DP in both the short-term and long-term perspective. The risk of DP tended to increase with the number of children for both cohabiting and lone working women in the 5-year follow-up. Conclusions The study suggests that parenthood contributes to increasing the risk of going on DP among young women, which should be valuable knowledge to employers and other policy makers. It remains to be analysed to what extent the high numbers of young women exiting from working life may be counteracted by (1) extended gender equality, (2) fewer work hours among fathers and mothers of young children and (3) by financial support to lone women with children. PMID:22649174

Hagman, Maud; Aronsson, Gunnar; Gustafsson, Klas; Marklund, Staffan; Wikman, Anders

2012-01-01

332

Why do young women smoke? III. Attention and impulsivity as neurocognitive predisposing factors.  

PubMed

Since nicotine has been shown to facilitate sustained attention and control of impulsivity, impairment in these domains may influence individuals who initiate smoking for various reasons to continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether young women who smoke regularly but are not abstinent at the time of testing, differ in their cognitive functioning from non-smokers and whether they resemble women who smoked in the past but quit. Female undergraduate students aged 20-30 years were recruited by advertisement from institutes of higher education in the Jerusalem area. The study sample consisted of 91 current smokers (CS), 40 past smokers (PS) and 151 non-smokers (NS). 46 occasional smokers (OS) were also tested. Confounding by withdrawal state was neutralized by including only CS and OS who smoked their last cigarette less than 90 min before testing. Subjects performed a computerized neurocognitive battery, which tests the domains of attention, memory, impulsivity, planning, information processing and motor performance. Analyses were controlled for age. The results showed that CS made significantly more errors than NS on the Continuous Performance Task (CPT), Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) and Tower of London (TOL) test. PS were significantly worse than NS on the MFFT and TOL test. PS did not differ significantly from CS on any test. No association was found between duration of smoking and performance. These findings suggest that a neurocognitive profile characterized by impairments in sustained attention and control of impulsivity may be one of the factors that predispose young women who initiate cigarette smoking to maintain the habit. PMID:17141485

Yakir, Avi; Rigbi, Amihai; Kanyas, Kyra; Pollak, Yehudah; Kahana, Gazit; Karni, Osnat; Eitan, Renana; Kertzman, Semion; Lerer, Bernard

2007-04-01

333

Discrimination and Sexual Risk Among Young Urban Pregnant Women of Color  

PubMed Central

Objective Discrimination predicts increased risk for many negative health outcomes, helping explain a variety of racial and socioeconomic health disparities. Recent research suggests discrimination may play a role in disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, this research has focused on risk behaviors and has yet to establish a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis specifically. This investigation tested whether discrimination predicted condom use, risky sexual partners, and self-reported STI diagnosis among a population disproportionately affected by HIV and STIs in the U.S.: young, pregnant, socioeconomically disadvantaged, women of color. Method During second and third trimesters, 885 mostly Latina and Black pregnant women, 14–21 years old, attending 14 hospitals and health centers in New York City for prenatal care, completed interviews. Results Greater discrimination during second trimester predicted greater odds of STI diagnosis and having a risky sexual partner during third trimester, but not condom use. Whether discrimination was attributed to race, identifying as Black, or identifying as Latina did not moderate effects. Conclusion This is the first investigation establishing a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis, not just risk behavior. It does so among a sample of at-risk, young, pregnant, women of color. Findings suggest implications for sexual risk during pregnancy and across the life span, and risks for the pregnancy and fetus. It is vital to reduce discrimination to eliminate disparities in HIV and STIs. Future research should continue examining the role of discrimination in sexual risk among different populations and work to uncover potential mechanisms. PMID:24417689

Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Lewis, Tené T.; Reid, Allecia E.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

2014-01-01

334

Influencing young women to pursue a career in the creative information technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A leaky pipeline is often cited as the cause for the underrepresentation of women in computer-related professions. However, females may not even enter the pipeline; that is, they do not even enroll in creative information technology coursework as early as high school. Creative information technology careers include web design, digital photography, and multimedia. Constructs of the social cognitive career theory---outcome expectations and self-efficacy--provided the theoretical framework for this investigation to determine why young women are not exhibiting interest in these careers. Using an action research structure, a female-segregated technology club was implemented at the high school. The study intended to increase the participants' interest in pursuing careers in the creative information technology field through the components of career choice as outlined in the theoretical framework. The outcome expectations of "With whom will I work?" and "What will I do?" were addressed through the presentation of female role models and career information. Self-efficacy was targeted through technology skills' instruction directly related to the creative information technology fields. Data was collected through the administration of a pretest/posttest survey instrument, researcher observations, individual participant interviews, and an analysis of the participants' creative products. Quantitative findings indicated that there were few statistically significant program effects. The participants' perceptions of those employed in these careers did not change, but their technology self-efficacy increased on three indicators. Analysis of qualitative data yielded a more complete picture: although the young women had little prior knowledge of those employed in these fields, they did enjoy learning technology to develop creative projects in a social atmosphere where they could persevere through the technology frustrations they encountered. All of the data types affirmed that the participants' interest in these careers changed positively after the intervention.

Mosco, Michele

335

Idealised versus tainted femininity: discourses of the menstrual experience in Australian magazines that target young women.  

PubMed

Information and messages concerning health-related issues are not confined to material provided by official figures or sources. Much information exists in the community and comes from a variety of sources. One such source is the media. This paper reports the findings of a study conducted over a 12-month period of advertisements for menstrual products in a selection of four monthly Australian magazines (n = 48) directed towards young women. The study examined the way in which menstruation and the menstrual experience were depicted in terms of page space, textual content and visual images. Findings revealed that advertisements for menstrual products provided confusing, conflicting and paradoxical messages. These included stressing the normality of menstruation while also emphasising the importance of keeping it hidden and secret. Menstruation was depicted as being a state of tainted (idealised) femininity because of the potential for the menstrual silence to be shattered by people finding out. Protection failure was depicted as being the ultimate in tainted femininity and a result of a woman's incorrect choice of product. Choosing menstrual-care products was depicted as simple but, paradoxically, complex and confusing. Women were depicted as liberated and sophisticated but images and language related to infancy were used. Freedom and liberation were conferred by the use of the advertised product. Overall, in common with previous studies, menstruation was depicted as a crisis of hygiene that is a risk to femininity. Advertisements for pantyliners suggest that femininity itself poses a threat to (idealised) femininity. This study demonstrates the crucial role of the media as a source of health information for young women. PMID:9923315

Raftos, M; Jackson, D; Mannix, J

1998-09-01

336

Neuroserpin polymorphisms and stroke risk in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American) and 211 age-matched control subjects (43.1% African-American). Neuroserpin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chosen through HapMap were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke. Results Of the five SNPs analyzed, the A allele (frequency; Caucasian = 0.56, African-American = 0.42) of SNP rs6797312 located in intron 1 was associated with stroke in an age-adjusted dominant model (AA and AT vs. TT) among Caucasians (OR = 2.05, p = 0.023) but not African-Americans (OR = 0.71, p = 0.387). Models adjusting for other risk factors strengthened the association. Race-specific haplotype analyses, inclusive of SNP rs6797312, again demonstrated significant associations with stroke among Caucasians only. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that neuroserpin is associated with early-onset ischemic stroke among Caucasian women. PMID:17961231

Cole, John W; Naj, Adam C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, Oscar C; Sorkin, John D; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Yepes, Manuel; Lawrence, Daniel A; Reinhart, Laurie J; Strickland, Dudley K; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

2007-01-01

337

Cranberry and urinary tract infections: slightly fewer episodes in young women, but watch out for interactions.  

PubMed

(1) Female urinary tract infections are common and often recurrent. Food supplements based on cranberries are said to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections. (2) Two randomised controlled trials involving a total of about 300 young women showed that daily use of cranberry juice or tablets reduced the relapse rate for acute cystitis: on average, treating 100 women for one year prevented at least 1 urinary tract infection in 15 to 33 women. The daily doses were 7.5 g of concentrate in 50 ml of water, 750 ml of juice, or two tablets of concentrate. (3) In elderly patients, 2 trials of cranberry-based products in hospitals or nursing homes showed a small reduction in the frequency of relapses. (4) Adverse effects appear to be negligible. However, several case reports of interactions with warfarin have been published, including one involving severe bleeding. Patients on vitamin K antagonists must be warned about this risk of interactions so that they avoid consuming cranberry-based products without medical supervision. PMID:16989032

2006-08-01

338

TLR4-Mediated Blunting of Inflammatory Responses to Eccentric Exercise in Young Women  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the inflammatory response mediated by the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway after acute eccentric exercise before and after an eccentric training program in women. Twenty women performed two acute eccentric bouts using a squat machine over a ~9 week interval. The training group (TG) carried out an eccentric training program during 6 weeks, while the control group (CG) did not follow any training. Protein content of markers involved in the TLR4-mediated activation of several nuclear transcription factors, such as nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), and interferon regulatory transcription factor 3 (IRF3), was analyzed. The inflammatory response after the first acute bout was similar between TG and CG, showing an upregulation of all the markers analyzed, with the exception of IRF3. After the second bout, the upregulation of TLR4 signaling pathway was blunted in TG, but not in CG, through both the myeloid differentiation factor 88- and toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain containing adapter inducing interferon-?-dependent pathways. These results highlight the role of the TLR4 in controlling the exercise-induced inflammatory response in young women. More importantly, these data suggest eccentric training may help to prevent TLR4 activation principally through NF-?B, and perhaps IRF3, downstream signaling in this population. PMID:25294957

De Paz, José A.; Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Cuevas, María J.

2014-01-01

339

Ecstasy use and its correlates among young, low-income women.  

PubMed

We examined the association of illicit drug use with stress and sexual behaviors among 407 women, aged 18?31, who attended family-planning clinics in southeast Texas between June 2002 and May 2003 (n = 407). Paired comparisons of each of three types of drug users (of ecstasy, marijuana only, and other illicit drugs except ecstasy) with nonusers were assessed by logistic regressions. After controlling for demographics, both ecstasy users and marijuana-only users had a higher score on the stress scale than nonusers. All drug users were at higher risk of more lifetime sexual partners than those who had never used drugs, while those who had used ecstasy were more than twice as likely to have had prior sexually transmitted infections as those who had never used drugs. This study demonstrates that young, low-income women who use ecstasy experience higher levels of stress than nonusers. Stress level is correlated with drug use and participation in risky sexual behaviors. If stress is associated with drug use and risky sexual behavior, interventions designed to reduce substance use and risky sexual behavior in these women may need to also address factors that lead to increased stress. The study's limitations were noted. PMID:20735212

Wu, Zhao Helen; Grady, James J; Rosales, Stephen; Berenson, Abbey B

2011-01-01

340

Impact of breast cancer on anti-Mullerian hormone levels in young women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Young women with breast cancer face treatments that impair ovarian function, but it is not known if malignancy itself impacts ovarian reserve. As more breast cancer patients consider future fertility, it is important to determine if ovarian reserve is impacted by cancer, prior to any therapeutic intervention. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted comparing if ovarian reserve, as measured by anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and inhibin B (inhB), differed between 108 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and 99 healthy women without breast cancer. Breast cancer participants were ages 28–44 and were recruited from two clinical breast programs. Healthy women ages 30–44 without a history of infertility were recruited from gynecology clinics and the community. Results The median age (interquartile range) was 40.2(5.5) years for breast cancer participants and 33.0(4.6) years for healthy controls. The unadjusted geometric mean AMH levels (SD) for breast cancer participants and controls were 0.66(3.6) ng/mL and 1.1(2.9) ng/mL, respectively. Adjusting for age, body mass index, gravidity, race, menstrual pattern and smoking, mean AMH levels were not significantly different between breast cancer participants and healthy controls (0.85 vs. 0.76 ng/mL, p=0.60). FSH and inhB levels did not differ by breast cancer status. In exploratory analysis, the association between AMH and breast cancer status differed by age (p-interaction=0.02). AMH may be lower with breast cancer status in women older than 37. In younger women, AMH levels did not differ significantly by breast cancer status. Conclusions Among the youngest of breast cancer patients, ovarian reserve as measured by AMH, FSH and inhibin B did not differ significantly from healthy women of similar age. In older breast cancer patients, ovarian reserve may be adversely impacted by cancer status. These findings support the potential success and need for fertility preservation strategies prior to institution of cancer treatment. PMID:23224236

