Science.gov

Sample records for young homeless women

  1. Pregnancy and Mental Health of Young Homeless Women

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Devan M.; Trotter, Emily C.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy rates among women in the U.S. who are homeless are much higher than rates among women who are housed (Greene & Ringwalt, 1998). Yet little research has addressed mental health, risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. This study utilizes a sample of women from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents (MLSHA) to investigate pregnancy and motherhood over three years among unaccompanied homeless young mothers. Our data are supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of these women. Results show that almost half of sexually active young women (n = 222, µ age = 17.2) had been pregnant at baseline (46.4%), and among the longitudinal subsample of 171 women (µ age = 17.2), almost 70.0% had been pregnant by the end of the study. Among young mothers who are homeless, only half reported that they helped to care for their children consistently over time, and one-fifth of the women reported never seeing their children. Of the young women with children in their care at the last interview of the study (Wave 13), almost one-third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode (MDE), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime drug abuse, and one-half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder (APD). Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed, including the implications for practice, policy, and research. PMID:21486259

  2. Does a Baby Help Young Women Transition out of Homelessness? Motivation, Coping, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.

  3. Does a Baby Help Young Women Transition out of Homelessness? Motivation, Coping, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…

  4. Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.

    PubMed

    Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. PMID:24215967

  5. The Social Network: Homeless Young Women, Social Capital, and the Health Implications of Belonging outside the Nuclear Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the means through which homeless young women are able to improve their flow of social capital by attaining a sense of belonging and forming positive attachments to supportive people and places. In so doing, they also develop relationships with health and social services and improve their overall physical and mental health

  6. The Social Network: Homeless Young Women, Social Capital, and the Health Implications of Belonging outside the Nuclear Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the means through which homeless young women are able to improve their flow of social capital by attaining a sense of belonging and forming positive attachments to supportive people and places. In so doing, they also develop relationships with health and social services and improve their overall physical and mental health…

  7. Negative Cultural Capital and Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of…

  8. Negative Cultural Capital and Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of

  9. Long-term and chronic homelessness in homeless women and women with children.

    PubMed

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Bradley, Kimberly

    2010-09-01

    The Chronic Homelessness initiative has directed millions of federal dollars to services for single "unaccompanied homeless" individuals, specifically excluding women living with their children. Using a data set with a nationally representative sample of homeless adults, we calculated the prevalence rates and profiles of long-term homelessness in homeless women (n = 849). With the exception of the criterion of being a single "unaccompanied individual," many women, including women with children, met the criteria for chronic homelessness including having a disability of mental health or substance abuse problems. Our findings suggest that the federal definition of chronic homelessness needs to be revised. PMID:20818593

  10. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With

  11. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  12. Pregnancy and Sexual Health Among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of prenatal care, and histories of sexual victimization are described. A total of 81 lifetime pregnancies and 26 children were reported. Infrequent and ineffective use of contraception was common. While pregnancy motivated some homeless youth to establish housing, miscarriages and terminations were more frequent among youth who reported being housed. Widespread access to prenatal and medical services was reported during pregnancy, but utilization varied. Many women continued to use substances throughout pregnancy. Several youth reported childhood sexual abuse and sexual victimization while homeless. Pregnancy presents a unique opportunity to encourage positive health behaviors in a high-risk population seldom seen in a clinical setting. PMID:18692891

  13. From Home to Street: Understanding Young People's Transitions into Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Justeen

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores why young people leave home and become homeless. Drawing on life history interviews conducted with 50 homeless youth in Los Angeles, explanations provided by participants for becoming homelessness and how they understand their experiences are presented. In professional discourses, homeless young people are often portrayed as

  14. Correlates of adult assault among homeless women.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076

  15. Assessing sexual trauma histories in homeless women.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, Sally; Hardin, Sally; Glaser, Dale; Barger, Mary; Bormann, Jill; Lizarraga, Cabiria; Terry, Micheal; Criscenzo, Jeeni; Allard, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    Almost 1 out of every 3 homeless women (32%) in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia has experienced childhood sexual trauma. We assessed lifetime sexual trauma histories among 29 homeless women from three Southern California community sites: one residential safe house and two safe parking areas. More than half of the women (54%) reported a history of sexual trauma. That rate was higher (86%) among women living at the safe home than among women staying at the safe parking sites (only 42%). All four of the women who had served in the military reported having experienced military sexual trauma. The high percentages of sexual trauma found in homeless women highlight the need for effective interventions for sexual trauma. PMID:26583457

  16. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Homeless Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the

  17. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Homeless Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…

  18. Young People, Drug Use and Family Conflict: Pathways into Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Keys, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Young people who experience homelessness, in Australia and in other western contexts (US, Canada, England), are widely perceived to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. The available research indicates that homeless young people use all drug types, whether injected or otherwise, more frequently than their home-based peers. Debate exists in the…

  19. Strengthening At-Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…

  20. Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence

  1. Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…

  2. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,

  3. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  4. Psychopathology in Young People Experiencing Homelessness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Los, Férenc J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340

  5. Factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rebecca; Thompson, Sanna J; Barczyk, Amanda N

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the influence of social networks and economic factors among a group of homeless young adults with differing levels of alcohol and drug use. In addition, for those with an alcohol use disorder, the role of future time expectancies was examined. A sample (n = 185) of homeless young adults aged 18 to 23 were recruited from a community drop-in center and interviewed utilizing self-report instruments. Findings suggest that social networks, economic factors, and future expectancies are significant predictors of the level of substance use among homeless young adults. Being able to identify those areas that place homeless young adults at risk for substance abuse and dependence has implications for effective intervention. PMID:20391267

  6. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of

  7. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  8. From Homelessness to Community: Psychological Integration of Women Who Have Experienced Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemiroff, Rebecca; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychological integration of women who were homeless at the study's outset. Participants (N = 101) were recruited at homeless shelters and participated in 2 in-person interviews, approximately 2 years apart. A predictive model identifying factors associated with having a psychological sense of community within

  9. From Homelessness to Community: Psychological Integration of Women Who Have Experienced Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemiroff, Rebecca; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychological integration of women who were homeless at the study's outset. Participants (N = 101) were recruited at homeless shelters and participated in 2 in-person interviews, approximately 2 years apart. A predictive model identifying factors associated with having a psychological sense of community within…

  10. Enabling Older Homeless Minority Women to Overcome Homelessness by Using a Life Management Enhancement Group Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness. PMID:19212866

  11. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

  12. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening

  13. Trajectories of women's homelessness in Canada's 3 northern territories

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Rose; Hrenchuk, Charlotte; Bopp, Judie; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Repairing the Holes in the Net was a 2-year, multilevel action research project designed to inform the development of culturally appropriate and gender-specific services for northern women who are homeless or marginally housed and who face mental health and substance use concerns. The study was designed to learn about the barriers and supports experienced by homeless women in the North when accessing mental health care, shelter, housing and other services; and to inform the work of northern service providers and policy advocates in a position to implement adjustments in their praxis. Methods This article describes the trajectories of women's service access and their ideas for service improvement from 61 qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted with homeless women in Whitehorse, Yukon (YT), Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NT), and Iqualit, Nunavut (NU). Results Unresolved trauma, poverty and social exclusion, inability to find and maintain housing and ineffective services emerged as interconnected and multifaceted challenges related to women's service engagement. In the face of these challenges, women displayed significant resilience and resistance, and offered important ideas for service improvement. Conclusions The 4 interconnected systemic challenges identified in the research, coupled with specific ideas for change cited by the resilient homeless women interviewed, offer points of entry to improve service policy and delivery. Implementing trauma-informed approaches emerged as a key example of how access to, and quality of, services could be improved for homeless women in the North. PMID:26700413

  14. Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on

  15. Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

  16. Make or Break: How Homeless Young People Struggle To Fulfil Their Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foyer Foundation, London (England).

