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This article seeks to explore gendered experiences of homelessness through an examination of survival sex. Survival sex is usually understood to be the exchange of sex for material support, however, this research found a greater complexity in the intimate relationships being undertaken by youngwomen experiencing homelessness. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 youngwomen aged 18–25 years living in
Pregnancy rates among women in the U.S. who are homeless are much higher than rates among women who are housed (Greene & Ringwalt, 1998). Yet little research has addressed mental health, risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. This study utilizes a sample of women from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents (MLSHA) to investigate pregnancy and motherhood over three years among unaccompanied homelessyoung mothers. Our data are supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of these women. Results show that almost half of sexually active youngwomen (n = 222, µ age = 17.2) had been pregnant at baseline (46.4%), and among the longitudinal subsample of 171 women (µ age = 17.2), almost 70.0% had been pregnant by the end of the study. Among young mothers who are homeless, only half reported that they helped to care for their children consistently over time, and one-fifth of the women reported never seeing their children. Of the youngwomen with children in their care at the last interview of the study (Wave 13), almost one-third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode (MDE), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime drug abuse, and one-half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder (APD). Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed, including the implications for practice, policy, and research.
Crawford, Devan M.; Trotter, Emily C.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.
Pregnancy rates among youngwomen who are homeless are significantly higher than rates among housed youngwomen in the United States (J. M. Greene & C. L. Ringwalt, 1998). Yet, little research has addressed mental health or risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. Based on a sample from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents, this study explores pregnancy and motherhood in unaccompanied homelessyoungwomen over a period of 3 years. The data are supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of youngwomen. Results show that almost half (46.4%) of sexually active youngwomen who are homeless (n=222, M age = 17.2) had been pregnant at baseline. Among those who stated they had children between Waves 2 and 13 (n=90), only half reported caring for their children consistently over time, and one fifth reported never seeing their children. Of the participants with children in their care at the last interview (Wave 13), almost one third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode, lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder, and lifetime drug abuse, and half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder. Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed. PMID:21486259
Crawford, Devan M; Trotter, Emily C; Hartshorn, Kelley J Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B
|Homelessyoungwomen experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homelessyoungwomen for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…
Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda
Homelessyoungwomen experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homelessyoungwomen for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…
Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda
Homelessyoungwomen experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homelessyoungwomen for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness. Our objective was to
Lia Ruttan; Patricia Laboucane-Benson; Brenda Munro
OBJECTIVE Homelessness is a significant and growing problem in the United States. Women and families are the fastest growing segments of the homeless population. Homelessness increases the risk of having health problems and encountering barriers to care. This study determines how much perceived unmet need for medical care there is among homelesswomen, what homelesswomen perceive to be barriers to health care, and how barriers and other factors are associated with unmet needs. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of homelesswomen, utilizing structured interviews. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Community-based probability sample of 974 homelesswomen aged 15 to 44 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Perceived unmet need for medical care in the past 60 days. Relationship between unmet need and demographic variables, place of stay, source of health care, insurance, and perceived barriers to care. RESULTS Of the 974 women, 37% reported unmet need for medical care. Controlling for other factors, the odds of unmet need were lower among those with a regular source of care (odds ratio [OR] to .35, 95% confidence interval [CI], .21 to 58), while having health insurance was not significantly associated. The odds of unmet need were higher among those who experienced the barriers: not knowing where to go (OR 2.27, 95% CI, 1.40 to 3.69), long office waiting times (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.83) and being too sick to seek care (OR 2.03, 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.62). CONCLUSIONS There is significant unmet need for medical care among homelesswomen. Having a regular source of care was more important than health insurance in lowering the odds of unmet need. Homelesswomen must be educated regarding sources of care, and clinics serving the homeless must decrease waiting times.
Lewis, Joy H; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian
This paper reports on the use of social network sites (MySpace and Facebook) by homelessyoung people, an extraordinary user population, made so in part by its vulnerability. Twenty-three participants of diverse ethnicities, 11 women and 12 men (mean age, 21.7 years), were interviewed in same-sex discussion groups of four participants each. The interviews consisted of questions about the uses,
Recent statistics indicate limited condom use, high STI (sexually transmitted infection) rates, and a general lack of knowledge about reproductive and sexual health among homeless youth. This research focuses on the experiences of homeless female and transgendered youth, providing an insider’s perspective on shaping sexual health interventions. This qualitative research is based on life history interviews and participant observation with
Background. Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Methods. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homelesswomen veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm
MPH Elizabeth M. Yano MSPH Donna L. Washington; MSPH Lillian Gelberg
:Background. Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Methods. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homelesswomen veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm
Donna L. Washington; Elizabeth M. Yano; James McGuire; Vivian Hines; Martin Lee; Lillian Gelberg
The Chronic Homelessness initiative has directed millions of federal dollars to services for single "unaccompanied homeless" individuals, specifically excluding women living with their children. Using a data set with a nationally representative sample of homeless adults, we calculated the prevalence rates and profiles of long-term homelessness in homelesswomen (n = 849). With the exception of the criterion of being a single "unaccompanied individual," many women, including women with children, met the criteria for chronic homelessness including having a disability of mental health or substance abuse problems. Our findings suggest that the federal definition of chronic homelessness needs to be revised. PMID:20818593
:Background: Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homelessyoung adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to
Manuel Cuchilla; Farinaz Kahilifard; Alexandra Slagle; Julie Orser; Glenna Avila; Alexandra Thomas; Adeline Nyamathi; Angela Hudson
Background: Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homelessyoung adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Objectives: The purpose of this study was
Manuel Cuchilla; Farinaz Kahilifard; Alexandra Slagle; Julie Orser; Glenna Avila; Alexandra Thomas; Adeline Nyamathi; Angela Hudson
This article focuses on a group largely ignored by both geographers and feminist scholars of homelessness alike—the growing number of ‘visibly homeless’ women in Britain. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 19 ‘visibly homeless’ women, we delineate between four ‘alternative cartographies’ of homelessness, each articulating quite different gendered homeless identities. The article suggests that whilst it is important to recognise that
Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homelessyoung injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of prenatal care, and histories of sexual victimization are described. A total of 81 lifetime pregnancies and 26 children were reported. Infrequent and ineffective use of contraception was common. While pregnancy motivated some homeless youth to establish housing, miscarriages and terminations were more frequent among youth who reported being housed. Widespread access to prenatal and medical services was reported during pregnancy, but utilization varied. Many women continued to use substances throughout pregnancy. Several youth reported childhood sexual abuse and sexual victimization while homeless. Pregnancy presents a unique opportunity to encourage positive health behaviors in a high-risk population seldom seen in a clinical setting.
Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson
Veterans make up a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to 4 times more likely to be homeless than nonveteran women. This article provides a grounded description of barriers to psychosocial services among homelesswomen veterans. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homelesswomen veterans. These women
Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Vivian Hines; Donna L. Washington
METHODS: A representative sample of 974 currently homelesswomen surveyed in Los Angeles County in 1997 includ- ed 229 who were chronically homeless and at risk for unintended pregnancy. The relationships between perceived de- terrents among these women and their frequency of contraceptive use were evaluated using chi-square tests. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of contraceptive
Lillian Gelberg; Barbara Leake; Michael C. Lu; Ronald Andersen; Hal Morgenstern; Carole Browner
The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homelesswomen. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homelesswomen residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homelesswomen's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homelesswomen and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076
BackgroundVeterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation’s homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans’ pathways into homelessness.
Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Donna L. Washington
Young adults (ages 18-24) are especially vulnerable to homelessness in the United States, and those experiencing homelessness exhibit high prevalence for many kinds of abuse and negative health outcomes. This article reviews common behavioral health issues facing homeless youth and assesses collective wisdom on effective treatments and services for this vulnerable population. On the whole, the research remains focused on
Suzanne Zerger; Aaron J. Strehlow; Adi V. Gundlapalli
: Homelessness continues to be a significant problem in the United States. Women and families represent the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. Health care for these women is a challenge but an important issue that needs to be addressed. Homelesswomen are at higher risk of injury and illness and are less likely to obtain needed health care than women who are not homeless. It is essential to undertake efforts to prevent homelessness, to expand community-based services for the homeless, and to provide adequate health care for this underserved population. Health care providers can help address the needs of homeless individuals by identifying their own patients who may be homeless or at risk of becoming homeless, educating these patients about available resources in the community, treating their health problems, and offering preventive care. PMID:24084568
|The Strengthening At Risk and HomelessYoung Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…
|Young people who experience homelessness, in Australia and in other western contexts (US, Canada, England), are widely perceived to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. The available research indicates that homelessyoung people use all drug types, whether injected or otherwise, more frequently than their home-based peers. Debate exists in the…
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with substance use among homelessyoung adults. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the influence of social networks and economic factors among a group of homelessyoung adults with differing levels of alcohol and drug use. In addition, for those with an alcohol use disorder the role of future time expectancies was examined. A sample (n=185) of homelessyoung adults aged 18-23 were recruited from a community drop-in center and interviewed utilizing self-report instruments. Findings suggest that social networks, economic factors, and future expectancies are significant predictors of the level of substance use among homelessyoung adults. Being able to identify those areas that place homelessyoung adults at risk for substance abuse and dependence has implications for effective intervention.
Gomez, Rebecca; Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.
To examine possible bidirectional relationships between homelessness and deficient social networks, we compared the networks of 251 mothers before, and approximately 5 years after, their families entered shelters with networks of 291 consistently housed poor mothers. At Time 1, more women on the verge of homelessness than housed women reported that they had mothers, grandmothers, friends, and relatives but fewer believed these network members were housing resources. At Time 2, after homelesswomen were rehoused, these network differences between consistently housed and formerly homelesswomen had largely disappeared. Contrary to prior research findings, formerly homeless mothers did not report smaller networks, more children or fewer partners. However, formerly homelesswomen did report fewer positive functions. Because of city policies, homeless mothers were frequently rehoused far from network members. PMID:15055751
Toohey, Siobhan M; Shinn, Marybeth; Weitzman, Beth C
This article describes the application of a developmental model in work with groups of homelesswomen in two shelters and delineates the types of homelesswomen and the stages through which the women go as they develop. The women's development occurs in the context of affiliation, attachment, and relationship and moves from an emphasis on self to a reconnection to
|Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homelessyoung injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…
Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson
Many homelesswomen become separated from their children. The purpose of this study is to determine the predictors of entering a shelter with or without children and predictors of being separated from one or more children. Further, the authors also seek to understand the unique experience of homeless mothers separated from children. Findings suggest that women with mental illnesses and
What do homelessyoung people say they want? Too often services are established without finding out, and this can give rise to voids or management problems. Macedon, Nottingham's largest provider of supported accommodation for homeless people, carried out research under the direction of Nottingham University. The findings provide vital information and practical suggestions to guide service planning and management.
Determinants of first-time homelessness were evaluated in Sacramento, California and Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania. First-time homelesswomen had more cumulative risks for homelessness than low-income never-homelesswomen, even with the putative advantage of higher levels of education. Solutions to homelessness should address more than one dimension of risk. PMID:17352581
Lehmann, Erika R; Kass, Philip H; Drake, Christiana M; Nichols, Sara B
As women and families join the ranks of the homeless in increasing numbers, many women find themselves confronting both pregnancy and homelessness. When pregnancy accompanies the precarious state of homelessness, the need for adequate shelter is not being met during one of the most critical periods of a woman's life. This article focuses on the unique health needs of homeless pregnant women. Detailed accounts of the daily life experiences of African American, Anglo, and Latina homeless pregnant women were derived from an ethnographic study conducted in a large metropolitan area in southern California. Their pregnancies were difficult because normal physiological changes of pregnancy often became pathological, signs of potential complications went unnoticed or unattended, and minor discomforts of pregnancy were exacerbated by the women's environment. Nursing therapeutics that support health maintenance and coping strategies of the women while on the streets or in shelters were explicated. PMID:8585707
Fifty percent of all women in America have reported being battered at some point in time, and one in five report regular assaults. This exploratory qualitative study's purpose was to describe reported patterns of violence in sheltered battered women. Homelessness was the adaptive response to battering. A purposive sample of 7 women described violence patterns from childhood and their most recent relationships prior to seeking shelter. In-depth audiotaped interviews indicated extreme violence and terror. Thematic analysis revealed an understanding of abusive patterns with a male partner. A theory of freedom-seeking behavior emerged, with related themes including terror, murderous thoughts, awakening, and escape. The emerging theory has implications for outreach, case finding, and identification of intervention timing for abused women. PMID:9260527
Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homelessyoung people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homelessyoung adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms.
More older African American women are homeless, with this issue receiving little research attention. An exploratory study examined demographics and health characteristics of 100 women. Their mean age was 52.55 years (SD = 3.57) and ranged from 50 to 74 years. Most were unmarried, homeless more than three months, reported more than two diagnoses, and self-rated their health as fair or good. Length of time homeless did not significantly influence self-reported health. Medical diagnoses increased with time homeless, and rates of some chronic diseases were higher than domiciled African American elders 60 years of age and over Nearly half (48.5%) of women who were homeless more than 12 months reported emotional/mental illness. PMID:15962919
The study findings showed that homeless childbearing women are at greatest risk for cancer, violence, poor nutrition, sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Collaborating with personnel at a women’s shelter, the authors studied homeless childbearing women’s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about general health promotion, healthy pregnancy promotion, and preterm labor prevention. Guided by the Integrative Model of
Marilyn Stringer; Tali Averbuch; Pamela Mack Brooks; Loretta Sweet Jemmott
This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness. PMID:19212866
Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y
The exploratory study with homelesswomen presented in this paper aims to highlight two shortcomings in the current literature on homelessness, which accompany the predominant conceptualisation of ‘home’ as a place of safety and security, and homelessness as a primarily structural issue characterised by ‘residential instability’. The first is the paucity of research on homelesswomen in their own right
As the numbers of homeless persons in the United States continue to increase, the greatest increase is in homelesswomen and families. At least 14% of the homeless are single women and 40% are families, 85% of these have a single mother as head of household (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2002). This paper will discuss how the experience of
Eighty-seven homeless families served by the emergency shelter of the Coalition on Temporary Shelter in Detroit during the first quarter of 1987 were studies through a review of admission data. Most of the families were black and contained an adult female with one or two minor children. Most of the mothers were young, did not have a high school diploma, and had no income. Some had histories of psychiatric disorders or substance abuse. Many had been in a dependent living situation before becoming homeless. Children accounted for more than one-fourth of admissions during the study period. Policies should address prevention of homelessness through income support programs, provision of low-income housing, basic living skill training programs, and mental health service delivery. When available resources fail in prevention, programming should address the effects of homelessness on children, because these effects perpetuate a cycle that will increase the homeless population in future generations. PMID:10296495
Objective To identify correlates of failure to use contraception among homelesswomen at risk for unintended pregnancy. Study Design A representative sample of 974 homelesswomen surveyed in Los Angeles County in 1997 included 457 who were at risk for unintended\\u000a pregnancy. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify important predictors of contraceptive nonuse or rare use in the\\u000a past
Lillian Gelberg; Michael C. Lu; Barbara D. Leake; Ronald M. Andersen; Hal Morgenstern; Adeline M. Nyamathi
Homelessness in the United Kingdom has very wide ramifications. Younghomeless people face a difficult transition into adult life as poverty, low self-esteem, lack of family support, and lack of qualifications reinforce each others' effects. Homelessyoung people start behind their peers in educational achievement. Government policies put up…
This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homelesswomen with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…
|Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…
This study looks at two sets of women who stayed in New York City homeless shelters in 1992—one set as part of a family and the other set as individuals—and at factors associated with an increased risk of their experiencing repeat shelter stays. Descriptive statistics and event history analysis indicate that regardless of whether the women stay in shelters with
Homelesswomen need special care and attention especially during pregnancy or while trying to overcome substance abuse. We present a solution to help counselors working with these women. The solution allows the counselor to send text messages, which can be used to remind women of their daily schedule, as well as provide them with health and nutritional information. The system
|Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…
Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.
|Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…
Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…
A study of the strengths and personal resources of women who had overcome homelessness revealed that the experience of homelessness for these women was a temporary state of disruption resulting from an effort to free themselves from conditions associated with despair, such as abuse or addictions, and to search for a better life. Personal, interpersonal, and transpersonal categories of strengths were identified that enabled these women to move in a positive direction toward health and self-actualization. The synthesizing metaphor "swimming upstream" describes the stoic determination required to go against the overwhelming negative forces of their environment. PMID:7515608
|We employed participatory, community-based research methods to explore the perceptions of home among women who are homeless. Twenty women engaged in one or more techniques including qualitative interviews, digital story telling, creative writing, photovoice, and design charrette to characterize their perceptions of home. Analysis of the data…
This paper describes the experiences of younghomeless people in Western Australia during their transitions to more permanent accommodation and independent living. For these younghomeless people, permanent accommodation provided an opportunity for ‘feeling at home’ and having a sense of control and stability associated with ‘home’. Within this space, these young people wanted to be considered ‘normal’ home occupiers.
While disparities in health and health care between vulnerable (e.g., minorities, low income) and majority populations are well documented, less is known about disparities within these special populations that are large and diverse. Such knowledge is essential to determine the most needy within these generally needy populations and to plan interventions to reduce their health and health care disparities. With data from 1,331 women residing in Los Angeles County, in one of the largest, most comprehensive studies of the health of homelesswomen to date, we examined the health and health care disparities among homeless African American, Latina and white women. We further explored if race/ethnicity and other factors that predispose homelesswomen to poor health or enable them to obtain better health care were associated with their unmet need for medical care. We found that white, non-Latina women were more likely to report unmet need than African Americans and Latinas, and women suffering from drug abuse, violence, or depression were most in need of care. These findings should be considered in targeting and addressing the special needs of homelesswomen of different racial/ethnic groups.
Teruya, Cheryl; Longshore, Douglas; Andersen, Ronald M.; Arangua, Lisa; Nyamathi, Adeline; Leake, Barbara; Gelberg, Lillian
This article gives an overview of poverty, deprivation and homelessness as a social ill that is eating deep into the society's fabric. It affirms that these concepts are inextricably linked, illustrating this with the case of the street homelesswomen. Furthermore, it describes the characteristics of street homelesswomen in Johannesburg inner city and their perception of poverty. It also
The study findings showed that homeless childbearing women are at greatest risk for cancer, violence, poor nutrition, sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Collaborating with personnel at a women's shelter, the authors studied homeless childbearing women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about general health promotion, healthy pregnancy promotion, and preterm labor prevention. Guided by the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction and Change, 45 homelesswomen participated in focus groups. They were 28.7 years old (range 18-44 years), and approximately 87% of these women had custody of their children. Three themes identified included things you do to stay healthy during pregnancy, where you learned about staying healthy, and women's knowledge about preterm labor and general health promotion. These findings informed an 8-week educational session (1 hr/week). During the past year, four 8-week sessions were conducted with attendance between 8 and 14 participants. Each week a different health topic was discussed incorporating the associated unique challenges of homelessness. PMID:21878583
Background Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. Yet, little is known how homelessyoung adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Objectives The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Methods Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homelessyoung adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica. Results The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in person communication, flyers, music, documentary film and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare younghomeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. Conclusions The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homelessyoung adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real and truthful. . Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homelessyoung adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.
By their pervasiveness and by being worn on our bodies, mobile phones seem to have become intrinsic to safety. To examine this proposition, 43 participants, from four stakeholder groups (homelessyoung people, service providers, police officers, and community members), were asked to consider how homelessyoung people could use mobile phones to keep safe. Participants were asked to express their
Jill Palzkill Woelfer; Amy Iverson; David G. Hendry; Batya Friedman; Brian T. Gill
|Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homelessyoung adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homelessyoung adults with mental…
|This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homelessyoung adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homelessyoung adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…
Younghomeless African American women and elderly marginally housed African American women have health, housing, and personal concerns specific to their age cohort, yet they also have parallel and complementary needs. The young struggle to find affordable housing, while the old may have difficulty in maintaining their homes. This article reports select findings from a pilot study designed to describe these two groups of women. The preliminary study was conducted preparatory to the development of a larger study to explore factors that would facilitate or hinder linking the two groups of women for mutual assistance in housesharing arrangements. Interviews and housing history findings revealed contrasts and similarities among the women and between both cohorts that reflected individual differences, common yet divergent life courses, and collective responses to family life situations, societal trends, and policies. Advantages and disadvantages of housesharing were delineated with 56.3% of the homelesswomen and 81.3% of the elderly women viewing coresidential living as an option worth considering. Housesharing arrangements should be further investigated by nurses and colleagues. Findings from this study are foundational for establishing alliances that may be a means to promote health and strengthen "family" in both populations. PMID:11012997
Although it has been well-documented that parents and children who experience homelessness often have compromised health and well-being, few studies have examined the potential implications of homelessness on the process of parenting young children. In this review, we consider how parents of young children might function under the circumstances of homelessness. We begin with a brief overview of the psychological, social, and medical characteristics of homeless mothers and their young children. Using a developmental attachment perspective, we next briefly review the central tasks of parenting during the first 5 years of life, including emotion regulation and fostering of child autonomy, with an eye toward how homelessness may compromise a mother's ability to complete these tasks. Finally, we provide suggestions for further research that incorporate a developmental attachment perspective and other relevant viewpoints. Because of the paucity of research in this area, our review seeks to provide a heuristic framework for future research, intervention development, and policy.
DAVID, DARYN H.; GELBERG, LILLIAN; SUCHMAN, NANCY E.
Women confront unique challenges when faced with homelessness, not the least of which is negotiating how to express their sexuality. Research has tended to look at the sexuality of women who are homeless pathologically, yet in housed women a healthy sex life is an important predictor of happiness and well-being. The complex relationship between health and sexuality is significant, yet
Increasingly vulnerability to homelessness is affecting older African American women because more than any other group these women are susceptible to even minor changes in socioeconomic conditions. This article describes the evolution of an assessment strategy and process found to be useful in planning older African American women's transition from homelessness. The assessment strategy was developed as part of a
|Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homelessyoung people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the…
Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors\\u000a and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and\\u000a their children are explained.
This report examines the experiences of homelessyoung parents with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, which can be an important tool in helping them achieve long-term stability and economic self-sufficiency. The 1996 welfare reform act included special provisions that applied only to minor teen parents, requiring them to…
Homelesswomen with children have been one of the fastest growing homeless subpopulations during the past decade. However, research in this area has paid scant attention to the needs of these homeless families. The ethnographic study of homelesswomen with children described in this article captures the prevailing strengths of this population. The women's strengths were identified in seeking housing, caring for children, and remaining connected to social contacts to keep their families together. The authors suggest that ethnography provides guideposts for social workers as they search for practice models. PMID:7649511
The objective of this study was to describe associations between childhood factors and adult daily substance use profiles among homelesswomen and to identify independent predictors of daily substance use for the overall sample and for ethnic\\/acculturation subgroups. Struc tured surveys were administered to 1,331 homelesswomen in Los Angeles who were either daily drug and alcohol users for the
Adeline Nyamathi; Douglas Longshore; Colleen Keenan; Janna Lesser; Barbara D. Leake
|Living without permanent, long-term housing creates a number of stressors for children and families, but being homeless can be particularly detrimental to the healthy development of young children. The National Center on Family Homelessness reports that more than 1.6 million children--or one in 45 children--were homeless annually in America…
McCoy-Roth, Marci; Mackintosh, Bonnie B.; Murphey, David
Studies investigating the experience of violence by homelesswomen date to the mid 1980s, but most prior research has been more concerned with establishing the face of violence committed against these extremely vulnerable women than in exploring the risk ...
E. Mustaine J. D. Wright J. K. Wesely J. L. Jasinski
Background Data on mortality among homeless people are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to describe mortality patterns within a cohort of homeless adults in Rotterdam (the Netherlands) and to assess excess mortality as compared to the general population in that city. Methods Based on 10-year follow-up of homeless adults aged ? 20 years who visited services for homeless people in Rotterdam in 2001, and on vital statistics, we assessed the association of mortality with age, sex and type of service used (e.g. only day care, convalescence care, other) within the homeless cohort, and also compared mortality between the homeless and general population using Poisson regression. Life tables and decomposition methods were used to examine differences in life expectancy. Results During follow-up, of the 2096 adult homeless 265 died. Among the homeless, at age 30 years no significant sex differences were found in overall mortality rates and life expectancy. Compared with the general Rotterdam population, mortality rates were 3.5 times higher in the homeless cohort. Excess mortality was larger in women (rate ratio [RR] RR 5.56, 95% CI 3.95–7.82) as compared to men (RR 3.31, 95% CI 2.91–3.77), and decreased with age (RR 7.67, 95% CI 6.87–8.56 for the age group 20–44 and RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.41–1.88 for the age group 60+ years). Life expectancy at age 30 years was 11.0 (95% CI 9.1–12.9) and 15.9 (95% CI 10.3–21.5) years lower for homeless men and women compared to men and women in the general population respectively. Conclusion Homeless adults face excessive losses in life expectancy, with greatest disadvantages among homelesswomen and the younger age groups.
Nusselder, Wilma J.; Slockers, Marcel T.; Krol, Luuk; Slockers, Colette T.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; van Beeck, Ed F.