Su, H.I.; Flatt, S.W.; Natarajan, L.; DeMichele, A.; Steiner, AZ

2012-01-01

341

A low intensity, community based lifestyle programme to prevent weight gain in women with young children: cluster randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a community behavioural intervention to prevent weight gain and improve health related behaviours in women with young children.Design Cluster randomised controlled trial.Setting A community setting in urban Australia.Participants 250 adult women with a mean age of 40.39 years (SD 4.77, range 25-51) and a mean body mass index of 27.82 kg\\/m2 (SD

Catherine Lombard; Amanda Deeks; Damien Jolley; Kylie Ball; Helena Teede

2010-01-01

342

Recreation and Racial Politics in the Young Women's Christian Association of the United States, 1920s–1950s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Founded in the early twentieth century, the Young Women's Christian Association of the United States of America was one of the country's largest independent organizations for women. Unusually cross-class and multi-racial, the group's members, professional staff and volunteer officers frequently debated the YWCA's principles and programmes before mid-century, especially in relation to its segregated black centres. The most contested sites

Martha H. Verbrugge

2010-01-01

343

Sexual Attraction, Sexual Identity, and Psychosocial Wellbeing in a National Sample of Young Women during Emerging Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Identity-based conceptualizations of sexual orientation may not account adequately for variation in young women’s sexuality. Sexual minorities fare worse in psychosocial markers of wellbeing (i.e., depressive symptoms, anxiety, self esteem, social support) than heterosexual youth; however, it remains unclear whether these health disparities exclusively affect individuals who adopt a sexual minority identity or if it also may be present among heterosexually-identified youth who report same-sex attractions. We examined the relationship between sexual attraction, sexual identity, and psychosocial wellbeing in the female only subsample (weighted, n = 391) of a national sample of emerging adults (age 18–24). Women in this study rated on a scale from 1 (Not at all) to 5 (Extremely) their degree of sexual attraction to males and females, respectively. From these scores, women were divided into 4 groups (low female /low male attraction, low female /high male attraction, high female /low male attraction, or high female /high male attraction). We explored the relationship between experiences of attraction, reported sexual identity, and psychosocial outcomes using ordinary least squares regression. The results indicated sexual attraction to be predictive of women’s psychosocial wellbeing as much as or more than sexual identity measures. We discuss these findings in terms of the diversity found in young women’s sexuality, and how sexual minority status may be experienced by this group. PMID:22847750

Johns, Michelle Marie; Zimmerman, Marc; Bauermeister, Jose A.

2012-01-01

344

EVOLUTION—Taking Charge and Growing Stronger: The Design, Acceptability, and Feasibility of a Secondary Prevention Empowerment Intervention for Young Women Living with HIV  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the United States, youth of 13–24 years account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections, with almost 1000 young men and women being infected per month. Young women account for 20% of those new infections. This article describes the design, feasibility, and acceptability of a secondary prevention empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV entitled EVOLUTION: Young Women Taking Charge and Growing Stronger. The nine session intervention aimed to reduce secondary transmission by enhancing social and behavioral skills and knowledge pertaining to young women's physical, social, emotional, and sexual well-being, while addressing the moderating factors such as sexual inequality and power imbalances. Process evaluation data suggest that EVOLUTION is a highly acceptable and feasible intervention for young women living with HIV. Participants reported enjoying both the structure and comprehensive nature of the intervention. Both participants and interventionists reported that the intervention was highly relevant to the lives of young women living with HIV since it not only provided opportunities for them to broaden their knowledge and risk reduction skills in HIV, but it also addressed important areas that impact their daily lives such as stressors, relationships, and their emotional and social well-being. Thus, this study demonstrates that providing a gender-specific, comprehensive group-based empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV appears to be both feasible and acceptable. PMID:24575438

Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Hosek, Sybil G.

2014-01-01

345

Murine typhus in the homeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeless populations are particularly exposed to many vector-borne diseases because of their poor living conditions. We tested sera from 299 homeless people recruited in 2010 and 2011 in Marseilles, France for antibodies to Rickettsia typhi by microimmunofluorescence using a titer of 1:25 as a cut-off titer, and we confirmed the results by Western blot and cross-adsorption studies. Sixty-three persons (22%)

Sékéné Badiaga; Samir Benkouiten; Hind Hajji; Didier Raoult; Philippe Brouqui

346

Experience of physical violence and mental health among young men and women: a population-based study in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background In Sweden mental ill-health has increased among the young, especially among young women. Our aim was to investigate the association between experience of physical violence during the past year and self rated psychological health among young men and women. Methods The study population consisted of men (n?=?2,624) and women (n?=?3,569) aged 18–34 years who participated in the 2008 public health survey study in Skåne. The survey was a cross-sectional stratified random sample postal questionnaire study with a 54.1% participation rate. Associations were investigated by logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of poor psychological health was 18.9% among men and 27.7% among women. One in ten men and one in twenty women had experienced physical violence during the past year. Most men were violated in public places, while women were most often violated at home. Women who had experienced violence during the past year showed more than doubled odds of poor psychological health, odds ratio (OR): 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.00, 3.53). Such an association could not be seen in men OR: 1.12 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.47). Adjustment for covariates (i.e. age, country of birth, socioeconomic status, economic stress, alcohol risk consumption, emotional support, instrumental support and generalized trust in other people) did not change the association found among women. Conclusion Violated women, but not men, showed nearly doubled odds of poor psychological health after multiple adjustments. There was also a gender difference regarding location of violence. Awareness of gender differences regarding context and mental impact of violence may assist public health workers in reducing the consequences of violence and to design preventive strategies. PMID:24410750

2014-01-01

347

Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women  

PubMed Central

Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1) would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and osteocalcin (OC), and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y) at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction), and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind) to either a high protein (HP) or training control (TC) group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ? 0.05, Bonferroni correction). No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP) × time (baseline, week 8, week 12) interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1) Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to enhance bone formation or inhibit bone resorption in young adult women, as assessed by biochemical markers of bone metabolism. (2) Subsequent maintenance of a high protein intake for 10 days in these regularly-training, calcium-replete women also showed no effects on bone metabolism. PMID:16098231

Mullins, Nicole M; Sinning, Wayne E

2005-01-01

348

"When nothing matters, things just happen": young parenting women's reflections on caring, health, and justice.  

PubMed

The field of public health frequently issues calls for social justice, but it is not clear that everyone agrees on what this means or how to achieve it. To assess lay citizens' views on the relationship between justice and health, we conducted individual interviews with 19 young parenting women to hear and discuss their thoughts about the causes of health disparities, ways to reduce them, and the nature of the just society. A salient theme to emerge in these interviews was the topic of "caring." This article reports on four categories identified under the theme of caring: 1) observations of apathy and indifference; 2) the effects of not caring; 3) models of caring; and 4) the pull of caring. Based on these results, the article outlines a grounded theory on the role of caring in conceptualizing health motivation. PMID:24928606

Gubrium, Aline; Barcelos, Christie; Buchanan, David; Gubrium, Erika

349

Exploring self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes.  

PubMed

Using a mixed methods research design, we explored self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes. In a quantitative study (n = 83), we found that self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being were positively related (r = .76, p < .01). A model of multiple mediation was proposed, with self-compassion, passivity, responsibility, initiative, and self-determination accounting for 83% of the variance in eudaimonic well-being. In a qualitative study (n = 11), we explored when and how self-compassion might be useful in striving to reach one's potential in sport. Self-compassion was described as advantageous in difficult sport-specific situations by increasing positivity, perseverance, and responsibility, as well as decreasing rumination. Apprehensions about fully embracing a self-compassionate mindset in sport warrant additional research to explore the seemingly paradoxical role of self-compassion in eudaimonic well-being. PMID:24686956

Ferguson, Leah J; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M

2014-04-01

350

The microeconomics of sexual exploitation of girls and young women in the Peruvian Amazon.  

PubMed

This paper examines the sexual exploitation of girls and young women as an increasing phenomenon within the extractive industries of wood, oil, minerals and gas in Peruvian Amazonia. The analysis focuses on the city of Pucallpa and the northern part of the Ucayali River and aims to identify the social and economic dynamics underpinning the commercial sexual exploitation of female children and teenagers around the main river port. The study describes the local operating mechanisms of bars and restaurants in the port, the demand for and perceptions of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, and the economic logic that it entails. Using a discourse analytic approach, it is argued that this is a business whose profitability is tied to the trade in alcoholic beverages and foods and which responds to a set of family connections and networks. PMID:23713475

Mujica, Jaris

2013-01-01

351

The Spatial Origins of the Homeless: How the Homeless Vary in Their Geographic Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been no such study to date to investigate the residential origin of the varying categories of homeless. This study investigates the spatial distribution of residential origins of the varying categories of homeless and the factors that contribute to the vulnerability of individuals to become homeless. The study categorizes homeless people based on gender, family status, the occurrence of

Deden Rukmana

2006-01-01

352

Homeless and Freezing HowYou Can Help the Homeless Community this Winter  

E-print Network

Homeless and Freezing HowYou Can Help the Homeless Community this Winter Each winter't phase us. For someone who is homeless and sleeps on the streets or in an abandoned building, those dips in temperatures can mean the difference ­ literally ­ between life and death. About 10 years ago, a homeless

Subramanian, Venkat

353

"Judging a body by its cover": young Lebanese-Canadian women's discursive constructions of the "healthy" body and "health" practices.  

PubMed

Our interest stems from the dramatic increase in the number of obesity studies, which expose Canadian women to a huge amount of information that links health to weight. Using feminist poststructuralist and postcolonial lenses, this paper investigates young Lebanese-Canadian women's constructions of the body and "health" practices within the context of the dominant obesity discourse. Participant-centered conversations were held with 20 young Christian Lebanese-Canadian women. A thematic analysis was first conducted and was followed by a poststructuralist discourse analysis to further our understanding of how the participants construct themselves as subjects within various discourses surrounding health, obesity, and the body. Our findings reveal that most participants conflate the "healthy" body and the "ideal" body, both of which they ultimately portray as thin. The young women construct the "healthy"/"ideal" body as a solely individual responsibility, thus reinforcing the idea of "docile bodies." The majority of participants report their frequent involvement in disciplinary practices such as rigorous physical activity and dietary restrictions, and a few young women mention the use of other extreme forms of bodily monitoring such as detoxes, dieting pills, and compulsive exercise. We discuss the language employed by participants to construct their multiple and shifting subjectivities. For instance, many of these Lebanese-Canadian women use the term "us" to dissociate themselves from Lebanese women ("them"), whom they portray as overly focused on thinness and beauty and engaged in physical activity and other bodily practices for "superficial" purposes. The participants also use the "us/them" trope to distance themselves from "Canadian" women (read: white Euro-Canadian women), whom they portray as very physically active for purposes beyond the improvement of the physical appearance of the body. We discuss the impacts of the young Christian Lebanese-Canadian women's hybrid cultural identities and diasporic spaces on their discursive constructions of the body and "health" practices. Finally, we examine the participants' fluid subject-positions: On one hand, they construct themselves as neoliberal subjects re-citing elements of dominant neoliberal discourses (self-responsibility for health, traditional femininity, and obesity) but, on the other hand, they at times construct themselves as "timid" poststructuralist subjects expressing awareness of, and "micro-resistance" to such discourses. PMID:23340805

Abou-Rizk, Zeina; Rail, Geneviève

2014-02-01

354

Iron, Hepcidin and Inflammatory Status of Young Healthy Overweight and Obese Women in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Evidence suggests obesity-related inflammation alters iron metabolism potentially increasing the risk of iron deficiency. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate iron, hepcidin and inflammatory status in young, healthy overweight and obese women. Methods 114 young (18–25 years), healthy comorbidity-free women with a body mass index (BMI) ?27.5 kg/m2 were recruited. Biochemical data were analysed using mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) and multivariate modelling. Biochemical markers were also stratified according to varying degrees of overweight and obesity. Results Anaemia (haemoglobin <120 g/l) and iron deficiency (serum ferritin <15.0 µg/l) were prevalent in 10% and 17% of participants respectively. Mean/median soluble transferrin receptor was 1.61±0.44 mg/l; hepcidin 6.40 (7.85) ng/ml and C-reactive protein (CRP) 3.58 (5.81) mg/l. Multivariate modelling showed that BMI was a significant predictor of serum iron (coefficient?=?-0.379; standard error?=?0.139; p?=?0.008), transferrin saturation (coefficient?=?-0.588; standard error?=?0.222; p?=?0.009) and CRP (coefficient?=?0.127; standard error?=?0.024; p<0.001). Stratification of participants according to BMI showed those with ?35.0 kg/m2 had significantly higher CRP (p<0.001) than those in lower BMI categories. Conclusions Increasing obesity was associated with minor disturbances in iron metabolism. However, overall outcomes indicated simple iron deficiency (hypoferritinaemia) was the primary iron-related abnormality with no apparent contribution of inflammation or hepcidin, even in those with BMI >35.0 kg/m2. This indicates that obesity alone may not be sufficient to induce clinically significant disturbances to iron metabolism as previously described. This may be attributed to the lack of comorbidity in this cohort. PMID:23861932

Cheng, Hoi Lun; Bryant, Christian E.; Rooney, Kieron B.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.; Griffin, Hayley J.; Petocz, Peter; O’Connor, Helen T.