    Homelessness in the United Kingdom has very wide ramifications. Young homeless people face a difficult transition into adult life as poverty, low self-esteem, lack of family support, and lack of qualifications reinforce each others' effects. Homeless young people start behind their peers in educational achievement. Government policies put up

  17. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  18. Barriers and facilitators to shelter utilization among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yoonsook; Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Rates of shelter use among homeless youth are low compared to use of other supportive services, yet research on barriers to shelter use has been conducted in limited regions, specifically in West Coast or Midwest cities. Additionally, while studies have generally focused on barriers to shelter use, studies on what might facilitate shelter use are lacking. This study explores barriers and facilitators to shelter use among homeless young adults from a large city in the Southwest region. Focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 49 homeless young adults ages 18-24. Drawing on models of health service use, findings were categorized into two domains--attitudinal and access. Themes related to attitudinal barriers include stigma/shame and self-reliance/pride. Attitudinal facilitators include the desire to extricate themselves from street life and turn their lives in a new direction. Access-related themes include barriers such as a lack of shelters and services available to meet the needs of youth, adverse shelter conditions, staff attitudes that are not acceptable to youth, restrictive shelter rules, restrictive definitions of homelessness, and a desire to differentiate themselves from older homeless individuals. Certain characteristics or circumstances (e.g., being pregnant), having supportive others, and shelters' ability to connect them to other services emerged as access facilitators to shelter use. Implications for policymakers, service providers, and future research are discussed. PMID:26246453

  19. Issues and Strategies Involved in Helping Homeless Parents of Young Children Strengthen Their Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.

  20. The Dynamics of Violence and Homelessness among Young Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…

  1. Women Speak: Healing the Wounds of Homelessness through Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Karen Anne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The Women Speak writing project explored the use of writing as therapy for homeless women at an urban drop-in center. By sharing experiences, a sense of empowerment began. Nursing students and faculty were challenged to rethink the traditional clinical relationship that gives highest priority to the needs of students and faculty rather than the

  2. Response to homeless childbearing women's health care learning needs.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Marilyn; Averbuch, Tali; Brooks, Pamela Mack; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2012-05-01

    The study findings showed that homeless childbearing women are at greatest risk for cancer, violence, poor nutrition, sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Collaborating with personnel at a women's shelter, the authors studied homeless childbearing women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about general health promotion, healthy pregnancy promotion, and preterm labor prevention. Guided by the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction and Change, 45 homeless women participated in focus groups. They were 28.7 years old (range 18-44 years), and approximately 87% of these women had custody of their children. Three themes identified included things you do to stay healthy during pregnancy, where you learned about staying healthy, and women's knowledge about preterm labor and general health promotion. These findings informed an 8-week educational session (1 hr/week). During the past year, four 8-week sessions were conducted with attendance between 8 and 14 participants. Each week a different health topic was discussed incorporating the associated unique challenges of homelessness. PMID:21878583

  3. Homeless and Disabled: Rights, Responsibilities, and Recommendations for Serving Young Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article

  4. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

  5. Homeless women's perceptions about their families of origin.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D G

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine descriptively the families of origin of women who are, or who had been, homeless. The research was done using a descriptive qualitative research design; specifically, intensive interviewing. A feminist framework guided the research process. Lofland and Lofland's (1984) conceptualization of units of social settings was used as the basis for analysis of the data. The sample consisted of 20 women who had been homeless. Twelve of the women were interviewed individually. Six of those 12 women and an additional 8 women were later interviewed as part of two focus groups. Themes within each social unit included: meanings--homelesness, home, family of origin, lack of connectedness, and being without; practices--male privilege, transiency, and abuse issues; episodes--loss of family and being homeless; roles--traditional female-male, scapegoating, and little adult; and relationships--mother/daughter, father/daughter, and sibling. Within the mother/daughter relationships, the dominant themes were betrayal, devaluation of self, enmeshment, emotional void, longing for, emotional cutoff, and destructive coalitions. The themes from the father/daughter relationships social unit were abuse issues, differential treatment, idealized father figure, and banished daughter. Criteria for transferability and adequacy were used to determine scientific rigor. PMID:8686289

  6. Predictors of Close Family Relationships over One Year among Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, N.G.; Jane Rotheram-Borus, M.; Batterham, P.; Brumback, B.; Rosenthal, D.; Mallett, S.

    2005-01-01

    Predictors of perceived family bonds were examined among homeless young people who initially left home one year earlier. Newly homeless young people aged 12-20 years who had recently left home were recruited in Los Angeles County, United States (n=201) and Melbourne, Australia (n=124) and followed longitudinally at 3, 6, and 12 months (follow-up

  7. The Impact of Being Homeless on Young Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Tenisha L.

    2012-01-01

    Families with young children are the fastest growing population of the homeless. Homeless young children (under the age of 5) are especially vulnerable as early childhood professionals consider the early years to be the most critical developmental period in all domains (cognitive, social-emotional, physical, and language). The disruptions to a

  8. Adapting the Individual Placement and Support Model with Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental

  9. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced

  10. Adapting the Individual Placement and Support Model with Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental…

  11. The Impact of Being Homeless on Young Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Tenisha L.

    2012-01-01

    Families with young children are the fastest growing population of the homeless. Homeless young children (under the age of 5) are especially vulnerable as early childhood professionals consider the early years to be the most critical developmental period in all domains (cognitive, social-emotional, physical, and language). The disruptions to a…

  12. Gender, coping strategies, homelessness stressors, and income generation among homeless young adults in three cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population. PMID:25942470

  13. The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630

  14. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parenting on the Academic Functioning of Young Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Vrieze, Danielle; Leibel, Cari; Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Effects of parenting quality on the academic functioning of young homeless children were examined using data from 58 children ages 4 to 7 and their parents during their stay at an emergency homeless shelter. Parenting quality, child executive function, child intellectual functioning, and risk status were assessed in the shelter,

  15. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parenting on the Academic Functioning of Young Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Vrieze, Danielle; Leibel, Cari; Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Effects of parenting quality on the academic functioning of young homeless children were examined using data from 58 children ages 4 to 7 and their parents during their stay at an emergency homeless shelter. Parenting quality, child executive function, child intellectual functioning, and risk status were assessed in the shelter,…

  16. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association

  17. A Qualitative Study of Pregnancy Intention and the Use of Contraception among Homeless Women with Children

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sara; Grewal, MPH Mandeep; Roberts, Elizabeth M.; Steinauer, Jody; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2014-01-01

    We undertook a qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory to explore pregnancy intention and the barriers to contraceptive use as perceived by homeless women with children. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were performed in English and in Spanish. The dominant theme emerging from the interviews was a strong desire to avoid pregnancy while homeless. However, few women in our sample used contraception or accessed reproductive health care consistently. There were multiple barriers to using contraception and to accessing reproductive health care services that homeless women reported: (1) inability to prioritize health due to competing demands, (2) shelter-related obstacles and restrictive provider practices that impede access to reproductive health care services and the use of contraception, and (3) change in the power dynamics of sexual relationships while homeless, making women more vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Findings suggest a multifactorial approach is needed to help homeless women use contraception and access reproductive health services. PMID:24858884