The authors document the integration of methods from the arts and humanities into a social research and development project, the objectives of which are to create and test promising interventions helpful in assisting older homeless African American women get and stay out of homelessness in the city of Detroit, Michigan, USA. The exhibit incorporates multiple forms of narrative, includes performative features, promotes public awareness of homelessness in the city of Detroit, and engages homeless and formerly homelesswomen in social action. The authors examine the prototype design and the involvement of participants in creating artistic portrayals of their homeless experience. PMID:18375622
Currently homeless, previously homeless and never homeless children were identified through screening at 15 Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) sites in southeastern Wisconsin. Two hundred twenty one currently or previously homeless children were identified and age and sex matched to never homeless WIC participants. Height, weight, hemoglobin and socioeconomic and health history data were recorded
:Young, homelesswomen often become pregnant, but little is known about how street youth experience their pregnancies. We documented 26 pregnancy outcomes among 13 homelesswomen (ages 18-26) and eight homeless men through interviews and participant-observation. Eight pregnancies were voluntarily terminated, three were miscarried, and fifteen were carried to term. Regardless of pregnancy outcome, street youths' narratives focused on ambivalence
Marcela Smid; Philippe Bourgois; Colette L. Auerswald
The use of quilting as an art therapy intervention in a self-efficacy group of African American women who were leaving homelessness is examined in this article. Two quilting workshops (n = 8; n = 12) contributed to a larger parent project (N = 530 over a 10-year period), entitled the “Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project,” conducted in a U.S. Midwestern
David P. Moxley; Holly R. Feen-Calligan; Olivia G. M. Washington; Lois Garriott
Drawing upon and distinguishing themselves from domestic, public, work, and natural settings, homeless communities offer new\\u000a cultural frontiers into which ubiquitous computing could diffuse. We report on one such frontier, a community of homeless\\u000a young people, located in Seattle, WA, seeking both to foresee the consequences of pervasive access to digital media and communications\\u000a and to prepare for its seemingly
Homelesswomen have both a higher rate of pregnancy and a higher proportion of unintended pregnancies than other American women. The authors sought to learn about contraception services offered by providers of health care to homelesswomen and barriers to provision of long-acting, reversible contraception in these settings. A survey of the 31 member organizations in the national Health Care for the Homeless Practice-Based Research Network was conducted, inquiring about services provided and barriers to service provision. Among the 20 responding organizations (65% response rate), 17 directly provided contraceptive services; two referred patients elsewhere, and one provided no contraceptive services. All 17 that provided such services provided condoms; 15 provided oral contraceptives; 14 provided injectable contraception; 6 provided intrauterine devices, and 2 provided contraceptive implants. Barriers to providing the last two methods included lack of provider training, lack of resources for placement, costs, and concerns about complications. The present survey results suggested very limited access for homelesswomen across the country to the two most effective means of long-acting, reversible contraception. Modest investments of resources could reduce a number of barriers to providing these services. PMID:22458291
Saver, Barry G; Weinreb, Linda; Gelberg, Lillian; Zerger, Suzanne
This article explores the implementation of the Victorian Youth Employment, Education and Training Initiative (YEETI). This statewide initiative delivered brokerage funds to homelessyoung people through their housing advocates. One of the findings of the project was that the main barrier to young people achieving a stable continuum in their lives…
|This mixed-methods study identified correlates of unemployment among homelessyoung adults in five cities. Two hundred thirty-eight homelessyoung people from Los Angeles (n = 50), Austin (n = 50), Denver (n = 50), New Orleans (n = 50), and St. Louis (n = 38) were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Multivariate logistic regression…
Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Pollio, David
Women and the concept of homelessness are weakly connected in the international discourses on health and housing. This PhotoVoice study gave a sample of homelesswomen in central Auckland a camera with which to photograph their lives in order to voice their felt health needs as advocates and agents for positive change. Interviews explored the meanings given to street lives captured in the photographs and reveal threats to the women's mental health and worsening addictions. Their tight-knit, resilient community, including dogs, was seen as 'family' who provide support and protection. The women perceived social services as helping them survive and support their health, but not ending their homelessness. Barriers to them getting and staying off the street included a shortage of affordable, secure housing, which has also tended to become overcrowded. They identified their own leaders who could link with state housing services to implement and evaluate new homelessness programmes, such as Housing First. PMID:21227559
Purpose To examine the effect of time spent homeless on young people’s substance use and use of drug and alcohol services in two countries with contrasting policy and service environments. Methods A cross-national survey was conducted of recently homeless and experienced homelessyoung people in Melbourne (N=674) and Los Angeles (N=620). Questions were asked about alcohol and drug use in the past three months, frequency of use, injecting drug use, drug dependency and perceived need for, and use of, drug and alcohol services. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Substantial numbers of young people reported use of alcohol and drugs. More Australians than Americans and more experienced than newly homeless reported drug use, although there were no differences in frequency of use in the past three months. Polydrug use was common, as were injecting drugs and responses that signified drug dependency. All were more common among Australians and experienced homelessyoung people. A substantial number of young people had ‘ever’ taken part in a drug or alcohol program but only a minority believed that they needed help from services. Of these, only a minority had sought help. This was particularly so among those who were classified as drug dependent. Reasons for failure to seek help varied. Conclusion Substance use is alarmingly high compared to national samples of young people, especially among those who had been homeless for longer periods. Programs to reduce substance use must take account of the prevailing drug cultures, as well as different sub-groups of the population.
Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Milburn, Norweeta; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
Background Homelessness among older African American women is emerging as a serious social problem. The increasing cost of living, diminishing\\u000a community resources, and shrinking retirement benefits, as well as reduced social services are resulting in greater numbers\\u000a of older minority women becoming homeless. Aims This investigation explores the relevance of faith and spirituality to an advocacy assessment designed to help
Olivia G. M. Washington; David P. Moxley; Lois Garriott; Jennifer P. Weinberger
Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for reporting suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to be experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support while persons who reported severe body pain were almost 6 times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homelessyoung G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services.
Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support; those who reported severe body pain were almost six times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status, and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first studies to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homelessyoung G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and provide more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services. PMID:23017039
This study investigated risk factors for discrepant reporting of physical and sexual abuse among 172 homelessyoung adults. Discrepant reporting includes situations in which a respondent denies experiencing abuse in general but reports being a victim of specific forms of maltreatment. The results revealed that discrepant reporting rates tended to be highest for minor physical assault and for noncontact sexual
This study determined the prevalence of childhood experiences with child welfare supervision and placement among a cohort of 11,401 young sheltered homeless adults and assessed the associations between this prior involvement with child welfare services and the risk of experiencing recurrent and extended episodes of shelter use. This study used the administrative data from two New York City agencies: the
|This study investigated risk factors for discrepant reporting of physical and sexual abuse among 172 homelessyoung adults. Discrepant reporting includes situations in which a respondent denies experiencing abuse in general but reports being a victim of specific forms of maltreatment. The results revealed that discrepant reporting rates tended to…
The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset
Michael C. Clatts; Lloyd Goldsamt; Huso Yi; Marya Viorst Gwadz
Using a metasynthesis approach, our aim was to articulate new insights relating to the most efficient and effective means of helping homelesswomen with substance abuse problems to enhance their well-being and become more stably housed. Distorted perceptions of competency, which are shaped by dysfunctional relationships and mental health problems, make it challenging for women with substance abuse problems to resolve homelessness. Women with particularly low or high levels of perceived competency tend to grapple with challenges related to structure and control, trust, and hopelessness. Therapeutic strategies for approaching these women include careful assessment, caring, personalized structure and control, development of interpersonal trust, instillation of hope, and the targeted use of psychotherapeutic agents and counseling. Framing care for homelesswomen within the context of perceived competency offers a new way of understanding their plight and shaping interventions to more expeditiously move them toward healthy and stable lives.
Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Bloom, Tina L.; Johnson, E. Diane
Using a metasynthesis approach, our aim was to articulate new insights relating to the most efficient and effective means of helping homelesswomen with substance abuse problems to enhance their well-being and become more stably housed. Distorted perceptions of competency, which are shaped by dysfunctional relationships and mental health problems, make it challenging for women with substance abuse problems to resolve homelessness. Women with particularly low or high levels of perceived competency tend to grapple with challenges related to structure and control, trust, and hopelessness. Therapeutic strategies for approaching these women include careful assessment, caring, personalized structure and control, development of interpersonal trust, instillation of hope, and the targeted use of psychotherapeutic agents and counseling. Framing care for homelesswomen within the context of perceived competency offers a new way of understanding their plight and shaping interventions to more expeditiously move them toward healthy and stable lives. PMID:21890717
Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Bloom, Tina L; Johnson, E Diane
Despite the pervasiveness of homelessness among young families, few early childhood professionals realize the exacerbated\\u000a stresses that push them into their circumstances. This chapter seeks to explore the etiology of risk factors (especially substances\\u000a abuse and illiteracy), elaborate on how they affect the lives of young families, highlight ways that they respond to these\\u000a factors, and detail possible avenues that
SummaryThis paper uses fifteen indices of abuse and a definition of ‘coercion’ as ‘constraint, restraint, compulsion; the application of force to control the action of a voluntary agent’ (OED Online, 2006) to explore how homelesswomen understand their choice to sex work. Twenty-six homelesswomen were interviewed, nine of whom had sex worked. A structured, qualitative questionnaire was used in
————————————————————————————— —————————————————————————————- A retrospective study was performed using the case files of women shelter users to profile and describe the factors that are associated with homelessness in the women population in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Case files (660) were extracted by selecting every fifth file in each group (one group per year) beginning in 1985. Of all the files examined, the
Investigations with homeless populations have focused on those living on the streets or in shelters; few have examined phenomena based on respondents' self-definitions as homeless or not. This investigation examined similarities and differences among risk factors (including mental health, substance abuse, religion/spirituality, social support, and risky sexual behaviors) using two definitions of homelessness: one where place of residence defined individuals as homeless (the `objective', or traditional, definition) and another where respondents defined themselves as homeless (the `subjective' definition). Data come from the baseline survey of the NIAAA-funded “Sister-to-Sister” study (n=339) of heavy-drinking women. Subjectively-defined homelessness was associated with higher rates of mental health and substance use disorders, lower rates of condom use, higher rates of trading sex for food, and less social support. Objectively-defined homelessness was associated with higher rates of drinking in abandoned buildings, on the streets, and in public restrooms, more new sexual partners, and higher rates of trading sex for heroin and speedballs. Investigations failing to ask for subjective information may misattribute some factors to homelessness which may overestimate the effect of various factors on homelessness. Investigators should ask respondents to define their homelessness, or they lose an important dimension of the concept of homelessness.
Eyrich-Garg, Karin M.; O'Leary, Catina Callahan; Cottler, Linda B.
|The third national census of homeless school students, conducted in 2006, found that the number of homeless students had decreased since 2001. There were 9,389 homeless students in 2006 compared with 12,227 in 2001. Three groups were over-represented in the homeless population: Indigenous students, young people from single parent and blended…
Purpose: Homeless youth are at particularly high risk for teen pregnancy; research indicates as many as 20% of homelessyoungwomen become pregnant. These pregnant and homeless teens lack financial resources and adequate health care, resulting in increased risk for low- birth-weight babies and high infant mortality. This study investigated individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy among a national
Sanna J. Thompson; Kimberly A. Bender; Carol M. Lewis; Rita Watkins
This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of behaviors used by homelessyoung people to survive on the streets. Survival behaviors include prostitution, selling blood or plasma, dealing drugs, stealing, and panhandling. One hundred ninety-six homelessyoung adults from 4 metropolitan areas-Los Angeles, CA (n = 50); Austin, TX (n = 50); Denver, CO (n = 50); and St. Louis, MO (n = 46)-participated in individual, semistructured, face-to-face interviews. Researchers predicted that youth transience would be related to high rates of survival behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test a model predicting relationships between survival behaviors and transience, employment, substance use, and social support. Young adults who were transient, unemployed, drug-addicted, and reliant on peers for help were more likely to use these survival behaviors. In addition, among the transient subsample, being White, more reliant on peers for help, more transient, and having been victimized were associated with high use of these survival behaviors. Identification of the environmental and demographic factors associated with survival behaviors suggests that there may be value in combining harm-reduction strategies with efforts to reduce the transience of homelessyoung adults. PMID:21729020
Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna; Xie, Bin; Pollio, David
Women who are homeless experience health problems due to many factors, including poor nutrition. This paper describes a nutritional assessment of women who are homeless living at a transitional living center in an urban setting. A rapid food screener was used to assess fat, fruit and vegetable, and fiber intake, and focus group analysis was used to assess nutritional attitudes and dietary behaviors. We found that the dietary intake of shelter residents does not meet the USDA recommendations in several key areas. We also found that shelter residents considered shelter cafeteria food to be inadequate in terms of taste, nutritional quality, and choices, and they believed the shelter diet contributed to chronic diseases and their symptoms. We conclude that addressing these barriers to good nutrition may help people who are homeless prevent and manage chronic illness. PMID:18677082
Davis, Lisa R; Weller, Nancy F; Jadhav, Monika; Holleman, Warren L
Homeless parents of young children confront several barriers to developing effective parenting skills and dispositions. Perhaps\\u000a the major barrier is that of the negative stereotype that many people use to label them. They also often have not had positive\\u000a parent role models and in many cases have had to deal with the issues of violence. Parent education and support strategies
We studied the prevalence of biologically confirmed HIV, Chlamydia, and gonorrhea in a randomly selected sample of sheltered homelesswomen in New York City, and explored their association with demographic, homeless history, and clinical risk factors. 329 women were randomly selected from 28 family and single adult shelters. The estimated prevalence of HIV in the study sample is 0.6 % (±0.3 %); for Chlamydia it is 6.7 % (±2.2 %); for gonorrhea it is 0.9 % (±0.04 %). A history of childhood sexual abuse, arrest history, current psychotic symptoms, and substance use disorder placed women at greater risk of infection. We consider contextual factors that may yield underestimates of HIV prevalence in our sample and discuss how a more comprehensive prevalence estimate might be constructed. Findings underscore the importance of offering HIV/STI testing, counseling, and HIV risk prevention interventions to homelesswomen and suggest that interventions should be tailored to the needs of specific subgroups of homelesswomen. PMID:22610369
Caton, Carol L M; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gelman, Andrew; Barrow, Susan; Herman, Daniel; Hsu, Eustace; Tochterman, Ana Z; Johnson, Karen; Felix, Alan
Although self-mutilation has been studied from medical and individual perspectives, it has rarely been examined within a social stress context. As such, we use a social stress framework to examine risk factors for self-mutilation to determine whether status strains that are often associated with poorer health outcomes in the general population are also associated with self-mutilation among a sample of young adults in the United States who have a history of homelessness. Data are drawn from the HomelessYoung Adult project which involved interviews with 199 young adults in 3 Midwestern United States cities. The results of our path analyses revealed that numerous stressors including running away, substance use, sexual victimization, and illegal subsistence strategies were associated with more self-mutilation. In addition, we found that certain social statuses exacerbate the risk for self-mutilation beyond the respondents’ current situation of homelessness. We discuss the implications of our findings for the social stress framework and offer suggestions for studying this unique population within this context.
Results of this exploratory and phenomenological investigation provide an understanding of the meanings of “living on the streets” for drug-dependent African-American women in a shelter for the homeless in the southeastern United States. Thirty-six interviews were conducted with drifting and impoverished chemically dependent women seeking help for their addictions. The women's narratives were subjected to qualitative analysis and revealed ways
:The authors determined whether psychiatric symptoms and lack of health and\\/or social services contacts were associated with HIV risk behaviors among a probability sample of homelesswomen. Women were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators, psychiatric symptoms, health and\\/or social services contacts, and past-year HIV risk behaviors. Overall, 8 percent of the women injected drugs, 64 percent engaged in unprotected sex, and
Amy M. Kilbourne; Brooke Herndon; Ronald M. Andersen; Suzanne L. Wenzel; Lillian Gelberg
The authors determined whether psychiatric symptoms and lack of health and\\/or social services contacts were associated with HIV risk behaviors among a probability sample of homelesswomen. Women were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators, psychiatric symptoms, health and\\/or social services contacts, and past-year HIV risk behaviors. Overall, 8 percent of the women injected drugs, 64 percent engaged in unprotected sex, and
In a study conducted in 2008–2009, 25 employed homelesswomen in Calgary, Canada, were interviewed to gain a better understanding of their pathways from homelessness. The data analysis uncovered a mix of personal and societal issues to consider and provides a framework for understanding the complexity of sociocultural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of users of services. In combination,
The authors document the integration of methods from the arts and humanities into a social research and development project, the objectives of which are to create and test promising interventions helpful in assisting older homeless African American women get and stay out of homelessness in the city of Detroit, Michigan, USA. The exhibit incorporates multiple forms of narrative, includes performative
This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex of homelesswomen. Based on interviews\\u000a with 429 randomly selected women living in temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles, this project investigates multiple levels\\u000a of influence on unprotected sex with particular partners. Previous studies have investigated condom use of homelesswomen\\u000a primarily at the individual level. This project
David P. Kennedy; Suzanne L. Wenzel; Joan S. Tucker; Harold D. Green; Daniela Golinelli; Gery W. Ryan; Robin Beckman; Annie Zhou
A 264-item survey evaluated how two shelter environments influenced homelesswomen's health (n = 259). Measured heights and weights determined obesity prevalence. Nonparametric tests evaluated body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake data. Principle components analysis reduced the data and correlations were made to BMI and dietary intake. Almost 80% had a BMI ? 25 and 67% were food insecure.
Two separate path models for alcohol and drugs were tested in which psychosocial, environmental, and sociodemographic variables predicted behavioral and substance abuse related factors as well as the key outcome of positive attitudes about quitting drugs (N = 620) or alcohol (N = 526) in a sample of 709 homelesswomen. A positive attitude about quitting alcohol was predicted by
Adeline M. Nyamathi; Judith A. Stein; Elizabeth Dixon; Douglas Longshore; Elisha Galaif
Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homelesswomen to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…
The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…
Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst
Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a history of poor parenting and negative outcomes including depression, delinquency, physical and sexual victimization, and substance use, are similar for these two groups. The sample consisted of 172 homelessyoung adults from the Midwestern United States. Multivariate results revealed that among those previously in foster care, a history of physical abuse and neglect were positively associated with more depressive symptoms whereas sexual abuse and neglect were related to delinquency and physical victimization. Additionally, lower caretaker monitoring was linked to greater delinquent participation. Among those without a history of foster care, physical abuse was related to more depressive symptoms whereas sexual abuse was positively correlated with delinquency, sexual victimization, and substance use. Furthermore, lower monitoring was related to more substance use. Our findings are discussed in terms of a social stress framework and we review the implications of foster care placement for homelessyoung adults.
... can talk with your health care provider about genetic testing, screening tests, like MRI, or risk reduction options that might be right for you. Diagnosing breast cancer in youngwomen can be more difficult because ...
In the present study, young (n = 34) and older(n = 70) adult volunteers at either animal (n= 48) or human (n = 56) homeless shelters were asked to complete measures of caregiver stress\\/satisfaction, volunteer motives, and social desirability. Young compared to older volunteers assisting animals, but not humans, reported a significantly higher caseload and spending significantly more time per
Joseph R. Ferrari; Michelle M. Loftus; Julia Pesek
|This final report from the symposium on shut out youth concentrates on the problems of homelessyoung people in European cities. Remarks and recommendations of the symposium are reviewed. Homelessness is a growing trend among young people in Europe and most governments show little recognition of the problem. There is little social policy and…
|This article examines youngwomen's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…
A qualitative research approach was used to explore the factors that influence the initiation of drug and alcohol use among homelesswomen and the health and social consequences of drug and alcohol use. The sample consisted of 238 women; of whom 209 women reported drug and\\/or alcohol use in the past month and 29 women reported no history of drug
Adeline Nyamathi; Linda Bayley; Nancy Anderson; Colleen Keenan; Barbara Leake
The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N = 569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and sexual risk, we compare and contrast three subgroups: (1) YMSM with no history of homelessness, (2) YMSM with a past history of homelessness but who were not homeless at the time of the interview, and (3) YMSM who were currently homeless. For each group, we describe the prevalence of a broad range of stressful life events (including foster care and runaway episodes, involvement in the criminal justice system, etc.), as well as selected mental health problems (including past suicide attempts, current depression, and selected help-seeking variables). Additionally, we examine the prevalence of selected drug and sexual risk, including exposure to a broad range of illegal substances, current use of illegal drugs, and prevalence of lifetime exposure to sex work. Finally, we use an event history analysis approach (time-event displays and paired t-test analysis) to examine the timing of negative life experiences and homelessness relative to the onset of drug and sexual risk. High levels of background negative life experiences and manifest mental health distress are seen in all three groups. Both a prior experience of homelessness and currently being homeless are both strongly associated with both higher levels of lifetime exposure to drug and sexual risk as well as higher levels of current drug and sexual risk. Onset of these risks occur earlier in both groups that have had an experience of housing instability (e.g., runaway, foster care, etc.) but are delayed or not present among YMSM with no history of housing instability. Few YMSM had used drug prior to becoming homeless. While causal inferences are subject to the limitations of a cross-sectional design, the findings pose an empirical challenge to the prevailing assumption that prior drug use is a dominant causal factor in YMSM becoming homeless. More broadly, the data illustrate the complexity of factors that must be accounted for, both in advancing our epidemiological understanding of the complexity of homelessness and its relationship to the onset of drug and sexual risk among high risk youth populations. PMID:15878043
Clatts, Michael C; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst
The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N = 569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and sexual risk, we compare and contrast three subgroups: (1) YMSM with no history of homelessness, (2) YMSM with a past history of homelessness but who were not homeless at the time of the interview, and (3) YMSM who were currently homeless. For each group, we describe the prevalence of a broad range of stressful life events (including foster care and runaway episodes, involvement in the criminal justice system, etc.), as well as selected mental health problems (including past suicide attempts, current depression, and selected help-seeking variables). Additionally, we examine the prevalence of selected drug and sexual risk, including exposure to a broad range of illegal substances, current use of illegal drugs, and prevalence of lifetime exposure to sex work. Finally, we use an event history analysis approach (time–event displays and paired t-test analysis) to examine the timing of negative life experiences and homelessness relative to the onset of drug and sexual risk. High levels of background negative life experiences and manifest mental health distress are seen in all three groups. Both a prior experience of homelessness and currently being homeless are both strongly associated with both higher levels of lifetime exposure to drug and sexual risk as well as higher levels of current drug and sexual risk. Onset of these risks occur earlier in both groups that have had an experience of housing instability (e.g., runaway, foster care, etc.) but are delayed or not present among YMSM with no history of housing instability. Few YMSM had used drug prior to becoming homeless. While causal inferences are subject to the limitations of a cross-sectional design, the findings pose an empirical challenge to the prevailing assumption that prior drug use is a dominant causal factor in YMSM becoming homeless. More broadly, the data illustrate the complexity of factors that must be accounted for, both in advancing our epidemiological understanding of the complexity of homelessness and its relationship to the onset of drug and sexual risk among high risk youth populations.
Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst
This study extends research on contextual characteristics associated with positive outcomes within traditional youth settings to examine program characteristics, resources and positive development opportunities that exist within programs for homeless youth and youth at risk for homelessness. One hundred and thirty-three youth (42 boys and young men; 91 girls and youngwomen) from six community agencies completed questionnaires created to
Hillary J. Heinze; Debra M. Hernandez Jozefowicz; Paul A. Toro
Objective: This study, using latent variable methodology, explores simultaneously the relative effects of childhood abuse and early parental substance abuse on later chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems in a sample of homelesswomen. We also examine whether self-esteem and recent violence can serve as mediators between the childhood predictors and the dysfunctional outcomes.Method: The sample consists of 581
Judith A Stein; Michelle Burden Leslie; Adeline Nyamathi
A cross-national survey was conducted among 358 recently homelessyoung people in Melbourne and Los Angeles. Drug dependence and mental illness were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. At each time point, participants were classified as no condition, drug dependent, having a mental illness or dual condition. Low levels of drug dependence or mental illness or both were reported
Doreen Rosenthal; Shelley Mallett; Lyle Gurrin; Norweeta Milburn; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
In a prospective two-group pilot study of a convenient sample of 156 young adults, we assessed improvement in HIV cognitive and transmission knowledge, hepatitis knowledge, and mental health at six-month follow-up. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed higher six-month scores in total HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV/AIDS cognitive knowledge, HIV transmission knowledge and HBV and HCV knowledge at 6 months in the Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) group compared to the Art Messaging (AM) group. Moreover, homelessyoung participants who reported having significant others in their lives, and excellent or very good health did better than their counterparts. Youth who were attempting to get their lives together had higher scores for all types of knowledge except HBV. Hallucinogen users had significantly worse scores on all knowledge measures than non-users. Lastly, the HHP group revealed an improvement in psychological well-being compared to the AM group. PMID:22797748
In a prospective two-group pilot study of a convenient sample of 156 young adults, we assessed improvement in HIV cognitive and transmission knowledge, hepatitis knowledge, and mental health at six-month follow-up. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed higher six-month scores in total HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV/AIDS cognitive knowledge, HIV transmission knowledge, and HBV and HCV knowledge at six months in the Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) group compared to the Art Messaging (AM) group. Moreover, homelessyoung participants who reported having significant others in their lives, and excellent or very good health did better than their counterparts. Youth who were attempting to get their lives together had higher scores for all types of knowledge except HBV. Hallucinogen users had significantly worse scores on all knowledge measures than non-users. Lastly, the HHP group revealed an improvement in psychological well-being compared to the AM group.
This paper describes the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP), a multimodal intervention that addresses the structural barriers and personal issues older African American women face in overcoming homelessness in a large mid-western city of the United States. The project incorporates a developmental action research design in partnership with homeless and formerly homelesswomen. Through developmental testing of interventions, LHIRP identifies promising practices at the individual, group life, intentional community, and city levels. The paper offers a rationale for the integration of both developmental research and action research, particularly community-based participatory inquiry. The authors document the nature of the helping network, identify and describe the project's aims, organizing framework, and methods that document the lived experience of homelessness. Action research strategies that support the design and intervention activities are described, as are the tools used to test promising practices that are useful in helping older women transition and remain out of homelessness. The paper identifies the knowledge products of the intervention project including lexicon, theory, and frameworks, considers the vicious cycle that serves as an advanced organizer of relevant intervention, illuminates core principles, and examines the importance of the web of affiliation that the project seeks to form among participants, staff, and technical assistants. PMID:19929159
Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois; Crystal, Jennifer P
ABSTRACT: Although uncommon, breast cancer in youngwomen is worthy of special attention due to the unique and complex issues that are raised. This article reviews specific challenges associated with the care of younger breast cancer patients, which include fertility preservation, management of inherited breast cancer syndromes, maintenance of bone health, secondary prevention, and attention to psychosocial issues.
This study explores the dynamic combination of structural factors, domestic conditions, individual and social characteristics, and personal choices that produced episodes of homelessness among a representative sample of young adults (aged 20 to 45) in the city of Philadelphia in the late 1980s. Forty-three single adult homeless people (31 men and 12 women) were selected from a variety of shelter
African Americans comprise 12% of the American population and 45% of the homeless sheltered population (United States Department of Housing and Urban Development [HUD], 2007). The fastest growing segment is African American women and African American women with children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between spiritual resources, self-efficacy, life attitudes, cognition, and personal characteristics (e.g.,
African Americans comprise 12% of the American population and 45% of the homeless sheltered population (United States Department of Housing and Urban Development [HUD], 2007). The fastest growing segment is African American women and African American women with children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between spiritual resources, self-efficacy, life attitudes, cognition, and personal characteristics (e.g.,
Using a sample of 1,625 homeless youth and young adults aged 10 to 25 from 28 different states in the United States, this study examines the correlates of having engaged in survival sex. Findings suggest that differences exist based on demographic variables (gender, age, race, and sexual orientation), lifetime drug use (inhalants, Valium™, crack cocaine, alcohol, Coricidin™, and morphine), recent drug use (alcohol, ecstasy, heroin, and methamphetamine), mental health variables (suicide attempts, familial history of substance use, and having been in substance abuse treatment), and health variables (sharing needles and having been tested for HIV). In addition to replicating previous findings, this study's findings suggest that African American youth; gay, lesbian, or bisexual youth; and youth who had been tested for HIV were significantly more likely to have engaged in survival sex than White, heterosexual youth, and youth who had not been tested for HIV, respectively. Implications for interventions with youth and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:20799134
ObjectiveTo determine whether participation in the Women, Infants, and Children Program is associated with improved maternal and infant health outcomes among homelesswomen in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.