2013-01-01

355

HIF1A P582S gene association with endurance training responses in young women.  

PubMed

Sequence variations in the gene encoding the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, HIF1A, have been associated with physiologic function and could be associated with exercise responses. In the HIF1A P582S gene polymorphism (C1772T; rs 11549465 C/T), a single nucleotide transition from C ? T alters the codon sequence from the usual amino acid; proline (C-allele), to serine (T-allele). This polymorphism was examined for association with endurance training responses in 58 untrained young women who completed a 6-week laboratory-based endurance training programme. Participant groups were defined as CC homozygotes versus carriers of a T-allele (CC vs. CT genotypes). Adaptations were examined at the systemic-level, by measuring [Formula: see text] and the molecular-level by measuring enzymes determined from vastus lateralis (n = 20): 3-hydroacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD), which regulates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation; cytochrome C oxidase (COX-1), a marker of mitochondrial density; and phosphofructokinase (PFK), a marker of glycolytic capacity. CT genotypes showed 45% higher training-induced gains in [Formula: see text] compared with CC genotypes (P < 0.05). At the molecular level, CT increased the ratios PFK/HAD and PFK/COX-1 (47 and 3%, respectively), while in the CC genotypes these ratios were decreased (-26 and -54%, respectively). In conclusion, the T-allele of HIF1A P582S was associated with greater gains in [Formula: see text] following endurance training in young women. In a sub-group we also provide preliminary evidence of differential muscle metabolic adaptations between genotypes. PMID:21344271

McPhee, J S; Perez-Schindler, J; Degens, H; Tomlinson, D; Hennis, P; Baar, K; Williams, A G

2011-09-01

356

Automatic evaluation of body-related words among young women: an experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to images depicting the thin female ideal has negative effects on some females' levels of body dissatisfaction. Much of this research, however, has utilised relatively long stimulus exposure times; thereby focusing on effortful and conscious processing of body-related stimuli. Relatively little is known about the nature of females' affective responses to the textual components of body-related stimuli, especially when these stimuli are only briefly encountered. The primary aim of the current research was to determine whether young women automatically evaluate body-related words and whether these responses are associated with body image concerns, including self-reported levels of appearance schematicity, thin internalisation, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint. Methods An affective priming task was used to investigate whether females automatically evaluate body-related words, and whether this is associated with self-reported body image concerns. In a within-participants experimental design, the valence congruence of the prime and target pairs was manipulated. Participants selected body words as primes in Experiment 1 (N = 27), while normatively selected body words were primes in Experiment 2 (N = 50). Each prime was presented briefly, followed by a target word which participants judged as "good" or "bad". The dependent variable was response latency to the target. Results Automatic evaluation was evident: responding to congruent pairs was faster than responding to incongruent pairs. Body image concerns were unrelated to automaticity. Conclusions The findings suggest that brief encounters with body words are likely to prompt automatic evaluation in all young women, and that this process proceeds unintentionally and efficiently, without conscious guidance. PMID:20525306

2010-01-01

357

Making Politics Personal: Leadership Programs as a Tool for Developing Political Interest and Efficacy in Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encouraging young women to pursue careers in electoral politics is seen as one strategy for ameliorating the gender disparity that has characterized American political institutions for decades. This multi-method project focuses on outcomes obtained by participants in four "NEW Leadership(TM)" Training Institutes that claim to…

Stock, Dayna M.

2012-01-01

358

Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

2004-01-01

359

Relationships Among Alcohol Outlet Density, Alcohol use, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Among Young Women in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density in one’s neighborhood and the likelihood of IPV victimization was examined.

Martha W. Waller; Bonita J. Iritani; Sharon L. Christ; Heddy Kovach Clark; Kathryn E. Moracco; Carolyn Tucker Halpern; Robert L. Flewelling

2012-01-01

360

[Ultrasonography, laparoscopy, neoplastic markers--new possibilities of conservative operative treatment for ovarian neoplasms in girls and young women].  

PubMed

The knowledge of ovarian physiopathology and the employing of modern diagnostic methods (ultrasonography, laparoscopy) allow to avoid to operate patients with functional cysts. Girls and young women should be evaluated individually for ovarian surgical procedures. The operative treatment should be so conservative as possible employing all diagnostic and monitoring methods including specific markers assays. PMID:8375700

Rzepka-Górska, I; Uzar, A; Zó?towski, S; Malecha, J; Menkiszak, J; Bedner, R; Kosmowska, B

1993-06-01

361

Ebony and Ivory: Relationship between African American Young Women's Skin Color and Ratings of Self and Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many individuals face discrimination because of their skin color; however, skin color of African American young adults has not been studied in detail. This study examines relationships between skin color and perceptions among African American college women. The study yielded a positive correlation between personal values and self-rated skin color …

Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; McFall-Roberts, Ebuni; Flowers, Claudia; Garrett, Michael T.

2006-01-01

362

Perception of Supports and Barriers: Career Decision-Making for Sikh Indo-Canadian Young Women Entering the Social Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research study was to examine the supports and barriers that Sikh Indo-Canadian young women perceive in their career decision-making process to enter the applied social sciences at the university level. A qualitative descriptive case study approach (Yin, 2003) was used. Analyses indicated self-efficacy appraisals played an…

Mani, Priya S.

2005-01-01

363

Quality of Medical Follow-Up of Young Women with Turner Syndrome Treated in One Clinical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Turner syndrome (TS) patients, smooth transition from pediatric to adult health care is a critical point. The study objective was to evaluate the medical follow-up of young women with TS in one clinical center 3 years after the latest guidelines had been introduced by the TS Study Group. A questionnaire study was performed in 59 TS adults selected from

Aneta Gawlik; Barbara Kaczor; Halla Kaminska; Agnieszka Zachurzok-Buczynska; Tomasz Gawlik; Ewa Malecka-Tendera

2012-01-01

364

Predictors of Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Women: Comparisons between Outdoor Tanners, Fake Tanners, and Tan Avoiders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Skin cancer incidence continues to rise as a tanned appearance remains desirable, particularly among young women. Fake tanning provides a tanned appearance without exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In order to advance our understanding of the factors that contribute to long-term behavior change, this study explores determinants…

Day, Ashley K.; Oxlad, Melissa; Roberts, Rachel M.

2013-01-01

365

Eating disorder examination questionnaire and clinical impairment assessment questionnaire: General population and clinical norms for young adult women in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal use of assessment instruments for the detection and diagnosis of eating disorders (ED) depends on the availability of normative data. The aim of this work was to, for the first time, collect norms for both the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the newly developed Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) Scale from a general population of young women in Sweden,

Elisabeth Welch; Andreas Birgegård; Thomas Parling; Ata Ghaderi

2011-01-01

366

Uncommonly Good: Exploring How Mass Media May Be a Positive Influence on Young Women's Sexual Health and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression. (Contains 1 table.)

Ward, L. Monique; Day, Kyla M.; Epstein, Marina

2006-01-01

367

"Staying Black": The Demonstration of Racial Identity and Womanhood among a Group of Young High-Achieving Black Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Signithia Fordham's theory of "racelessness" purports that while interacting with teachers, administrators, and peers in the school setting, academically successful Blacks must suppress the racial identities of their home worlds to secure and maintain the label of high achiever. My objectives were to examine how young Black women

Marsh, Kris

2013-01-01

368

A comparison of foot/ground interaction during stair negotiation and level walking in young and older women.  

PubMed

Stair design and environmental conditions may play a role in slip accidents on stairs in the workplace, but little is known about the slip resistance requirements on stairs compared to level walking. Older adults have an increased risk of falling compared to younger adults and may be at greater risk during stair negotiation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ground reaction force profiles and peak required coefficient of friction (RCOF) differed between young and elderly women or between stair ascent, stair descent and overground walking. While there was a trend towards less risky stair descent behaviour in the older women in terms of their peak RCOF values during stair descent, the increased vertical loading rate in the older women may imply reduced dynamic balance control. The largest mean RCOF peaks occurred during stair ascent in both young and older women, but there were several overground walking trials in both groups and a few stair descent trials of the young women, which resulted in RCOF peaks greater than 0.5. These results should be considered when choosing stair surface materials, particularly in occupational and outdoor settings where the tread surfaces may become wet or contaminated. PMID:16147420

Hamel, Kathryn A; Okita, Noriaki; Bus, Sicco A; Cavanagh, Peter R

2005-06-22

369

Homelessness: A Data-Driven Learning Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a learning guide that uses data to investigate the characteristics of the Washington DC, metropolitan area homeless population, and the relationship between homelessness and several measures of health.

ICPSR

370

Place and sexual partnership transition among young American Indian and Alaska native women.  

PubMed

Multiple challenges expose American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women to high-risk sexual partnerships and increased risk for HIV/STI. Using a unique sample of sexually-active young AIAN women (n = 129), we examined characteristics of last three partners and whether transitional partnerships were associated with different risk profiles, including where partners met, lived, and had sex. Respondents were more likely to have met their previous or current secondary partner (P2) at a friend's or family setting (versus work or social setting) (AOR = 3.92; 95 % CI 1.31, 11.70). Condom use was less likely when meeting a partner at friend's or family settings (AOR = 0.17; 95 % CI 0.05, 0.59). Sexual intercourse with P2 (compared to P1) usually took place in "riskier" settings such as a car, bar, or outside (AOR = 4.15; 95 % CI 1.59, 10.68). Perceived "safe" places, e.g., friend's or family's house, were identified with risky behaviors; thus, homogeneous messaging campaigns may promote a false sense of safety. PMID:24276791

Pearson, Cynthia R; Cassels, Susan

2014-08-01

371

Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change  

PubMed Central

While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683

Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

2012-01-01

372

Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia and the mechanics of breathing in healthy young women  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to characterize exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH), pulmonary gas exchange and respiratory mechanics during exercise, in young healthy women. We defined EIAH as a >10 mmHg decrease in arterial oxygen tension () during exercise compared to rest. We used a heliox inspirate to test the hypothesis that mechanical constraints contribute to EIAH. Subjects with a spectrum of aerobic capacities (n= 30; maximal oxygen consumption () = 49 ± 1, range 28–62 ml kg?1 min?1) completed a stepwise treadmill test and a subset (n= 18 with EIAH) completed a constant load test (?85%) with heliox gas. Throughout exercise arterial blood gases, oxyhaemoglobin saturation (), the work of breathing (WOB) and expiratory flow limitation (EFL) were assessed. Twenty of the 30 women developed EIAH with a nadir and ranging from 58 to 88 mmHg and 87 to 96%, respectively. At maximal exercise, was inversely related to (r=–0.57, P < 0.05) with notable exceptions where some subjects with low aerobic fitness levels demonstrated EIAH. Subjects with EIAH had a greater (51 ± 1 vs. 43 ± 2 ml kg?1 min?1), lower end-exercise (93.2 ± 0.5 vs. 96.1 ± 0.3%) and a greater maximal energetic WOB (324 ± 19 vs. 247 ± 23 J min?1), but had similar resting pulmonary function compared to those without EIAH. Most subjects developed EIAH at submaximal exercise intensities, with distinct patterns of hypoxaemia. In some subjects with varying aerobic fitness levels, mechanical ventilatory constraints (i.e. EFL) were the primary mechanism associated with the hypoxaemia during the maximal test. Mechanical ventilatory constraints also prevented adequate compensatory alveolar hyperventilation in most EIAH subjects. Minimizing mechanical ventilatory constraints with heliox inspiration partially reversed EIAH in subjects who developed EFL. In conclusion, healthy women of all aerobic fitness levels can develop EIAH and begin to do so at submaximal intensities. Mechanical ventilatory constraints are a primary mechanism for EIAH in some healthy women and prevent reversal of hypoxaemia in women for whom it is not the primary mechanism. PMID:23587886

Dominelli, Paolo B; Foster, Glen E; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Koehle, Michael S; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

2013-01-01

373

Unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men: results from a multi-level dyadic analysis.  