  18. Adverse Outcomes Among Homeless Adolescents and Young Adults Who Report a History of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Harpin, Scott B.; Grubenhoff, Joseph A.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) among homeless young people and explored whether sociodemographic characteristics, mental health diagnoses, substance use, exposure to violence, or difficulties with activities of daily living (ADLs) were associated with TBI. Methods. We analyzed data from the Wilder Homelessness Study, in which participants were recruited in 2006 and 2009 from streets, shelters, and locations in Minnesota that provide services to homeless individuals. Participants completed 30-minute interviews to collect information about history of TBI, homelessness, health status, exposure to violence (e.g., childhood abuse, assault), and other aspects of functioning. Results. Of the 2732 participating adolescents and young adults, 43% reported a history of TBI. Participants with TBI became homeless at a younger age and were more likely to report mental health diagnoses, substance use, suicidality, victimization, and difficulties with ADLs. The majority of participants (51%) reported sustaining their first injury prior to becoming homeless or at the same age of their first homeless episode (10%). Conclusions. TBI occurs frequently among homeless young people and is a marker of adverse outcomes such as mental health difficulties, suicidal behavior, substance use, and victimization. PMID:25122029

  19. When the Bough Breaks: The Effects of Homelessness on Young Children. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 3, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy-Roth, Marci; Mackintosh, Bonnie B.; Murphey, David

    2012-01-01

    Living without permanent, long-term housing creates a number of stressors for children and families, but being homeless can be particularly detrimental to the healthy development of young children. The National Center on Family Homelessness reports that more than 1.6 million children--or one in 45 children--were homeless annually in America

  20. When the Bough Breaks: The Effects of Homelessness on Young Children. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 3, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy-Roth, Marci; Mackintosh, Bonnie B.; Murphey, David

    2012-01-01

    Living without permanent, long-term housing creates a number of stressors for children and families, but being homeless can be particularly detrimental to the healthy development of young children. The National Center on Family Homelessness reports that more than 1.6 million children--or one in 45 children--were homeless annually in America…

  1. Souls in Extremis: Enacting Processes of Recovery from Homelessness Among Older African American Women.

    PubMed

    Moxley, David P; Washington, Olivia G M

    2016-06-01

    In a midwestern city of the USA, the authors implemented the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project-and its eight subprojects-to further understand homelessness as experienced by older minority women, develop intervention strategies to facilitate the movement of the participants out of homelessness, and illuminate the women's recovery process. After reviewing the social issue of homelessness among older African American women in the USA, and offering a framework on recovery and qualitative themes of recovery among participants involved in the Telling My Story subproject, the authors present a four-factor model of recovery-focused practice. The model reflects two recovery paradigms: one that is responsive to the negative consequences people experience as a result of their exposure to extreme situations, such as homelessness, and a proactive one in which assistance is designed to help people in recovery advance their own self-development and move forward their process of individuation. PMID:26781673

  2. [Intervention in mental health: an unexpected function of shelters for homeless women].

    PubMed

    Racine, G

    1993-01-01

    The development of services for the homeless is today the target of widespread criticism. Institutions are tending to duplicate services to ensure their survival, which brings about the risk of creating second-rate services for this area of the population. In addition, many critics fear that, because of policies established by institutions, services for the homeless tend to foster rather than fight transience. Based on an analysis of the evolution of mandates of shelters for homeless women, the author suggests that the development of services for the homeless has been influenced by factors other than the survival instinct of these organizations. PMID:8218662

  3. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460699

  4. Making the invisible visible: a Photovoice exploration of homeless women's health and lives in central Auckland.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Kate; Buetow, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Women and the concept of homelessness are weakly connected in the international discourses on health and housing. This PhotoVoice study gave a sample of homeless women in central Auckland a camera with which to photograph their lives in order to voice their felt health needs as advocates and agents for positive change. Interviews explored the meanings given to street lives captured in the photographs and reveal threats to the women's mental health and worsening addictions. Their tight-knit, resilient community, including dogs, was seen as 'family' who provide support and protection. The women perceived social services as helping them survive and support their health, but not ending their homelessness. Barriers to them getting and staying off the street included a shortage of affordable, secure housing, which has also tended to become overcrowded. They identified their own leaders who could link with state housing services to implement and evaluate new homelessness programmes, such as Housing First. PMID:21227559

  5. Homelessness and Young Children: Early Childhood Care and Education. Minibibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Susan, Comp.; Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, states must have policies and procedures in place that ensure timely assessment, appropriate services, and continuity of services for children with disabilities who are homeless. IDEA 2004 specifically requires states to comply with the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance

  6. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, was strongly and positively correlated with participating in more deviant subsistence strategies (e.g., stealing) since being on the street. Young people who participated in a greater number of delinquent acts were more likely to report higher levels of dating violence. Study results highlight the extent of social learning within the lives of homeless young adults, which is evident prior to their leaving home and while they are on the street. PMID:26989342

  7. Employment Status and Income Generation among Homeless Young Adults: Results from a Five-City, Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Pollio, David

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study identified correlates of unemployment among homeless young adults in five cities. Two hundred thirty-eight homeless young people from Los Angeles (n = 50), Austin (n = 50), Denver (n = 50), New Orleans (n = 50), and St. Louis (n = 38) were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Multivariate logistic regression

  8. Employment Status and Income Generation among Homeless Young Adults: Results from a Five-City, Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Pollio, David

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study identified correlates of unemployment among homeless young adults in five cities. Two hundred thirty-eight homeless young people from Los Angeles (n = 50), Austin (n = 50), Denver (n = 50), New Orleans (n = 50), and St. Louis (n = 38) were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Multivariate logistic regression…

  9. Psychiatric disorders and treatment among newly homeless young adults with histories of foster care

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as childhood abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. However, whether a history of foster care elevates the likelihood of psychiatric disorders and treatment among homeless young adults, after adjustment for childhood abuse, is unknown. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults, controlling for childhood abuse and other covariates. Methods Among a consecutive sample of 424 newly homeless young adults (18 to 21 years) in a crisis shelter, logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, psychotic) and psychiatric treatment, adjusted for demographics, childhood abuse, substance abuse, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Results Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely to report any psychiatric disorder (AOR=1.70) and twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder (AOR=2.17), been prescribed psychiatric medication (AOR=2.26), and been hospitalized for psychiatric problems (AOR=2.15) than those without such histories. Conclusions Histories of foster care should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders among homeless young adults to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, hospitalization) tailored to their psychiatric needs. PMID:22706986

  10. Drug use among homeless young people in Los Angeles and Melbourne

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Milburn, Norweeta; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of time spent homeless on young peoples substance use and use of drug and alcohol services in two countries with contrasting policy and service environments. Methods A cross-national survey was conducted of recently homeless and experienced homeless young people in Melbourne (N=674) and Los Angeles (N=620). Questions were asked about alcohol and drug use in the past three months, frequency of use, injecting drug use, drug dependency and perceived need for, and use of, drug and alcohol services. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Substantial numbers of young people reported use of alcohol and drugs. More Australians than Americans and more experienced than newly homeless reported drug use, although there were no differences in frequency of use in the past three months. Polydrug use was common, as were injecting drugs and responses that signified drug dependency. All were more common among Australians and experienced homeless young people. A substantial number of young people had ever taken part in a drug or alcohol program but only a minority believed that they needed help from services. Of these, only a minority had sought help. This was particularly so among those who were classified as drug dependent. Reasons for failure to seek help varied. Conclusion Substance use is alarmingly high compared to national samples of young people, especially among those who had been homeless for longer periods. Programs to reduce substance use must take account of the prevailing drug cultures, as well as different sub-groups of the population. PMID:18710685