Rickelle Richards; Ray M. Merrill; Laurie Baksh; Joanne McGarry
Based on a three-wave panel study, this paper compares the patterns of residential transitions between homeless and domiciled states among homelesswomen with children, single women and single men. It examines the extent of utilization of resources and support from work, income support programs, and informal social systems when initially homeless individuals were domiciled. Our analysis largely confirms previous research
Yin-Ling Irene Wong; Irving Piliavin; Bradley R. Entner Wright
Ovarian cancer accounts for approximately 22,000 cases annually in the United States. Although the vast majority of ovarian cancers occur in postmenopausal women and are of advanced stage, a significant subset occurs in youngwomen. Among those subtypes having a predisposition for youngwomen are malignant ovarian germ cell tumors, sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors, and tumors of low malignant potential. However, invasive epithelial ovarian cancers may also occur in youngwomen, particularly the subtypes of low-grade serous carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma. This article details the diagnosis and optimal treatment of ovarian cancers subtypes in youngwomen. PMID:22343230
This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences. PMID:19921762
Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean
PurposeHomeless youth are at particularly high risk for teen pregnancy; research indicates as many as 20% of homelessyoungwomen become pregnant. These pregnant and homeless teens lack financial resources and adequate health care, resulting in increased risk for low–birth-weight babies and high infant mortality. This study investigated individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy among a national sample of
Sanna J. Thompson; Kimberly A. Bender; Carol M. Lewis; Rita Watkins
|Purpose: As women professors of educational leadership who are involved with feminist research and the preparation of k-12 women leaders, the authors came to the realization that while they have dedicated their professional lives to advancing women leaders in the k-12 environment, they have neglected women like themselves, particularly young…
Sherman, Whitney H.; Beaty, Danna M.; Crum, Karen S.; Peters, April
|This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over 3 years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to…
Falci, Christina D.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Rose, Trina
Investigations of homelessness have been hampered by the lack of operational definitions sensitive enough to achieve subgroup differentiation and simple enough to permit replication. As a consequence, programming and policy development have often proceeded based on varying assessments of the composition, size, and needs of the homeless population. This paper describes the empirical use of duration of homelessness and dwelling place as elements of an operational definition of homelessness. The approach reflects a conceptualization of homelessness as a continuous variable that can be described by coordinates of time and place. A screening instrument that quantified the homeless experience was developed and evaluated in conjunction with a federally funded demonstration project for homeless substance-abusing men and women. Eight hundred and thirty-nine men and women from six public detoxification centers were screened over a two-year period that began in August 1988. Respondents were asked eight questions to assess duration (time) and location (place) of homelessness before they entered the detoxification center. A simple index was constructed retrospectively and found to differentiate the sample into homeless and near-homeless subgroups. Between-group differences were statistically significant in demographics, presenting problems, and probability for successful intervention. These data paralleled previously reported differences between homeless subgroups and support the concurrent validity of the index. Cronbach's alpha (.72) showed the index to be moderately reliable. Differentiation of homeless persons into meaningful subgroups appears possible and programmatically recommended. Homelessness is not a unitary phenomenon, and it is unlikely to respond to therapeutic interventions that fail to consider individual differences.
Research indicates (e.g., Bassuk et al., 1997) that women and children make up a large percentage of the total number of individuals living without permanent shelter. This article represents a reflective analysis of our work as group facilitators who conducted a series of personal growth groups for young mothers living in a residential facility located in a Midwestern city in
Angela D. Coker; Dixie Meyer; Rachelle Smith; Amber Price
|Research indicates (e.g., Bassuk et al., 1997) that women and children make up a large percentage of the total number of individuals living without permanent shelter. This article represents a reflective analysis of our work as group facilitators who conducted a series of personal growth groups for young mothers living in a residential facility…
This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over three years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to fewer home ties, especially to parents, and a more rapid loss of emotional home ties over time. Homeless youth with major depression start out with small networks, but are more likely to maintain network ties. Youth with substance abuse problems are more likely to maintain instrumental home ties. Finally, homeless adolescents tend to reconnect with their parents for instrumental aid and form romantic relationship that provide emotional support.
Falci, Christina D.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Rose, Trina
Objectives To estimate the incidence of breast carcinoma and survival in patients less than 25 years old, and to describe presenting clinical signs and symptoms of breast cancer in this age group. Methods A population-based descriptive study and case review in Olmsted County, Minnesota, was conducted using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Participants were Olmsted County females under 25 years old with histopathologically confirmed breast carcinoma diagnosed between 1935 to 2005. Non-residents who presented to a medical facility within Olmsted County during this time period were included in some portions of the analysis. Main outcome measures were age-adjusted incidence, 5-year survival and clinical presentation of breast carcinoma in females under 25 years of age. Results With four breast carcinomas observed in Olmsted County residents over 1,201,539 person-years, the annual age-adjusted incidence of breast cancer in this population was 3.2 per million (95% CI, 0.1–6.2). All four cancers occurred in the 20–24 year age-group (age-specific incidence, 16.2 per million). Eight additional cases of breast carcinoma were identified in nonresidents. Delay in diagnosis was common. All had at least one feature worrisome for an aggressive neoplasm identified in their clinical history, on physical examination or by imaging. Conclusions Breast carcinoma in youngwomen is very rare, associated with delayed diagnosis, and usually associated with concerning features requiring biopsy.
Simmons, Patricia S.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L.; Wold, Lester E.; Melton, L. Joseph
Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery
|In this paper I examine how youngwomen construct their identities with others in online communities. I argue that the proliferation of social networking and its popularity among young people means that performed identities are increasingly collaboratively constructed, with the individual having less control over their public image than was…
Recent evidence suggests that Conditional Cash Transfer Programs (CCTs) for schooling are effective in raising school enrolment and attendance. However, there is reason to believe that such programs can also affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program (ZCTP) is a randomized ongoing CCT intervention targeting youngwomen in Malawi that provides
Data were collected on the nutrient intake and nutritional status of 96 single mothers and their 192 dependent children who had been displaced from their homes. The objective of the study was to provide information on the dietary adequacy of a newly identified subgroup of homeless persons, single women and their dependent children. Once situated in temporary housing, those participating in the study indicated that they believed that they were receiving sufficient food. However, a nutrient analysis found that the study subjects in all age groups were consuming less than 50 percent of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for iron, magnesium, zinc, and folic acid. Adults were consuming less than 50 percent of the RDA for calcium. The type and amounts of fats consumed were in higher than desirable quantities for a significant number of subjects of all ages. The health risk factors of iron deficiency anemia, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia were prevalent. The findings indicate a need to examine and remedy nutrient intake deficiencies among single women who are heads of household and their dependent children in temporary housing situations. Diet-related conditions found included low nutrient intakes that may affect child growth and development, risk factors associated with chronic disease, and lack of appropriate foods and knowledge of food preparation methods in shelter situations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during\\u000a intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1)\\u000a to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify\\u000a predictors of sexual functioning in
... women are victims of domestic or sexual abuse. Homeless children have high rates of emotional and behavioral problems, often from having witnessed abuse. Help such as shelters, health centers, and free meals ...
The increasing rates of violence committed against homelesswomen living with serious mental illness (SMI) have been well documented. These increasing rates of violence need attention as they are a serious public health concern. The purpose of this qualitative study is to increase our understanding of victimization among this population as perceived by those who have lived the experience. The study sample consists of 15 homeless adult women who self-reported having been diagnosed with a SMI. The findings highlight the reality that, provided with the right type of resources, positive growth can occur among these women despite lifelong events of trauma, victimization, and loss. PMID:24131415
Women’s caregiving and perceptual responses to young infants’ cries were assessed as a function of parity and cry cause. Ss cared for a crying infant manikin in a simulated baby-sitting situation. Mothers and nonmothers were quite similar in basic features of their caregiving behaviors, suggesting that the effects of parity may be to fine-tune skills that many women bring to
Lifetime contraceptive use as reported by a representative sample of 764 homelesswomen in Los Angeles was examined overall and for different age and ethnic subgroups and contrasted with expressed willingness to use specific methods. Over 80% of the women reported condom use. However, less than 5% had ever used female condoms, although 38% of the overall sample and 73%
Lillian Gelberg; Barbara D. Leake; Michael C. Lu; Ronald M. Andersen; Suzanne L. Wenzel; Hal Morgenstern; Paul Koegel; Carole H. Browner
Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction.
The rate of homelessness in Cincinnati, Ohio, has more than doubled in size since 1986. Currently there are an estimated 25,000 homeless persons living in the city. Recent surveys indicate that 58% of Cincinnati's homeless people report having no available source of healthcare and use hospital emergency rooms as their primary source of healthcare. To make matters worse, many homeless people avoid available health-care services due to perceptions of the disrespect, rudeness and/or the insensitivity of health-care workers. This study used the Health Perceptions Questionnaire (HPQ) (Ware, 1976) to measure beliefs about prior, current, and future health status in a population of 100 (N = 100) homeless persons. Within this culturally and socially diverse sample, the average score on the General Health Rating Index was 69.73 on a scale of 22-110. Scores on the Prior Health and Resistance to Illness subscales differed significantly by gender, with males having higher mean scores than did females. In addition, scores on the Health Worry subscale differed according to the homeless persons' reported source of healthcare. PMID:19691182
“Girls can't be guys in matters of the heart, even though they think they can,” says Laura Sessions Stepp, author of Unhooked: HowYoungWomen Pursue Sex, Delay Love, and Lose at Both, published in 2007. In her view, “hooking up”—casual sexual activity ranging from kissing to intercourse—places women at risk of “low self-esteem, depression, alcoholism, and eating disorders.” Stepp is
Elizabeth A. Armstrong; Laura Hamilton; Paula England
Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery shopping behavior. The survey included demographics, the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and grocery shopping questions related to food purchases and food stores visited in the past month. Participants were a convenience sample of 448 low-income, urban Minnesotan women, and data were collected from February through May 2008. The sample was 44% African American, 35% American Indian, 10% white, and 11% other/mixed race; 37% were homeless. Rates of "less healthy" food group purchases were higher compared to "healthy" food group purchases. Significant racial differences were found with respect to purchasing healthy protein food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01) but not fruits, vegetables, or whole grains. Homelessness reduced the odds of purchasing most food groups, regardless of nutrient density (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Food shelf and food store usage mainly increased the odds of purchasing "less healthy" food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01). These findings may help registered dietitians strategize with low-income, urban women how to make best use of food resources within their local food system. PMID:20800128
Young African-American women are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) sexually transmitted infections (STI), and engage in greater sexual concurrency than other race/ethnicities. It is important to evaluate behaviors and characteristics associated with the risk of sexual concurrency, so that interventions can target factors most likely to affect positive change. An emphasis on correlates of concurrency beyond individual-level factors has been suggested. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify individual- and partner-level characteristics associated with sexual concurrency among high-risk, young African-American women. Data were collected from 570 African-American adolescent women (aged 15-21) recruited from a STI clinic, a family planning clinic, and a teen clinic located in Atlanta, GA from March 2002 through August 2004. Logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2012 to evaluate correlates of sexual concurrency. Results show that almost one-quarter of participants reported sexually concurrent partnerships and 28.4% suspected male partner concurrency. Logistic regression results indicated the number of lifetime sexual partners and relationship factors were the primary contributors to engaging in concurrency in this sample. These findings suggest relationship factors may be important contributors to the prevalence of sexual concurrency among young African-American women. Interventions targeted toward sexual health among young African-American women may need to specifically address partner/relationship factors. Through these findings, we hope to better understand sexual risk taking and develop strategies that would overcome barriers to existing interventions aimed at improving the sexual health outcomes of young African-American women. PMID:23363034
Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna G; Davis, Teaniese L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J
Objective. Blood lead levels have declined among every age group in the United States, but urban minority resi- dents remain at disproportionate risk for elevated lead lev- els. Our objective was to measure lead burden in youngwomen of childbearing age in New York City. We also de- scribe successful means of recruiting this population into a cohort study. Material
Jacqueline M. Moline; Anne L. Golden; Andrew C. Todd; James H. Godbold; Gertrud S. Berkowitz
|Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…
This study employs an implicit personality rating methodology from marketing research (the "shopping list" method) to investigate young adults' perceptions of youngwomen who drink alcoholic beverages. Whereas there were some differences in perceptions of youngwomen drinkers across the alcohol brands, the greatest differential in the personality ratings was caused by the mere presence or absence of alcohol. Youngwomen who drink alcohol were described as being more "interesting" and "self-assured" than youngwomen who do not drink. These positive traits were reliably ascribed to youngwomen drinkers by both young adult men and young adult women and more strongly by those who themselves drink. Although it is possible that youngwomen drinkers really are differentially interesting and self-assured, a more likely contributor to these perceptions is advertising aimed at the female drinker. PMID:12850897
Impoverished women worldwide are at high risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. This study explores how homelesswomen make risky sex decisions and the role that alcohol and drugs play in this process. We analyze 56 in-depth qualitative descriptions of recent sexual episodes among 28 women living in shelters in Los Angeles, California, USA. The sample (age 18–63) was 46% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latina, and 21% white. Findings suggest that: (1) homelesswomen engage in multiple types of relationships and sexual behaviors; (2) emotion and attachment play critical roles in women’s risky sex choices; and (3) the role of alcohol and drugs on such choices varies across relationship commitment. Understanding the complexity of sexual decision-making among this population has implications for developing successful risk reduction interventions.
Ryan, Gery W.; Stern, Stefanie A.; Hilton, Lara; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.
Background: Homelessyoung people in the UK are a vulnerable group: their levels of psychological problems, physical ill health and violent victimisation exceed those of their housed counterparts.Aims: This qualitative study aimed to examine homelessyoung people's views about seeking psychological help for their problems.Method: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 16 homelessyoung people at an emergency hostel. A thematic
Youngwomen (n = 1,000), visiting a family planning clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, answered a questionnaire about their sexual behavior and if they had seen pornography. Four out of five had consumed pornography, and one-third of these believed that pornography had impacted their sexual behavior. As many as 47% had experienced anal intercourse, which was significantly more common among older
Impoverished women worldwide are at high risk for contracting HIV\\/AIDS. This study explores how homelesswomen make risky\\u000a sex decisions and the role that alcohol and drugs play in this process. We analyze 56 in-depth qualitative descriptions of\\u000a recent sexual episodes among 28 women living in shelters in Los Angeles, California, USA. The sample (age 18–63) was 46% African\\u000a American,
Gery W. Ryan; Stefanie A. Stern; Lara Hilton; Joan S. Tucker; David P. Kennedy; Daniela Golinelli; Suzanne L. Wenzel
|Purpose: Youngwomen's leadership is an area frequently overlooked in educational leadership development. This paper aims to bring youngwomen's voices into educational leadership conversations and illustrate an alternative approach to youngwomen's leadership development. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative action research study was…
Throughout the last 20 years in Australia, youngwomen have started smoking at a higher rate than young men, and they seem less inclined to quit. Moreover, smoking has dire health consequences that are unique to women, and smoking is now seen as a ‘woman's issue’. The research reported in this article explores what cigarette smoking means to youngwomen,
Purpose – Youngwomen's leadership is an area frequently overlooked in educational leadership development. This paper aims to bring youngwomen's voices into educational leadership conversations and illustrate an alternative approach to youngwomen's leadership development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This qualitative action research study was located in an urban girls' high school in New Zealand. The researcher worked in partnership with
|By winter 1987, up to three million men, women, and children will be homeless; the number of homeless persons will continue to increase at a rate of 25 percent. This report surveys the changes in the homeless population in the following 23 cities over the past year: Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Boston (Massachusetts), Chicago…
National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.
Homelessness influences every facet of children's lives, inhibiting their physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Homelesswomen face such obstacles to healthy pregnancies as chemical abuse, chronic health problems, and lack of prenatal care. Homeless infants are more likely to have low birth weights and are at greater…
A theoretical understanding of the gendered contours of structural, everyday and symbolic violence suggests that young addicted women are particularly vulnerable to the infectious diseases caused by injection drug use—especially hepatitis C. Participant-observation fieldwork among heroin and speed addicts in San Francisco’s Haight Ashbury neighborhood reveals that extreme levels of violence against women are normalized in the common sense of street-youth drug culture. Physical, sexual and emotional violence, as well as the pragmatics of income generation, including drug and resource sharing in the moral economy of street addicts, oblige most younghomelesswomen to enter into relationships with older men. These relationships are usually abusive and economically parasitical to the women. Sexual objectification and a patriarchal romantic discourse of love and moral worth leads to the misrecognition of gender power inequities by both the men and women who are embroiled in them, as well as by many of the public services and research projects designed to help or control substance abusers. Despite deep epistemological, theoretical and logistical gulfs between quantitative and qualitative methods, applied public health research and the interventions they inform can benefit from the insights provided by a theoretical and cross-methodological focus on how social power contexts shape the spread of infectious disease and promote disproportional levels of social suffering in vulnerable populations.
In this article, I propose that many youngwomen in today's world are facing an intense internal struggle to find their identity, and that this struggle is an effect of what they experience as enormous pressure to achieve certain goals. My belief is that, in the contemporary atmosphere of postfeminism in which women seemingly have many more options, the young adult woman experiences these options as expectations. The effect of these demands is an enormous self-doubt where women feel worthless, unimportant, and often unable to go forward in their lives. This article focuses on the stories of 3 youngwomen and their struggles: a 25-year-old White middle-class woman whose obsessive longing to find the "right" man leads to eating difficulties; a 23-year-old lesbian, also White, who is just graduating from college and believes that she is terminally depressed; and a 29-year-old Chinese American woman who has fought anxiety and chronic fatigue for most of her adult life. How they find their way clearly exemplifies both the struggle and the road to success--overcoming self-doubt and challenging the expectations that create the conditions for it. PMID:15386958
Although understanding of the subsistence patterns, service utilization, and HIV-risk behaviors of homeless youths and young adults is increasing, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of mental health problems in this group or the relationships between mental health problems and substance use. This study measured symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, ADHD, suicidality, self-injurious behavior (SIB), and drug and alcohol
Jennifer B. Unger; Michele D. Kipke; Thomas R. Simon; Susanne B. Montgomery; Christine J. Johnson
Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.
In order to understand the experience and identity development of Black adolescents and youngwomen, it is important to understand\\u000a the intersection of race and gender, or gendered racial identity development. The study sought to unpack aspects of social\\u000a identity particularly gendered racial identity from the phenomenological perspective of participants. This study included\\u000a dyadic focus groups of 17 African American
Anita Jones Thomas; Jason Daniel Hacker; Denada Hoxha
Housed people judge homeless people, and in particular their leisure activities, as indicators of whether that person has chosen a “homeless lifestyle” and therefore deserves homelessness. To achieve a more complex understanding of contemporary homelessness, the author conducted ethnographic fieldwork over ten months in Las Vegas, Nevada, interviewing and participant observing dozens of homeless men and women, including observations of
Consider this scenario: A 35-year-old recently married woman is referred to a surgeon because of a growing breast lump. After a core biopsy shows cancer, she undergoes mastectomy for a 6-cm invasive lobular cancer that has spread to 8 axillary nodes. By the time she sees the medical oncologist, she is told that it is too late for a fertility consultation, and she receives a course of chemotherapy. At clinic appointments, she seems depressed and admits that her husband has been less supportive than she had hoped. After tamoxifen is started, treatment-related sexuality problems and the probability of infertility contribute to increasing strain on the couple’s relationship. Their marriage ends two years after the woman’s diagnosis. Six years after her diagnosis, this woman has completed all treatment, is disease-free, and is feeling extremely well physically. However, she is upset about being postmenopausal, and she is having difficulty adopting a child as a single woman with a history of breast cancer. Could this woman and her husband have been offered additional personalized interventions that might have helped them better cope with the breast cancer diagnosis and the effects of treatment? Compared with their older counterparts, youngwomen with breast cancer often have greater and more complex supportive care needs. The present article describes the goals, achievements, and future plans of a specialized interdisciplinary program—the first of its kind in Canada—for women 40 years of age and younger newly diagnosed with breast cancer. The program was created to optimize the complex clinical care and support needs of this population, to promote research specifically targeting issues unique to youngwomen, and to educate the public and health care professionals about early detection of breast cancer in youngwomen and about the special needs of those women after their diagnosis.
CONSIDER THIS SCENARIO: A 35-year-old recently married woman is referred to a surgeon because of a growing breast lump. After a core biopsy shows cancer, she undergoes mastectomy for a 6-cm invasive lobular cancer that has spread to 8 axillary nodes. By the time she sees the medical oncologist, she is told that it is too late for a fertility consultation, and she receives a course of chemotherapy. At clinic appointments, she seems depressed and admits that her husband has been less supportive than she had hoped. After tamoxifen is started, treatment-related sexuality problems and the probability of infertility contribute to increasing strain on the couple's relationship. Their marriage ends two years after the woman's diagnosis.Six years after her diagnosis, this woman has completed all treatment, is disease-free, and is feeling extremely well physically. However, she is upset about being postmenopausal, and she is having difficulty adopting a child as a single woman with a history of breast cancer. Could this woman and her husband have been offered additional personalized interventions that might have helped them better cope with the breast cancer diagnosis and the effects of treatment?Compared with their older counterparts, youngwomen with breast cancer often have greater and more complex supportive care needs. The present article describes the goals, achievements, and future plans of a specialized interdisciplinary program-the first of its kind in Canada-for women 40 years of age and younger newly diagnosed with breast cancer. The program was created to optimize the complex clinical care and support needs of this population, to promote research specifically targeting issues unique to youngwomen, and to educate the public and health care professionals about early detection of breast cancer in youngwomen and about the special needs of those women after their diagnosis. PMID:23443036
This study reports the correlates of homeless episodes among 873 Indigenous adults who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study on four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Descriptive analyses depict differences between those who have and have not experienced an episode of homelessness in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses assess factors associated with a history of homeless episodes at the time of their first interview. Results show that individuals with a history of homeless episodes had significantly more individual and family health, mental health, and substance abuse problems. Periods of homelessness also were associated with financial problems. Among the female caretakers who experienced episodes of homelessness over the course of the study, the majority had been homeless at least once prior to the start of the study and approximately one–fifth met criteria for lifetime alcohol dependence, drug abuse, or major depression. Family adversity during childhood was also common for women experiencing homelessness during the study.
Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner
This study examined the relationship between history of homelessness and current mental health symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 542 alumni of foster care (ages 19, 22, and 25 years). Approximately one in five (19.8%) alumni of foster care experienced homelessness since leaving care, and alumni experienced symptoms of psychological disorders associated with PTSD at rates significantly higher
Catherine Roller White; Anne H. Gallegos; Kirk OBrien; Susan Weisberg; Peter J. Pecora; Rebecca Medina
|In the present study we examined associations between youngwomen's romantic relationships and their body image. Ninety-five heterosexual couples (women's mean age=22.46 and men's mean age=24.38) participated in this study. We examined youngwomen's satisfaction with their own bodies, their "perceptions" of their significant others' satisfaction…
CONTEXT: Youngwomen frequently cite concerns about the effects of unplanned pregnancies on future life course outcomes, including education, employment and relationships, as reasons for seeking abortion. There is relatively little evidence as to whether abortion leads to improved life course outcomes for youngwomen who choose this option. METHODS: Data from 492 women participating in a 25-year longitudinal study
This paper discusses the use of outdoor education activities with adolescent at-risk girls. Many youngwomen in this age group unconsciously adopt stereotypical female roles and perceive their identities in terms of their relationships to males. A women-only group provides space in which girls and youngwomen can search for their identities,…
ACSSA: Can you describe the work of SideStreet, and how the service responds to the issue of sexual assault? SideStreet: At the start of 2002, UnitingCare Wesley Adelaide began to operate SideStreet Counselling Service. SideStreet works with youngwomen and men aged 12 to 25 who are homeless or at risk of homelessness and have experienced sexual and\\/or physical abuse.
This introductory article examines the issue of gendered homelessness and asks why so little academic feminist writing addresses this theme. The article begins with reference to a feminist novel—The Longings of Women by Marge Piercy—that does tackle this matter. The invisibility of the novel's homeless character is used as a way of introducing some distinctions between women's and men's homelessness.
|This document is composed of a number of publications of Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW) that relate to high quality school-to-work opportunities for youngwomen. Contents include the following: myths and facts about nontraditional work; a list of nontraditional occupations (NTOs) for women; and women and nontraditional work factsheet with…
|Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth. Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight…
|Current evidence confirms that youngwomen who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of youngwomen to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…
This paper uses the Current Population Survey (CPS) data to show that changes in family policy implemented in the 1990s led to a substantial increase in the number of youngwomen who report work limitations. These changes also affected measures of socioeconomic outcomes for youngwomen who report limitations. The findings emphasize the importance of disability to family policy issues,
Ann Horvath-Rose; David C. Stapleton; Bonnie O’Day
|This paper describes a youth-centered activist project with a group of youngwomen in Brooklyn, NY, and the controversy surrounding it. In 1999 the youngwomen created a neighborhood mural with anti-violence themes. Within 6 months of the mural's dedication, the mural was whitewashed by the corporate owner of the mural wall. Using content and…
BackgroundAdolescent and young adult minority women are at high risk for chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (NGC) cervical infections, which are significant causes of pelvic inflammatory disease, impaired fertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain. The purpose of this article is to review among youngwomen in the United States: (1) the epidemiology of CT and NGC cervical infection and their medical
Mariam R Chacko; Constance M Wiemann; Peggy B Smith
Background: Adolescent and young adult mi- nority women are at high risk for chlamydia (CT) and gonor- rhea (NGC) cervical infections, which are significant causes of pelvic inflammatory disease, impaired fertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain. The purpose of this article is to review among youngwomen in the United States: (1) the epidemiology of CT and NGC cervical infection
Mariam R. Chacko; Constance M. Wiemann; Peggy B. Smith
Accepted 7 December 1996? This study was designed to assess the sexuality of youngwomen surviving acute leukaemia in childhood or early adolescence. Thirty of 31 survivors were compared with 50 healthy age matched controls. Three methods were used: a self report questionnaire, a face to face interview conducted by a psychiatrist, and a projective psychological test. The age at initiation of dating and sexual activity, the frequency of sexual intercourse, and opinions on sexual behaviour were similar in the two groups. With regard to inner sexuality, however, the survivors differed significantly from the healthy controls. Their images of sexuality were more restrictive, and their attitudes, especially those concerning sexual pleasure, were more negative than those of the controls. Sexual identity among the survivors was less often feminine and more often infantile as compared with the controls. The findings obtained with the three methods of assessment were concordant.??