PubMed

HIV is a serious public health problem for homeless populations. Homeless men who have sex with women have received less attention in the HIV risk literature than other homeless populations. This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Based on interviews with 305 randomly selected men who discussed 665 of their recent female sexual relationships, this project investigates the correlates of unprotected sex during the past 6 months at the partnership, individual, and social network levels. Several different measures of relationship closeness and lack of communication about HIV/condoms were associated with unprotected sex. Controlling for relationship factors, men's negative attitudes towards condoms, mental health, and higher number of male sex partners also were associated with having unprotected sex with female partners. We discuss the implications of these findings for health interventions. PMID:23212852

Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Brown, Ryan; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela

2013-06-01

374

Homelessness among female veterans: a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a systematic, critical review of the literature to assess and summarize existing research on homelessness among female veterans. They searched seven electronic databases (ERIC, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, PsycINFO, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, and Sociological Abstracts), websites of several government and research organizations, and reference lists of prior studies. They abstracted data on study design, funding source, and topic from studies meeting inclusion criteria and classified each study into one of the following categories: epidemiology, health and other services utilization, and interventions. The authors included both experimental and observational studies of interventions in the review and performed a narrative synthesis for each of the 26 studies identified. No studies were experimental, 20 were observational, and the remainder were either qualitative or descriptive. Of the 26 identified studies, 14 were epidemiologic, 7 focused on the health and additional service utilization, and 5 were intervention studies. Findings provided important baseline epidemiologic information about homelessness among female veterans and indicated that female veterans were at an increased risk of homelessness relative to their male veteran and female non-veteran counterparts. Additional research is needed to develop and implement effective, evidence-based programs to prevent and end homelessness among women veterans. PMID:23937730

Byrne, Thomas; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Dichter, Melissa E

2013-01-01

375

Efficacy of Ecologically-Based Treatment with Substance-Abusing Homeless Mothers: Substance Use and Housing Outcomes  

PubMed Central

This randomized pilot study tested the efficacy of an integrative treatment targeting homeless substance abusing mothers with young children in their care. Sixty mothers with 2–6 year old children were recruited from a local family shelter. The mothers were randomly assigned to Ecologically-Based Treatment (n = 30) or treatment as usual (n = 30). The intervention group received 3 months of rental and utility assistance up to $600 per month, case management services, and substance abuse counseling (referred to as supportive services). The treatment as usual group received housing and services through the family shelter and community housing programs. All participants completed follow-up assessments at 3, 6, and 9 months post-baseline. Mothers receiving Ecologically-Based Treatment showed a quicker decline in alcohol frequency and a quicker increase in housing stability. Furthermore, with supportive services, two-thirds of women were successful in maintaining their apartments 6 months after rental assistance ended. PMID:23890686

Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem

2013-01-01

376

Ultrasonographic features and clinical implications of benign palpable breast lesions in young women  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the breast ultrasonography (US) features and to investigate whether performing a core biopsy is warranted in young women having palpable solid breast masses. Methods: A total of 76 solid palpable masses in 68 consecutive women (?25 years old) underwent tissue diagnosis by percutaneous core biopsy. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the clinical history and histopathology, independently evaluated the US features according to Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. The frequency of benign and malignant descriptor terms that were used to characterize the lesions were compared to the final pathology. Results: All 76 palpable solid masses yielded benign pathology. On the US, the shape of the mass was described by radiologists 1 and 2 as oval or round (63.2% and 71.1%), margin as circumscribed (68.4% and 77.6%) and orientation as parallel (85.5% and 90.8%); the frequency of using all three benign descriptors was 61.8% and 68.5%, respectively. Suspicious descriptors were used less frequently by radiologists 1 and 2 including irregular shape (9.2% and 13.1%), non-circumscribed margin (31.6% and 22.4%) and non-parallel orientation (14.5% and 9.2%); the frequency of using all three suspicious descriptors was 9.2% and 11.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Despite the variable US features, breast malignancy seems extremely low in 25 years or younger women for palpable breast lesions. Using the BI-RADS lexicon, US accurately predicted benignity in about two thirds of our patients, supporting US surveillance as a safe alternative to invasive tissue sampling in this setting. PMID:25475650

Comstock, Christopher

2015-01-01

377

Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.  

PubMed

Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (P<0.001), but not in HP; B-Pb levels in women (34.8microg/l) did not differ from those of HP men (36.5microg/l), but were significantly (P<0.001) higher than those of GP women (25.8microg/l). B-Pb levels were not influenced by smoking. B-Cd levels in the homeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (P<0.001) influenced by smoking in both groups, but, surprisingly, the values in GP smokers (men=0.96microg/l, women=0.93microg/l) were lower than those in HP nonsmokers (men=1.06microg/l, women=1.18microg/l). A positive correlation was found between cadmium and lead in both men (P<0.05) and women (P<0.01). Our results indicate that the homeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a particularly vulnerable population group. PMID:18155643

Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

2008-10-01

378

Recruiting and retaining young, sedentary, hypertension-prone African American women in a physical activity intervention study.  

PubMed

African American women have a high prevalence of hypertension and low level of physical activity compared with their counterparts. A sedentary lifestyle contributes to the development of hypertension, as well as other cardiovascular diseases, especially among African American women. Healthy People 2010 initiatives underscore the priority of reducing minority health disparities. To reduce health disparities, there has been recent emphasis on recruiting and retaining minority populations in clinical research studies. However, little information is available to guide researchers in the evaluation of impediments in successful recruitment and retention of young African American women. A first step is for researchers to report information concerning the efficacy of recruiting/retaining methods in order to facilitate minority participation in clinical trials and, ultimately, reduce health disparities. This report summarizes existing recruitment and retention methods from the literature, and describes how effective these strategies were in recruiting and retaining young, mildly hypertensive African American women to a physical activity intervention study. Multiple strategies, resources, and time were necessary to recruit and retain these women for the study. Among women enrolled, newspaper advertisements and flyers were the most effective recruiting strategies implemented (46% and 21%, respectively). Study retention was high (96%), which may have resulted from flexible scheduling, frequent contact, and a caring environment. Recruiting and retaining efforts need to be tailored to meet the needs of the target population. PMID:16699361

Staffileno, Beth A; Coke, Lola A

2006-01-01

379

Social-cognitive theories for predicting physical activity behaviours of employed women with and without young children.  

PubMed

Chronic disease interventions for women have been understudied in the workplace domain. Understanding the role of cognitions in individual behaviour can help motivate change and suggest directions for achieving improvements in health. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial constructs and social-cognitive theories [e.g. Transtheoretical model (TTM), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)] that are most salient for explaining physical activity behaviour among employed women (n = 1183). Demographic information, and social-cognitive measures related to physical activity, intention and behaviours (e.g. stage of change, energy expenditure) were assessed. A series of multiple regression analyses predicting intention, energy expenditure and stage of change were conducted separately for: (1) women with young children (n = 302), and (2) women without young children (n = 881) for each of the respective social-cognitive theories. Although taken as a whole the results were relatively similar between the two sub-groups of women for each of the socio-cognitive theories examined in this study, differences were observed in the relative contributions of the theoretical constructs between the two sub-groups. Results also indicate that self-efficacy and intention were the strongest predictors of behaviour among both women with and without young children. The explained variances (R(2)) for the theories examined in this study for different sub-groups ranged from 16 to 60%, generally reflecting what has been reported in other studies within the physical activity domain. The results of this study could be useful in guiding future research and in designing physical activity intervention programs for these specific population groups. Integrating approaches of individual lifestyle change while addressing issues related to creating supportive environments for women in various life stages is a suggested strategy for future work in this area. PMID:19235072

Tavares, Leonor S; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Loucaides, Constantinos

2009-03-01

380

“THEY HAVE OPENED OUR MOUTHS”: INCREASING WOMEN’S SKILLS AND MOTIVATION FOR SEXUAL COMMUNICATION WITH YOUNG PEOPLE IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA  

PubMed Central

Communication between parents and young people about sex has been identified as a positive influence on young people’s sexual behavior. This article presents findings from South Africa, where a social intervention to reduce levels of HIV and intimate partner violence actively promoted sexual communication between adults and young people. We assessed this component of the program using quantitative and qualitative methods, collecting data through surveys, direct observation, interviews, and focus group discussions. Women participating in intervention activities reported sexual communication with children significantly more often than matched women in the control group (80.3% vs. 49.4%, adjusted risk ratio 1.59 (1.31-1.93). The content of communication with young people also appears to have shifted from vague admonitions about the dangers of sex to concrete messages about reducing risks. The congruence between these findings and existing literature on parent-child sexual communication suggests that conceptual frameworks and programs from developed settings can be adapted effectively for resource-poor contexts. PMID:19072526

Phetla, Godfrey; Busza, Joanna; Hargreaves, James R.; Pronyk, Paul M.; Kim, Julia C.; Morison, Linda A.; Watts, Charlotte; Porter, John D.H.

2012-01-01

381

Effect of Exercise Program and Calcium Supplements on Low Bone Mass among Young Indian Women- A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Low bone mass is a major health concern among young women nowadays due to sedentary lifestyle and lack of calcium rich food intake. Therefore there is an increase in the incidence of LBM among young university women so our main purpose of study was to compare effects of exercise program and calcium supplements on bone mass in young women. Methods This single blinded, cross sectional study included data collection in the form of SOS T-scores at distal radius for 104 young university women of mean age 22.3 years using Sunlight Omnisense Bone Sonometer 7000S. Of these, 62 women with low bone mass were included in a 3 month study but 60 subjects completed the study. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: exercise group (n=21), calcium supplementation group (n=21) and control group (n=20). All participants were evaluated pre and post protocol for T-score distal radius and midshaft tibia. Results After measuring SOS T-score of 104 subjects; we found that 60.57% had low bone mass and remaining 39.43% had normal bone mass. After 3 months, the exercise group showed significant improvement in distal radius SOS T-score (t=5.10, P<0.001), at midshaft tibia (t=3.71, P<0.001) followed by improvement in calcium group at distal radius (t=6.28, P<0.001), midshaft tibia (t=2.33, P<0.05) as compared to control group which showed a marginal increase. Conclusions Exercise group showed more improvement in T-scores than calcium and control group. Exercise is important modifiable factor to improve bone accretion at this age and reduce risk of developing osteoporosis related debilitating conditions later in life. PMID:23012639

Shenoy, Shweta; Dhawan, Neha; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

2012-01-01

382

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Young Healthy Women in Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

Background.?Anal cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), yet little is known about anal HPV infection among healthy young women. Methods.?A total of 2017 sexually active women in the control arm of an HPV-16/18 vaccine trial had a single anal specimen collected by a clinician at the 4-year study visit. Samples were tested for HPV by SPF10 PCR/DEIA/LiPA25, version 1. Results.?A total of 4% of women had HPV-16, 22% had oncogenic HPV, and 31% had any HPV detected in an anal specimen. The prevalence of anal HPV was higher among women who reported anal intercourse, compared with those who did not (43.4% vs 28.4%; P < .001). Among women who reported anal intercourse, cervical HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.4–8.2]), number of sex partners (aOR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.1–4.6] for ?4 partners), and number of anal intercourse partners (aOR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1–3.3] for ?2 partners) were independent risk factors for anal HPV detection. Among women who reported no anal intercourse, cervical HPV (aOR, 4.7 [95% CI, 3.7–5.9]), number of sex partners (aOR, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.7–3.4] for ?4 partners), and report of anal fissures (aOR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1–4.8]) were associated with an increased odds of anal HPV detection. Conclusion.?Anal HPV is common among young women, even those who report no anal sex, and was associated with cervical HPV infection. Anal fissures in women who report never having had anal intercourse may facilitate HPV exposure. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00128661. PMID:22850119

Castro, Felipe A.; Quint, Wim; Gonzalez, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Herrero, Rolando; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Schiffman, Mark; Struijk, Linda; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; DelVecchio, Corey; Lowy, Douglas R.; Porras, Carolina; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John; Solomon, Diane; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Kreimer, Aimée R.

2012-01-01

383

Why do young women smoke? VI. A controlled study of nicotine effects on attention: pharmacogenetic interactions.  