  11. The Impact of Homelessness on Recent Sex Trade among Pregnant Women in Drug Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Qiana L; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Penniman, Typhanye V; Latimer, William W

    2012-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis aimed to examine the influence of recent homelessness on recent sex trade among pregnant women in drug treatment after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, age, education, and race. Eighty-one pregnant women from a drug treatment program in Baltimore, Maryland attended an in-person interview and completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV for Axis I disorders, the HIV Risk Behavior Interview, and demographic questionnaires, which assessed psychiatric symptoms, recent homelessness, and sexual risk behavior respectively. Women who experienced recent homelessness had a 4.74 greater odds of having recently traded sex than women who had not been recently homeless, suggesting that homelessness uniquely influences sex trade beyond psychiatric status, which was also a significant correlate of recent sex trade. Addressing both homelessness and psychiatric problems may effectively reduce sex trade and risk for infectious diseases, which could adversely impact maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:22754382

  12. Correlates of Depressed Mood among Young Stimulant-Using Homeless Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine M.; Idemundia, Faith E.; Reback, Cathy J.; Shoptaw, Steve; Marfisee, Mary; Keenan, Colleen; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Liu, Yihang; Yadav, Kartik

    2013-01-01

    Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for reporting suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to be experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support while persons who reported severe body pain were almost 6 times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homeless young G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services. PMID:23017039

  13. Time seizures and the self: institutional temporalities and self-preservation among homeless women.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Amy

    2015-03-01

    This article documents temporalities of homelessness as experienced by many homeless people today, those living in the midst of an urban "services ghetto"-where social service organizations abound, but such organizations fail to coordinate the provision or timing of services, producing an incoherent multiplicity of offerings and schedules. I analyzed distinct but related temporal modes by which institutional timetables controlled homeless women's existence, what I call empty time and overscheduled time. The paradoxes of institutionalized waiting and strict yet inconsistent timetables exacted profound material and psychological tolls. For homeless women in Chicago, many of whom experienced symptoms of severe mental illness, simply securing their daily needs was such a time-consuming endeavor that they had to focus on short-term self-preservation rather than seeking stable employment or housing. Using anthropological theories of self and subjectivity, I argue that what was at stake for many women was more than the exhaustion of shelter life-negotiating institutional timetables also threatened their sense of dignity and humanity. Through the everyday patterning of women's time, non-profit agencies whose stated aim was to eliminate homelessness paradoxically frustrated women's efforts to escape life on the streets. I conclude the analysis with policy suggestions to address these problems. PMID:25287573

  14. Psychosocial Predictors of Rule Following in Hostels for Women Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Wood, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial factors impacting upon the rule-following behaviour of residents of a hostel providing crisis accommodation to women who are homeless. After their arrival, residents of a women's hostel (N=83) completed questionnaires assessing the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived

  15. Psychosocial Predictors of Rule Following in Hostels for Women Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Wood, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial factors impacting upon the rule-following behaviour of residents of a hostel providing crisis accommodation to women who are homeless. After their arrival, residents of a women's hostel (N=83) completed questionnaires assessing the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived…

  16. Bidirectional Partner Violence among Homeless Young Adults: Risk Factors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.; Noel, HarmoniJoie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most prevalent forms of violence in contemporary society is the victimization of intimate partners. Although it has been established that homeless young people experience high levels of victimization on the street, little is known about partner violence (PV) experiences among this group, especially bidirectional violence. As such, the

  17. On the Road: Examining Self-Representation and Discourses of Homelessness in Young Adult Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Theresa; Marshall, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze representations of social issues within contemporary memoirs written for and marketed to a young adult audience and multimodal zines produced by homeless youth. To read across these distinctly different texts (mass marketed and do-it-yourself cultural productions) and genres (memoir and zines), the authors

  18. On the Road: Examining Self-Representation and Discourses of Homelessness in Young Adult Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Theresa; Marshall, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze representations of social issues within contemporary memoirs written for and marketed to a young adult audience and multimodal zines produced by homeless youth. To read across these distinctly different texts (mass marketed and do-it-yourself cultural productions) and genres (memoir and zines), the authors…

  19. Subjective versus Objective Definitions of Homelessness: Are there Differences in Risk Factors among Heavy-Drinking Women?

    PubMed

    Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; O'Leary, Catina Callahan; Cottler, Linda B

    2008-09-01

    Investigations with homeless populations have focused on those living on the streets or in shelters; few have examined phenomena based on respondents' self-definitions as homeless or not. This investigation examined similarities and differences among risk factors (including mental health, substance abuse, religion/spirituality, social support, and risky sexual behaviors) using two definitions of homelessness: one where place of residence defined individuals as homeless (the `objective', or traditional, definition) and another where respondents defined themselves as homeless (the `subjective' definition). Data come from the baseline survey of the NIAAA-funded "Sister-to-Sister" study (n=339) of heavy-drinking women. Subjectively-defined homelessness was associated with higher rates of mental health and substance use disorders, lower rates of condom use, higher rates of trading sex for food, and less social support. Objectively-defined homelessness was associated with higher rates of drinking in abandoned buildings, on the streets, and in public restrooms, more new sexual partners, and higher rates of trading sex for heroin and speedballs. Investigations failing to ask for subjective information may misattribute some factors to homelessness which may overestimate the effect of various factors on homelessness. Investigators should ask respondents to define their homelessness, or they lose an important dimension of the concept of homelessness. PMID:20011677

  20. Young Women, Sports, and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources

  1. Time Seizures and the Self: Institutional Temporalities and Self Preservation among Homeless Women

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This article documents temporalities of homelessness as experienced by many homeless people today, those living in the midst of an urban “services ghetto”—where social service organizations abound, but such organizations fail to coordinate the provision or timing of services, producing an incoherent multiplicity of offerings and schedules. I analyzed distinct but related temporal modes by which institutional timetables controlled homeless women’s existence, what I call empty time and overscheduled time. The paradoxes of institutionalized waiting and strict yet inconsistent timetables exacted profound material and psychological tolls. For homeless women in Chicago, many of whom experienced symptoms of severe mental illness, simply securing their daily needs was such a time-consuming endeavor that they had to focus on short-term self-preservation rather than seeking stable employment or housing. Using anthropological theories of self and subjectivity, I argue that what was at stake for many women was more than the exhaustion of shelter life—negotiating institutional timetables also threatened their sense of dignity and humanity. Through the everyday patterning of women’s time, nonprofit agencies whose stated aim was to eliminate homelessness paradoxically frustrated women’s efforts to escape life on the streets. I conclude the analysis with policy suggestions to address these problems. PMID:25287573

  2. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of

  3. Youth Homelessness 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, David; Chamberlain, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The third national census of homeless school students, conducted in 2006, found that the number of homeless students had decreased since 2001. There were 9,389 homeless students in 2006 compared with 12,227 in 2001. Three groups were over-represented in the homeless population: Indigenous students, young people from single parent and blended…

  4. Youth Homelessness 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, David; Chamberlain, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The third national census of homeless school students, conducted in 2006, found that the number of homeless students had decreased since 2001. There were 9,389 homeless students in 2006 compared with 12,227 in 2001. Three groups were over-represented in the homeless population: Indigenous students, young people from single parent and blended

  5. A randomized control trial of a chronic care intervention for homeless women with alcohol use problems.

    PubMed

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2015-04-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n = 82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a primary care provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a care manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest that screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  6. Defining the Meaning of Spirituality Through a Qualitative Case Study of Sheltered Homeless Women.