Eating Disorders Inventories (EDI) and Thematic Apperception Tests (TATs) scored for fear of success were compared for 26 normal females enrolled at Harvard University and 45 eating-disordered females (27 bulimic and 18 anorexic) at Massachusetts General Hospital. The relationship between eating disorders and fear of success (FOS) was examined. Analyses revealed statistically significant differences in fear of success among the three groups. The anorexic group scored higher in FOS than both the bulimic group and the control group. The bulimic group did not differ significantly from the control group. These findings may have important clinical implications because fear of success may be evident in youngwomen for whom anorexia nervosa is still in a prodromal phase. Thus, fear of success may be a marker of risk of anorexia nervosa. PMID:8399250
Little is known about the social cognitive development of young adults. Furthermore, existing studies of young adults tend to rely on college-age participants. A study of social cognition during interpersonal conflict was conducted with 100 young adult women (mean age = 25 years). The relationship of contextual variables to conflict-resolution strategy was examined. Strategy coding was done according to Selman's
|Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's…
...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen: Notice of Charter...that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen, National Center...Officer, Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen, National...
Young, homelesswomen often become pregnant, but little is known about how street youth experience their pregnancies. We documented 26 pregnancy outcomes among 13 homelesswomen (ages 18–26) and eight homeless men through interviews and participant-observation. Eight pregnancies were voluntarily terminated, three were miscarried, and fifteen were carried to term. Regardless of pregnancy outcome, street youths’ narratives focused on ambivalence about parenting, traumatic childhood experiences, and current challenges. Despite significant obstacles, almost all were convinced of their personal capacity to change their lives. While most wanted to be parents, the majority lost custody of their newborns and consequently associated contact with medical and social services with punitive outcomes. Most of the youth who chose to terminate successfully sought safe medical care. We offer recommendations for changing the approach of services to take full advantage of pregnancy as a potential catalyst event for change in this highly vulnerable and underserved population.
Smid, Marcela; Bourgois, Philippe; Auerswald, Colette L.
A retrospective investigation compared the medical records of 56 youngwomen with abnormal Pap smears with the medical records of 60 women who comprised the control group to determine if there is a relationship between cervical dysplasia in youngwomen and a history of condylomata acuminata. A statistically significant link between condylomata acuminata and cervical dysplasia was shown. Implications for nurses are discussed. PMID:6553104
The incidence of AIDS among Hispanic women has been increasing more rapidly than among non-Hispanic women. Yet little is known about the crisesHispanic women at risk may experience and the ways they deal with their most immediate concerns. The purpose of this study was to assess the concerns and stresses experienced by Hispanic women, the coping responses commonly used, perceivedfeelings
In contemporary Vietnam, young, unmarried, educated women are struggling to negotiate the contradictory expectations of femininity. Qualitative research conducted in Hanoi with 13 unmarried, educated women, aged from 25 to 34 years, explored women's sexual agency in a context of changing discourses on sexuality and gender roles. Interviews were conducted several times with each woman to enable in?depth understanding of
The phenomenon of drug use for weight control remains largely undocumented. This research addresses youngwomen's accounts concerning instrumental substance use and management of the body. Although instrumental users faced the potential for stigma, the nature of their lines of action was insulating from many negative social consequences, as women remained largely private about their deviant behaviors. Although women were
This article focuses on the relationship between young Muslim women’s identity work and their involvement in sport and physical activities. The concept of ‘identity work’ is used to underline the dynamic aspect of identity construction. The study is based on life?history interviews with 21 Muslim women with immigrant backgrounds living in Norway, aged between 16 and 25 years. The study
The current investigation is a planned, systematic study of dignity as critical to understanding the experience of homelessness and improving services and programs for the homeless. Specifically, we conducted a thematic content analysis of interviews with 24 homeless men and women to identify their perception of specific environmental events that validate and invalidate dignity. In addition, we explored the impact
The report Staying Home\\/Leaving Violence describes a research study that explores how women, leaving a relationship where they experience domestic violence, can remain safely in their own homes with their children, with the violent offender being removed. In this qualitative study, 29 women were interviewed about their experiences of leaving a violent relationship. Of these 29 women, nine remained in
Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI. Conclusions Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of youngwomen (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design.
|Project Opportunity of the Women in Technology (WIT) program at Texas' El Paso Community College is designed to provide a bridge curriculum for women who choose to enter nontraditional vocational fields that furnishes marketable skills to low-income individuals, single parents, displaced homemakers, young pregnant women, and near-homelesswomen.…
Existing literature suggests that youngwomen with breast cancer are vulnerable to the development of psychological morbidity. Their adjustment can have a substantial impact on their partner and children, whose adaptation in turn can influence that of the...
The main objective of this proposal was to study the effect of increasing doses of vitamin D3 in a group of young Caucasian and African American women with vitamin D insufficiency, that is with a serum 25OHD.
Background Approximately 1.5 to 2 million homelessyoung persons live on the streets in the United States. With the current economic situation, research is needed on quality of services geared toward homelessyoung adults. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore homelessyoung adults' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of health-care-seeking behavior and their perspectives on improving existing programs for homeless persons. Methods This article is a descriptive qualitative study using focus groups, with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using young adults. Results Identified themes were failing access to care based on perceived structural barriers (limited clinic sites, limited hours of operation, priority health conditions, and long wait times) and social barriers (perception of discrimination by uncaring professionals, law enforcement, and society in general). Discussion Results provide insight into programmatic and agency resources that facilitate health-seeking behaviors among homelessyoung adults and include implications for more research with providers of homeless health and social services.
Urinary steroid components were measured after enzyme hydrolysis and methoxym-silyl derivatization by capillary gas chromatography in youngwomen with eating disorders. Using three internal standards, programmed temperature from 50 to 300 °C and flame ionization detection, on ULTRA-1 capillary column the separation of 28 steroid components is possible. Fifteen youngwomen with different eating disorders, i.e. anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa
Viktória Poór; Ildikó Bíró; Anita Bufa; Ágnes Gáti; Ilona Fenyvesi; Susan Juricskay; Tamás Tényi; Ferenc Kilár
Issues addressed Endometriosis is estimated to affect approximately 10% of women. Although early detection may enhance health outcomes and fertility, there is a recognised diagnostic delay of 6.7 years. There are limited data on ways to discuss endometriosis with youngwomen. The aims of the present study were to determine what youngwomen know about endometriosis, what youngwomen want to know about endometriosis and how this is best communicated to promote early detection. Methods Women aged 16-25 years were invited to complete an online survey that was advertised via Facebook, email, Twitter and flyers at high schools and a university. Results In all, 131 women responded to the survey. Fifty-two percent of participants had heard of endometriosis, 89% thought teenagers should be educated about endometriosis and 78% thought that young men should also be educated about the condition. Favoured sources for obtaining information were schools (40%), the Internet (22%) and magazines (13%). Participants were most comfortable talking to a doctor (75%), parent (59%) or friend (51%). Participants primarily wanted to know about the disease, its symptoms, risk factors and treatment. Many participants' descriptions of endometriosis were vague or inaccurate. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that youngwomen are keen to learn about endometriosis, particularly its symptoms. Preferential sources of information appear to be schools or the Internet, and youngwomen appear more comfortable talking to doctors. So what? To promote early detection of endometriosis, health promotion activities should direct their information towards sources that youngwomen prefer. PMID:24168743
Shadbolt, Naomi A; Parker, Melissa A; Orthia, Lindy A
The thin ideal has been identified as playing a central role in female body dissatisfaction. However, research into idealization of thinness in youngwomen tends to focus on quantitative measures that can mask the complexity of attitudes and experiences. This article describes a series of focus groups with 41 females aged 16—26 and explores the multifaceted relationship youngwomen have
Amy L. Ahern; Kate M. Bennett; Michelle Kelly; Marion M. Hetherington
We examined the prevalence of sexual and substance use behaviors among a group of youngwomen who have sex with women (WSW) aged 16 to 24. A convenience sample of 137 young WSW participants completed a confidential survey that included demographics, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Descriptive analyses were used to interpret the data. Comparisons were made between rates
Amy L. Herrick; Alicia K. Matthews; Robert Garofalo
This lesson plan is designed to be a module in a larger investigation of the American Industrial Revolution. The four-day study focuses on the youngwomen working in the mills. Students will use primary and secondary source documents to learn about the youngwomen and the economic choices they made and the changes that resulted. The students will learn how
|Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by youngwomen. I examined 168 rural…
Research has documented the enhancement effects of gang involvement for criminal offending, but little attention has been given to victimization. This article examines how gang involvement shapes youngwomen's risks of victimization. Based on interviews with active gang members, the author suggests that (1) gang participation exposes youths to victimization risk and (2) it does so in gendered ways. Young
This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among 190 single homelesswomen in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Screening single homelesswomen who report childhood abuse histories for symptoms of both disorders may aid in the identification of individuals particularly vulnerable for HIV infection. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:23180873
Houston, Eric; Sandfort, Theo Gm; Watson, Kalycia T; Caton, Carol Lm
Objective: To examine racial and ethnic differences in moderate to severe depressive symptoms among youngwomen seeking reproductive health care.Methods: Nine hundred four white, black, or Hispanic women between 14 and 26 years of age completed an anonymous questionnaire that assessed demographic and reproductive characteristics; recent substance use, including binge drinking; sexual behaviors; occurrence of assault; and depressive symptoms. Logistic
Vaughn I Rickert; Constance M Wiemann; Abbey B Berenson
Epidemiological studies of eating disorders in the United States have focused on white women and girls, and the prevalence of eating disorders in ethnic minority groups is unknown. This study examined the prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder in a geographically and economically diverse community sample of young white and black women who previously participated in
R. H. Striegel-Moore; Faith-Anne Dohm; H. C. Kraemer; C. B. Taylor; S. Daniels; P. B. Crawford; G. Schreiber
Many people who struggle with psychotic disorder often refuse offers of help, including housing, extended by mental health services. This article uses the ethnographic method to examine the reasons for such refusal among women who are homeless and psychiatrically ill in the institutional circuit in an urban area of Chicago. It concludes that such refusals arise not only from a lack of insight but also from the local culture's ascription of meaning to being "crazy." These data suggest that offers of help-specifically, diagnosis-dependent housing-to those on the street may be more successful when explicit psychiatric diagnosis is downplayed. PMID:18086748
This review discusses nutrition and related health problems among homeless Americans, summarizes recent information, and identifies needs for services and future research. The nature of homelessness today provides a context for the discussion. Many homeless persons eat fewer meals per day, lack food more often, and are more likely to have inadequate diets and poorer nutritional status than housed U.S. populations. Yet many homeless people eligible for food stamps do not receive them. While public and private agencies provide nutritious food and meals for homeless persons, availability of the services to homeless persons is limited. Many homeless people lack appropriate health care, and certain nutrition-related health problems are prevalent among them. Compared with housed populations, alcoholism, anemia, and growth problems are more common among homeless persons, and pregnancy rates are higher. The risks vary among homeless persons for malnutrition, nutrition-related health problems, drug and alcohol abuse, and mental illness. For example, among homeless persons, fewer heads of families than single adults are substance abusers, and mental illness varies in prevalence among single men, single women, and parents in homeless families. Homeless persons need improved access to food, nutrition, and health services. More nutrition education needs to be available to them and to service providers. Use of representative samples and validation of self-reported nutrition and health data will help future investigators to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of the homeless and their nutritional status.
Prior research suggests that homelessness is a significant problem among young people aging out of foster care. However, these studies have not attempted to identify potential risk or protective factors that might affect the likelihood of becoming homeless during the transition to adulthood. This paper uses data from a longitudinal study to examine both the occurrence and predictors of homelessness among a sample of young people from three Midwestern states who recently aged out of foster care. PMID:20405776
The effects of community context on occupational aspirations are examined in a national sample of youngwomen in high school\\u000a in the USA in 1979 (n?=?2,210). Multilevel statistical models indicate that youngwomen living in counties with a lower divorce rate, a lower percentage\\u000a of women working, and more people employed in the wholesale and retail industrial sector tended to
|Surveyed college women and men and found that caffeine was consumed by a large proportion of the respondents. Women consumed a larger amount of caffeine and used more substances containing this drug. An increase in caffeine usage with increased psychic stress was observed for women only. (Author)|
Current evidence confirms that youngwomen who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of youngwomen to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show youngwomen's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing youngwomen with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place youngwomen at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed.
Current evidence confirms that youngwomen who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of youngwomen to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show youngwomen's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing youngwomen with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place youngwomen at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807
Emergency contraception has the potential to greatly reduce the number of unintended pregnancies. Experiences in the use of emergency contraception have rarely been reported in the literature. Thirteen youngwomen (a subset of a larger study cohort), were individually interviewed in a variety of settings about their personal experiences in relation to the use of emergency contraception. A thematic analysis of the transcribed data was undertaken. Barriers and facilitators to its use are explicated using excerpts from individual interviews with participants. Some youngwomen had positive experiences, however many experiences were negative and reflected difficulties with access and availability of emergency contraception, as well as poor provider attitudes. Positive experiences generally occurred where services were responsive to the needs of young people or when a provider was well known to the young woman. Their experiences underscore the need to understand the situational stress and sometimes difficult arrangements needed to obtain this method of contraception. To optimise youngwomen's experiences of emergency contraceptive use, a number of strategies need to be implemented. These include improvement of information about emergency contraception for youngwomen and their partners; for health professionals; and for the broader community. Of critical importance is the need to include strategies to improve access to emergency contraception. A number of recommendations to achieve this within current health care delivery sectors in Australia, as well as suggestion forfuture access are provided. PMID:15729808
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women with 6.6% of cases diagnosed in youngwomen below the age of 40. Despite variances in risk factors, Age Standardized Incidence Rates of breast cancer in youngwomen vary little between different countries. Review of modifiable risk factors shows that long-term use of oral contraceptives, low body mass index (BMI) and high animal fat diet consumption are associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. Decreased physical activity and obesity increase risks of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but data on premenopausal women rather shows that high BMI is associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Non-modifiable risk factors such as family history and genetic mutations do account for increased risks of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Breast cancer in youngwomen is associated with adverse pathological factors, including high grade tumors, hormone receptor negativity, and HER2 overexpression. This has a significant negative impact on the rate of local recurrence and overall survival. Moreover, younger women often tend to present with breast cancer at a later stage than their older counterparts, which further explains worse outcome. Despite these factors, age per se is still being advocated as an independent role player in the prognosis. This entails more aggressive treatment modalities and the need for closer monitoring and follow-up.
Assi, Hussein A.; Khoury, Katia E.; Dbouk, Haifa; Khalil, Lana E.; Mouhieddine, Tarek H.
This paper describes a study which explored the lives of young Ugandan women through their voices, and related the findings to HIV prevention paradigms. The research was conducted in the context of the continuing vulnerability of young Ugandan women to HIV; reflected in disproportionately high prevalence compared to young men. The participants of the study were 15 youngwomen aged
Growing up in the shadow of the women's movement dramatically influences how youngwomen think about their life course transitions. Although prior research has examined the objective markers of adulthood, we know little about how youngwomen themselves perceive these markers. This article examines the subjective meanings of the transition to adulthood among 42 youngwomen who were part of
? Abstract Background Research with Mexican Americans suggests that immigrants have lower rates of mental disorders than U. S.-born Mexican Americans.We examine the prevalence of depression, somatization, alcohol use and drug use among black American women, comparing rates of disorders among U. S.-born, Caribbean-born, and African-born subsamples. Methods Wo men in Women, Infants and Children (WIC) programs, county-run Title X
Jeanne Miranda; Juned Siddique; Thomas R. Belin; Laura P. Kohn-Wood
Breast cancer is mainly a postmenopausal disease, but in younger women breast tumors often exhibit more aggressive features\\u000a and worse prognosis. Furthermore, high-risk and low-risk tumors present different age distributions suggesting that breast\\u000a cancer comprises a mixture of two different disease processes. In agreement with this hypothesis, breast cancer presents different\\u000a epidemiologic traits in pre- and postmenopausal women. Regarding racial
Public night shelters across the nation serve as a temporary resting place for hundreds of thousands of homeless families. In this article the delicate and important dyad of mother and child is described as observed in one such shelter. Through participant\\/observation the authors provide a look at the impact that circumstance may have on the nature and quality of mother\\/child
Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that youngwomen who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that youngwomen who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk youngwomen in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.
Employment, union formation and childbearing are central processes within young individuals’ transition to adulthood. These\\u000a processes interact in highly complex ways, and they shape actual life-course trajectories that may be seen as a conceptual\\u000a unit. In this article we use a methodology to cluster life-course experiences, where all three processes are embedded explicitly,\\u000a in order to study youngwomen’s trajectories
Arnstein Aassve; Francesco C. Billari; Raffaella Piccarreta
Although some research suggests that sexual orientation is a stable, early appearing trait, interviews with 89 young sexual-minority women revealed that a majority of women failed to report at least one of the following: childhood indicators of sexual orientation, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to the conscious process of sexual questioning. Lesbians were not more
Background: Young age has been hypothesized to be an adverse prognostic factor for women with breast cancer. This association, based on historical data, may not reflect recent advances in breast cancer management.\\u000aMethods: A retrospective study was conducted of all women age 30 or younger who underwent definitive operation at our institution for primary operable breast carcinoma during one of
Benjamin O. Anderson; Ruby T. Senie; John T. Vetto; George Y. Wong; Beryl McCormick; Patrick I. Borgen
Youngwomen are at high risk of weight gain. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate randomized controlled trials of weight management interventions specifically targeting youngwomen. Nine databases were searched for randomized controlled trials conducted from 1980 to December 2011 that recruited women aged 18 to 35 years, evaluated a weight management intervention, and reported weight as the primary outcome. Eight studies of moderate to poor quality met the inclusion criteria. Three interventions were specifically designed for youngwomen and compared behavioral weight gain prevention interventions to control groups. Four of the five remaining studies evaluated weight gain prevention interventions, including daily weighing with feedback (n=2), a science course (n=1), and an exercise programs (n=1). The single weight loss intervention lowered the energy density of the participants' diet (n=1). Intervention lengths ranged from 4 weeks to 1 year, and only three studies followed-up with participants after the intervention. Retention rates ranged from 54% to 100% at post-intervention follow-up, with over half of the studies' retention rates <80%. Five studies reported significant differences in weight change in the intervention group (-1.9 kg to +0.1 kg) compared with controls (-0.2 kg to +3.1 kg) after the intervention. The available evidence suggests weight management interventions targeting youngwomen are limited in number and quality and are highly heterogeneous. Therefore, their overall effectiveness cannot be established at this time. High-quality randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions that are tailored to the unique needs of youngwomen, and that can be disseminated broadly, are urgently needed to address the unmet needs of this high-risk group. PMID:23473986
Hutchesson, Melinda J; Hulst, Judith; Collins, Clare E
This study examines views and experiences of young Shanghai women with respect to masturbation. Through in-depth interviews with forty youngwomen in Shanghai aged 22 to 39 from May 2004 to July 2007, the study explores women's understandings of masturbation, their desires and their lives as modern Chinese women. The focus of the analysis is on how women talk about
Study Objective: We documented adolescent pregnancies that were thought to be at high risk for increased obstetric complications.Design, Setting, Participants: This study covered 442 pregnant women who were under 19 years of age and who delivered in Çukurova University, School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1997, retrospectively.Results: The patients' mean age
S. Cansun Demir; Oktay Kadyýfçý; Tuncay Özgünen; Cüneyt Evrüke; M. Ali Vardar; Akýn Karaca; Gülþah Seydaoðlu
Objective Vitamin D may reduce breast cancer risk through an effect on steroid hormones in cycling women. We conducted a study to determine\\u000a whether there is an association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and estradiol and progesterone in young\\u000a women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Volunteer women aged 18–22 and not using hormonal contraceptives were recruited during summer and winter. They provided demographic\\u000a and lifestyle information
Julia A. Knight; Jody Wong; Kristina M. Blackmore; Janet M. Raboud; Reinhold Vieth
This paper is about counselling youngwomen up to 21 years of age who have an unintended pregnancy and need to decide whether to continue the pregnancy, have an abortion or give the baby up for adoption. What is important for a counsellor is to be able to respond appropriately to the issues they raise and support them to make
Approximately 5% of all military recruits incur stress fracture injuries during intense physical training, predominately in the lower extremity. We compared young men and women with stress fracture injury (subjects) to a matched group of uninjured volunteers (controls) during a summer training program at the United States Naval Academy to identify possible risk factors for stress fracture injury. The subject
David W. Armstrong; John-Paul H. Rue; John H. Wilckens; Frank J. Frassica
Breast cancer in youngwomen with spouses and children increases the risk of psychological morbidity not only for the patient but also for the family due to the substantial mutual effects of each family member's adjustment to the diagnosis and its future ...
Condoms must be used effectively in order to prevent pregnancy and the spread of HIV\\/STD. This study investigated two types of ineffective condom use, delayed condom use (initiated after penetration has occurred) and condom slippage and\\/or breakage. We estimated prevalence and identified predictors of ineffective condom use among youngwomen at risk of STDs. The study used baseline survey data
D. Civic; D. Scholes; L. Ichikawa; L. Grothaus; C. M. McBride; K. S. H. Yarnall; L. Fish
The goal of an integrative science of women's health is bringing together childbearing with women's health during the lifespan. Enhancing a woman's ability to conceive and maintain a pregnancy is influenced by decisions made well before the beginning of a pregnancy. Identifying ovulatory disorders makes it possible to intervene early in a young woman's childbearing years. Gynecologic charting typically used in natural family planning provides information to the woman and to the healthcare provider that is useful for diagnosis. If youngwomen have a better understanding of fertility and menstrual cycle function, they are in a stronger position to make informed decisions about how they wish to manage their reproductive and sexual health. It may be possible to educate the young woman in health habits that will lead to a healthy pregnancy when she chooses and/or to treat the cause of the ovulatory disorder. This article focuses on polycystic ovary syndrome and hypothalamic dysfunction which can cause menstrual cycle abnormalities in which gynecologic charting is useful in youngwomen. PMID:15214247
|Obesity is a major public health epidemic in the United States. During the past decade, obesity has increased across all education levels, including college graduates. The purpose of this research was to study the health decisions that youngwomen, post-college graduation make regarding their food intake. The subjects in this study completed a…
A qualitative approach was used to examine youngwomen's experiences of menarche and menstruation that were included in personal stories of growing up sexually. The personal experiences were examined by cross-case analysis to learn more about the narrators' attitudes toward menarche and their menstrual-related education. This was a secondary analysis using data collected for a study of common themes in
Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of youngwomen, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…
The authors define computer equity as equal access to computer literacy for each person. It involves both awareness and ac tion; it implies differing approaches to meet differing needs. Their concern is for the unmet needs of youngwomen - especially those in rural schools. many of whom continue to follow stereotyped role patterns that limit the definition of what
|This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 youngwomen in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter…
|This article examines the ethnocinematic research project "Cross-Marked: Sudanese Australian YoungWomen Talk Education", and its relationship to the evolving notion of public pedagogies. The project explores the potential of alternative pedagogies, which include popular culture, especially audiovisual forms, to engage teachers and learners with…
Reproductive disorders and psychological distress are common co-morbidities of obesity in youngwomen. Psychological and reproductive disturbances may also be associated with increased food cravings but the relationships between these factors have not been explored. This study aimed to explore the pattern of food cravings and to determine the relationship between psychological distress, reproductive health and food cravings in overweight
Siew S. Lim; Robert J. Norman; Peter M. Clifton; Manny Noakes
...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen, Centers for Disease...that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen, Centers for Disease...Officer, Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen, HHS, CDC,...
In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These youngwomen are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the youngwomen to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities. PMID:12288826
... all homeless mothers do not have a high school diploma. 29% of adults in homeless families are working. Have much higher rates of family separation than other low-income families. 4 Mothers Experiencing Homelessness: The impact of homelessness on mothers is profound. Many are ...
|This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3) "The Causes of Homelessness"…
...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in youngwomen; and...
...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...and the public health aspects of breast cancer in youngwomen including...
...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...tools and resources related to breast cancer in youngwomen including...
...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...and emerging topics related to breast cancer in youngwomen. These may...