PubMed

In prior studies we found that young, female smokers manifest poorer performance than non-smokers on attention-related tasks and that these findings can be moderated by variation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes. We predicted that under controlled conditions (1) nicotine would improve functioning on attentional tasks in smokers who previously manifested relatively poor performance, and that (2) smokers who carry genetic variations associated with poorer attention performance would derive greater benefit from nicotine. To test these hypotheses, 31 young female smokers, who participated in our previous study, performed the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT), Tower of London Test and Continuous Performance Task (CPT) in a double-blind, within-between subject design, placebo or nicotine (4?mg as gum) serving as the within factor and genetic profile as the between factor. Repeated measures ANCOVA controlling for attention deficit symptomatology, substance abuse and nicotine dependence showed better performance under nicotine among participants with higher levels of attention deficit symptoms (MFFT errors: P=0.04; CPT commissions: P=0.01) and nicotine dependence (CPT stability of response: P=0.04) and greater consumption of caffeine (CPT stability of response: P=0.04). An interactive effect of genetic profile was demonstrated for SNP rs2337980 in CHRNA7. These findings suggest that nicotine may have stronger short-term facilitating effects on attention in women who have more attention deficit symptoms and consume more nicotine and caffeine. This effect may be modified by a specific genetic make-up. Such individuals may be at increased risk for nicotine addiction and for greater difficulties in smoking cessation. PMID:20231857

Rigbi, A; Yakir, A; Sarner-Kanyas, K; Pollak, Y; Lerer, B

2011-02-01

384

Work stress precipitates depression and anxiety in young, working women and men  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of depression have been rising, as have rates of work stress. We tested the influence of work stress on diagnosed depression and anxiety in young working adults. Methods Participants are enrolled in the Dunedin Study, a 1972–73 longitudinal birth cohort assessed most recently in 2004–2005, at age 32 (n=972, 96% of 1,015 cohort members still alive). Work stress (psychological job demands, work decision latitude, low work social support, physical work demands) was ascertained by interview. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were ascertained using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Results Participants exposed to high psychological job demands (excessive workload, extreme time pressures) had a twofold risk of major depression or generalized anxiety disorder compared to those with low job demands (Relative Risks adjusting for all work characteristics: women: 1.90 (95% Cl 1.22–2.98); men: 2.00 (95% Cl 1.13–3.56). Analyses ruled out the possibility that the association between work stress and disorder resulted from study members’ socioeconomic position, a personality tendency to report negatively, or a history of psychiatric disorder prior to labor-market entry. Prospective longitudinal analyses showed that high-demand jobs were associated with the onset of new depression and anxiety disorder in individuals without any pre-job history of diagnosis or treatment for either disorder. Conclusions Work stress appears to precipitate diagnosable depression and anxiety in previously-healthy young workers. Helping workers cope with work stress or reducing work stress levels could prevent the occurrence of clinically-significant depression and anxiety. PMID:17407618

Melchior, Maria; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry J.; Danese, Andrea; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

2007-01-01

385

Histologically confirmed isolated IgG4-related hypophysitis: two case reports in young women  

PubMed Central

Summary IgG4-related hypophysitis is a recently described entity belonging to the group of IgG4-related diseases. Many other organs can also be affected, and it is more common in older men. To date, 32 cases of IgG4-related hypophysitis have been reported in the literature, 11 of which included confirmatory tissue biopsy and the majority affecting multiple organs. The aim of this report is to present two cases of biopsy-proven IgG4-related hypophysitis occurring in two young female patients with no evidence of involvement of other organs at the time of diagnosis. Learning points IgG4-related hypophysitis belongs to the group of IgG4-related diseases, and is a fibro-inflammatory condition characterized by dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis.It is more common in older men, but young women may also present this type of hypophysitis.Although involvement of other organs is frequent, isolated pituitary disease is possible.Frequent clinical manifestations include anterior hypopituitarism and/or diabetes insipidus.The diagnosis may be confirmed with any of the following criteria: a pituitary biopsy with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, with more than ten IgG4-positive cells; a sellar mass and/or thickened pituitary stalk and a biopsy-proven involvement of another organ; a sellar mass and/or thickened pituitary stalk and IgG4 serum levels >140?mg/dl and sellar mass reduction and symptom improvement after corticosteroid treatment.Glucocorticoids are recommended as first-line therapy. PMID:25298883

Sosa, Gabriela Alejandra; Bell, Soledad; Christiansen, Silvia Beatriz; Pietrani, Marcelo; Glerean, Mariela; Loto, Monica; Lovazzano, Soledad; Carrizo, Antonio; Ajler, Pablo

2014-01-01

386

The development, feasibility and acceptability of an Internet-based STI–HIV prevention intervention for young Chilean women  

PubMed Central

Background Young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age are at high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The literature shows a shortage of STI–HIV prevention interventions focused on this specific high-risk population and a unique set of barriers to receiving prevention messages. Internet-based interventions are promising for delivering STI–HIV prevention interventions and avoiding barriers to services. Aims The study aimed to develop a culturally informed Internet-based STI–HIV prevention intervention for Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age, to investigate its feasibility and acceptability, and to compile recommendations on what would make the intervention more acceptable and feasible for these women. Methods The development of the Internet intervention was facilitated by a process that featured consultation with content and technology experts. A pre-post test design was used to test the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention with 40 young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Results The intervention website consisted of four modules of content and activities that support learning. The intervention was feasible and acceptable for young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Discussion and conclusion This study demonstrated the value of engaging multiple expert panels to develop culturally informed and technology-based interventions. The results of this study support the feasibility and acceptability of conducting an Internet-based intervention with multiple sessions, yielding high participation rates in a population in which there are barriers to discussion of STI–HIV prevention and sex-related content. Implications for nursing and health policy The outcomes have implications for nursing education and clinical practice and they can be used for the legal and judicial systems to promote or reinforce policies that encourage STI–HIV prevention strategies among women. PMID:24512261

Villegas, N.; Santisteban, D.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Ambrosia, T.; Peragallo, N.; Lara, L.

2014-01-01

387

Michigan's Campaign to End Homelessness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Michigan State Homeless Management Information System (MSHMIS) is a single database platform that provides an unduplicated count of homeless persons living in each region of Michigan. The system also measures patterns of service use and the effectiveness of the services delivered, providing the ability to assess progress across programs and regions. It was developed to improve consistency of reporting among Michigan’s Continuum of Care (CoC) network and includes information from all the service organizations in each region, a total of 524 organizations statewide.

Homelessness, Michiganâs C.

388

Understanding Pregnancy-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Mixed-Methods Study of Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Pregnancy rates are substantially higher among homeless youth than in the general population of youth, yet little is known about homeless adolescents’ and young adults’ pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors. METHODS Pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors were examined among two samples of sexually active homeless 13–24-year-olds in Los Angeles County. Data from 37 semistructured interviews conducted in March–April 2011 were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Data from a structured survey with 277 respondents, conducted between October 2008 and August 2009, were analyzed primarily using regression modeling. RESULTS More than half of interview respondents held ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy, and ambivalent youth reported less contraceptive use than others. The interviews identified several potential influences on pregnancy attitudes: barriers associated with homelessness, readiness to settle down, desire to achieve goals, belief that a child would create something positive in life, and family and partners. In the survey, having positive attitudes toward pregnancy was positively associated with duration of homelessness (odds ratio, 1.6), contact with relatives (1.1) and relationship commitment (1.8); it was negatively associated with frequency of drinking (0.9). Relationship commitment was positively associated with nonuse of an effective contraceptive method at last sex (1.5). CONCLUSIONS Effective and accessible pregnancy prevention and family planning programs for homeless youth are needed. Youths’ ambivalence toward pregnancy and feelings of relationship commitment warrant attention as possible areas for programs to address. PMID:23231333

Tucker, Joan S.; Sussell, Jesse; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Kennedy, David P.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

2012-01-01

389

Victimization and Sexual Risk Behavior in Young, HIV Positive Women: Exploration of Mediators  

PubMed Central

In this study we explore associations between child and adult victimization and sexual risk behavior in 118 young, HIV positive women. Prior research has demonstrated associations between victimization and engagement in sexual risk behavior. Victimization sequelae can include disrupted assertiveness and communication, as well as increased association with risky partners, both of which are also linked with engagement in sexual risk behavior. Thus, we propose a model wherein victimization is linked to sexual risk behavior through two mediating pathways, sexual communication and affiliation with risky partners. We also examine the moderating effects of the presence of an anxiety or depressive disorder on the path from child to adult victimization. Results suggested that adult victimization was associated with unprotected sex with a main partner; however, this association was mediated by less sexual communication and having a risky partner. Trends toward significance were found for depression and anxiety as a moderator of the relationship between child and adult victimization. Child victimization did not have direct effects on unprotected sex. Implications for secondary prevention of HIV and healthy intimate relationships are discussed. PMID:21452050

Chung, Shang-En; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Perez, Lori V.; Murphy, Debra A.; Harper, Gary W.; Hamvas, Lauren

2012-01-01

390

Gynecological care in young women: a high-risk period of life.  

PubMed

Adolescence has been described as period of life when emotions are heightened and regulatory controls are reduced, and this can result in an escalation in risk-taking. Importantly for younger females, risk behaviors associated with the onset of sexual activity, and alcohol and substance abuse may coincide with pathologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and abnormal uterine bleeding, an iron-deficient diet (vegetarian or vegan) and a negative body image leading to eating disorders. Girls transitioning through adolescence face a number of specific emotional and physical issues related to the onset of menarche and regular menstrual cycles. Menstruation combined with these risk behaviors and pathologies, and the rapid growth and development that is taking place, often results in numerous unwanted effects including iron deficiency. A low iron level is the most common cause of anemia in adolescent girls and can be detrimental to mood and cognition as well as physical well-being. In this article we review the impact of menarche, poor nutrition and some of the risk behaviors and pathologies that predispose females to challenges associated with adolescence, including anemia. We also examine factors that need to be taken into consideration during the initial, and follow-up, consultations with young women. Finally, we present some of the latest advice regarding nutrition and oral iron supplementation, particularly extended-release ferrous sulfate with mucoproteose, with a view to minimizing the development and risks of anemia in this vulnerable population. PMID:24819317

Bitzer, Johannes; Sultan, Charles; Creatsas, George; Palacios, Santiago

2014-08-01

391

Facets of impulsivity interactively predict body fat and binge eating in young women.  

PubMed

Impulsivity has been positively linked to overeating and obesity, but findings are inconsistent. Studies using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) show that measures of overeating appear to be most consistently associated with scores on the subscale attentional impulsivity in both non-clinical and clinical samples. Additionally, individuals with binge-eating behaviors may have elevated scores on the subscale motor impulsivity. In the current study, young women (N?=?133) completed the short form of the BIS (BIS-15), the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire, and height, weight and body composition were measured. Regression analyses showed that attentional and motor impulsivity positively predicted binge eating and general eating pathology, while non-planning impulsivity negatively predicted these variables. Moreover, attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predicted percent body fat, and the number of subjective and objective binge episodes. Results show that only specific aspects of trait impulsivity (attentional and motor impulsivity) are positively associated with body mass and binge eating. Non-planning impulsivity appears to be unrelated or even inversely related to those variables, at least in female students. Elevated levels of attentional impulsivity in conjunction with high motor impulsivity may be a risk factor for overweight and clinically relevant binge eating. PMID:25582417

Meule, Adrian; Platte, Petra

2015-04-01

392

Utilization of maternal health services among young women in Kenya: Insights from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003  

PubMed Central

Background Use of maternal health services is an effective means for reducing the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in places where the general health status of women is poor. This study was guided by the following objectives: 1) To determine the relationship between timing of first antenatal care (ANC) visit and type of delivery assistance 2) To establish the determinants of timing of first ANC visit and type delivery assistance. Methods Data used were drawn from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with a focus on young women aged 15-24. The dependent variables were: Timing of first ANC visit coded as "None"; "Late" and "Early", and type of delivery assistance coded as "None"; "Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA)" and "Skilled professional". Control variables included: education, household wealth, urban-rural residence, ethnicity, parity, age at birth of the last child and marital status. Multivariate ordered logistic regression model was used. Results The study results show that place of residence, household wealth, education, ethnicity, parity, marital status and age at birth of the last child had strong influences on timing of first ANC visit and the type of delivery assistance received. The major finding is an association between early timing of the first ANC visit and use of skilled professionals at delivery. Conclusion This study confirms that timing of first antenatal care is indeed an important entry point for delivery care as young women who initiated antenatal care early were more likely to use skilled professional assistance at delivery than their counterparts who initiated ANC late. The results indicate that a large percentage of young pregnant women do not seek ANC during their first trimester as is recommended by the WHO, which may affect the type of assistance they receive during delivery. It is important that programs aimed at improving maternal health include targeting young women, especially those from rural areas, with low levels of education, higher parity and from poor households, given their high risk during pregnancy. The finding that a considerably high proportion of young women use TBAs as opposed to use of skilled professionals is baffling and calls for further research. PMID:21214960