    PubMed

    Hurlbut, Jené; Ditmyer, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this case study was to assess the meaning of spirituality in a convenience sample of women located in an urban city in the southwest United States. The secondary purpose was to describe their lived experiences associated with spirituality. From these interviews five themes emerged: Belief in God or a Higher Power, Distinction Between Religion and Spirituality, Belief That There Is a Plan for Their Lives, Spirituality Providing Guidance for What Is Right/Wrong, and Belief That Their Lives Will Improve. These findings support the perceived fundamental importance of spirituality in the lives of homeless women. Nurses and other clinicians can use this information to develop interventions to help support women using spirituality practices and to help improve the outlook of homelessness for these women. PMID:26902440

  7. Self Injurious Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: A Social Stress Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly; Melander, Lisa; Almazan, Elbert

    2009-01-01

    Although self-mutilation has been studied from medical and individual perspectives, it has rarely been examined within a social stress context. As such, we use a social stress framework to examine risk factors for self-mutilation to determine whether status strains that are often associated with poorer health outcomes in the general population are also associated with self-mutilation among a sample of young adults in the United States who have a history of homelessness. Data are drawn from the Homeless Young Adult project which involved interviews with 199 young adults in 3 Midwestern United States cities. The results of our path analyses revealed that numerous stressors including running away, substance use, sexual victimization, and illegal subsistence strategies were associated with more self-mutilation. In addition, we found that certain social statuses exacerbate the risk for self-mutilation beyond the respondents current situation of homelessness. We discuss the implications of our findings for the social stress framework and offer suggestions for studying this unique population within this context. PMID:19879026

  8. I WAS HERE: young mothers who have experienced homelessness use Photovoice and participatory qualitative analysis to demonstrate strengths and assets.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the participatory analysis process expanded the Photovoice methodology to facilitate self-reflection and an empowering collective dialogue among a group of women whose strengths and assets are rarely showcased. PMID:24830441

  9. Homelessness and Drug Abuse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and

  10. Homelessness and Drug Abuse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…

  11. Examining women's agency in managing intimate partner violence and the related risk of homelessness: The role of harm minimisation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a detrimental impact on women and children's emotional, physical and social well-being and has been identified as one of the most common contributors to women's experiences of housing instabilities and homelessness. Women affected by IPV often experience a great level of uncertainty around housing solutions when trying to leave an abusive partner. This study explores women's responses to IPV and the related risk of homelessness through women's narratives (n = 22) in Queensland, Australia. Of particular interest are women's decisions and actions to minimise the impact of IPV as well as homelessness on their and their children's safety and well-being. Findings reveal that women's agency in relation to harm minimisation can take various forms, including the decision to stay with, leave or return to an abusive partner. The data offer insights into women's strategic attempts to manage IPV and the related risk of homeless while trying to minimise the harm associated with one and the other. Implications for understanding women's agency in managing IPV and the related risk of homelessness and providing adequate support mechanisms to improve women and children's social, emotional and physical well-being are discussed. PMID:26110781

  12. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes Among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a history of poor parenting and negative outcomes including depression, delinquency, physical and sexual victimization, and substance use, are similar for these two groups. The sample consisted of 172 homeless young adults from the Midwestern United States. Multivariate results revealed that among those previously in foster care, a history of physical abuse and neglect were positively associated with more depressive symptoms whereas sexual abuse and neglect were related to delinquency and physical victimization. Additionally, lower caretaker monitoring was linked to greater delinquent participation. Among those without a history of foster care, physical abuse was related to more depressive symptoms whereas sexual abuse was positively correlated with delinquency, sexual victimization, and substance use. Furthermore, lower monitoring was related to more substance use. Our findings are discussed in terms of a social stress framework and we review the implications of foster care placement for homeless young adults. PMID:21243115

  13. Pilot Test of an Adapted, Evidence-Based HIV Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Homeless Women.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Cederbaum, Julie A; Song, Ahyoung; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Craddock, Jaih B; Hantanachaikul, Wichada; Tucker, Joan S

    2016-01-01

    Women experiencing homelessness are at heightened risk for HIV, yet risk reduction interventions specifically designed for this population are lacking. This study reports on a pilot efficacy trial of a brief evidence-based intervention, Sister To Sister (STS), that we specifically adapted for homeless women in the temporary/emergency settings where they typically seek services. Seventy-nine women, recruited from three service sites in Los Angeles County, were assigned to the 40-min adapted STS intervention or an information-only control group. At 30-day follow-up, intervention participants reported significantly greater condom use, intentions to use condoms, and sexual impulse control (as well as marginally higher positive condom beliefs and condom self-efficacy) compared to control participants. Results provide preliminary evidence that HIV risk reduction can be achieved for homeless women through a brief skill-based intervention. A randomized controlled trial employing a longer follow-up period to monitor outcomes will be necessary to determine efficacy of the adapted intervention. PMID:26103921

  14. Building a responsive network of support and advocacy for older African American homeless women through developmental action research.

    PubMed

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois; Crystal, Jennifer P

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP), a multimodal intervention that addresses the structural barriers and personal issues older African American women face in overcoming homelessness in a large mid-western city of the United States. The project incorporates a developmental action research design in partnership with homeless and formerly homeless women. Through developmental testing of interventions, LHIRP identifies promising practices at the individual, group life, intentional community, and city levels. The paper offers a rationale for the integration of both developmental research and action research, particularly community-based participatory inquiry. The authors document the nature of the helping network, identify and describe the project's aims, organizing framework, and methods that document the lived experience of homelessness. Action research strategies that support the design and intervention activities are described, as are the tools used to test promising practices that are useful in helping older women transition and remain out of homelessness. The paper identifies the knowledge products of the intervention project including lexicon, theory, and frameworks, considers the vicious cycle that serves as an advanced organizer of relevant intervention, illuminates core principles, and examines the importance of the web of affiliation that the project seeks to form among participants, staff, and technical assistants. PMID:19929159

  15. Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with

  16. Risk factors for homelessness and sex trade among incarcerated women: A Structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seijeoung; Johnson, Timothy P; Goswami, Samir; Puisis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Incarcerated women are among the most vulnerable and perhaps the least studied populations in the US. Significant proportions of female inmates are substance users, and many living in unstable housing conditions or being homeless. Female inmates are often at high risk of engaging in sex exchange for drugs or housing needs. While a disproportionate number of incarcerated women have experienced childhood household adversities and maltreatments, the effects of these childhood experiences on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of this population in later life. We apply a life course perspective to examine these pathways in a sample of incarcerated women in Cook County, Illinois. Findings demonstrated lasting, but differential, effects of household adversities and childhood abuse on subsequent life risks and opportunities among these women. PMID:22162944

  17. The relationship between violence dimensions and symptom severity among homeless, mentally ill women.

    PubMed

    Goodman, L A; Dutton, M A; Harris, M

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between violence and symptomatology in the lives of homeless, mentally ill women. This study investigates the possibility that specific dimensions of violence-frequency, recentness and type-may be associated with severity of psychiatric symptomatology in this population. Results indicate that each of the abuse dimensions is associated with a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and, in combination with substance abuse, account for almost one third of the variance in overall distress. These findings suggest the possibility that intensity of exposure to violence contributes to the severity of psychiatric symptoms even in women who already suffer an overwhelming number of intrapsychic and social difficulties; and that multiply traumatized women do not become desensitized to the impact of new violence. This article discusses the clinical and policy implications of these conclusions. PMID:9018677