The sexualization of the breast may lead women who internalize the sexual objectification of their bodies to have more negative\\u000a attitudes toward breastfeeding. The purpose of the present study was to examine self-objectification in relation to young\\u000a women’s attitudes toward and concerns about breastfeeding. Two hundred and seventy-five female undergraduates completed a\\u000a survey with questions that assessed their plans for
Ingrid Johnston-Robledo; Stephanie Wares; Jessica Fricker; Leigh Pasek
Twenty-eight middle-school-aged girls participated in focus group interviews designed to elicit their perceptions of images and messages embedded in print cigarette advertising directed at women. Five themes emerged from the transcribed group discussions: attraction of romantic partners, escape from stress, attraction of peers as friends, accumulation of material wealth, and health and vitality. We applied a critical feminist perspective to
Substance use is highly prevalent among homeless, street-involved young people. Societal estrangement is often associated with substance use, particularly among this population. The current study sought to identify four domains of social estrangement (disaffiliation, human capital, identification with homeless culture, and psychological dysfunction) in relation to alcohol and drug addiction. Homelessyoung adults were recruited from three disparate urban areas:
Sanna Thompson; Jina Jun; Kimberly Bender; Kristin M. Ferguson; David E. Pollio
|This article was originally published (November 2011) as a brief created on behalf of the Strengthening At Risk and HomelessYoung Mothers and Children Coordinating Center, which is a partnership of The National Center on Family Homelessness, National Alliance to End Family Homelessness, and ZERO TO THREE. The article offers a definition of…
The purpose of the present work was to study the prostaglandin excretion in young nonpregnant ovulatory women during the menstrual cycle on the one hand and in postmenopausal women on the other hand and to investigate the influence of female sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone) on urinary prostanoid excretion. Urinary excretion rates of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and their metabolites PGE-M (11 alpha-hydroxy-9, 15-dioxo-2,3,4,5,20-pentanor-19-carboxyprostanoic acid), 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1 alpha, 2,3-dinor-TxB2 and 11-dehydro-TxB2 were determined by gas chromatography-triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) in 41 young non-pregnant women during the follicular phase and during the luteal phase and in 23 postmenopausal women. Excretion rates of all urinary prostanoids were not significantly different in the follicular phase when compared with the luteal phase. In contrast to the young ovulatory women, PGE2 and TxB2 were significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Concerning the other prostaglandins significant differences between these groups of women did not exist. Although serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were different in young and postmenopausal women, sex hormones have not been shown to correlate with prostaglandins. Our data do not suggest sex hormones to be responsible for the difference in the prostaglandin excretion in women of reproductive age and in women in the menopause. Further systematic investigations into age dependency of prostaglandin excretion in women are necessary. PMID:9373880
Farker, K; Schweer, H; Vollandt, R; Nassr, N; Nagel, U; Seyberth, H W; Hoffmann, A; Oettel, M
Most new HIV infections are occurring in young people, with youngwomen hit particularly hard in parts of the developing world. This paper explores the impact of gender and sexual norms on youngwomen's sexual experiences, expectations and vulnerability to HIV\\/AIDS. It argues that the power imbalance characteristic of sexual relations among men and women has many of its roots
Although repeated exposure to narratives of romance in popular culture from an early age may lead youngwomen to expect idealized romance in their heterosexual love relationships, a good number encounter abusive experiences. This article draws on youngwomen's stories of abuse in heterosexual love relationships gathered from interviews with 23 youngwomen aged 16-18 years. These stories are examined
Youngwomen with anorexia nervosa (AN) have subnormal levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrogen that may be mechanistically linked to the bone loss seen in this disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 1-yr course of oral DHEA treatment vs. conventional hor- monal replacement therapy (HRT) in youngwomen with AN. Sixty-one youngwomen
CATHERINE M. GORDON; ESTHERANN GRACE; S. JEAN EMANS; HENRY A. FELDMAN; ELIZABETH GOODMAN; KELLY A. BECKER; CLIFFORD J. ROSEN; CAREN M. GUNDBERG; MERYL S. LEBOFF
|A growing number of authors recognise the increasing expectations placed on youngwomen as the vanguard of economic, social and cultural change. This paper explores how these imaginings have come to bear upon youngwomen's bodies, as part of a special issue on pedagogical responses to the changing position of girls and youngwomen. In examining…
|Conceptualizations of the self in relation to others are examined among a group of youngwomen attending a fee-paying school in England. As part of a larger study exploring intimacy and agency among youngwomen from relatively privileged class backgrounds, 54 youngwomen participated in focus group discussions and interviews. Findings reveal that…
|Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…
Little is known about bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with heroin addiction and subsequent methadone substitution. The goal of this study was to compare bone mass density of young HIV-negative women on long-term methadone treatment to a local group of young healthy women. Eleven women (aged 20-29) with previous heroin dependence and current methadone substitution (20-140 mg, median 60, daily) for 1.5-9 (median 3) years were compared to 30 healthy women (aged 20-28). Participants were examined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), of the total proximal hip area, and of the femoral neck. Patients and controls had neither current nor lifetime underweight condition, had comparable ages at menarche, and did not differ significantly in current body mass index (21.9 ± 4.0, respectively, 20.5 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) in spite of a largely unhealthy lifestyle (cigarette, alcohol, and cocaine consumption in patients). Patients' total-hip parameters were marginally lower than those of controls (BMD P = 0.054, T score P = 0.049), whereas the femoral neck and lumbar spine parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups. Long-term methadone substitution in HIV-negative women seems to slightly affect bone mass density. PMID:21698454
Milos, Gabriella; Gallo, Luigi M; Sosic, Branca; Uebelhart, Daniel; Goerres, Gerhard; Haeuselmann, Hans-Jörg; Eich, Dominique
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of marijuana use among youngwomen, ages 18–24, within a primary care setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN From 2\\/05 to 12\\/05, women completed a brief, anonymous self-report screening instrument in two urban primary care clinics\\u000a for potential participation in a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce marijuana use and sexual risk-taking\\u000a behavior. During the last few months of
Jennifer S. Rose; Debra S. Herman; Claire Hagerty; Maureen G. Phipps; Jeffrey F. Peipert; Michael D. Stein
The current investigation is a planned, systematic study of dignity as critical to understanding the experience of homelessness and improving services and programs for the homeless. Specifically, we conducted a thematic content anal- ysis of interviews with 24 homeless men and women to identify their perception of specific environmental events that validate and invalidate dignity. In addi- tion, we explored
There is limited information on the effects of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D in young people and none on African Americans. The main objective of this trial was to measure the effect of different doses of Vitamin D3 on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and serum PTH (parathyroid hormone) in youngwomen with vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD< 20ngml (50nmol/L). A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial of vitamin D3 was conducted in young Caucasian and African American women, age 25-45 years. 198 healthy Caucasian (60 percent) and African American (40 percent) women were randomly assigned to placebo, vitamin D3 400, 800, 1600 or 2400 IU daily. Calcium supplements were added to maintain a total calcium intake of 1200-1400?mg daily. The primary outcomes of the study were the final serum 25OHD and PTH levels at 12 months. The absolute increase in serum 25OHD with vitamin D 400, 800, 1600 and 2400 IU daily was slightly greater in African Americans than Caucasian women. On the highest dose of 2400 IU the model estimated that mean 25OHD increased from baseline 12.4?ng /ml (95% CI 9.2-5.7) to 43.2?ng/ml (95%CI 38.2-8.1) in African Americans and from 15.0?g/ml (95% CI 12.3-7.6) to 39.1?ng/ml (36.2-2.0?ng/ml) in Caucasian women. There was no significant effect of vitamin D dose on serum PTH in either race but there was a significant inverse relationship between final serum PTH and serum 25OHD. Serum 25OHD exceeded 20?ng/ml in 97.5% of Caucasians on the 400 IU dose and between 800-600IU for African Americans. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) suggested by the Institute of Medicine for young people is 600 IU daily. The increase in serum 25OHD after vitamin D supplementation is similar in young and old, and in Caucasian and African American women. PMID:23761326
Gallagher, Christopher J; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M
Recovery of body image after mastectomy is essential for physical and mental quality of life. Partial or total mastectomy\\u000a deformities can be reversed by reconstructive surgical procedures. Youngwomen with breast cancer have specific characteristics\\u000a related to the age of onset of the disease, prognosis and reconstructive expectations. Patient individualization is the key\\u000a to a successful breast reconstruction. Autologous and
This descriptive study of first year university students, utilising a survey questionnaire, explored sources of information including, but not limited to, the media, factors influencing decision making and youngwomen's health seeking behaviours in terms of reproductive and sexual health. The overall aim was to add to the body of knowledge for health professionals developing appropriate programs targeting adolescents and youngwomen. Understanding of sexual and reproductive health was variable with only approximately half of respondents demonstrating an adequate understanding. Contrary to an increasing picture of this generation as increasingly engaging in risky and potentially damaging behaviour as depicted in Female chauvinist pigs: The rise of raunch culture by Levy (2005), respondents in this study appeared for the most part to take considered decisions utilising the sources at hand, including popular magazines, while also grappling with expectations imposed by a culture that sexualises girls at younger and younger ages and depicts promiscuity as the norm. The importance of family values, particularly mothers as role models, emerged as important determinants of behaviour, while religious values were identified as important to only 15% of respondents. At the same time, pressure to engage in sex at younger and younger ages and continuing pressure to engage in unprotected and risky sex was a concern. Cynicism was expressed regarding the double standard perceived to be still operating in relation to young men's and women's sexual health. Youngwomen in the study were forceful in identifying a need for a much better approach to education within schools directed at both sexes and one that is factual, relevant and all encompassing. PMID:21692584
The present study examines differences between homeless adolescents, young adults, and older adults served by homeless shelters or food programs to inform service provision. Four homeless studies using the same sampling and measurement methods were pooled to permit comparisons across age groups. Results showed that homeless adolescents demonstrated greater resilience than younger and older adults. Adolescents reported the shortest duration of homelessness, lowest number of life stressors, fewest physical symptoms, largest social networks, and fewest clinically significant mental health problems. Adolescents also received fewer alcohol and drug abuse diagnoses than younger and older adults. Younger adults reported less time homeless and fewer physical symptoms than older adults, but more life stressors. Younger adults also endorsed higher levels of hostile and paranoid psychological symptoms. Implications for service provision and policy are discussed. PMID:19363770
Tompsett, Carolyn J; Fowler, Patrick J; Toro, Paul A
The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599
Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Murray, Peter G; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D; Tomlin, Cyrena C; Strongitharm, Barbara H; Perrett, Dave I; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E; Messenger, Andrew G; Green, Martin R; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare
The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.
Gunn, David A.; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Murray, Peter G.; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Strongitharm, Barbara H.; Perrett, Dave I.; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Green, Martin R.; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare
This article reports on a study that explored young adults’ perceptions of sexual expression among older women in the context\\u000a of confronting ageism and sexism from a feminist perspective. Deirdre Fishel’s educational film about aging and sexuality,Still Doing It: The Intimate Lives of Women Over 65, was shown to 277 undergraduate students (82 male and 1 95 female) enrolled in
Differences between assumptions and beliefs related to eating disorders were investigated in youngwomen and young men, with and without a history of dieting. The unique predictive power of these assumptions and beliefs was also assessed, compared to generic assumptions and beliefs. Both women and men with a history of dieting scored more highly than those who had never dieted
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and predictors of weight maintenance over time in a large sample of young Australian women.DESIGN: This population study examined baseline and 4 y follow-up data from the cohort of youngwomen participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.SUBJECTS: A total of 8726 youngwomen aged 18–23 y at baseline.MEASURES: Height, weight and body
Obligatory urinary and fecal nitrogen losses and urinary urea nitrogen and creatinine excretion levels were determined in 11 youngwomen (four of whom used oral contra- ceptives), eight older men, and five young men. Values for obligatory nitrogen losses in the youngwomen who did not use oral contraceptives were similar to those observed previously in youngwomen and lower
C. E. Bodwell; E. M. Schuster; E. Kyle; B. Brooks; M. Womack
Opinion statement Breast cancer effects nearly 200,000 American women each year, with 9% of these women still in their childbearing years. For this subset of future survivors, the issue of fertility may be a significant quality-of-life concern. Both the causes and treatments for infertility in young breast cancer patients must be thoroughly understood by the multidisciplinary team caring for these women in order for the caregivers to be effective advocates for their patients. Radiation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy all effect ovarian function to greater or lesser degrees, with the incidence of permanent post-treatment amenorrhea following systemic treatment for breast cancer in women age 50 or younger estimated as between 33% and 76%. The science of fertility preservation continues to experience significant advances in terms of the success of oocyte, embryo, and ovarian tissue preservation, and it is crucial that physicians and patients are aware of the available fertility preservation options. The optimal time to address the possibility of treatment-related infertility and strategies to combat this with younger patients is prior to treatment, rather than after cancer therapy has begun, and a full knowledge of the available technologies is a prerequisite for an informed discussion. Causes of ovarian suppression and options for treatment, including consideration of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and alternative parenting approaches are also discussed to assist the clinician caring for young patients with cancer.
Women are known to have particular heterogeneity in stroke etiology related to childbearing and hormonal factors. Although there are continued acute stroke treatment advances focusing on clot dissolution or extraction, effective secondary prevention of stroke, however, is dependent on an accurate etiological determination of the stroke. Otherwise, more strokes are likely to follow. Analysis of youngwomen’s stroke etiology in a large stroke registry incorporating contemporary neurovascular and parenchymal imaging and cardiac imaging. Young people (18-49 years old) with stroke were consecutively accrued over a 4 year period and an investigative protocol prospectively applied that incorporated multimodality magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, cardiac echo and stroke relevant blood investigations. All patients were classified according to an expanded Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment – TOAST – classification and neurological deficit by the National Institute of Health stroke admission scores. In 511 registry derived, young stroke patients (mean age 39.8 years, 95% confidence interval: 39.1; 40.7 years), gender (women n=269, 53%) the etiological categories (women; men) included: i) small vessel disease (30/55;25/55), ii) cardioembolic (16/42;26/42), iii) large vessel cervical and intracranial disease (24/43;19/43), the other category (132/226; 91/226), which included, iv) substance abuse (15/41; 26/41, 4.6), v) prothrombotic states (22/37;15/37), vi) dissection (11/30;19/30), vii) cerebral venous thrombosis (15/19; 4/19, 12.4), viii) vasculitis (8/12; 4/12), ix) migraine related (10/11, 1/11) and x) miscellaneous vasculopathy (38/52;14/52). The latter entities comprised of aortic arch atheroma, vessel redundancy syndrome, vertebrobasilar hypoplasia, arterial fenestrations and dolichoectasia. Some conditions occurred solely in women, such as eclampsia (5), Call Fleming syndrome (4), fibromuscular dysplasia (3) and Moya Moya syndrome (2). Categories aside from bland infarction included: ii) intracerebral hemorrhage (43/106; 63/106) and xiii) stroke of undetermined etiology (6/10; 4/10). Admission mean National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores differed significantly between women and men (4.7; 6.0 t=1.8, P=0.03). Youngwomen’s stroke is significantly different from men in 7/12 stroke etiological categories in addition to 4 unique subtypes that require specific management.
We hypothesized that orthostatic tolerance is higher in young, healthy black compared to white women. To determine orthostatic tolerance, twenty-two women (11 black, 11 white) underwent graded lower body negative pressure to presyncope. We measured blood pressure, heart rate, and R-R interval (ECG) continuously at baseline and through all levels of lower body negative pressure. Blood samples were taken at baseline and presyncope for the measurement of plasma catecholamine concentrations, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity. Cumulative stress index (CSI), the sum of the product of time and lower body negative pressure, was the indicator of orthostatic tolerance. Orthostatic tolerance in the black women was greater than in the white women [CSI=-1003 (375) vs. -476 (197) P < 0.05]. While P[NE] increased in both groups at presyncope, the increase was greater in black [? P[NE] 167 (123)] versus white women [86 (64), P < 0.05], as were the increases in PRA [? PRA 2.6 (1.0) versus 0.6 (0.9) ng ANG II·ml-1 ·hr-1, P < 0.05, for black and white women, respectively). Although heart rate increased and R-R interval decreased to a greater extent during lower body negative pressure in black women compared to white women [ANOVA, P < 0.05)], baroreflex function (i.e. slope R-R interval vs. systolic blood pressure) was unaffected by race. These data indicate that orthostatic tolerance is greater in black compared to white women, which appears to be a function of greater sympathetic nervous system responses to orthostatic challenges.
A random sample of homeless individuals (106 men and 106 women) residing in a shelter were interviewed using an interview schedule developed for this study. The main objectives were to study the sociodemographic characteristics and childhood history in an urban homeless population in a developing country (Santiago, Chile). The most salient finding is the high frequency of parent-child separation and
Arturo Roizblatt; Javier Cerda; Carolina Conejero; Marcela Flores; Christian Fau; Felipe González; Gustavo Quijada; Alberto Botto; Carolina Muñiz
This study suggests that a number of elements contribute to homelessness prevention and a number of promising prevention activities exist. The study identifies elements of community homelessness prevention strategies that seem to lead to reductions in the...
Background: Breast cancer survival is improving because mammography is leading to diagnosis at earlier stages of the disease. Because youngwomen with breast cancer rarely undergo mammography before diagnosis, outcomes for breast cancer in youngwomen may not be improving. In addition to advanced stage, young age at diagnosis is associated with biologically more aggressive cancers with higher rates of
Csaba Gajdos; Paul I Tartter; Ira J Bleiweiss; Carol Bodian; Steven T Brower
|This paper represents analysis of one aspect of a larger research project examining the everyday lives and experiences of youngwomen in Northern Ireland. As an introductory exercise within focus groups, 48 youngwomen considered and discussed the good and not so good things about being a young woman in Northern Ireland. Through these accounts…
|This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and youngwomen smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and youngwomen and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and youngwomen smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and youngwomen and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among youngwomen in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the linkages between a variety of youngwomen’s resources—including employment and material transfers from male partners—and sexual behaviors. Data on the first month of premarital relationships (N=551 relationships) were collected from a random sample of young adult women ages 18–24 in Kisumu, Kenya, using a retrospective life history calendar. Consistent with the hypotheses, results showed that youngwomen’s income increases the likelihood of safer sexual activities, including delaying sex and using condoms consistently. Material transfers from the male partner displayed the opposite effect, supporting the view that resources obtained from within the relationship decrease youngwomen’s negotiating power.
Legal obligations were placed on local authorities to house the homeless from the inception of the Housing (Homeless Persons) Act 1977. By reason of the Race Relations Act 1976 these obligations must be met in a non?discriminatory fashion. This article highlights facets of contemporary practice relating to the interpretation of the homelessness provisions, and identifies changes which have, or are
Over the past decade, the number of homeless children in America has more than doubled. Educators, however, are still legally obligated to enroll and support them, because of the passage of the "No Child Left Behind" Act of 2001, which reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Although schools cannot solve homelessness, they can…
There has been a longstanding hypothesis that some women develop alcohol dependence as a result of drinking to alleviate premenstrual dysphoria. This study investigated the relationship between personality factors, alcohol consumption, and menstrual distress symptoms in nonalcoholic drinking youngwomen. Normally menstruating women monitored their alcohol intake and physical and affective distress symptoms daily for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Subjects were unaware that their menstrual cycles and symptoms were being monitored. Subjects also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Cattel's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), and the Vando Reducer-Augmenter Scale. The MMPI scales were factor analyzed to reduce the number of variables. Four derived MMPI factors were added to the VANDO, the three EPQ factors, and the four higher order factors of the 16PF to provide a total of twelve personality predictors. Separate regression analyses were carried out between personality factors and both alcohol consumption and menstrual distress. The results revealed that the women who drank more tended to be significantly more extroverted, spontaneous, carefree, and open to change. By contrast, women who reported greater over-all menstrual distress tended to be less capable, secure, and well-adjusted and reported a greater number of emotional and psychological problems. There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and menstrual distress. It was concluded that the results contradict the alcoholism-menstrual cycle hypothesis. PMID:1928639
Researchers, practitioners and policy makers have noted the disproportionate number of youngwomen with backgrounds of local authority care who are involved in commercial sex. However, the lack of knowledge about why this occurs means that there is little evidence with which to develop interventions. This article describes research that explored youngwomen’s routes into the sex industry from local
Purpose: The majority of births to youngwomen are unintended (either mistimed or unwanted), bearing an increased risk of poor health outcomes for both mother and child. In this analysis, we describe trends of unwanted, mistimed, and intended births reported by all women and specifically by youngwomen in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Methods: Using data from
Dmitry M. Kissin; John E. Anderson; Joan Marie Kraft; Lee Warner; Denise J. Jamieson
|This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Youngwomen (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…
O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.
Danger and pleasure are terms commonly employed to describe women's sexual experiences, including those of youngwomen. This paper explores how youngwomen's sexual danger and pleasure are represented and characterized in official discourses, specifically those of school-based sexuality education. Drawing on Michelle Fine's four major discourses…
BACKGROUND: Youngwomen are a group at high risk of weight gain. This study examined a range of perceived personal, social and environmental barriers to physical activity and healthy eating for weight maintenance among youngwomen, and how these varied by socioeconomic status (SES), overweight status and domestic situation. METHODS: In October-December 2001, a total of 445 women aged 18–32
Sari Andajani-Sutjahjo; Kylie Ball; Narelle Warren; Victoria Inglis; David Crawford
The purpose of this study was to investigate why some women report a desire to date nice guys but prefer dating jerks. Specifically, youngwomen's dating choices based on their reasons for dating in general and the attractive\\/unattractive traits that they perceive that a man possesses were explored. Popular texts offer evidence that youngwomen may\\/may not select nice guys
This study examined the contribution of interpersonal and mediated perceived norms to youngwomen's body esteem among first-year college women. In addition, we examined the role of social comparison as a mediator for the relationship between norms and body esteem. Several findings were notable. First, interpersonal norms do have a significant relationship with esteem. Youngwomen who perceived that their
Uncertainties and ambiguities are evident in discourses of contemporary women's activisms in Egypt, as are anxieties about youngwomen's roles in them. In spite of a tendency to take the NGO for granted as the site of activism in Egypt, this article highlights the activities of youngwomen outside the usual structures. I describe a \\
Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in cervical specimens from 366 sexually active youngwomen with cytomorphologically normal cervices using the polymerase chain reaction. In 93% (25/27) of initially infected women, the same viral type was not detected upon re-examination four menstrual cycles later. These results suggest that the majority of HPV infections in youngwomen are transient.
Hinchliffe, S. A.; van Velzen, D.; Korporaal, H.; Kok, P. L.; Boon, M. E.
This article describes a content and qualitative analysis of quotations from sources in Canadian newspaper items on homelessness. Experts dominate as sources on homelessness. Homeless people are not completely deprived of a voice, but are limited to the devalued voice of experience. Quotes from homeless people themselves promote a narrative of homelessness that marginalizes the people who experience it and
The purpose of this study was to compare young people seeking homeless services in two distinct geographic locations (Austin, Texas and St. Louis, Missouri). To determine differences between the two populations, the study used a guiding conceptual model of social estrangement that included four domains: institutional disaffiliation, psychological dysfunction, human capital, and identification with homeless culture. A sample of homeless
Kimberly Bender; Sanna J. Thompson; David E. Pollio; Paul R. Sterzing
This is an APS press release on the findings of a new study entitled 'Oral Contraceptive Use Impairs Muscle Gains in YoungWomen'. It was conducted by Chang-Woock Lee and Steven E. Riechman, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX; and Mark A. Newman, Human Energy Research Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. The researchers will present their findings at the 122nd Annual Meeting of the American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-aps.org/press), which is part of the Experimental Biology 2009 scientific conference. The meeting was held April 18-22, 2009 in New Orleans.
APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)
|This packet contains documents that provide information about family and child homelessness and the need to address homelessness within the context of community development. The following sections are included: (1) "Family Homelessness" (Homelessness Information Exchange); (2) "A Report on the 1988 National Survey on Shelters for the Homeless"…
Girls and youngwomen are at high risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many research studies suggest that the family plays an important role in youngwomen's sexual-risk decisions. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research studies to understand how and to what extent the family influences youngwomen's sexual-risk decisions and sexual-risk behaviour. Systematic literature searches
This paper presents a feminist Foucauldian analysis of women’s interpretations of images of women in post-feminist advertising. Building on Ros Gill’s analysis of post-feminist advertising images of women, and more specifically the figure of ‘the midriff ’, the paper presents an analysis of focus group discussions with seven youngwomen who were asked to discuss ‘midriff’ advertising images. Whilst participants
Helen Malson; Emma Halliwell; Irmgard Tischner; Annadís Rúdólfsdóttir
Currently, no established method exists for screening young, pre- menopausal women for breast cancer. Electrical Impedance Scanning (EIS), an innovative breast screening technology, appears to identify women at increased risk for breast cancer. A multi-ce...
This study examined predictors of youngwomen’s interest in obtaining cosmetic surgery. The sample investigated was comprised\\u000a of 101 college undergraduates residing in the northeastern U.S. (M age?=?19.99, SD?=?4.79). Participants’ weight status (M\\u000a BMI?=?24.52, SD?=?5.69), body dissatisfaction, internalization of media messages, reports of physical appearance teasing,\\u000a and interest in obtaining cosmetic surgery were assessed. Results indicated that all of the
Background With effective contraceptives available, unplanned pregnancies are preventable and educational interventions have been cited as a promising platform to increase contraceptive use through improving knowledge. However, results from trials of educational interventions have been disappointing. In order to effectively target future interventions, this study aimed to identify risk factors for unplanned pregnancy among youngwomen in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods Data were analysed from the MEMA kwa Vijiana Trial Long-term Evaluation Survey, a cross-sectional study of 13?814 young adults aged 15–30?years in Mwanza, Tanzania. Potential risk factors for unplanned pregnancy were grouped under three headings: socio-demographic, knowledge of and attitude towards sexual health, and sexual behaviour and contraceptive use. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify predictors of reported unplanned pregnancy among all sexually active women. Results Increasing age, lower educational level, not being currently married, knowing where to access condoms, increasing number of sexual partners and younger reported age at sexual debut were associated with unplanned pregnancy. Discussion A number of demographic and sexual behaviour risk factors for pregnancy are identified which will help guide future intervention programmes aiming to reduce unplanned pregnancies. This study suggests effective measures to prevent unplanned pregnancies should focus on encouraging girls to stay in school.
Calvert, Clara; Baisley, Kathy; Doyle, Aoife M; Maganja, Kaballa; Changalucha, John; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Hayes, Richard J; Ross, David A
Being overweight is a hazard to health. Overweight people have a very negative image due to the marketing strategies for weight reduction and beauty products. Youngwomen establishing self-image, seeking affirmation of social peers, and looking for potential mates are usually concerned about their weight and figure. To investigate the experience of youngwomen who think they are overweight, how they come to think in this way, and the impact of this thinking, this qualitative pilot study conducted semi-structured interviews with five participants. On the basis of the qualitative method, data was subjected to constant comparison and content analysis. The phenomenon can thus be described in three major categories: (1) Social labeling of the overweight - a slim image is overwhelmingly preferred; (2) Pursuing attractiveness or health - a self-struggling process; (3) Weight reduction and self control - an endless struggle. The result of the study suggests there is a need for a competitive image to counter current obsessions with painfully slender figures in society. To protect the public's mental and physical health, nurses should play an active role in weight education based on a deeper and more dynamic understanding of being overweight. PMID:15208779
...access to VA health care); homelesswomen Veterans; culture change...responsible program offices to help inform their current efforts. HomelessWomen Veterans One commenter...campus environments that can help ensure women Veterans...