2011-01-01

393

Food handling behaviors of special importance for pregnant women, infants and young children, the elderly, and immune-compromised people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a Web-based Delphi process with a group of nationally recognized food safety experts to identify food-handling behaviors of special importance in reducing the risk of foodborne illness among pregnant women, infants and young children, elderly people, and people with compromised immune systems because of disease or pharmacologic therapy. Behaviors were related to 13 pathogens. Top-rated behaviors for

Patricia Kendall; Lydia C. Medeiros; Virginia Hillers; Gang Chen; Steve Dimascola

2003-01-01

394

Elderly Homeless Veterans in Los Angeles: Chronicity and Precipitants of Homelessness  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We compared the characteristics of chronically homeless and acutely homeless elderly veterans to better understand precipitants of homelessness. Methods. We conducted interviews with 33 chronically and 26 acutely homeless veterans aged 65 years and older receiving transitional housing services in Los Angeles, California, between 2003 and 2005. We asked questions regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and other social status measures. Other precipitants of homelessness were acquired via observation and open-ended and structured questions. Results. Both veterans groups were more similar than different, with substantial levels of physical, psychiatric, and social impairment. They differed significantly in homelessness history, with chronically homeless veterans having more homelessness episodes and more total time homeless. They were also less educated and had smaller social networks. In response to open-ended questioning, elderly homeless veterans revealed how health and substance use issues interacted with loss of social support and eviction to exacerbate homelessness. Conclusions. Assessment of a range of factors is needed to address risk factors and events leading to homelessness. Further research with larger samples is needed to confirm the characteristics and needs of the elderly homeless veteran population. PMID:24148059

van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James

2013-01-01

395

Exploring the potential of a conditional cash transfer intervention to reduce HIV risk among young women in Iringa, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Cash transfer programs seek to alter structural determinants of HIV risk such as poverty and gender inequality. We sought to explore the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a cash transfer intervention for young women as part of combination HIV prevention in Iringa, Tanzania. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 116 stakeholders and residents from the region, including key informants, service delivery users, and members of key populations. Most respondents felt a cash transfer program would assist young women in Iringa to have more control over sexual decision-making and reduce poverty-driven transactional sex. Respondents were divided on who should receive funds: young women themselves, their parents/guardians, or community leaders. Cash amounts and suggested target groups varied, and several respondents suggested providing microcredit or small business capital instead of cash. Potential concerns included jealousy, dependency, and corruption. However, most respondents felt that some intervention was needed to address underlying poverty driving some sexual risk behavior. A cash transfer program could fill this role, ultimately reducing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. As increased attention is given to economic and structural interventions for HIV prevention, local input and knowledge should be considered in a program design. PMID:23926908

Kennedy, Caitlin E; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah W; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Kerrigan, Deanna

2014-01-01

396

No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K, Japan Dietetic Students' Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

397

Univ. of Md. study reports young women with early-stage breast cancer have similar survival with breast-conservation therapy as mastectomy:  

Cancer.gov

Young women with early-stage breast cancer have similar survival rates with a lumpectomy and radiation treatment, known as breast-conservation therapy, as with mastectomy, a new study conducted at the University of Maryland has found.

398

Developing Programs for Homeless Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1992 and 2003, services for homeless veterans at the Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System went from inappropriate utilization of hospital medical and psychiatric beds, to a continuum of residential treatment, transitional housing, and employment programs through arrangements with private agencies. The authors use elements of Hasenfeld and Brock's Political Economy Model (1991) to explain this transformation in

John Nakashima; Jim McGuire; Stephen Berman; William Daniels

2005-01-01

399

Macroeconomic Causes of Family Homelessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The welfare of American families improved steadily for over 20 years after World War II. After the War on Poverty of the 1960s, the number of people living in poverty fell, reaching its lowest point in 1973. During the 1980s, homeless families, including those living in the streets, in cars, and in shelters seemingly appeared out of nowhere. As…

McChesney, Kay Young

400

76 FR 33788 - Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Into Employment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Training Service Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Into Employment AGENCY: Veterans...reauthorizes the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program through fiscal year (FY...and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless veterans into the...

2011-06-09

401

Prevalence of human papillomavirus in young Italian women with normal cytology: how should we adapt the national vaccination policy?  

PubMed Central

Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. In Italy, HPV vaccination is now offered free of charge to 12-year-old females. However, some regional health authorities have extended free vaccination to other age-groups, especially to girls under 18 years of age. We conducted a multicentre epidemiological study to ascertain the prevalence of different genotypes of HPV in young Italian women with normal cytology, with the aim of evaluating the possibility of extending vaccination to older females. Methods The study was performed in 2010. Women aged 16–26 years with normal cytology were studied. Cervical samples were analyzed to identify the presence of HPV by PCR amplification of a segment of ORF L1 (450 bp). All positive HPV-DNA samples underwent viral genotype analysis by means of a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Results Positivity for at least one HPV genotype was found in 18.2% of the 566 women recruited: 48.1% in the 16–17 age-class, 15.4 in the 18–20 age-class, 21.9% in the 21–23 age-class, and 15.5% in the 24–26 age-class; 10.1% of women were infected by at least one high-risk HPV genotype. HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype. Only 4 (0.7%), 4 (0.7%) and 3 (0.5%) women were infected by HPV-18, HPV-6 and HPV-11, respectively. Of the HPV-DNA-positive women, 64.1% presented only one viral genotype, while 24.3% had multiple infections. The HPV genotypes most often involved in multiple infections were high-risk. A high prevalence was noted in the first years of sexual activity (48.1% of HPV-DNA-positive women aged 16–17 years); HPV prevalence subsequently declined and stabilized. The estimate of cumulative proportions of young women free from any HPV infection at each age was evaluated; 93.3% and 97.1% of 26 year-old women proved free from HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 and from HPV-6 and/or HPV-11, respectively. Conclusions Our findings confirm the crucial importance of conducting studies on women without cytological damage, in order to optimise and up-date preventive interventions against HPV infection, and suggest that vaccinating 26-year-old females at the time of their first pap-test is to be recommend, though this issue should be further explored. PMID:24313984

2013-01-01

402

Unmet need among homeless and non-homeless patients served at health care for the homeless programs.  

PubMed

This study compared the level of unmet need for medical, dental, mental health (MH), and substance use disorder (SUD) treatment between homeless and non-homeless patients served at Health Care for the Homeless programs. Using the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey, logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between homelessness and unmet need for care. Descriptive statistics were then used to examine reasons for unmet need. Homeless patients were just as likely as non-homeless patients to have medical and dental treatment needs met. However, they were significantly more likely to report an unmet need for MH counseling and less likely to report an unmet need for SUD treatment. The primary reasons underlying unmet need were an inability to afford care and a lack of knowledge about where to obtain it. Results highlight the benefits of allotting additional funding to HCH programs so that they have the capacity to expand their overall scope of services. PMID:25418259

Zur, Julia; Jones, Emily

2014-11-01

403

Trauma experience among homeless female veterans: correlates and impact on housing, clinical, and psychosocial outcomes.  

PubMed

This study examined lifetime exposure to traumatic events as reported by 581 homeless female veterans enrolled in a Homeless Women Veterans Program across 11 sites to characterize the types of trauma they experienced; their correlation with baseline characteristics; and their association with housing, clinical outcomes, and psychosocial functioning over a 1-year treatment period. Almost all participants endorsed multiple types and episodes of traumatic events. Among the most common were having someone close experience a serious or life-threatening illness (82%) and rape (67%). Exploratory factor analysis revealed 6 potential trauma categories: being robbed, experiencing accident or disasters, illness or death of others, combat, sexual assault, and physical assault. At baseline, trauma from sexual assault was associated with more days homeless (? = .18, p < .001), trauma from accidents or disasters was associated with poorer physical health (? = -.23, p < .001), and trauma from being robbed was related to greater use of drugs (? = .22, p < .001). Trauma reported at baseline, however, was not predictive of 1-year outcomes, suggesting type and frequency of trauma does not negatively affect the housing gains homeless women veterans can achieve through homeless services. PMID:23225030

Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Decker, Suzanne E; Desai, Rani A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan

2012-12-01

404

Trauma Experience Among Homeless Female Veterans: Correlates and Impact on Housing, Clinical, and Psychosocial Outcomes.  

PubMed

This study examined lifetime exposure to traumatic events as reported by 581 homeless female veterans enrolled in a Homeless Women Veterans Program across 11 sites to characterize the types of trauma they experienced; their correlation with baseline characteristics; and their association with housing, clinical outcomes, and psychosocial functioning over a 1-year treatment period. Almost all participants endorsed multiple types and episodes of traumatic events. Among the most common were having someone close experience a serious or life-threatening illness (82%) and rape (67%). Exploratory factor analysis revealed 6 potential trauma categories: being robbed, experiencing accident or disasters, illness or death of others, combat, sexual assault, and physical assault. At baseline, trauma from sexual assault was associated with more days homeless (? = .18, p < .001), trauma from accidents or disasters was associated with poorer physical health (? = -.23, p < .001), and trauma from being robbed was related to greater use of drugs (? = .22, p < .001). Trauma reported at baseline, however, was not predictive of 1-year outcomes, suggesting type and frequency of trauma does not negatively affect the housing gains homeless women veterans can achieve through homeless services. PMID:23138863

Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Decker, Suzanne E; Desai, Rani A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan

2012-11-01

405

Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background Improving the reproductive health of young women in developing countries requires access to safe and effective methods of fertility control, but most rely on traditional rather than modern contraceptives such as condoms or oral/injectable hormonal methods. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to examine the limits to modern contraceptive use identified by young women in developing countries. Focusing on qualitative research allows the assessment of complex processes often missed in quantitative analyses. Methods Literature searches of 23 databases, including Medline, Embase and POPLINE®, were conducted. Literature from 1970–2006 concerning the 11–24 years age group was included. Studies were critically appraised and meta-ethnography was used to synthesise the data. Results Of the 12 studies which met the inclusion criteria, seven met the quality criteria and are included in the synthesis (six from sub-Saharan Africa; one from South-East Asia). Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 149 young women (age range 13–19 years). Four of the studies were urban based, one was rural, one semi-rural, and one mixed (predominantly rural). Use of hormonal methods was limited by lack of knowledge, obstacles to access and concern over side effects, especially fear of infertility. Although often more accessible, and sometimes more attractive than hormonal methods, condom use was limited by association with disease and promiscuity, together with greater male control. As a result young women often relied on traditional methods or abortion. Although the review was limited to five countries and conditions are not homogenous for all young women in all developing countries, the overarching themes were common across different settings and contexts, supporting the potential transferability of interventions to improve reproductive health. Conclusion Increasing modern contraceptive method use requires community-wide, multifaceted interventions and the combined provision of information, life skills, support and access to youth-friendly services. Interventions should aim to counter negative perceptions of modern contraceptive methods and the dual role of condoms for contraception and STI prevention should be exploited, despite the challenges involved. PMID:19228420

Williamson, Lisa M; Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Petticrew, Mark; Hart, Graham J

2009-01-01

406

75 FR 22164 - Urban Non-Urban Homeless Female Veterans and Homeless Veterans With Families' Reintegration Into...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Homeless Female Veterans and Homeless Veterans With Families' Reintegration Into Employment AGENCY: Veterans' Employment and Training...literacy training, and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless Veterans into the labor force. Veterans...

2010-04-27

407

Universal screening for homelessness and risk for homelessness in the Veterans Health Administration.  

PubMed

We examined data for all veterans who completed the Veterans Health Administration's national homelessness screening instrument between October 1, 2012, and January 10, 2013. Among veterans who were not engaged with the US Department of Veterans Affairs homeless system and presented for primary care services, the prevalence of recent housing instability or homelessness was 0.9% and homelessness risk was 1.2%. Future research will refine outreach strategies, targeting of prevention resources, and development of novel interventions. PMID:24148032

Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Fargo, Jamison D; Byrne, Thomas H; Kane, Vincent R; Culhane, Dennis P

2013-12-01

408

Universal Screening for Homelessness and Risk for Homelessness in the Veterans Health Administration  

PubMed Central

We examined data for all veterans who completed the Veterans Health Administration’s national homelessness screening instrument between October 1, 2012, and January 10, 2013. Among veterans who were not engaged with the US Department of Veterans Affairs homeless system and presented for primary care services, the prevalence of recent housing instability or homelessness was 0.9% and homelessness risk was 1.2%. Future research will refine outreach strategies, targeting of prevention resources, and development of novel interventions. PMID:24148032

Fargo, Jamison D.; Byrne, Thomas H.; Kane, Vincent R.; Culhane, Dennis P.