  18. Embodied Subjectivities: Nine Young Women Talking Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Pryor, Zoe; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine nine Australian young women's embodied experiences of dance. The young women were all amateur dancers involved in weekly jazz, tap, and ballet dance classes at the same dance studio. In this paper, embodiment is defined as multidimensional (Burkitt 1999). The authors explore the ways the corporeal and…

  19. Embodied Subjectivities: Nine Young Women Talking Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Pryor, Zoe; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine nine Australian young women's embodied experiences of dance. The young women were all amateur dancers involved in weekly jazz, tap, and ballet dance classes at the same dance studio. In this paper, embodiment is defined as multidimensional (Burkitt 1999). The authors explore the ways the corporeal and

  20. The telling my story quilting workshop: innovative group work with older African American women transitioning out of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences. PMID:19921762

  1. The Impact of Homelessness and Incarceration on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rabia A; Angel, Cybele; Martell, Rebecca; Pyne, Diane; Keenan, Louanne

    2016-01-01

    Female inmates have multiple challenges during incarceration and as they transition into the community including: barriers to accessing health care within correctional facilities, poor transitional preparation preceding release, and inadequate continuity of health care after release. This qualitative study explored the health-seeking experiences and the health and housing needs of female inmates. Four focus groups were conducted in a remand facility in Canada. Women described poor health at entry to the correctional system and viewed incarceration as a means to access health care services. Transition back into the community represented a crossroad that was dependent on the stability of housing status. These findings support gender-sensitive health and housing programs to reduce addictions, recidivism, and poor health among this vulnerable population. PMID:26672120

  2. Nutrition education of young women.

    PubMed

    Fine, G A; Conning, D M; Firmin, C; De Looy, A E; Losowsky, M S; Richards, I D; Webster, J

    1994-05-01

    White women aged 25-34 years (n 264) from the lower socio-economic classes (C2, D and E) were classified according to their motivation in respect of health and their educational attainment and arithmetical ability. They were randomly allocated to three groups. One group (test) was given a course in basic nutrition consisting of a video and booklet, each embellished with motivational material. Those classed as of low ability also received the training material in simplified format. A second group (control) received a video and booklet with no motivational or simplified materials. The third group (baseline) received no tuition and represented a control of publicly available information during the period of the experiment. The participants answered a series of questions by administered questionnaire to measure their nutritional knowledge before and one week after they viewed the video programme. All participants achieved significantly higher scores at the second questionnaire. The test and control groups achieved significantly higher scores than the baseline group but there was no significant difference between the test and control groups. The presentation of motivational or simplified materials had no significant effect on learning ability though those classified as more highly motivated and of higher ability achieved higher scores at each questionnaire. The results indicate that young adult females can be taught basic nutrition irrespective of their motivation or ability. PMID:8054332

  3. Young Women Online: Collaboratively Constructing Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine how young women construct their identities with others in online communities. I argue that the proliferation of social networking and its popularity among young people means that performed identities are increasingly collaboratively constructed, with the individual having less control over their public image than was

  4. Fear of a black (and working-class) planet: young women and the racialization of reproductive politics.

    PubMed

    Griffin, C

    1992-10-01

    Racialized and class specific as well as gendered heterosexuality is compulsory for young women. Substantial academic literature addressed the incidence of premarital adolescent heterosexual intercourse paying particular attention to young working-class women and (especially in the US) to young women of color. During the 1980s, journals and academic texts in the US debated the so-called black underclass disregarding the effects of Reaganomics: increasing poverty, homelessness, ill health, and unemployment, which affected young African-American women. From a traditional (hetero)patriarchal standpoint, any teenage pregnancy is a problem. Hence pregnancy avoidance and planned parenthood focus on young working-class women and young women of color presumed to constitute the problem of the (hetero)sexually active teenager. The ideology of fetal rights as used in anti-abortion and pro-life arguments represents the life of a pregnant woman as in direct opposition to that of her fetus. The ideology of adolescence constructs all young people as inherently prone to irresponsibility, especially if they are female, working-class, and black. In the Third World, young women considered as irresponsible mothers more likely face enforced sterilization than access to abortion in the guise of genetic counseling for disabilities or without explicit consent during other gynecological operations. Feminists point out that under current legislation in England and Wales, fetuses defined as seriously handicapped can be aborted up to the moment of birth. The legacy of eugenicist ideas lives on in assumptions about the inherent deficiencies of young working-class women, young women of color, and young women with disabilities as potential mothers. Yet despite the institutional, cultural, and ideological force of appropriate heterosexual and reproductive activity, young women continue to challenge common sense definitions of normality and deviance. PMID:12287096

  5. Using Social Justice Group Work with Young Mothers Who Experience Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Meyer, Dixie; Smith, Rachelle; Price, Amber

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates (e.g., Bassuk et al., 1997) that women and children make up a large percentage of the total number of individuals living without permanent shelter. This article represents a reflective analysis of our work as group facilitators who conducted a series of personal growth groups for young mothers living in a residential facility

  6. Predictors of Change in Self-Reported Social Networks among Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina D.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Rose, Trina

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over 3 years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to fewer…

  7. Young Children and Their Families Who Are Homeless. A University Affiliated Program's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tawara D.; Brown, Marisa C.

    This monograph describes a University Affiliated Program's (UAP) initiative that targets the development needs of children from birth to 5 years of age who are homeless and the services and supports provided to their families. The Georgetown University Child Development Center, the UAP for the District of Columbia, has implemented a homelessness

  8. Predictors of Change in Self-Reported Social Networks among Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina D.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Rose, Trina

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over 3 years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to fewer

  9. Women in Technology, Project Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Benedetto, Victoria; Ortiz, Rachel

    Project Opportunity is designed to provide a bridge curriculum for women who choose to enter nontraditional vocational education and training that will furnish marketable skills to low-income women, single parents, displaced homemakers, young pregnant women, and near-homeless women. A total of 45 women were chosen to participate in the 1993-94

  10. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  11. Recent Violence in a Community-Based Sample of Homeless and Unstably Housed Women With High Levels of Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Elise D.; Cohen, Jennifer; Knight, Kelly R.; Decker, Alyson; Marson, Kara; Shumway, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined associations between co-occurring psychiatric conditions and violence against homeless and unstably housed women. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, we interviewed homeless and unstably housed women recruited from community venues about violence, socioeconomic factors, and psychiatric conditions. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent correlates of violence. Results Among 291 women, 97% screened positive for 1 or more psychiatric conditions. Types of violence perpetrated by primary partners and persons who were not primary partners (nonprimary partners) included emotional violence (24% vs 50%; P < .01), physical violence (11% vs 19%; P < .01), and sexual violence (7% vs 22%; P <.01). The odds of primary partner and nonprimary partner violence increased with each additional psychiatric diagnosis and decreasing levels of social isolation. Conclusions All types of violence were more commonly perpetrated by non primary partners, suggesting that an exclusive focus on domestic violence screening in health care or social service settings will miss most of the violence in this population. Contrary to some previous studies, the odds of violence decreased as social isolation increased, suggesting that social isolation may be protective in homeless and unstably housed communities with high levels of comorbidity and limited options. PMID:25033127

  12. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Midlife AMIGAS: A Cervical Cancer Prevention Trial Among Mexican-American Women Preventing Skin Cancer by Reducing Indoor ... Your doctor may also suggest that you get genetic counseling to determine if you should be tested ...