This document discusses the adult education component of two Canadian women's organizations from a historical perspective. The two organizations chosen, the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada and the YoungWomen's Christian Association (YWCA) of Canada have traditionally emphasized the education of women. The six sections of the paper cover…
Though few studies exist on service utilization among homeless youth in the U.S., services are important because without them, many of these young people may resort to delinquent strategies in order to meet their daily survival needs. The current study examines frequency and correlates of service utilization (i.e., shelters, food programs, street outreach, counseling, STI and HIV testing) among a
Kimberly A. Tyler; Sarah L. Akinyemi; Lisa A. Kort-Butler
Little is known about the relationship between relative body weight and transition from experimentation to regular smoking in young adult women. In the current study, data from 2494 participants in wave 4 of the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (aged 18-29 years) who reported ever smoking a cigarette were analyzed using logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) at time of interview was categorized according to CDC adult guidelines, and regular smoking was defined as having ever smoked 100 or more cigarettes and having smoked at least once a week for two months in a row. Since the OR’s for the overweight and obese groups did not differ significantly from one another in any model tested, these groups were combined. Forty-five percent of women who had ever smoked had become regular smokers. Testing of interactions between potential covariates and levels of the categorical BMI variable revealed a significant interaction between overweight/obesity and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; p<0.001) associated with regular smoking. Among women reporting CSA, the association between overweight/obesity and having become a regular smoker was negative (n=374; OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.28-0.81). Both underweight and overweight/obesity were positively associated with transition to regular smoking among women who did not report CSA (n=2076; OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35 and OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.35-2.20, respectively). These results suggest that experiencing CSA alters the association between BMI and regular smoking in women who have experimented with cigarettes.
Duncan, Alexis E.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.
A series of 64 women complaining of severe constipation is described, in each of whom delayed elimination of markers from the colon was demonstrated but a barium enema was normal. All completed a detailed questionnaire and the responses are compared with those obtained in an age-matched series of healthy women with no bowel complaint. In each group 40 women also recorded in a manner suitable for analysis all food eaten over a period of seven days. The patients passed about one stool weekly with the aid of laxatives, and were greatly troubled by abdominal pain, bloating, malaise and nausea, to the extent that the symptoms were a major social disability and many lost time from work. Decreased bowel frequency and other symptoms were often first noticed around the age of puberty and slowly became worse until they were severe by the third decade. In a few, the symptoms began suddenly after an abdominal operation c-accident. Comparison with the control group showed no evidence that the patients had been underweight at any time or that they took less fibre; treatment with a bran supplement did not usually help them. The patients experienced rectal sensation before defaecation less often than the control subjects and they used digital pressure to assist defaecation more frequently. The women with constipation tended to have more painful and irregular menstrual periods, and there was an increased incidence of ovarian cystectomy and hysterectomy. Hesitancy in starting to pass urine was more common, as were some somatic symptoms such as cold hands or blackouts. Attention is drawn to this distinctive combination in youngwomen of slow total gut transit time and a colon of normal width on barium enema, associated with abdominal, anorectal, gynaecological and somatic symptoms, as a disorder which can be disabling and particularly difficult to treat.
Background Social and financial environment has an influence on the incidence of depression. We studied perceived financial strain as a risk factor for development of depression among a large cohort of youngwomen in Southampton, UK. Methods We recruited a large number of youngwomen in Southampton in the Southampton Women's Survey, a longitudinal study looking at factors influencing the health of women and their offspring. Women were asked to complete a baseline questionnaire, which included the GHQ-12 (an assessment of mental health), as well as questions on perceived financial strain and past history of depression. They were followed up two years later through their general practitioner (GP) records for evidence of incident mental illness. Results A total of 7020 women completed the baseline questionnaire including the GHQ-12. Of these, 5237 (74.6%) had records available for follow-up. Among those developing depression, there was a higher proportion receiving benefits, and a higher level of perceived financial strain. There were also modest elevations in perceived stress, and poorer levels of educational attainment. Among women not depressed at baseline, and with no previous history of depression, those in receipt of state benefits at baseline had a significantly elevated risk of developing the disorder – hazard ratio 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–2.3). The risk associated with perceived financial strain was 2.16 (95% CI 1.14–4.11), but this did not remain statistically significant after adjustment was made for receipt of benefits, educational qualification, and perceived stress. Conclusion Financial hardship as evidenced by receipt of benefits is a strong independent predictor for the development of depression. Although perception of financial strain is also a predictor for incident depression, the risk associated with this subjective characteristic does not remain significantly elevated after adjustment. Future studies of the aetiology of depression should incorporate ascertainment of actual financial status.
Background Social and financial environment has an influence on the incidence of depression. We studied perceived financial strain as a risk factor for development of depression among a large cohort of youngwomen in Southampton, UK.Methods We recruited a large number of youngwomen in Southampton in the Southampton Women's Survey, a longitudinal study looking at factors influencing the health of women and their offspring. Women were asked to complete a baseline questionnaire, which included the GHQ-12 (an assessment of mental health), as well as questions on perceived financial strain and past history of depression. They were followed up two years later through their general practitioner (GP) records for evidence of incident mental illness.Results A total of 7020 women completed the baseline questionnaire including the GHQ-12. Of these, 5237 (74.6%) had records available for follow-up. Among those developing depression, there was a higher proportion receiving benefits, and a higher level of perceived financial strain. There were also modest elevations in perceived stress, and poorer levels of educational attainment. Among women not depressed at baseline, and with no previous history of depression, those in receipt of state benefits at baseline had a significantly elevated risk of developing the disorder - hazard ratio 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-2.3). The risk associated with perceived financial strain was 2.16 (95% CI 1.14-4.11), but this did not remain statistically significant after adjustment was made for receipt of benefits, educational qualification, and perceived stress.Conclusion Financial hardship as evidenced by receipt of benefits is a strong independent predictor for the development of depression. Although perception of financial strain is also a predictor for incident depression, the risk associated with this subjective characteristic does not remain significantly elevated after adjustment. Future studies of the aetiology of depression should incorporate ascertainment of actual financial status. PMID:22477842
Purpose Homeless youth are at particularly high risk for teen pregnancy; research indicates as many as 20% of homelessyoungwomen become pregnant. These pregnant and homeless teens lack financial resources and adequate health care, resulting in increased risk for low– birth-weight babies and high infant mortality. This study investigated individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy among a national sample of runaway/homeless youth in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Methods Data from the Runaway/Homeless Youth Management Information System (RHY MIS) provided a national sample of youth seeking services at crisis shelters. A sub-sample of pregnant females and a random sub-sample (matched by age) of nonpregnant females comprised the study sample (N= 951). Chi-square and t tests identified differences between pregnant and nonpregnant runaway females; maximum likelihood logistic regression identified individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy. Results Teen pregnancy was associated with being an ethnic minority, dropping out of school, being away from home for longer periods of time, having a sexually transmitted disease, and feeling abandoned by one's family. Family factors, such as living in a single parent household and experiencing emotional abuse by one's mother, increased the odds of a teen being pregnant. Conclusions The complex problems associated with pregnant runaway/homeless teens create challenges for short-term shelter services. Suggestions are made for extending shelter services to include referrals and coordination with teen parenting programs and other systems of care.
Thompson, Sanna J.; Bender, Kimberly A.; Lewis, Carol M.; Watkins, Rita
Homeless persons have difficulty gaining access to health care. In 1985 the Chicago Health Outreach Project was created to improve their access to health care. Staff and client reviews indicated that female homeless clients required increased outreach efforts. Consequently, a mobile women's health unit was developed in 1990. Review of 128 records of 104 female homeless clients indicated that 30%
We investigated the effects of the menstrual cycle, oral contraception and physical training on exhaustive exercise-induced changes in the excretion of nandrolone metabolites [19-norandrosterone (19-NA), and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE)] in youngwomen. Twenty-eight women were allocated to an untrained group (n=16) or a trained group (n=12), depending on their physical training background. The untrained group was composed of nine oral contraceptive users (OC+) and seven eumenorrheic women (OC-), while the trained group was entirely composed of OC+ subjects. Three laboratory sessions were conducted in a randomized order: a prolonged exercise test, a short-term exercise test and a control session. Urine specimens were collected before and 30, 60 and 90 min after the exercise test and at the same times of the day during the control session. Urinary concentrations of nandrolone metabolites were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Urinary concentrations of 19-NA and 19-NE ranged from undetectable levels to 1.14 and 0.47 ng/mL, respectively. Nandrolone excretion was not affected by the menstrual cycle phase (early follicular vs mid-luteal), prior physical training, oral contraception or acute physical exercise. Therefore, a urinary concentration of 2 ng/mL of 19-NA appears to be fair as the upper acceptable limit in doping control tests for female athletes. PMID:19170961
Enea, C; Boisseau, N; Bayle, M L; Flament, M M; Grenier-Loustalot, M F; Denjean, A; Diaz, V; Dugué, B
The youngwomen 13-21 years of age who migrate in large numbers from villages in Northern Thailand to obtain employment in urban factories comprise a group at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To encourage these women to protect themselves from infection, workplace projects were developed in textile factories in Chiang Mai. Pre-project research conducted among 250 female factory workers revealed good awareness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) coupled with a perception of personal invulnerability and a reluctance to request that partners use condoms due to fears of being considered promiscuous. To address these issues, a romantic illustrated novel about a factory worker who is infected with the AIDS virus by her fiance and a humorous comic book featuring "Brother Protector Condom" were prepared. The materials were introduced to groups of 10 or more women led by either trained peer educators or health promoters. Participants overcame initial shyness about the explicit pictures and reported the group meetings gave them confidence to talk to their sexual partners about condom use. Post-intervention evaluation showed that peer-led groups were most effective in improving self-esteem, communication skills, and commitment to AIDS prevention. Although the health promoters had more in-depth knowledge of AIDS and human reproduction, they tended to lecture rather than facilitate discussion. Moreover, the age and educational differences between the factory workers and health promoters impeded the trust and open discussion that developed in peer-led groups. PMID:12287664
Many youngwomen report smoking due to weight concerns, but little is known about the relationship between weight concerns and current smoking behavior. The present study examined smoking topography and the acute sensory and physiological responses to smoking in dieting and non-dieting youngwomen. In addition, the effect of presentation of food cues on these responses was examined. Self-reported female
In this paper I mobilize postfeminism as a framework for exploring the connections between popular culture and youngwomen's lives. Postfeminism is developed and deployed as a critical tool for analysing the way feminist discourses are embedded within mainstream popular culture and for generating insights into the postfeminist cultural climate. Interviews with young Australian women are integrated with an analysis
Fifteen youngwomen suffering from OCD in Saudi Arabia were interviewed about their experience of the illness and the roles played by religion. Religion was not perceived as a cause of the illness, but the illness can show itself in religious symptoms – notably with respect to prayer, and in a phase in which the youngwomen were very strict
This article draws upon research that explored the experiences of youngwomen in relation to sexual health in Uganda with a view to enhancing gender-sensitive strategies. We have coined the phrase ‘participatory video drama’ to describe the exploratory methodology that the youngwomen participants in our research used to present stories about their lives. The aim of this article is
This article selects the critical moment of virginity loss in young Beijing women's lives to look at the meaning of sexual coercion in dating relationships. The authors observed that many young Chinese women presented their first experience of sex as containing some elements of sexual coercion that were being described as “minor,” do not involve obvious physical force, but are
|This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural youngwomen's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The youngwomen's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE…
The importance of increasing youngwomen's level of physical activity is recognized as a prior- ity within the United Kingdom and other West- ernized nations. This study, conducted in two distinct geographical locations in the United Kingdom, explores the leading influences upon levels of physical activity participation among 75 youngwomen aged 15-19. Through in-depth interviews, this study explores the
|Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), youngwomen attending a rural community college…
Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.
Nineteen young Thai women were purposively selected from networks of nongovernmental organizations involving children and youths in Bangkok. Our grounded theory findings indicated that these youngwomen used the basic social process they called “waiting for the right time” in order to maintain heterosexual abstinence. Waiting for the right time involved one overarching condition, honoring parental love, and included three
This article uses the Current Population Survey (CPS) data to show that changes in family policy implemented in the 1990s led to a substantial increase in the number of youngwomen reporting work limitations. These changes also affected measures of socioeconomic outcomes for youngwomen reporting limitations. Hence, the demographic changes mask the effects of changes in family policy and
Ann E. Horvath-Rose; David C. Stapleton; Bonnie ODay
|Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how sex and relationship education (SRE) could benefit from considering current levels of youngwomen's empowerment in (hetero)sexual relationships and challenge popular notions of twenty-first century youngwomen "having it all" and occupying powerful relational and sexual positions.…
This research uses Camp Blaze, a firefighting camp for youngwomen, to explore ways that the body and processes of embodiment are integral to learning about firefighting. We also address the role that the leisure space of the camp plays in simultaneously constraining and enabling youngwomen's use and understanding of their bodies. Analysis of observational, interview, and photo data
Careen Mackay Yarnal; Susan Hutchinson; Hsueh-Wen Chow
In most tropical regions is little organized health care for youngwomen, yet their household roles within contexts of worsening socio-economic situations create special health problems. In the area of sexual and reproductive health, the onset of reproductive roles does not entitle the youngwomen to either maternal and child health services or family planning services unless they are married
This research examined young adult men's and women's subjective perceptions of their age along several dimensions including how old they felt, looked, acted, desired to be, and thought they were regarded by others. The relationship between young adults' subjective age identities and other perceptions of the self were also examined. It was found that both men and women felt and
Three youngwomen (aged 18 years, 19 years and 19 years) who developed progressive neuropsychic and neurologic disturbances with hearing loss and multifocal retinal artery branch occlusions are reported. This retinocochleocerebral syndrome has been reported previously only in 12 young North American women. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but an atypical viral infection of the vessel walls has been suggested. Abnormalities
J Bogousslavsky; J M Gaio; L R Caplan; F Regli; M Hommel; T R Hedges; M Ferrazzini; P Pollak
Through a traditional status-attainment approach, this paper examines the attainments of youngwomen in adult life across the four domains of education, labor-force participation, financial resources and avoidance of poverty, and experience with welfare. These life attainments were explored for a cohort of 62 youngwomen, ages 14 to 25 in 1968,…
This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural youngwomen's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The youngwomen's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE head of department (HoD). The healthism discourse was evident
Objective To evaluate the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in a general population sample of young German women, compare those to primary care diagnoses, and investigate their medical treatments. Methods In a prospective epidemiological study, a representative sample of youngwomen (n=1555, between 18 and 25 years of age) was questioned twice during a structured psychological interview (F-DIPS) for mental
Isabel Hach; Uwe E. Ruhl; Anke Rentsch; Eni S. Becker; Veneta Türke; Jürgen Margraf; Wilhelm Kirch
Homelessness affects tens of thousands of Canadians and has important health implications. Homeless people are at increased risk of dying prematurely and suffer from a wide range of health problems, including seizures, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, musculoskeletal disorders, tuberculosis, and skin and foot problems. Homeless people also face significant barriers that impair their access to health care. More research is needed to identify better ways to deliver care to this population.
This study examines views and experiences of young Shanghai women with respect to masturbation. Through in-depth interviews with forty youngwomen in Shanghai aged 22 to 39 from May 2004 to July 2007, the study explores women's understandings of masturbation, their desires and their lives as modern Chinese women. The focus of the analysis is on how women talk about their masturbation experiences and make sense of their experiences in the context of their sexual relationships and lifestyle choices. By analysing women's narratives about masturbation, the paper suggests that women's self-articulation is actually an engagement in self-image construction. The strategies they use to position themselves in relation to different social discourses on masturbation, how they describe and perform the acts and how they articulate their experiences of masturbation are examined to illustrate how youngwomen in Shanghai perform gender and sexual intimacies in a fast changing city. PMID:19484637
Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among youngwomen in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the linkages between a variety of youngwomen's resources-including employment and material transfers from male partners-and sexual behaviors. Data on the first month of premarital relationships (N=551 relationships) were collected from a random sample of young adult women ages 18-24 in Kisumu, Kenya, using a retrospective life history calendar. Consistent with the hypotheses, results showed that youngwomen's income increases the likelihood of safer sexual activities, including delaying sex and using condoms consistently. Material transfers from the male partner displayed the opposite effect, supporting the view that resources obtained from within the relationship decrease youngwomen's negotiating power. PMID:22180665
Supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the University of Kentucky's Center on Drug and Alcohol Research developed the YoungWomen in Science Program to encourage youngwomen from Appalachia to pursue scientific careers ?? drug and alcohol research. This 3-year program, which involved 26 youngwomen entering the ninth grade in 13 counties in southeastern Kentucky, included a summer residential program, community educational sessions, and matching students with mentors. When participants' scores prior to and after the 3-week residential program were compared, it was found that participants increased their science knowledge and improved their scores on confidence in science. Other significant changes occurred as well. These preliminary data indicated that some positive changes resulted from the program, even though contact time with the youngwomen has been modest to date. The program shows considerable promise for providing the encouragement and skills needed for these youngwomen to pursue careers in drug and alcohol research.
Body temperature has a circadian rhythm, and in women with ovulatory cycles, also a menstrual rhythm. Body temperature and sleep are believed to be closely coupled, but the influence on their relationship of gender, menstrual cycle phase and female reproductive hormones is unresolved. We investigated sleep and 24 h rectal temperatures in eight women with normal menstrual cycles in their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases, and in eight youngwomen taking a steady dose of oral progestin and ethinyl oestradiol (hormonal contraceptive), and compared their sleep and body temperatures with that of eight young men, sleeping in identical conditions. All subjects maintained their habitual daytime schedules. Rectal temperatures were elevated throughout 24 h in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase in the naturally cycling women, consistent with a raised thermoregulatory set-point. Rectal temperatures in the women taking hormonal contraceptives were similar to those of the naturally cycling women in the luteal phase. Gender influenced body temperature: the naturally cycling women and the women taking hormonal contraceptives attained their nocturnal minimum body temperatures earlier than the men, and the naturally cycling women had blunted nocturnal body temperature drops compared with the men. Sleep architecture was essentially unaffected by either menstrual cycle phase or gender. The women taking hormonal contraceptives had less slow wave sleep (SWS), however, than the naturally cycling women. Gender, menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptives significantly influenced body temperature, but had only minor consequences for sleep, in the young men and women in our study.
Baker, Fiona C; Waner, Jonathan I; Vieira, Elizabeth F; Taylor, Sheila R; Driver, Helen S; Mitchell, Duncan
Though few studies exist on service utilization among homeless youth in the U.S., services are important because without them, many of these young people may resort to delinquent strategies in order to meet their daily survival needs. The current study examines frequency and correlates of service utilization (i.e., shelters, food programs, street outreach, counseling, STI and HIV testing) among a sample of 249 homeless youth ages 14 to 21. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in service usage by sex, age, and sexual orientation. Experiencing family physical and/or sexual abuse, being kicked out of the family home, spending more nights per week sleeping on the street, and having ever stayed in a group home facility were significant correlates of homeless youths’ service usage.
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Akinyemi, Sarah L.; Kort-Butler, Lisa A.
Studies suggest that the experiences of unmarried youngwomen seeking abortion in India differ from those of their married counterparts, but the evidence is limited. Research was undertaken among nulliparous youngwomen aged 15–24 who had abortions at the clinics of a leading NGO in Bihar and Jharkhand. Over a 14-month period in 2007–08, 246 married and 549 unmarried young
Shireen J Jejeebhoy; Shveta Kalyanwala; AJ Francis Zavier; Rajesh Kumar; Nita Jha
Abstract Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex psychiatric disorder that involves the core feature of affect dysregulation. Prior neuroimaging studies have indicated that BPD patients have (1) excessive amygdala activation to negative emotion and (2) diminished frontal regulation. This study examined amygdala functional connectivity in 12 women with BPD and 12 matched healthy comparison volunteers. We explored how connectivity patterns would change in the context of processing neutral, overt fear, or masked fear face expressions. Each participant underwent three 5-min fMRI scans in which they primarily viewed: (1) neutral, (2) overt fear, and (3) masked fear faces. In comparison to their healthy counterparts, youngwomen with BPD showed (1) lower connectivity between bilateral amygdala and mid-cingulate cortex during the neutral scan; (2) higher connectivity between bilateral amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex during the overt fear scan; and (3) higher right amygdala connectivity with bilateral thalamus and right caudate during the masked fear scan. Exploratory analyses revealed interesting correlations between amygdala connectivity in these conditions with multiple clinical measures. Results from the neutral scan add to the few prior connectivity studies in BPD that have been suggestive of lower fronto-limbic connectivity in BPD. However, the connectivity findings during fear processing are novel, and map onto basic research models for amygdala connectivity, that is, connections to frontal areas for overt fear processing versus connections to thalamus for automatic fear processing. Further, results suggest that BPD subjects tap into both pathways more strongly than healthy comparisons.
Vizueta, Nathalie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Han, Georges J.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Camchong, Jazmin; Mueller, Bryon A.; Bell, Christopher H.; Heller, Monika D.; Schulz, S. Charles
YogaHome is a therapeutic yoga program for homelesswomen. Developing and refining YogaHome provided a unique opportunity to explore the process of teaching yoga to women faced with the physical and emotional stress of living in a homeless shelter. Unique teaching and research challenges are presented and recommendations for future programs are discussed. PMID:23070681
Growing up in the shadow of the women’s movement has created contradictory life course and identity possibilities for youngwomen. Although prior research has examined the formal markers of adulthood, we know little about how youngwomen themselves perceive these markers. Forty-two in-depth interviews revealed that the subjective meanings of youngwomen’s transition to adulthood are actually far more complex than previously assumed. While becoming a parent and becoming financially independent were seen by interviewees as reflecting an adult orientation, completing schooling was tied to class-differentiated views of growing up. In addition, beginning full-time work was subjectively linked to future career uncertainty, and getting married did not diminish youngwomen’s emphasis on self-development and independence from men. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is a disjuncture between women’s objective and subjective transition to adulthood. This study suggests that our previous understandings of the transition to adulthood do not reflect the full complexity of how youngwomen subjectively experience it or the extent to which class impacts these perceptions.
This thesis examines the behaviour known as deliberate self-harm in youngwomen who are victims of parental incest. I am interested in identifying the impact and significance of incest in childhood on the development of youngwomen’s agency and the significance of self-harming behaviour in that development. I argue that central to understanding the relationship between self-harm and incest is
We drew on Foucault's notion of ‘practices of the self’ to examine how young people take up, negotiate, and resist the imperatives of a public health discourse concerned with the relationships between health, fitness, and the body. We did this through a discussion of the ways youngwomen and men talk about their own and others' bodies, in the context
|This packet contains documents that provide general information about homelessness and the need for both Federal and local action to help the homeless people in America. Sections 1 and 2 contain the following articles released by the Homelessness Information Exchange: (1) "The Problem of Homelessness Nationwide"; and "Alternative Family Housing…
Objectives. Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC) of the vulva occurs most often in older women and the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features of vulvar ISCC in youngwomen are poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to examine clinical and pathological features of ISCC presenting in women younger than 40 years of age.Methods. Patients younger than 40 years of
A. Al-Ghamdi; D. Freedman; D. Miller; C. Poh; M. Rosin; L. Zhang; C. B. Gilks
Based on archival research in the collection of the YoungWomen?s Christian Association of Los Angeles at California State University, Northridge, and the microfilm collection of the YWCA of the USA from Smith College, this project explores the activism of the YWCA as it relates to the gender consciousness of the women of the YW during the period of 1945
What impact did a nontraditional work experience have on subsequent life decisions in older women's lives, and what can be learned from these experiences that could have an impact on the educational and career decisions of girls and youngwomen? This paper presents data from a collaborative research project with a group of eight older adult women…
Evidence that ovarian steroid hormones such as estrogen and progesterone affect cognition comes from studies of memory in older women receiving estrogen replacement therapy and studies of sexually dimorphic skills in youngwomen across the menstrual cycle. Sixteen women (ages 18–28) completed tests of memory (implicit category exemplar generation, category-cued recall, implicit fragmented object identification) and sexually dimorphic skills (fine
Pauline M. Maki; Jill B. Rich; R. Shayna Rosenbaum
Unplanned pregnancy is one of the most difficult life experiences for youngwomen. Women are often confused and seek help and support. When the problem occurs, a woman has three choices: parenting the baby, planning for adoption, or terminating the pregnancy. Choosing one of these three options is often difficult. This study aimed to identify the factors (variables) influencing women's
Wanapa Naravage; Nuntavarn Vichit-Vadakan; Marc Van der Putten
Abstract Youngwomen living with HIV in the United States face many social and psychological challenges, including involvement in health care and secondary prevention efforts. The factors that put these youngwomen at risk for HIV acquisition initially, such as poverty, gender roles, cultural norms, and limited perceived control over sexual relationships, continue to place them at risk for both adverse mental and physical health outcomes that impact their daily lives and secondary prevention efforts. This study utilized focus groups with young HIV-positive women in order to better understand their perceived problems and pressures and to inform a developmentally appropriate secondary prevention intervention for young HIV-positive women that could be implemented in clinical care settings. Focus groups with young HIV-positive women were convened in three U.S. cities: Baltimore, Chicago, and Tampa. A total of 17 young, HIV-positive women, age range 17–24 (mean age=21), participated in the focus groups. This article describes the psychological and social challenges these youngwomen face as well as their suggestions regarding secondary HIV prevention intervention components.
Youngwomen living with HIV in the United States face many social and psychological challenges, including involvement in health care and secondary prevention efforts. The factors that put these youngwomen at risk for HIV acquisition initially, such as poverty, gender roles, cultural norms, and limited perceived control over sexual relationships, continue to place them at risk for both adverse mental and physical health outcomes that impact their daily lives and secondary prevention efforts. This study utilized focus groups with young HIV-positive women in order to better understand their perceived problems and pressures and to inform a developmentally appropriate secondary prevention intervention for young HIV-positive women that could be implemented in clinical care settings. Focus groups with young HIV-positive women were convened in three U.S. cities: Baltimore, Chicago, and Tampa. A total of 17 young, HIV-positive women, age range 17–24 (mean age=21), participated in the focus groups. This article describes the psychological and social challenges these youngwomen face as well as their suggestions regarding secondary HIV prevention intervention components. PMID:22675725
This is a formal analysis of how homeless shelters should operate: in particular, what quality of accommodations they should provide and how they should help their residents in securing conventional housing. I also examine timing. The results extend to cover optimal police response to street homelessness as well. I draw heavily on the unemployment insurance literature.