2013-01-01

409

76 FR 64184 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Strategic Health Care Group; and briefings on mental health, women Veterans' legislative issues, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. No time will be allocated at this meeting for receiving...

2011-10-17

410

76 FR 6197 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Strategic Health Care Group; and briefings on mental health, women Veterans' legislative issues, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. No time will be allocated for receiving oral presentations...

2011-02-03

411

Finding Homeless Youth. Patterns Based on Geographical Area and Number of Homeless Episodes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A census of homeless youth was conducted in locations across Los Angeles County, California. Building on previous research that has focused on homeless youth in cruise areas, the authors examined demographic and behavioral differences between homeless youth in cruise and noncruise areas. Youth in cruise areas were more likely than youth in…

Witkin, Andrea L.; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Batterham, Philip; May, Susanne; Brooks, Ronald

2005-01-01

412

Integrated interventions for improving negative emotions and stress reactions of young women receiving total hysterectomy.  

PubMed

50% of women had obvious abnormal emotions before hysterectomy and hysterectomy can cause strong mental stress reaction. This study was to investigate the impact of psychological health education based integrated interventions on the preoperative negative emotions and stress of patients younger than 45 years receiving total hysterectomy. Forty patients undergoing total hysterectomy were randomly divided into psychological intervention (PI) group and control group (n=20 per group). Patients in PI received peri-operative psychological intervention (supportive psychotherapy, health education, individual depth psychotherapy, family and society supportive care, education on anesthesia and surgery etc.); Interventions were not used in control group. Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to evaluate patients in two groups on admission (T1) and before surgery (T2; after interventions in PI group). Serum levels of cortisol and IL-6 were detected at T1, T2 and the second day after surgery (T3). Results showed that 1) Patients had obvious anxiety and depression symptoms before and after total hysterectomy. For patients in PI group, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score decreased from 14.4±5.9 to 9.1±4.2 and the Hamilton Depressing Scale (HAMD) score from 17.8±3.5 to 9.4±6.8 after interventions; 2) In PI group, the serum cortisol was 13.4±3.9 ?g/dl at T2 and 14.2±4.8 ?g/dl at T3 which were significantly lower than that at T1 (16.6±4.0 ?g/dl) and that in the control group at T2 (13.4±3.9/15.5±4.3 ?g/dl, t=2.10, P<0.05). Thus, preoperative integrated intervention based on psychological health education can improve peri-operative negative emotions and psychological stress in young patients undergoing hysterectomy. PMID:24482729

Wang, Fen; Li, Chun-Bo; Li, Shenghua; Li, Quan

2014-01-01

413

Long-Term Effects of Self-Control on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior among Urban Minority Young Women  

PubMed Central

High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors. PMID:22470274

Griffin, Kenneth W.; Scheier, Lawrence M.; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2011-01-01

414

Ensuring Quality School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women. A Working Paper Released in Cooperation with the American Youth Policy Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research conducted by Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW) in 1993 confirmed the following: young women are still concentrated in traditionally female training areas and are still virtually absent from technical and high-wage training areas; discrepancies between males' and females' wage and unemployment levels are greatest among individuals who do…

Milgram, Donna; Watkins, Kristin

415

A Welfare Reform--Homelessness--Foster Care Connection? The Story of "Lag Families" and "Limbo Children" in San Diego.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of data from a survey of more than 100 parents residing in emergency shelter in San Diego, California, reveals a portrait of poverty that is prevalent among women and children in the United States today. Homeless families in San Diego, as in the rest of the country, are most often headed by women in their early thirties whose prospects…

Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

416

Head Injury and Mortality in the Homeless.  

PubMed

Abstract Risk factors for head injury are also risk factors for becoming homeless but there is little research on this vulnerable group, who can be neglected by health services that specialize in acquired brain injury. This study investigates the prevalence of admissions to hospital with a head injury in the homeless and associations with later mortality. It compares homeless people with and without a record of hospitalized head injury (HHI) and the Glasgow population. Data were obtained from a U.K. National Health Service strategy to enhance care of the homeless. This included development and production of local registers of homeless people. In Glasgow, the initiative took place over a seven-year period (2004-2010) and comprised 40 general practitioner (family practice) services in the locality of 55 homeless hostels. The register was linked to hospital admissions with head injury recorded in Scottish Medical Records and to the General Register of Scotland, which records deaths. A total of 1590 homeless people was registered in general practitioner (family doctor) returns. The prevalence of admission to hospital with head injury in the homeless over a 30-year period (13.5%) was 5.4 times higher than in the Glasgow population. In the homeless with HHI, 33.6% died in the seven-year census period, compared with 13.9% in the homeless with no hospitalized HI (NHHI). The standardized mortality ratio for HHI (4.51) was more than twice that for NHHI (2.08). The standardized mortality ratio for HHI aged 15-34 (17.54) was particularly high. These findings suggest that HHI is common in the homeless relative to the general population and is a risk factor for late mortality in the homeless population. PMID:25010750

McMillan, Thomas M; Laurie, Marie; Oddy, Michael; Menzies, Mark; Stewart, Elaine; Wainman-Lefley, Jessica

2014-10-01

417

Street Kids--Homeless and Runaway Youth. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing was the second in a series examining the impact of homelessness and dislocation on young people in America. This session focused on the problems of homeless and runaway adolescents. Witnesses described the need for multiple services for this population, for effective provision of services, and for greater coordination and planning.…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

418

Engendering Islam: How Young Muslim Women Reclaim Islam in the Diaspora  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how the children of Muslim immigrants in the United Kingdom and United States negotiate their own political identities in the diaspora. I specifically focus on the escalation of female activists who want to reclaim what they interpret as Islam?s ?original spirit? on the subject of women?s rights, a position that was considered revolutionary for women?s status when

Julie Ajinkya

419

Fertility preservation treatment for young women with autoimmune diseases facing treatment with gonadotoxic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe a case series of seven women with SLE and other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) who required cyclophosphamide therapy and underwent fertility preservation treatments. Methods. Of the seven patients reported here, five women had SLE with nephritis, the sixth had immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) and the seventh had microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) with renal involvement. All women were

S. E. Elizur; R. C. Chian; C. A. Pineau; W. Y. Son; H. E. G. Holzer; J. Y. J. Huang; Y. Gidoni; D. Levin; E. Demirtas; S. L. Tan

2008-01-01

420

Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans.  

PubMed

Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

2015-01-01

421

Smoking cessation among sheltered homeless: a pilot  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the feasibility and effect of a smoking cessation intervention among sheltered homeless. Methods Homeless smokers were enrolled in a 12-week group counseling program plus pharmacotherapy (n=58). Results The mean number of sessions attended was 7.2, most participants used at least one type of medication (67%) and 75% completed 12-week end of treatment surveys. Carbon monoxide verified abstinence rates at 12 and 24 weeks were 15.5% and 13.6% respectively. Conclusion Results support the feasibility of enrolling and retaining sheltered homeless in a smoking cessation program. Counseling plus pharmacotherapy options may be effective in helping sheltered homeless smokers quit. PMID:20524884

Shelley, Donna; Cantrell, Jennifer; Warn, Doug; Wong, Selena

2010-01-01

422

Type-specific incidence, clearance and predictors of cervical human papillomavirus infections (HPV) among young women: a prospective study in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are highly prevalent among sexually active young women in Uganda, information on incidence, clearance and their associated risk factors is sparse. To estimate the incidence, prevalence and determinants of HPV infections, we conducted a prospective follow-up study among 1,275 women aged 12-24 years at the time of recruitment. Women answered a questionnaire and

Cecily Banura; Sven Sandin; Leen-Jan van Doorn; Wim Quint; Bernhard Kleter; Fred Wabwire-Mangen; Edward K Mbidde; Elisabete Weiderpass

2010-01-01

423

Cigarette smoking is associated with dose-dependent adverse effects on paraoxonase activity and fibrinogen in young women  

PubMed Central

Context Smoking is associated with increased fibrinogen and decreased paraoxonase (PON) activity, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, in patients with coronary artery disease. Objective We tested the hypothesis that the adverse effect of smoking on these biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress would be detectable in otherwise healthy young female habitual smokers. Materials and methods Thirty-eight young women participated in the study (n?=?20 habitual smokers, n?=?18 non-smokers). Fibrinogen, PON-1 activity and HDL oxidant index (HOI) were measured. Results Mean values of fibrinogen, PON-1 activity and log HOI were not different between the groups. Importantly, however, decreased PON-1 activity (r s?=??0.51, p?=?0.03) and increased fibrinogen (rs?=?0.49, p?=?0.04) were significantly correlated with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day in habitual smokers. Discussion and conclusion Cigarette smoking is associated with a dose-dependent adverse effect on PON-1 activity and fibrinogen in young women, which may have implications for future cardiovascular risk. PMID:25472476

Ramanathan, Gajalakshmi; Araujo, Jesus A.; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Yin, Fen

2014-01-01

424

Deaths among young, single women in 2000-2001 in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories.  

PubMed

A study in 2000-2001 of causes of death of women of reproductive age (15-49) in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories, found that 154 of the 411 deceased women aged 15-49 with known marital status were single. Death notification forms for reported deaths were analysed and verbal autopsies carried out, where possible, with relatives of the deceased women. We found important differences in the age at death and causes of death among the single and married women, which can be attributed to the disadvantaged social status of single women in Palestinian society, exacerbated by the current unstable political situation. 41% of the deceased single women were under 25 years of age at death compared to 8% of the married women. The proportion of violent deaths and suicides among the single women was almost twice as high as among the married women, mainly in those below age 25. The single women were also more likely to die from medical conditions which indicated that they faced barriers to accessing health care. The fieldwork was conducted at the height of the Intifada and the Israeli military response, with heavy restrictions on mobility, limiting the possibility of probing deeper into the circumstances surrounding sensitive deaths. More research into the socio-cultural context of single women in Palestine society is needed as a basis for intervention. PMID:18513613

Al-Adili, Nadim; Shaheen, Mohammad; Bergström, Staffan; Johansson, Annika

2008-05-01

425

Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women.

Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

2015-01-01

426

Knowledge of Obstetric Fistula Prevention amongst Young Women in Urban and Rural Burkina Faso: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000) and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006). The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16–0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18–0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09–0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became ‘aware’ through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine health services and schools, to ensure sustainability of health literacy efforts. PMID:24392032

Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O.; Kouraogo, Salam F.; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B.; Mueller, Judith E.