  13. Sexual concurrency among young African American women.

    PubMed

    Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna G; Davis, Teaniese L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    Young African-American women are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) sexually transmitted infections (STI), and engage in greater sexual concurrency than other race/ethnicities. It is important to evaluate behaviors and characteristics associated with the risk of sexual concurrency, so that interventions can target factors most likely to affect positive change. An emphasis on correlates of concurrency beyond individual-level factors has been suggested. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify individual- and partner-level characteristics associated with sexual concurrency among high-risk, young African-American women. Data were collected from 570 African-American adolescent women (aged 15-21) recruited from a STI clinic, a family planning clinic, and a teen clinic located in Atlanta, GA from March 2002 through August 2004. Logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2012 to evaluate correlates of sexual concurrency. Results show that almost one-quarter of participants reported sexually concurrent partnerships and 28.4% suspected male partner concurrency. Logistic regression results indicated the number of lifetime sexual partners and relationship factors were the primary contributors to engaging in concurrency in this sample. These findings suggest relationship factors may be important contributors to the prevalence of sexual concurrency among young African-American women. Interventions targeted toward sexual health among young African-American women may need to specifically address partner/relationship factors. Through these findings, we hope to better understand sexual risk taking and develop strategies that would overcome barriers to existing interventions aimed at improving the sexual health outcomes of young African-American women. PMID:23363034

  14. Understanding Young Women with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramley, Jenny; And Others

    The report describes an Australian project to investigate ways in which gender issues affect adolescent girls with disabilities and associated educational implications. Interviews were conducted with 180 girls and women (ages 12-29) with mild or moderate disabilities. Additional information came from questionnaire responses and discussions with 48

  15. Sensual Sexuality Education with Young Parenting Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women

  16. Women's Responses to Young Infants' Cries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Gwen E.; Harris, Karen L.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed 40 women's responses to young infants' cries. Mothers and nonmothers were similar in basic features of caregiving behaviors. Although the sound of infant cries may inform caregivers about distress level, caregiving behaviors appear to be determined by additional factors. (RH)

  17. Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…

  18. Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes

  19. Danger Persists for Young Women After Heart Attack, Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Danger Persists for Young Women After Heart Attack, Stroke Odds of another life-threatening event are much ... Young women who survive a heart attack or stroke may not be out of danger once they ...

  20. Thermal maps of young women and men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  1. "The second thing to hell is living under that bridge": narratives of women living with victimization, serious mental illness, and in homelessness.

    PubMed

    Bonugli, Rebecca; Lesser, Janna; Escandon, Socorro

    2013-11-01

    The increasing rates of violence committed against homeless women living with serious mental illness (SMI) have been well documented. These increasing rates of violence need attention as they are a serious public health concern. The purpose of this qualitative study is to increase our understanding of victimization among this population as perceived by those who have lived the experience. The study sample consists of 15 homeless adult women who self-reported having been diagnosed with a SMI. The findings highlight the reality that, provided with the right type of resources, positive growth can occur among these women despite lifelong events of trauma, victimization, and loss. PMID:24131415

  2. The Child Care Council of Westchester's "Hope for the Homeless."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Kathleen

    The problem of homelessness in Westchester County, New York has escalated sharply in the past few years. Estimates suggest that 5,000 people live in motels throughout the county. The largest segment of this population consists of families--women with young children. Mothers are often unable to participate in training programs due to a lack of

  3. Young Women and the Co-Construction of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNae, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Young women's leadership is an area frequently overlooked in educational leadership development. This paper aims to bring young women's voices into educational leadership conversations and illustrate an alternative approach to young women's leadership development. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative action research study was…

  4. Young Women and the Co-Construction of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNae, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Young women's leadership is an area frequently overlooked in educational leadership development. This paper aims to bring young women's voices into educational leadership conversations and illustrate an alternative approach to young women's leadership development. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative action research study was

  5. Low prospects and high risk: structural determinants of health associated with sexual risk among young African American women residing in resource-poor communities in the south.

    PubMed

    Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Carry, Monique; Browne, Felicia A; Doherty, Irene; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-12-01

    African American women at increased risk of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) may engage in risky sex as a coping mechanism for depressed economic conditions. This study examines the association between high-risk sexual behavior and structural determinants of sexual health among a sample of young African American women. 237 young African American women (16-19 years old) from economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in North Carolina were enrolled into a randomized trial testing the efficacy of an adapted HIV/STI prevention intervention. Logistic regression analyses predicted the likelihood that young women reporting lack of food at home, homelessness and low future prospects would also report sexual risk behaviors. Young women reporting a lack of food at home (22 %), homelessness (27 %), and low perceived education/employment prospects (19 %) had between 2.2 and 4.7 times the odds as those not reporting these risk factors of reporting multiple sex partners, risky sex partners including older men and partners involved in gangs, substance use prior to sex, and exchange sex. Self-reported structural determinants of sexual health were associated with myriad sexual risk behaviors. Diminished economic conditions among these young women may lead to sexual risk due to hopelessness, the need for survival or other factors. PMID:25134798

  6. Child Abuse, Street Victimization, and Substance Use among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research documents high rates of child abuse, street victimization, and substance use among homeless youth, few studies have investigated these three constructs simultaneously, and thus little is known about how various forms of victimization are uniquely associated with substance use among this population. The purpose of this

  7. Executive Function Skills and School Success in Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.; Herbers, Janette E.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Cutuli, J. J.; McCormick, Christopher M.; Sapienza, Julianna K.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Zelazo, Philip David

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the role of executive function (EF) skills as a predictor of kindergarten or first-grade adjustment in 138 children living in shelters for homeless families. During the summer, children completed a battery of six EF tasks and three IQ measures. Teachers later rated children's school adjustment in five domains of achievement…

  8. Supporting Positive Parenting for Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The PACT Therapeutic Nursery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melley, Alison Heinhold; Cosgrove, Kim; Norris-Shortle, Carole; Kiser, Laurel J.; Levey, Eric B.; Coble, Catherine A.; Leviton, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive parenting and secure attachment can serve as protective factors against developmental risks associated with high-risk environments such as homelessness and shelter living. This article describes a program for mothers with children from birth to 3 years old whose families are living in shelters and who are enrolled in PACT: Helping

  9. Child Abuse, Street Victimization, and Substance Use among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research documents high rates of child abuse, street victimization, and substance use among homeless youth, few studies have investigated these three constructs simultaneously, and thus little is known about how various forms of victimization are uniquely associated with substance use among this population. The purpose of this…

  10. Executive Function Skills and School Success in Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.; Herbers, Janette E.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Cutuli, J. J.; McCormick, Christopher M.; Sapienza, Julianna K.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Zelazo, Philip David

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the role of executive function (EF) skills as a predictor of kindergarten or first-grade adjustment in 138 children living in shelters for homeless families. During the summer, children completed a battery of six EF tasks and three IQ measures. Teachers later rated children's school adjustment in five domains of achievement

  11. Supporting Positive Parenting for Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The PACT Therapeutic Nursery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melley, Alison Heinhold; Cosgrove, Kim; Norris-Shortle, Carole; Kiser, Laurel J.; Levey, Eric B.; Coble, Catherine A.; Leviton, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive parenting and secure attachment can serve as protective factors against developmental risks associated with high-risk environments such as homelessness and shelter living. This article describes a program for mothers with children from birth to 3 years old whose families are living in shelters and who are enrolled in PACT: Helping…

  12. Dysmenorrhea and Endometriosis in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Tasuku

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is defined as symptoms associated with menstruation, such as abdominal pain, cramping and lumbago, that interfere with daily activity. Primary dysmenorrhea refers to menstrual pain without underlying pathology, whereas secondary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain associated with underlying pathology. Endometriosis, one of the main causes of secondary dysmenorrhea, induces dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain and infertility, resulting in marked reduction of quality of life during reproductive age. This review article is a comprehensive overview of dysmenorrhea and endometriosis in young women. PMID:24574576