The new homelessness has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types
Barrett A. Lee; Kimberly A. Tyler; James D. Wright
Recounts two homeless teenagers' struggle to stabilize their lives and graduate from high school. To help other heroic, homeless students, high schools should adopt flexible admission criteria, attendance policies, course offerings, and class assignments and provide special education services, transportation vouchers, and emotional support when…
The emergence of occupational therapy in the community has led a number of practitioners to work in homeless shelters. The purpose of this article is to examine how the profession of occupational therapy became involved in treating the homeless population and to describe how the profession offers help for this particular population. In addition, this article takes a historical look
|With a rising level of female school leaver unemployment, and recent cutbacks in traditional areas of women's employment, it has become a matter of urgency for positive, comprehensive action to be taken within the education system of New Zealand to encourage youngwomen into a wider range of vocational opportunities. A coordinated policy from…
New Zealand National Advisory Committee on Women and Education, Wellington.
This article describes groups at two residential settings for women with substance abuse problems, a shelter and a drug treatment center. The groups employed meditation exercises and cognitive restructuring techniques to teach meditation and relaxation, to help members identify and correct distortions causing stress, to provide positive and credible countering thoughts, and to improve social relationships. The groups and the
We employ data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients to examine the character and correlates of hunger among homeless people. Our analysis, couched in an adaptation framework, finds more support for the differentiation hypothesis than for the leveling hypothesis: Complex patterns of food insecurity exist at the individual level, and they vary with the resources available (e.g., higher monthly income, regular shelter use) and obstacles faced (e.g., alcohol, drug, and physical and mental health problems). The chronically homeless, who suffer from multiple deficits, appear particularly food-insecure, a finding that favors the desperation hypothesis over its street-wisdom alternative. We conclude that hunger is not uniformly experienced by members of the homeless population. Rather, some individuals are better situated than others to cope with the stressful nature of homelessness when addressing their sustenance needs. PMID:18418982
Factors related to youngwomen’s reported likelihood of confronting sexism were investigated. Participants were 338 U.S. female\\u000a undergraduates (M?=?19 years) attending a California university. They were asked to complete questionnaire measures and to write a personal\\u000a narrative about an experience with sexism. Approximately half (46%) the women reported confronting the perpetrator. Individual\\u000a factors (prior experience with sexism, feminist identification, collective action)
Melanie M. Ayres; Carly K. Friedman; Campbell Leaper
Youngwomen with heart disease are increasingly being seen in obstetrical referral centres owing, in large part, to the dramatic improvements in survival of young adults with congenital heart disease in recent years. Although pregnancies in most women with heart disease result in favourable outcomes, there are important exceptions that must be recognized. These exceptions pose significant mortality risk to the mother and/or the fetus. The present article outlines cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy, general outcomes and management considerations for practitioners caring for pregnant youngwomen with congenital heart disease. A lesion-specific review is published in a complementary article.
The thin ideal has been identified as playing a central role in female body dissatisfaction. However, research into idealization of thinness in youngwomen tends to focus on quantitative measures that can mask the complexity of attitudes and experiences. This article describes a series of focus groups with 41 females aged 16-26 and explores the multifaceted relationship youngwomen have with the thin ideal. Thematic qualitative analysis revealed differences between individuals in the construct of the thin ideal and explored the conflict and ambivalence experienced by youngwomen who are confronted by these ideals on a daily basis. PMID:20709877
Ahern, Amy L; Bennett, Kate M; Kelly, Michelle; Hetherington, Marion M
We examined seven life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Youngwomen who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions were functioning comparatively well with respect to general health, depression, and self-esteem. In contrast, youngwomen who followed pathways involving early motherhood were functioning less well. Fixed-effects models suggested that the differences were due to selection factors. Youngwomen who followed the pathway of college to full-time employment exhibited an increase in heavy drinking, whereas women who became married mothers exhibited a decrease in the same. Involvement in illegal behavior declined for all groups but least so for women who attended college. PMID:23188928
Recent research has examined youngwomen's sexual subjectivities and desires, yet has neglected the ways women in their twenties account for their sexual selves. The present study focuses on the discourses and discursive constructions available for young Portuguese women when talking about their sexual subjectivity. Data were collected through six focus group discussions with young Portuguese women. The goal was to analyse discursive constructions and their potential implications for sexual empowerment and resistance. In the course of the work, it was possible to identify several different discursive devices, the most pervasive of which were Pandora's Box, Protocol and Process. Each of these constructions tended to be negative or contain negative judgements about women's sexuality. Even in contexts where a positive discourse on women's sexual desires emerged, significant constraints were encountered in achieving of a fulfilling and positive sexual experience. PMID:19242835
The existing literature on welfare effects on marriage and fertility has largely focused on groups of white and black women.\\u000a By contrast, Hispanic women have received little attention. This paper examines the effects of welfare generosity on a sample\\u000a of young Hispanic women’s premarital fertility and marriage choices. A bivariate competing risks duration model framework\\u000a allows us to identify the
There is an alarming trend in homelessness: children aged 17 and younger are the most rapidly growing group of the homeless; families continue to be a growing group of the homeless; and many people who are homeless were raised or have lived in the suburbs. Homelessness is no longer an inner-city phenomenon. Three homeless youth were interviewed…
|This paper summarizes reports and research on the homeless in the United States, presents findings of a survey of Red Cross chapters on services to the homeless, and describes programs for the homeless of selected Red Cross chapters. Section 1 discusses definitions of homelessness and methodologies used to count homeless people. The homeless are…
The homeless mentally ill represent a pivotal and urgent challenge to the mental health field in the 1980s. Those homeless who have extended histories of psychiatric hospitalization stand as harsh reminders of the failures of deinstitutionalization, while young mentally ill homeless adults who never have been treated as inpatients testify to the gaps and unrealized promises of community-based care under deinstitutionalization. Homelessness and mental illness are social and clinical problems, respectively, distinct in some ways but intertwined in others. Some of the factors that contribute to homelessness--such as economic deprivations, a dearth of low-cost housing, discontinuities in social service systems, and radical changes in the composition of American families--are felt particularly keenly by many persons who are mentally ill. And symptoms of mental disorders, in turn, frequently impede an individual's capacities to cope with those, as well as other, stressors. Developing appropriate and effective responses to the needs of homeless people who are mentally ill requires precise definition and identification of the target population, innovations in the mental health service system, encouragement of those who staff it to work with homeless mentally ill patients, and public education. Ultimately, however, fundamental answers will be found in an improved understanding of severe mental illness, enhanced treatment capacities, and greater attention to the rehabilitative needs of mentally ill persons.
|Although high rates of alcohol and drug use have been found among homelessyoung people, less is known about who is responsible for their initiation, the reasons for their continued use, and why some individuals eventually transition out of using whereas others do not. Based on qualitative interviews with 40 homeless individuals 19 to 21 years of…
Very little research has been carried out with younghomeless females in Canada. Therefore, the following study investigated homeless in the Kitchener-Waterloo Region, in two age groups of female adolescents from two different types of settings, a youth drop in centre and a female youth shelter. One sample of 8 female youth was between the ages of 14-19 and was
Purpose The vaginal ring and the transdermal patch offer important contraceptive options for women at high risk of unintended pregnancy. Little is known about what adolescents and youngwomen think about these methods and why use of the ring has been relatively low compared to the patch. We sought to examine youngwomen’s attitudes and perceptions about the ring and the patch to better understand the relationship between perceptions of these methods and decisions to use them. Methods Sixteen focus groups of youngwomen aged 15–26 years (n=113) from family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area were convened. Data from the focus groups were analyzed using standard content analysis. Results While youngwomen expressed apprehension and doubt about both methods, for the most part women expressed more positive attitudes about the patch. Two related themes for the ring and the patch were identified: “lack of trust in effectiveness,” and “method use concerns. Two themes unique to the ring: “concerns regarding vaginal insertion” and “sexual partner perceptions” and three themes unique to the patch: “ease of remembering”, “visibility issues”, and “perceived health risk” were identified. Conclusions Increased provider education about apprehensions related to the ring and the patch may lead to increased use of the ring and counter recent declines in use of the patch. It would be unfortunate if these safe and effective options for youngwomen are underutilized because negative attitudes and perceptions about these methods act as barriers to adoption.
Raine, Tina R.; Epstein, Laura B.; Harper, Cynthia C.; Brown, Beth A.; Boyer, Cherrie B.
...Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen (ACBCYW) Cancellation: This notice...Federal Official, Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, CDC, 5770 Buford Hwy...
BackgroundThis study aimed to assess adolescent (aged 14–18 years) and young adult (aged 19–24 years) women's knowledge of and attitudes toward intrauterine devices (IUDs) before and after a brief educational intervention.
Amy K. Whitaker; Lisa M. Johnson; Bryna Harwood; Laurel Chiappetta; Mitchell D. Creinin; Melanie A. Gold
This study evaluated whether or not medication usage among young adult women differed across three countries. An additional aim was to evaluate the association between medication use and sociodemographic factors and exercise habits. A sample of 1098 young adult women were selected in Sweden, the USA, and Greece. Consistent medication usage by young adult women in the three countries related to oral contraceptives and vitamins; nevertheless, there were differences. The main differences were found in the use of laxatives, iron supplements, analgesics, antidepressants, and antacid medication. The most outstanding differences were the frequent use of laxatives in Sweden and vitamins in the USA. Different association patterns were found between medication use and culture, sociodemographic factors, and exercise. The assessment of medication use among young adult women can be performed very easily and provides an immediate indication of their well-being and needs for preventative care. PMID:18257825
...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen (ACBCYW) In accordance...http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/what_cdc_is_doing/conference...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those...
...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen (ACBCYW) In accordance...http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/what_cdc_is_doing/conference...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those...
...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in YoungWomen (ACBCYW); Correction Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on March...
PurposeTo assess perceived sexually transmitted disease (STD) (gonorrhea and chlamdydia) screening behaviors among youngwomen at risk for STDs by evaluating readiness, pros and cons, and self-efficacy to seek STD screening in the absence of symptoms.
Chantay Banikarim; Mariam R Chacko; Constance M Wiemann; Peggy B Smith
PurposeCulture may play an important role in contraceptive preference among young Hispanic women. We examined whether acculturation predicted the use of different contraceptives, grouped by level of efficacy in preventing pregnancy.
Angelica M. Roncancio; Kristy K. Ward; Abbey B. Berenson
Many youngwomen with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of youngwomen with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among youngwomen (diagnosed between 20 and 39 years of age) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women's narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use. PMID:23820874
Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A; Steeves, Richard H; Danhauer, Suzanne C
Background: The PROUD Homelessness Prevention Project of Arapahoe House, Inc. in Denver, Colorado uses a pair or dyad of case managers to address the individualized client needs of a target population characterized chiefly by chronic utilization of public detoxification services. The local political and economic contexts affecting this population include a recent increase in poverty and decreased housing available to
Michael W. Kirby Jr; G. Nicholas Braucht; Ellen Brown; Sigmund Krane; Mary McCann; Nancy Vandemark
The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the youngwomen's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological empowerment, and self-realization (Wehmeyer, 1996).\\u000aThis examination of the perceptions of
To test for the presence of role model effects of female high school faculty and professional staff on youngwomen in high\\u000a school, we estimate several models of educational attainment for youngwomen using data from the National Longitudinal Survey\\u000a of Youth. Exposure to female high school faculty and professional staff has a positive impact on the educational attainment\\u000a of
Objective: Sympathetic nervous system abnormality in humans is still a matter of debate. The present study was designed to examine diet-induced autonomic nervous system activity and metabolic change in obese and non-obese youngwomen.Research Methods and Procedures: Sixteen age- and height-matched obese and non-obese youngwomen participated in this study. Sympathovagal activities were assessed by means of our newly developed
Objective:To examine levels of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions of youngwomen with obesity in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia and assess the impact upon psychological status.Design:General population cross-sectional survey.Subjects:A total of 4891 youngwomen from the community aged 18–42 years, of which 630 were in the obese weight range.Measurements:Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder psychopathology (eating disorder examination questionnaire),
Purpose – This paper aims to explore the motivations of youngwomen in Busoga, Uganda, engaging in “Something-for-something” love (SFSL) relationships. Something-for-something love is defined as engaging in sex in exchange for money, favours, gifts and goods. This paper examines whether these relationships affect youngwomen's ability to negotiate safe sex. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Qualitative methods were used with a group
In this paper we use a small-scale exploratory study to challenge current interpretations of the potential effects of the portrayals of women in print advertising on youngwomen’s self-esteem and body image. We examine how youngwomen’s self-perception and self-esteem may be affected depending on their goal for social comparison: self-evaluation, self-improvement and self-enhancement. The results indicate that the goal
By using data from wave 2 (in 1996) and wave 3 (in 2000-2001) of the US-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we investigated the association between youngwomen's body weight and depression during the transition to adulthood. Respondents (n = 5,243) were 13-18 years of age during wave 2 and 19-25 years of age during wave 3. We used Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores to classify youngwomen as never depressed, consistently depressed, experiencing depression onset, or experiencing depression recovery from wave 2 to wave 3. Results from adjusted multinomial logistic regression models indicated that respondents who experienced significant weight gain were at risk of depression onset. Normal weight (adjusted odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 3.84) and overweight (adjusted odds ratio = 1.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.99) adolescent girls who were obese by young adulthood, as well as youngwomen who were consistently obese during adolescence and young adulthood (adjusted odds ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.26), had roughly twice the odds of depression onset as did youngwomen who were never overweight. We concluded that weight gain and obesity are risk factors for depression onset during the transition to adulthood. Policies prioritizing healthy weight maintenance may help improve youngwomen's mental health as they begin their adult lives. PMID:23752915
Frisco, Michelle L; Houle, Jason N; Lippert, Adam M
The purpose of this descriptive phenomenological study was to describe homeless adolescent mothers' experiences of caring for their children while living in a shelter. Eight homeless adolescent mothers participated in the study. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi [Colaizzi, P. (1978). Psychological research as the phenomenologist views it. In R. S. Valle & M. King (Eds.) Existential Foundations of Psychology (chapter 3). New York, NY: Oxford University Press]. Five themes were generated: (a) tough and troubling times, (b) acting out, (c) wishing it undone, (d) hostile encounters, and (e) steering clear. Nurses working with homeless families may help these young mothers cope with the demands of shelter living while keeping in mind that distinctive support needs may arise during different times of the homeless experience. PMID:19931143
Background Existing literature shows that young people, especially women, have poor knowledge about sexuality and reproductive health. Many of the difficulties youngwomen experience are related to beliefs and expectations in society making them more vulnerable to reproductive ill health. The objective of this study was to explore how youngwomen living in a slum in Islamabad are prepared for marriage and how they understand and perceive their transition to marriage and the start of sexual and childbearing activity. Methods Twenty qualitative interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with youngwomen residing in a slum of Islamabad. Content analysis was used to explore how the participants represented and explained their situation and how decisions about their marriage were made. Results The main theme identified was security lies in obedience. The two sub-themes contributing to the main theme were socialization into submissiveness and transition into adulthood in silence. The theme and the sub-themes illustrate the situation of youngwomen in a poor setting in Pakistan. Conclusion The study demonstrates how, in a culture of silence around sexuality, youngwomen's socialization into submissiveness lays the foundation for the lack of control over the future reproductive health that they experience.
Drug abstinence is difficult to achieve and maintain, especially when clients return to their pretreatment environment. Forging ties with the natural helping networks in the community, such as religious organizations, may reinforce abstinent behaviors established during treatment. This study evaluated Bridges to the Community, a supplemental component to an intensive residential treatment program. Bridges uses members of African-American churches as mentors for recovering women. This demonstration project included 118 female participants with primary cocaine dependence who received either standard treatment or Bridges plus standard treatment. Participants in both groups reduced substance use, risk-taking behaviors, depression, and increased self-esteem. Participants who received Bridges had greater treatment retention, reported 100% cocaine abstinence at follow-up, and were more satisfied with their treatment. PMID:15780547
Stahler, Gerald J; Shipley, Thomas E; Kirby, Kimberly C; Godboldte, Catherine; Kerwin, Marylouise E; Shandler, Irving; Simons, Lori
|Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of youngwomen…
|Youngwomen in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…
|Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…
A substantial body of South African research describes the importance of gender dynamics within sexual relationships as factors underlying HIV risk, yet we know little about these factors among young adults—a group at exceptionally high risk of infection. Our primary objective was to explore the ways that young adult men and women interpret and enact gender roles within their established
Lucia F. OSullivan; Abigail Harrison; Robert Morrell; Muriel Kubeka
Purpose: Youngwomen with breast cancer have higher locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates than older patients. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of locoregional treatment strategy, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), mastectomy alone (M), or mastectomy with adjuvant radiation (MXRT), on LRR for patients 35 years or younger. Methods and Materials: Data for 668 breast cancers in 652 young
Beth M. Beadle; Wendy A. Woodward; Susan L. Tucker; Elesyia D. Outlaw; Pamela K. Allen; Julia L. Oh; Eric A. Strom; George H. Perkins; Welela Tereffe; Tse-Kuan Yu; Funda Meric-Bernstam; Jennifer K. Litton; Thomas A. Buchholz
|Urban public schools are often contexts in which students are beset with silencing, surveillance, and low expectations. These conditions present distinct and critical challenges to youngwomen. This article explores the language and literacy practices that emerged in an in-school elective writing and photography course designed with and for young…
BACKGROUND: Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine youngwomen's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their
Joyce Wamoyi; Daniel Wight; Mary Plummer; Gerry Hilary Mshana; David Ross
In a secondary analyses of a 36?year panel study of 267 Euro?American women and men, this research examined gender differences in (a) the frequency of individuals’ involvement in discretionary or free?time activity in young and middle adulthood, (b) change in activity involvement between young and middle adulthood, and (c) predictors of activity involvement in young and middle adulthood. Activity involvement
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The current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have brought renewed attention to the needs of veterans, including the needs of homeless veterans. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) estimates that it has served approximately 300 returning veterans in i...
The Workers Educational Association collaborated with a support program for homeless people in England to provide adult-education opportunities. Focus is on small groups and community learning, designed to overcome barriers these adults face. (SK)
This report reviews the past participation of youngwomen in government-sponsored employment and training programs and identifies factors that are important in determining the probability of their participation in such programs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Americans, the study compares youngwomen participants with…
Compared the number of testing sessions required to achieve consistent 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength measurements in untrained old and youngwomen. Participants were repeatedly strength-tested for bilateral concentric knee extension 1RM strength. Older women required significantly more testing sessions to achieve the same absolute…
Ovulatory dysfunction is common in patients with eating disorders. However, many women engage in patho- logic dieting behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathologic eating attitudes and behaviors that are present in many youngwomen. Specific food choices and nutrient intakes may be associated
Cheryl L Rock; Daniel W Gorenflo; Adam Drewnowski; Mark A Demitrack
|This article examines the phenomenon of young Iranian women who are encouraged to pursue higher education but who are deterred from entering the labor market. It identifies the factors that college women themselves recognize as motivating or inhibiting their participation in these two public realms. The research reported suggests that the…
|Reports on a sample of 147 youngwomen living in rural areas in China who had attempted suicide. The women's suicidal behavior was characterized by high levels of impulsivity and low rates of mental illness, including depression. Detailed suggestions are made about ways to implement suicide prevention strategies within the particular social and…
Pearson, Veronica; Phillips, Michael R.; He, Fengsheng; Ji, Huiyu
Previous research has shown that women, and especially youngwomen, in this culture experience pressure to be thin. Although considerable research has been directed toward the investigation of body image and its relationship to psychological health and self?image, the impact of body image on leisure behavior has not been adequately addressed, nor has body image received much attention as a
In a multi-site study of vaginal microbicide acceptability conducted with sexually active youngwomen, quantitative assessments revealed significant differences in acceptability by site. Participants in Puerto Rico rated the gel more favourably than mainland US participants in terms of liking the gel and likelihood of future use. To explain these differences, we examined responses to qualitative behavioural assessments. Youngwomen in the mainland USA associated gel leakage with uncomfortable sensations experienced during menstruation, while youngwomen in Puerto Rico had positive associations of gel use with douching. These negative or positive associations affected assessments of the gel’s physical qualities. In addition, youngwomen’s perceptions of primary partners’ support for microbicide use influenced sexual satisfaction with the gel and, ultimately, product acceptability. Finally, geographic HIV risk context contributed to heightened HIV risk perception, which influenced likelihood of future microbicide use, even for women in stated monogamous relationships. Future microbicide acceptability studies should take into account potential differences in acceptability by site such as HIV risk perception based on local HIV prevalence, popularity of vaginal hygiene products in a specific area, and male attitudes in different cultures concerning women’s use of HIV protection strategies.
Aims: To determine the iron intake and food sources of iron in young adult women and to compare women with high versus low iron intake on diet and iron status. Methods: Iron intake and food sources were assessed by a 2-day estimated food record. Iron status was determined by a fasting venous blood sample. Differences in diet and iron status
I. Pynaert; J. Delanghe; M. Temmerman; S. De Henauw
|In January of 2010, "Harvard Educational Review" editor Chantal Francois sat down at a Manhattan diner with three young black women, two of whom were her former students at a New York City high school. Chantal invited the women to come together and share their experiences as freshmen at predominantly white institutions along the East Coast. While…
This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of the effects of an innovative arts project on incarcerated female juvenile offenders. In this project, a professional artist engages and guides the detainees in the creation of individual and collaborative artistic works. The works of art are produced for museum display to enhance the development of the youngwomen’s self-identity
Marceline M. Lazzari; Kathryn A. Amundson; Robert L. Jackson
|The article examines why women and young girls are predisposed to tobacco use, what gender-based variables are at play, what external variables facilitate the initiation of tobacco use, why women continue to smoke, and what intervention strategies can address females and at-risk subgroups. (SM)|
It is a common-sense ideology that appearance is vertically representative, in that the outer surface reflects the inner self. This paper explores the impact of this ideology on women's understandings of their Body Art. Meaning and belonging were identified as central themes in accounts produced from two focus groups with youngwomen in Glasgow, Scotland who had piercings and tattoos.
Despite the benefits associated with regular physical activity, there is little epidemiological evidence to support positive health outcomes when meeting physical activity guidelines in high-risk ethnic groups, such as Hispanic women. We compared cardiovascular disease risk factors between young Hispanic women who meet and those who do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure
Chantal A. Vella; Diana Ontiveros; Raul Y. Zubia; Lance Dalleck
The dominant framework of health communication constitutes family planning under the framework of Third World pathology, writing over the bodies of women of the Third with a script of modernity. This manuscript engages the culture-centered approach to co-construct the narratives of young Nepalese women living under poverty, seeking to create entry points for cultural voices that have been rendered silent
The purpose of this study was to explore young adult women exercisers' body self?compassion. Five women between the ages of 23 and 28 years participated, and their interviews were analysed using an empirical phenomenology method. Three essential structures emerged: appreciating one's unique body, taking ownership of one's body and engaging in less social comparison. A facilitating structure, the importance of
|Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)|
This document is the coordinator's handbook for a four-day workshop for youngwomen in transition from high school to two-year colleges. The program covers career information, self-awareness and skills assessment (with special regard for mathematics), the many roles of women, and decision making and planning. It includes large- and small-group…
Background and Objective: The objective of our study was to describe risk factors, mechanisms and outcome of young Asian women with ischemic stroke. Methods: Twelve tertiary-care centers in 8 Asian countries participated. Women aged 15–45 years were included if they had an ischemic stroke supported by neuroimaging. Data on age, risk factor history, stroke mechanism and discharge status were collected.
Mohammad Wasay; Subhash Kaul; Bindu Menon; Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian; Padma Gunaratne; Ahmed Khalifa; Niphon Poungvarin; Mohammad Saadatnia; Robert Ngo Gan; Alper Dai; M. M. Mehndiratta
This qualitative study examined 14 youngwomen's view of their sexual agency and sexual experiences. In particular the women discuss the messages communicated about female sexuality from their parents. Previous research results were supported, such as that parents do not communicate about sex frequently, when they do refer to it they cover only limited topics and that mothers communicate more
In the current economy, the issue of homelessness is increasingly pervading the normal constructs of society. Thousands of men, women, and children struggle to find a place to sleep and enough food to satisfy their hungry stomachs. While many people suffer under these conditions, local governments continue to create new anti-homeless legislation to further eject them out of society. Bans
The goal of this study was to extend what is currently understood regarding attitudes toward the homeless population. The study focused on how homeless and nonhomeless adolescents attribute the causes of homelessness. Grounded in attribution theory, the study hypothesized that nonhomeless adolescents would ascribe causality to dispositional or…
This article uses data from a 3-year multisite ethnographic research study of gangs within an English city, to explore the different ways that "gang culture" shapes the victimization experiences and everyday lives of (young) women. Victims of lethal gang violence in Research City are almost exclusively young men, rendering invisible the ways in which gangs have an impact on the lives of women living in neighborhoods with a gang presence. The article also discusses how the adoption of a transdisciplinary approach could be useful in developing a holistic picture of the impact of gang-related violence on the lives of women. PMID:22926187
Youngwomen with heart disease are increasingly being seen in obstetrical referral centres owing, in large part, to the dramatic improvements in survival of young adults with congenital heart disease in recent years. Although pregnancies in most women with heart disease result in favourable outcomes, there are important exceptions that must be recognized. These exceptions pose a significant mortality risk to the mother and/or the fetus. The present article provides a general framework for the classification of congenital heart lesions in pregnant women as well as a detailed lesion-specific review.
The aim of this research was to investigate factors influencing milk and milk product consumption in young and elderly women consuming less than two-thirds of the RDA for calcium. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 71 women over 70 years and 22 women aged 19–23 years. Questions addressed changes in milk and milk product intake, and reasons for changes; perceptions
Caroline C. Horwath; Christine H. Govan; A. John Campbell; Wendy Busby; Vicky Scott
The aim of this study was to investigate youngwomen's retrospective narratives of their experiences of same-sex sexual desire in adolescence. Seven women aged 19–25 were interviewed. An across-narrative analysis was conducted, producing five major themes. It is anticipated that this research will help to redress the missing discourse of desire in social constructions of younger women's sexuality and contribute
This article analyzes the determinants of young men and women’s entry into parenthood, applying hazard regressions to a combination\\u000a of longitudinal micro-data from the 1992\\/1993 Swedish Family Survey and aggregate time-series data. We study the impact of education, labor market attachment and macro-economic change on becoming\\u000a a parent for both men and women in Sweden since the mid-1960s. Our results
Breast cancer diagnosed in young patients has been reported to have a more aggressive biologic behaviour and to be associated with a more unfavorable prognosis compared with the disease in older patients. However controversies exist regarding the optimal treatment and if more aggressive therapies are really crucial in this population. Very youngwomen with this disease are faced with personal, family, professional, and quality-of-life issues that further complicate the phase of treatment decision-making. Moreover it’s mandatory in young patients to consider the impact of acute but also late toxicities in relation to long life-expectancy, too. Dose-dense and high-dose chemotherapy are two examples of more aggressive therapies that failed to show a clear beneficial in a feasible way compared to standard regimens also in young patients. The benefit evidenced in patients with ER-positive disease raises the hypothesis that efficacy of dose-intensive chemotherapy might simply be related to its endocrine effects. The study of the biology and of the oncogenic pathways should be a research priority so to aid management of young patients with breast cancer, and more important, to better tailor treatments that could be offered to youngwomen or, simply to use better the modalities available today. For the time being, young age alone should not be a reason to prescribe more aggressive therapies and there are no evidence to recommend a specific chemotherapy regimen for youngwomen.