2013-01-01

427

Medically Uninsured and the Homeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Alice Crowley is a 34 year old who lives out of her car. She lost her house 2 years ago when her boyfriend left her and she\\u000a could no longer afford their apartment. She lives by herself; her 4 year old daughter child was taken by Child Protective\\u000a Services. She gets an occasional meal at one of the homeless centers,

Jennifer Vanderleest

428

Barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries: a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. Methods We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Results Forty-one studies were included. Whether young women receive the HPV vaccine is strongly governed by the decisions of policy makers, healthcare professionals, and parents. These decisions are shaped by: financial considerations; social norms and values relating to sexual activity, and; trust in vaccination programmes and healthcare providers. Financial constraints may be overcome through universal healthcare systems offering the HPV vaccine free at the point of delivery. In the healthcare setting, judgements by healthcare professionals about whether to recommend the vaccine may restrict a young woman’s access to the vaccine irrespective of her own beliefs and preferences. Parents may decide not to allow their daughters to be vaccinated, based on cultural or religious perceptions about sexual activity. Conclusions Barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine have implications for young women’s future sexual, physical and reproductive health. Interventions to address barriers to uptake of the vaccine should target appropriate, and multiple, levels of the socio-ecological model. Issues of trust require clear, accessible, and sometimes culturally appropriate, information about the HPV vaccination programme. Although young women are central to the HPV vaccination programme, their views are underrepresented in the qualitative literature. Future research should consider young women’s perceptions of, and involvement in, consent and decision-making. PMID:25004868

2014-01-01

429

A simple and feasible questionnaire to estimate menstrual blood loss: relationship with hematological and gynecological parameters in young women  

PubMed Central

Background Menstrual blood loss (MBL) has been shown to be an important determinant in iron status, work performance and well-being. Several methods have been developed to estimate MBL, the standard quantitative method however has limited application in clinical practice as it is expensive and requires women to collect, store and submit their sanitary products for analysis. We therefore aimed to develop a MBL-score based on a questionnaire, and to validate it by several hematological and biochemical parameters in women of childbearing age. Methods A total of 165 healthy young women were recruited. Hematological (hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet counts) and iron status (serum iron, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, and total iron binding capacity) parameters were analyzed at baseline. Women were asked to fulfill two gynecological questionnaires: a general questionnaire, to inform about the volunteer’s general menstrual characteristics; and a MBL questionnaire, to provide details of the duration of menstruation, number of heavy blood loss days, and number and type of pads and/or tampons used during the heaviest bleeding day, for all consecutive menstrual periods during 16 weeks. A MBL-score was calculated for each period and women, and its reliability determined by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Pearson’s linear correlation tests were performed between blood parameters and the MBL-score. Two clusters were formed according the MBL-score (cluster 1: low MBL and cluster 2: high MBL). Results Significant higher MBL-score was observed in women who reported having a history of anemia (p?=?0.015), staining the bed at night during menstruation (p?Women who used hormonal contraceptives presented lower MBL-scores than the others (p?=?0.004). The MBL-score was negatively associated with log-ferritin (p?=?0.006) and platelet count (p?=?0.011). Women in cluster 1 presented higher ferritin (p?=?0.043) than women in cluster 2. Conclusions We developed an easy and practical method for estimating menstrual blood loss based on a score calculated from a questionnaire in healthy women at childbearing age. The MBL-score is highly reliable and reflects menstrual blood loss validated by hematological and biochemical parameters. PMID:24886470

2014-01-01

430

Outcomes in Young Women With Breast Cancer of Triple-Negative Phenotype: The Prognostic Significance of CK19 Expression  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Basal-like carcinoma of the breast is associated with genetic instability and aggressive behavior. In this study, we evaluated the luminal cytokeratin marker CK-19 in young women with breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy (CS+RT). Methods: Primary tumor specimens from a cohort of 158 young premenopausal women (range, 25-49 years) treated with CS+RT with a median follow-up of 6.25 years were constructed into a tissue microarray. The array was stained for ER, PR, HER2, CK19, and p53. The molecular profiles were correlated with clinical-pathologic factors, overall, local, and distant relapse-free survival. The association between CK19, other co-variables, and outcome was assessed in a multivariate model. Results: Positive expression of ER, PR, HER-2/neu, CK19, and p53 were 33.1%, 34.5%, 10.0%, 79.5%, and 20.9%, respectively. With 20 local relapses and 38 distant metastases, the 10-year overall, breast relapse-free, and distant relapse-free survival were 79.65%, 87.29%, and 67.35%, respectively. Tumor stage and nodal status were associated with distant relapse-free and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, CK19 negativity was a predictor poor local (RR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.87-7.65; p < 0.01) distant (RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.86-2.70; p = 0.17), and overall survival (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.04-3.55; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Lack of CK19 expression identifies a subset of patients with a significantly higher risk of local relapse. Distant relapse and overall survival rates also correlated with CK19 negativity. Further evaluation of the prognostic significance of basal and luminal cytokeratins in young women with breast cancer is warranted.

Parikh, Rahul R.; Yang Qifeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Higgins, Susan A. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)], E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.edu

2008-01-01

431

Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women  

PubMed Central

Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22?years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (? 1?mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P?=?0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P?=?0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P?=?0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P?=?0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638

2012-01-01

432

Trends of Modern Contraceptive Use among Young Married Women Based on the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys: A Multivariate Decomposition Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Accessing family planning can reduce a significant proportion of maternal, infant, and childhood deaths. In Ethiopia, use of modern contraceptive methods is low but it is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the trends and determinants of changes in modern contraceptive use over time among young married women in Ethiopia. Methods The study used data from the three Demographic Health Surveys conducted in Ethiopia, in 2000, 2005, and 2011. Young married women age 15–24 years with sample sizes of 2,157 in 2000, 1,904 in 2005, and 2,146 in 2011 were included. Logit-based decomposition analysis technique was used for analysis of factors contributing to the recent changes. STATA 12 was employed for data management and analyses. All calculations presented in this paper were weighted for the sampling probabilities and non-response. Complex sampling procedures were also considered during testing of statistical significance. Results Among young married women, modern contraceptive prevalence increased from 6% in 2000 to 16% in 2005 and to 36% in 2011. The decomposition analysis indicated that 34% of the overall change in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in women’s characteristics. Changes in the composition of young women’s characteristics according to age, educational status, religion, couple concordance on family size, and fertility preference were the major sources of this increase. Two-thirds of the increase in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in coefficients. Most importantly, the increase was due to change in contraceptive use behavior among the rural population (33%) and among Orthodox Christians (16%) and Protestants (4%). Conclusions Modern contraceptive use among young married women has showed a remarkable increase over the last decade in Ethiopia. Programmatic interventions targeting poor, younger (adolescent), illiterate, and Muslim women would help to maintain the increasing trend in modern contraceptive use. PMID:25635389

Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Zeleke, Atinkut Alamirrew

2015-01-01

433

Do young women with polycystic ovary syndrome show early evidence of preclinical coronary artery disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is thought that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this study, we used transthoracic echocardiography to measure coronary flow reserve (CFR) in 28 women with PCOS and in 26 healthy women. RESULTS: The PCOS and the control groups were similar in terms of age (27.1 4.5 versus 28.8

Semra Topcu; Mustafa Caliskan; Emel Ebru Ozcimen; Derya Tok; Ayla Uckuyu; Dogan Erdogan; Hakan Gullu; Aylin Yildirir; Hulusi Zeyneloglu; Haldun Muderrisoglu

2005-01-01

434

Perceived control and self-efficacy, subjective well-being and lifestyle behaviours in young Iranian women.  

PubMed

This study examined whether young Iranian women's perceived control and self-efficacy, as a component of cognitive social capital, predicts health and well-being. A total of 391 women aged between 18 and 35?years completed a survey including scales measuring control and self-efficacy and health outcomes including quality of life, satisfaction with life and lifestyle behaviours. Statistical analyses indicated that participants had low perceived control and influence over community affairs together with high perceived control over their personal lives. Multiple regression analyses indicated the predictive role of control and self-efficacy for well-being outcomes suggesting the potential role for health interventions targeting control and self-efficacy. PMID:25370569

Salehi, Asiyeh; Harris, Neil; Coyne, Elisabeth; Sebar, Bernadette

2014-11-01

435

Perceptions of unmarried young women regarding family size, sexually transmitted diseases at residential regional institutes in northeastern India.  

PubMed

This study sought to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young unmarried women regarding family size and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, in three residential regional institutes of northeastern India. The data is expected to help in reinforcing various methods of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) implementation. A representative sample of 574 female students, 16-25 years of age, were interviewed by a pretested questionnaire to assess their knowledge of the determinants of family size and sexually transmitted diseases. Of the participants, 48.43% stated that the suitable age for marriage is > 18 years old for women. More than half the respondents stated that the interval between child birth should be 3-5 years. Most of the respondents (96.17%) were of the opinion that both parents are responsible for determining the number of children. Knowledge of STDs and HIV was found in 91.8% and 74.04% of respondents, respectively. PMID:15906675

Hazarika, N C; Mahanta, J

2005-01-01

436

Challenges and methodology for testing young healthy women in physiological studies.  

PubMed

Physiological responses and control of body systems differ between women and men. Moreover, within women, female gonadal hormones have important influences on organs and systems outside of reproduction. Until the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993, laboratories focused physiological research primarily on men, and this focus placed limitations on women's health care. Thus, the NIH directive to include women required scientists and physicians studying humans to consider female reproductive physiology. Even though this directive was enacted over 20 years ago, there is still a great deal of misunderstanding as to the best methods to control hormones or account for changes in internal hormone exposure in women. This discussion describes common methods investigators use to include women in physiological studies and to examine the impact of female reproductive hormone exposure for research purposes. In some cases, the goal is to control for phase of the cycle, so women are studied when the endogenous hormones should be similar to each other. When the goal of the research is to examine the effects of hormones on a physiological response, it is important to use methods that will change hormone exposure in a controlled fashion. We recommend a method that employs gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or antagonist to suppress estrogens, gonadotropins, progesterone, and androgens followed by administration of these hormones. While this method is more invasive, it is safe and is the strongest research design to examine both hormone effects within women and between women and men. PMID:24569589

Stachenfeld, Nina S; Taylor, Hugh S

2014-04-15

437

Perceptions of arranged marriages by young Pakistani Muslim women living in a western society.  

E-print Network

??Exploration of attitudes towards arranged marriages were examined from the perspective of second-generation Pakistani Muslim women living in a western society. Symbolic Interactionism and Interpretive… (more)

Zaidi, Arshia Urooj.

1999-01-01

438

Be Here Now: Young Women's War Diaries and the Practice of Intentionality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here, the author looks at four diaries, more specifically three conventional diaries and a blog: "The Diary of a Young Girl," by Anne Frank; "Zlata's Diary," by Zlata Filipovic; and "Last Night I Dreamed of Peace" by Dang Thuy Tram. "Baghdad Burning" is the transcript of a web log, a blog, by a young Iraqi woman who went by the pseudonym…

Wahlstrom, Ralph L.

2012-01-01

439

A high anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women  

PubMed Central

Background Our current knowledge of modifiable risk factors to prevent myocardial infarction (MI) in young and middle-aged women is limited, and the impact of diet is largely unknown. Dietary flavonoids exert potential beneficial effects on endothelial function in short-term trials; however the relationship between habitual intake and risk of MI in women in unknown. Methods and Results We followed 93,600 women aged 25–42 years from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) II who were healthy at baseline (1989) to examine the relationship between anthocyanins and other flavonoids and risk of MI. Intake of flavonoid sub-classes were calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires collected every 4 years using an updated and extended USDA database. During 18 years of follow-up, 405 cases of MI were reported. An inverse association between higher intake of anthocyanins and risk of MI was observed (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–0.96; p=0.03 comparing highest versus lowest quintiles) after multivariate adjustment. The addition of intermediate conditions, including history of hypertension, did not significantly attenuate the relationship (HR 0.70; 0.50–0.97; p=0.03). Combined intake of two anthocyanin-rich foods, blueberries and strawberries, tended to be associated with a decreased risk of MI (HR 0.66; 0.40–1.08) comparing those consuming >3 servings/week to those with lower intake. Intakes of other flavonoid sub-classes were not significantly associated with MI risk. Conclusions A high intake of anthocyanins may reduce MI risk in predominately young women. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the health impact of increasing intakes of commonly consumed anthocyanin-rich foods. PMID:23319811

Cassidy, Aedín; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Liu, Lydia; Franz, Mary; Eliassen, A. Heather; Rimm, Eric B

2013-01-01

440

Adult Education for the Homeless. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testing of skills in reading, mathematics, and English as a second language (ESL) was conducted at 12 programs for homeless people in California in 1992; 2,111 homeless persons were evaluated. Analysis of the data revealed that approximately 63 percent of the participants were male and 37 percent were female; 35 percent were between 20-29, 39…

Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System, San Diego, CA.

441

Housing Outcomes for Hospitalized Homeless Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines housing status at the time of hospital discharge in a national sample of 3,502 veterans who were homeless at admission to a Veterans Health Adminis- tration (VHA) medical center. A supplemental survey on homelessness was added to the annual VHA inpatient census over a 4-year period (1995 through 1998). Data from this survey were used to identify

Greg A. Greenberg; Jennifer Hoblyn; Catherine Seibyl; Robert A. Rosenheck

2006-01-01

442

Homeless Children: The Watchers and the Waiters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book takes an interdisciplinary approach in discussing the issue of homeless children and the resolution of the problem. An introduction by Nancy A. Boxill presents background on the nature of the problem and summarizes the subsequent papers. "Home and Homelessness in the Lives of Children" by Leanne G. Rivlin analyzes the impact on children…

Boxill, Nancy A., Ed.

443

The New Poverty: Homeless Families in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses homeless families in the United States and advocates the efforts of residential educational and employment training centers--American Family Inns--which provide comprehensive services education, j