In this article we explore the lives of youngwomen living with HIV who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. Using a modified version of the Life Story Interview, 40 women recruited from HIV clinics in three different states participated in a qualitative interview. Interviews covered abuse experiences, cognitive and emotional consequences of abuse, coping strategies, and sexual behavior and relationships. Overall, these youngwomen had complex abuse histories, often experiencing more than one type of abuse in the context of other difficult life events. Avoidance and substance use were frequently utilized as coping strategies for abuse-related distress. Youngwomen reported sexual and relationship concerns, including avoidance of sex, sexual dysfunction, sex as a trigger for abuse memories, and difficulty establishing intimacy and trust. Relationships between abuse-related reactions and sexual risk behavior, as well as recommendations for interventions, are discussed.
Clum, Gretchen A.; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Ellen, Jonathan M.
The goal of these studies was to determine the role that hypoandrogenemia plays in the effects of oral contraceptives (OC) on bone metabolism and peak bone mass (PBM) in young female rats. Adolescent/young adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1) pl...
The goal of these studies was to determine the role that hypoandrogenemia plays in the effects of oral contraceptives (OC) on bone metabolism and peak bone mass (PBM) in young female rats. Adolescent/young adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with: (1) ...
Ghrelin is a novel peptide that has been isolated from human and rat stomach tissues. Despite its known stimulatory effects on appetite and eating behavior, little information is available regarding its relationship with energy expenditure in normal-weight humans. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between serum ghrelin and resting metabolic rate (RMR), the thermic effect of food (TEF), fasting and postprandial respiratory quotient, physical activity level, peak aerobic capacity (VO(2 peak)), energy intake, and psychological measures of feeding behavior. We recruited 65 young healthy women and determined RMR and TEF by indirect calorimetry after a 12-h fast. Physical activity was determined by a leisure time physical activity questionnaire; VO(2 peak) was determined by bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion; energy intake was determined by a 24-h dietary recall; and food behavior was determined by a three-factor eating questionnaire. Our cohort showed a broad range of body mass index (range, 16.8-28.3 kg/m2), RMR (range, 820-1550 kcal/d), TEF (range, 74.4-136.5 kcal/d), and percent body fat (range, 14.0-37.7%). We noted significant inverse correlations between ghrelin and RMR (r = -0.350, P = 0.004) and TEF (r = -0.396, P = 0.001). These inverse correlations persisted after statistical control for both fat-free mass and fat mass (ghrelin vs. RMR partial, r = -0.284, P = 0.024; and ghrelin vs. TEF partial, r = -0.329, P = 0.01) and insulin levels (ghrelin vs. RMR partial, r = -0.255, P = 0.046; and ghrelin vs. TEF partial, r = -0.287, P = 0.024) using partial correlation analysis. We also observed a significant inverse correlation between ghrelin and daily caloric intake (r = -0.266, P = 0.032), but ghrelin levels were not significantly correlated with fasting (r = -0.002), postprandial respiratory quotient (r = -0.016), leisure time physical activity (r = 0.104), VO(2 peak) (r = 0.138), dietary disinhibition (r = -0.071), dietary restraint (r = 0.051), or feeling of general hunger (r = -0.028). These results suggest that higher levels of ghrelin are associated with low levels of resting and postprandial thermogenesis, which is independent of individual differences in fat-free mass and fat mass. Although speculative, serum ghrelin may play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by acting as a hormonal marker of increased energy efficiency. PMID:15579749
St-Pierre, David H; Karelis, Antony D; Cianflone, Katherine; Conus, Florence; Mignault, Diane; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; St-Onge, Maxime; Tremblay-Lebeau, Andréanne; Poehlman, Eric T
Previous studies have found that young Iranian women in the US feel conflicted between their cultural traditions and adoption of American values. The present study investigated the hypothesis that the educational level of young Iranian women is strongly related to their attitudes regarding sex roles and intimate relationships. Study subjects included 81 Iranian women (mean age, 23 years) residing in Los Angeles, California, who had been away from Iran for an average of 8 years. The mean summed scores on questionnaire items measuring attitudes about these issues were 233.57, 264.79, 290.58, and 295.57 (with higher scores indicating more liberal views) for women attending or with a high school education, attending college, with a college degree, and in graduate programs or with a graduate degree, respectively, confirming the hypothesis. Also noted were a significant negative relationship between the women's age when they left Iran and test scores and a significant positive relationship between the number of years the women had been away from Iran and test scores. A similar liberalization in sex role-related attitudes following exposure to less traditional US norms has been observed among young Puerto Rican immigrants to the US. Counselors who work with young Iranian women in the US should be alerted to potential conflicts regarding the adoption or rejection of the American way of life. PMID:12291743
This article explores how faith-based organisations in South Africa respond to homelessness, using research performed in 2005 with 12 religious organisations that provide services to homeless people in Johannesburg and Pretoria. It describes the organisations' histories, funding schemes and relationships with other organisations, and considers the complexities of defining homelessness. The background to the study was broader and more in-depth
Indigenous peoples are overrepresented in the homeless population. This paper examines the extent to which homelessness and some of its possible antecedents and consequences differ for indigenous peoples and majority whites residing in the city of Minneapolis. We conclude that being homeless and indigenous in Minneapolis is a significantly different experience for this group than it is for majority whites.
Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study\\u000a compared the substance use and sexual behavior of younghomeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible\\u000a sources of travelers’ increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0%\\u000a white, 23.9% African American,
Steven C. MartinoJoan; Joan S. Tucker; Gery Ryan; Suzanne L. Wenzel; Daniela Golinelli; Brett Munjas
BACKGROUND: Australia is developing a chlamydia screening program. This study aimed to determine the attitudes of youngwomen to the introduction of chlamydia screening in Australian General Practice. METHODS: In-depth face-to-face interviews with 24 youngwomen from across Victoria, Australia, attending a randomly selected sample of general practices. RESULTS: Youngwomen reported that they would accept age-based screening for chlamydia
Natasha L Pavlin; Rhian Parker; Christopher K Fairley; Jane M Gunn; Jane Hocking
One hundred, thirty-four undergraduate students participated in a field experiment designed to examine the effects of extended, prosocial communication with homeless persons, upon attitudes toward the homeless problem, of behavioral intentions towards the homeless, and of causal attributions about homelessness. It was expected that prosocial interaction with the homeless would produce shifts in attitudes and behavioral intentions toward the homeless
Background Alcohol use, and in particular, binge drinking, and methamphetamine use is pervasive among homeless youth and remains a social pressure among this vulnerable population. However, there is no compelling evidence that specific interventions for reducing drug and alcohol use are effective for homeless youth. Objectives This community-based participatory action pilot study assessed the impact of an intervention study focused on decreasing use of drugs and alcohol among a sample of homelessyoung adults (N=154) visiting a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The two programs consisted of a HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) program led by nurses and an Art Messaging (AM) program led by artists. Six-month follow-up data were obtained from 100 of these individuals. Results Findings revealed significant reductions in alcohol and marijuana use and binge drinking in both the HHP and AM programs. However, homeless youth in the HHP program reported additional reductions in methamphetamine, cocaine and hallucinogen use at six-month follow-up. Conclusions Reductions in drugs and alcohol are important as these substances are linked to HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and other health risks in homeless youth. Scientific Significance The successful outcomes of the study intervention validate the utility of nurse-led and artistic health promotion strategies to decrease drug and alcohol use and other risky behaviors in homeless youth populations.
There is mounting evidence for the involvement of the sleep-wake cycle and the circadian system in the pathogenesis of major depression. However, only a few studies so far focused on sleep and circadian rhythms under controlled experimental conditions. Thus, it remains unclear whether homeostatic sleep pressure or circadian rhythms, or both, are altered in depression. Here, the authors aimed at quantifying homeostatic and circadian sleep-wake regulatory mechanisms in youngwomen suffering from major depressive disorder and healthy controls during a multiple nap paradigm under constant routine conditions. After an 8-h baseline night, 9 depressed women, 8 healthy youngwomen, and 8 healthy older women underwent a 40-h multiple nap protocol (10 short sleep-wake cycles) followed by an 8-h recovery night. Polysomnographic recordings were done continuously, and subjective sleepiness was assessed. In order to measure circadian output, salivary melatonin samples were collected during scheduled wakefulness, and the circadian modulation of sleep spindles was analyzed with reference to the timing of melatonin secretion. Sleep parameters as well as non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) spectra were determined for collapsed left, central, and right frontal, central, parietal, and occipital derivations for the night and nap-sleep episodes in the frequency range .75-25 Hz. Young depressed women showed higher frontal EEG delta activity, as a marker of homeostatic sleep pressure, compared to healthy young and older women across both night sleep episodes together with significantly higher subjective sleepiness. Higher delta sleep EEG activity in the naps during the biological day were observed in young depressed women along with reduced nighttime melatonin secretion as compared to healthy young volunteers. The circadian modulation of sleep spindles between the biological night and day was virtually absent in healthy older women and partially impaired in young depressed women. These data provide strong evidence for higher homeostatic sleep pressure in young moderately depressed women, along with some indications for impairment of the strength of the endogenous circadian output signal involved in sleep-wake regulation. This finding may have important repercussions on the treatment of the illness as such that a selective suppression of EEG slow-wave activity could promote acute mood improvement. PMID:22390241
In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces youngwomen's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and youngwomen's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and youngwomen's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese youngwomen's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with youngwomen's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools. PMID:23702216
Young transgender women are at increased risk for HIV infection due to factors related to stigma/marginalization and participation in risky sexual behaviors. To date, no HIV prevention interventions have been developed or proven successful with young transgender women. To address this gap, we developed and pilot tested a homegrown intervention "Life Skills," addressing the unique HIV prevention needs of young transgender women aged 16-24 years. Study aims included assessing the feasibility of a small group-based intervention with the study population and examining participant's engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors pre- and 3-months-post-intervention. Fifty-one (N?=?51) young transgender women enrolled in the study. Our overall attendance and retention rates demonstrate that small group-based HIV prevention programs for young transgender women are both feasible and acceptable. Trends in outcome measures suggest that participation in the intervention may reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention with a control group is warranted. PMID:22223033
Garofalo, Robert; Johnson, Amy K; Kuhns, Lisa M; Cotten, Christopher; Joseph, Heather; Margolis, Andrew
Acute systemic thermal therapy can improve arterial stiffness in both animals and humans. We examined and compared the effects of acute local thermal therapy (footbath) on an indicator of human arterial stiffness, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), in 16 healthy young (29.4 ± 0.4 years) and 16 older (59.8 ± 1.7 years) women. Measurements were made at baseline (BL) and at 0 and 30 min after footbath in footbath trial, and at corresponding time points without footbath in control trial. In the footbath trial, subjects immersed their lower legs and feet in water for 30 min, with water temperature ranging from 41 to 43°C. The results showed that footbath elicited significant reductions in CAVI at 0 min compared to the same trial's baseline in both young and older groups (0.55 ± 0.07, P = 0.01 for young; 0.42 ± 0.15, P = 0.03 for older, respectively) with no changes found in the control trials. The percentage of CAVI change at 0 min was significantly greater in youngwomen (91.9 ± 1.1%) compared to older women (96.5 ± 1.8%, P < 0.05). This study indicated that acute warm footbath results in transient improvement of systemic arterial stiffness in both healthy young and older women. Despite similar intervention, the percentage response of arterial stiffness to footbath was attenuated in older women. PMID:21833487
Hu, Qingfeng; Zhu, Weili; Zhu, Yili; Zheng, Lu; Hughson, Richard L
Retrospective analysis of clinical data from 8 State/Territory Family Planning Organizations (FPO) was conducted to determine the reproductive health services used by youngwomen. Between July, 1996 and June, 1997, a total of 185, 879 client visits were recorded at FPO clinics, of which 72,303 (39%) were by young clients. The results showed that youngwomen tended to use a combined oral pill, postcoital pill and spermicides more than those older than 25 years (p<0.05). Youngwomen were also more likely to use services for management of sexually transmitted disease (STD), counselling for HIV, STD and sexual assault (p<0.05). However, there were considerable differences among the 3 groups of women: Aboriginal clients, those who did not speak English at home, and those who were born outside Australia. This study confirms that youngwomen are using FPO services especially for emergency/postcoital contraception, STD screening and counselling. FPOs need to continue their existing role of providing reproductive and sexual health services catering to the need of this special segment of the population. PMID:9761169
Background An understanding of the factors that encourage youngwomen to accept, and discourage them from accepting, STI (sexually transmitted infection) testing is needed to underpin opportunistic screening programs for the STI Chlamydia trachomatis (opportunistic screening involves healthcare professionals offering chlamydia tests to people while they are attending health services for reasons that are usually unrelated to their sexual health). We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore: how youngwomen would feel about being offered opportunistic tests for chlamydia?; how youngwomen would like to be offered screening, and who they wanted to be offered screening by?; and what factors would influence youngwomen's partner notification preferences for chlamydia (who they would notify in the event of a positive diagnosis of chlamydia, how they would want to do this). Methods Semi-structured interviews with 35 youngwomen between eighteen and twenty nine years of age. The study was conducted in the Dublin and Galway regions of the Republic of Ireland. Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP) practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services. Results Respondents were worried that their identities would become stigmatised if they accepted screening. Younger respondents and those from lower socio-economic backgrounds had the greatest stigma-related concerns. Most respondents indicated that they would accept screening if it was offered to them, however; accepting screening was seen as a correct, responsible action to engage in. Respondents wanted to be offered screening by younger female healthcare professionals. Respondents were willing to inform their current partners about positive chlamydia diagnoses, but were more ambivalent about informing their previous partners. Conclusions If an effort is not put into reducing youngwomen's stigma-related concerns the population coverage of Chlamydia screening might be reduced.
Objective: To examine abuse specific variables among homeless and runaway adolescents and to look at perpetrators of childhood abuse.Method: A total of 372 homeless and runaway adolescents were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers in youth service agencies.Results: Approximately one-half of these young people
Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of youngwomen reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of youngwomen only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of youngwomen and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes. PMID:17101433
Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela
A number of studies report comparisons among ethnic/ racial groups in terms of health attitudes, health practices, and socio-economic and mental health status. Of special concern is the mental health status and coping potential of youngwomen of childbearing age because of the special vulnerability of individuals in this group and the vulnerability of their children. The well-being of future generations is at stake when maladaptive functioning compounded by severe social conditions create a climate for inadequate growth and development for large numbers in a population, even for short periods of time. This paper reports the results of a study examining self concepts and mental health status of two distinct populations within one ethnic group-young Hispanic women living on the U.S. side of the Texas-Mexico border versus a similar sample of young Hispanic women living on the Mexico side. Within each sample, the never-pregnant versus ever-pregnant adolescents were compared. The youngwomen in both groups reported intense feelings related to emotional distress. The youngwomen in Ciudad Juarez reported somewhat more positive feelings related to recent well-being. The El Paso women reported a less traditionally feminine persona (they felt more aggressive, confident, successful, energetic, and successful), yet they experienced less happiness, hopefulness, and life satisfaction. However, neither group could be described as reporting positive mental status and those women who had been pregnant were no different than their never-pregnant counterparts. Rather, the results signal serious problems throughout the two populations. Health care and social service workers must recognize and be prepared to address intense personal distresses in both of these young, Hispanic-female, border populations. PMID:10374805
Russell, A Y; Williams, M S; Farr, P A; Schwab, A J; Plattsmier, S
Because of the misery and deprivation suffered by homeless persons, the initial response to homelessness in the United States focused first on quickly addressing the dire need for emergency food and shelter, and then on providing additional assistance to already homeless persons—ideally to help them move out of homelessness. New preventive measures to help people avoid becoming homeless were largely
At a critical time when Ireland's abortion ban faces legal challenges and the number of women obtaining abortions abroad each year continues to climb, some antiabortion advocates have turned their attention toward the social factors that influence women's abortion decision-making. Through an analysis of articles carried in the Irish mainstream and Catholic presses, this article examines how antiabortion advocates since
|Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…
Our objective was to identify significant family planning and health access problems of young Hispanic women on the Texas-Mexico border. Samples of 300 young Hispanic women living in each of the twin cities of El Paso and Juarez were interviewed regarding their knowledge, attitudes, and experiences with respect to birth control, pregnancy, maternal and child health, and health-care services. Knowledge and attitudes of the women about birth control technology were assessed along with their beliefs regarding the use of such technology. Results showed that contraceptive knowledge and usage patterns for young Hispanic women in Juarez and El Paso were significantly different. They relied on different types of birth control methods and also differed with respect to confidence in these methods and related medical services. Both groups reflected positive attitudes toward both child bearing and use of birth control although Juarez women were significantly more favorable toward child bearing. Both groups overwhelmingly favored female doctors. The youngwomen studied have accepted the need for birth control, prefer fewer children, and have some degree of confidence in medical services. Their knowledge and use of reliable versus unreliable birth control devices appear to be major areas requiring culturally sensitive intervention. PMID:8399249
Russell, A Y; Williams, M S; Farr, P A; Schwab, A J; Plattsmier, S
In a multi-site study of vaginal microbicide acceptability conducted with sexually active youngwomen, quantitative assessments revealed significant differences in acceptability by site. Participants in Puerto Rico rated the gel more favourably than mainland US participants in terms of liking the gel and likelihood of future use. To explain these differences, we examined responses to qualitative behavioural assessments. Youngwomen in mainland USA associated gel leakage with uncomfortable sensations experienced during menstruation, while youngwomen in Puerto Rico had positive associations of gel use with douching. These negative or positive associations affected assessments of the gel's physical qualities. In addition, youngwomen's perceptions of primary partners' support for microbicide use influenced sexual satisfaction with the gel and, ultimately, product acceptability. Finally, geographic HIV-risk context contributed to heightened HIV-risk perception, which influenced likelihood of future microbicide use, even for women in stated monogamous relationships. Future microbicide acceptability studies should take into account potential differences in acceptability by site such as HIV-risk perception based on local HIV prevalence, popularity of vaginal hygiene products in a specific area and male attitudes in different cultures concerning women's use of HIV protection strategies. PMID:22084840
Homeless individuals experience high rates of morbidity and mortality, yet many homeless studies include small percentages of female participants. We therefore sought to determine correlates of homelessness separately for men and women in a sample of individuals visiting free food programs. Between August 2003 and April 2004, 324 individuals were recruited from San Francisco free food programs and interviewed regarding housing, sociodemographics, health, drug use, sex trade, and incarceration. Over one-half of women and almost three-fourths of men reported homelessness in the prior year. Among women, white race, younger age, not living with minor children, engaging in sex trade and recent incarceration were strongly associated with homelessness; however, only incarceration maintained the strong association in adjusted analysis (OR = 7.16, CI = 3.83-13.4). Among men, heavy alcohol use, drug use, years spent living in San Francisco and monthly income were strongly associated with homelessness; however, only years living in San Francisco (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.19-0.42) and monthly income maintained strong association in adjusted analysis (OR = 0.27, CI = 0.13-0.57). Housing patterns and the strongest correlates of homelessness among individuals visiting free food programs differ by sex. These results suggest the need to characterize homelessness and develop effective homeless interventions separately for men and women. PMID:17265132
Riley, Elise D; Weiser, Sheri D; Sorensen, James L; Dilworth, Samantha; Cohen, Jennifer; Neilands, Torsten B
Approximately 1.5 million children experience homelessness in America each year. The current economic recession and staggering numbers of housing foreclosures have caused the numbers of homeless families to increase dramatically. The impact of homelessness on families and children is devastating. Without a place to call home, children are severely challenged by unpredictability, dislocation, and chaos. Homelessness and exposure to traumatic stresses place them at high risk for poor mental health outcomes. Despite the pressing needs of these children, federal policy during the last decade has focused primarily on chronically homeless adult individuals-to the exclusion of the families. In 2010, however, the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness issued a comprehensive plan to eradicate homelessness for all people through interagency collaboration and aligning mainstream services. A key goal is to prevent and end homelessness for families, youth, and children within 10 years. This policy-focused article describes several tools that can be used to help achieve this goal, including: general principles of care for serving homeless families and children; BSAFE-a promising practice that helps families access community-based services and supports; and the Campaign to End Child Homelessness aimed at action on behalf of homeless families and children at the national, state, and local levels. PMID:20950290
...readjustment counseling, women Veterans' legislative issues, special health initiatives, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. Interested persons may attend, appear before, or file...
Depression in adolescent girls may result in negative consequences in young adulthood. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was administered to 1,727 Black and White girls ages 16 to 18 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Growth and Health Study. Three years later, women in the depressed groups were more likely to be current smokers, had attained a lower level of education, and reported lower self-worth relative to the nondepressed group. Body dissatisfaction, eating concerns, and loneliness were greater in the depressed groups. Relative to Black women, White women who were moderately depressed during adolescence reported more health care services utilization in young adulthood. Prevention efforts for depressed adolescents should be broadly focused to improve young adult outcomes. PMID:16287404
Franko, Debra L; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Bean, Judy; Tamer, Robert; Kraemer, Helena C; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Crawford, Patricia B; Schreiber, George; Daniels, Stephen R
Objectives To add to the body of evidence supporting the relationship between social network structures and health, this study examined interconnections among a sample of runaway and homeless youth (RHY) and how position in the aggregated network structure was associated with HIV risk. Methods Individual and social network data were collected from a sample of 136 RHY. A sociomatrix was generated, network visualization was accomplished with a “spring embedder,” and k-cores were examined. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the associations between peripheral and non-peripheral network position and recent unprotected sex. Results Small numbers of nominations at the individual level aggregated into a large social network with a visible core, periphery (including isolates), and small clusters. Female youth were more likely to be located in the core as were youth who had been homeless for two years or more. Youth at the periphery of the network were less likely to report unprotected sex and had been homeless for a shorter duration. Conclusions Not only was HIV risk a function of risk-taking youth being connected to other risk-taking youth, but also risk was associated with position in the overall structure of the network. We provide suggestions for effective social network-based prevention programs, need for youngwomen’s housing and health programs, as well as the likely added traction that housing-first programs will have with peripheral youth, for whom the pull of street life is less, which may help them to more successfully engage in the structures and opportunities of housing programs.
Rice, Eric; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Monro, William
Purpose Culture may play an important role in contraceptive preference among young Hispanic women. We examined whether acculturation predicted the use of different contraceptives, grouped by level of efficacy in preventing pregnancy. Methods One-thousand seventeen sexually active Hispanic women between the ages of 16 and 24 (mean age = 20.69 ± 2.42) responded to a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Results Women low in acculturation (OR 1.79, CI 1.06 – 3.02) and bicultural (OR 2.66, CI 1.52 – 4.64) were more likely than women high in acculturation to have used no method of contraception than long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Bicultural women were more likely to have used condoms that LARC (OR 2.51, CI 1.40 – 4.49) compared to women high in acculturation. Finally, women in low in acculturation (OR 1.98, CI 1.11 – 3.50) and bicultural (OR 1.88, CI 1.01 – 3.51) were more likely to have used cyclic hormonal contraception than LARC compared to women high in acculturation. Conclusions Educational efforts should focus on young Hispanic women who are bicultural and low in acculturation in order to increase their use of more effective contraceptive methods and reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies among this population.
Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Berenson, Abbey B.
Background and Purpose—The relationship between alcohol consumption and cerebral infarction remains uncertain, and few studies have investigated whether the relationship varies by alcohol type or is present in young adults. We examined the relationship between alcohol consumption, beverage type, and ischemic stroke in the Stroke Prevention in YoungWomen Study. Methods—All 59 hospitals in the greater Baltimore-Washington area participated in
Ann M. Malarcher; Wayne H. Giles; Janet B. Croft; Marcella A. Wozniak; Robert J. Wityk; Paul D. Stolley; Barney J. Stern; Michael A. Sloan; Roger Sherwin; Thomas R. Price; Richard F. Macko; Constance J. Johnson; Christopher J. Earley; David W. Buchholz; Steven J. Kittner
This study examined the prevalence of dyspareunia, urinary sensory symptoms, and urinary incontinence and explored their associations among sexually active Chinese women aged 15–34 years. Data from 3,150 women were analyzed from a survey undertaken during 2003 in 30 counties in China as part of the United Nations Population Fund Country Program. The overall prevalence of dyspareunia was 4.7%. Urinary
R. William Stones; Sabu S. Padmadas; Sufang Guo; James J. Brown; Fengmin Zhao; Bohua Li
Nearly 1,400,000 new cancer cases were expected in the year 2006, of which 679,450 would occur in women (Jemal et al. 2006).\\u000a Around 8% of all female cancers occur under the age of 40 years, which corresponds to approximately 55,000 women in the United\\u000a States (Oktay and Yih 2002). When all female cancers are considered, despite an increase in the
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a synthesized putative female pheromone was conducted with regularly menstruating, university women (N=36, mean age=27.8). The pheromone formula was derived from earlier work investigating the underarm secretions of fertile, sexually active, heterosexual women. A vial of either synthesized pheromone or placebo was selected blindly and added to a subject's perfume. Subjects recorded seven sociosexual behaviors
OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and
G. de Simone; L. Scalfi; M. Galderisi; A. Celentano; G. Di Biase; P. Tammaro; M. Garofalo; G. F. Mureddu; O. de Divitiis; F. Contaldo
This study investigates the relationship between diet quality and weight gain in youngwomen. Youngwomen (n = 4,287, with 1,356 women identified as plausible subsample aged 27.6?±?1.5 years at baseline) sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health study completed food frequency questionnaires in 2003, which were used to evaluate diet quality using three indices: Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), Australian Diet Quality Index (Aus-DQI), and Fruit and Vegetable Index (FAVI). Weight was self-reported in 2003 and 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of each diet quality index and weight change from 2003 to 2009. The ARFS and FAVI were significant predictors of 6-year we