  13. The Everyday Violence of Hepatitis C Among Young Women Who Inject Drugs in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Prince, Bridget; Moss, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical understanding of the gendered contours of structural, everyday and symbolic violence suggests that young addicted women are particularly vulnerable to the infectious diseases caused by injection drug use—especially hepatitis C. Participant-observation fieldwork among heroin and speed addicts in San Francisco’s Haight Ashbury neighborhood reveals that extreme levels of violence against women are normalized in the common sense of street-youth drug culture. Physical, sexual and emotional violence, as well as the pragmatics of income generation, including drug and resource sharing in the moral economy of street addicts, oblige most young homeless women to enter into relationships with older men. These relationships are usually abusive and economically parasitical to the women. Sexual objectification and a patriarchal romantic discourse of love and moral worth leads to the misrecognition of gender power inequities by both the men and women who are embroiled in them, as well as by many of the public services and research projects designed to help or control substance abusers. Despite deep epistemological, theoretical and logistical gulfs between quantitative and qualitative methods, applied public health research and the interventions they inform can benefit from the insights provided by a theoretical and cross-methodological focus on how social power contexts shape the spread of infectious disease and promote disproportional levels of social suffering in vulnerable populations. PMID:16685288

  14. pynk : Breast Cancer Program for Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A.; Warner, E.

    2013-01-01

    Consider this scenario: A 35-year-old recently married woman is referred to a surgeon because of a growing breast lump. After a core biopsy shows cancer, she undergoes mastectomy for a 6-cm invasive lobular cancer that has spread to 8 axillary nodes. By the time she sees the medical oncologist, she is told that it is too late for a fertility consultation, and she receives a course of chemotherapy. At clinic appointments, she seems depressed and admits that her husband has been less supportive than she had hoped. After tamoxifen is started, treatment-related sexuality problems and the probability of infertility contribute to increasing strain on the couples relationship. Their marriage ends two years after the womans diagnosis. Six years after her diagnosis, this woman has completed all treatment, is disease-free, and is feeling extremely well physically. However, she is upset about being postmenopausal, and she is having difficulty adopting a child as a single woman with a history of breast cancer. Could this woman and her husband have been offered additional personalized interventions that might have helped them better cope with the breast cancer diagnosis and the effects of treatment? Compared with their older counterparts, young women with breast cancer often have greater and more complex supportive care needs. The present article describes the goals, achievements, and future plans of a specialized interdisciplinary programthe first of its kind in Canadafor women 40 years of age and younger newly diagnosed with breast cancer. The program was created to optimize the complex clinical care and support needs of this population, to promote research specifically targeting issues unique to young women, and to educate the public and health care professionals about early detection of breast cancer in young women and about the special needs of those women after their diagnosis. PMID:23443036

  15. pynk : Breast Cancer Program for Young Women.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Warner, E

    2013-02-01

    CONSIDER THIS SCENARIO: A 35-year-old recently married woman is referred to a surgeon because of a growing breast lump. After a core biopsy shows cancer, she undergoes mastectomy for a 6-cm invasive lobular cancer that has spread to 8 axillary nodes. By the time she sees the medical oncologist, she is told that it is too late for a fertility consultation, and she receives a course of chemotherapy. At clinic appointments, she seems depressed and admits that her husband has been less supportive than she had hoped. After tamoxifen is started, treatment-related sexuality problems and the probability of infertility contribute to increasing strain on the couple's relationship. Their marriage ends two years after the woman's diagnosis.Six years after her diagnosis, this woman has completed all treatment, is disease-free, and is feeling extremely well physically. However, she is upset about being postmenopausal, and she is having difficulty adopting a child as a single woman with a history of breast cancer. Could this woman and her husband have been offered additional personalized interventions that might have helped them better cope with the breast cancer diagnosis and the effects of treatment?Compared with their older counterparts, young women with breast cancer often have greater and more complex supportive care needs. The present article describes the goals, achievements, and future plans of a specialized interdisciplinary program-the first of its kind in Canada-for women 40 years of age and younger newly diagnosed with breast cancer. The program was created to optimize the complex clinical care and support needs of this population, to promote research specifically targeting issues unique to young women, and to educate the public and health care professionals about early detection of breast cancer in young women and about the special needs of those women after their diagnosis. PMID:23443036

  16. The effectiveness of critical time intervention for abused women and homeless people leaving Dutch shelters: study protocol of two randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425 PMID:25927562

  17. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their

  18. When, where, why and with whom homeless women engage in risky sexual behaviors: A framework for understanding complex and varied decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery W.; Stern, Stefanie A.; Hilton, Lara; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2010-01-01

    Impoverished women worldwide are at high risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. This study explores how homeless women make risky sex decisions and the role that alcohol and drugs play in this process. We analyze 56 in-depth qualitative descriptions of recent sexual episodes among 28 women living in shelters in Los Angeles, California, USA. The sample (age 18–63) was 46% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latina, and 21% white. Findings suggest that: (1) homeless women engage in multiple types of relationships and sexual behaviors; (2) emotion and attachment play critical roles in women’s risky sex choices; and (3) the role of alcohol and drugs on such choices varies across relationship commitment. Understanding the complexity of sexual decision-making among this population has implications for developing successful risk reduction interventions. PMID:20485467

  19. Ensuring Quality School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kristin; Milgram, Donna

    This document is composed of a number of publications of Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW) that relate to high quality school-to-work opportunities for young women. Contents include the following: myths and facts about nontraditional work; a list of nontraditional occupations (NTOs) for women; and women and nontraditional work factsheet with

  20. A TYPOLOGY OF DRUG-RELATED OFFENDING AMONG YOUNG HOMELESS INJECTION DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 1629 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21423855

  1. The Lonely and Homeless: Causes and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2004-01-01

    Both, homelessness and loneliness are quite pervasive in North America. This study compared the causes of the loneliness experienced by the homeless to that of the general population. Two hundred and sixty six homeless and five hundred and ninety five men and women from the general population answered a 30 item yes/no questionnaire. The causes of

  2. Pushed Out: America's Homeless. Thanksgiving 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    By winter 1987, up to three million men, women, and children will be homeless; the number of homeless persons will continue to increase at a rate of 25 percent. This report surveys the changes in the homeless population in the following 23 cities over the past year: Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Boston (Massachusetts), Chicago…

  3. Homelessness and Its Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart-Shegos, Ellen

    Homelessness influences every facet of children's lives, inhibiting their physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Homeless women face such obstacles to healthy pregnancies as chemical abuse, chronic health problems, and lack of prenatal care. Homeless infants are more likely to have low birth weights and are at greater

  4. Understanding Consistent Condom Use Among Homeless Men Who Have Sex with Women and Engage in Multiple Sexual Partnerships: A Path Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Wenzel, Suzanne; Rice, Eric; Gilreath, Tamika D; Kurzban, Seth; Unger, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Consistent condom use is the main strategy aimed at preventing individuals from acquiring HIV through sexual intercourse. The mechanism of consistent condom use among a high-risk homeless subpopulation-homeless men who have sex with women and also engage in multiple sexual partnerships-remains unclear. This study identified 182 homeless men who engaged in multiple sexual partnerships from a representative sample of homeless men, who self-identified as heterosexual, using meal line services in Downtown Los Angeles' Skid Row area. Information such as participants' condom use psychosocial correlates, sexual risk behaviors, and social network characteristics were collected. Results suggested that condom efficacy is a potential intervening mechanism through which condom attitudes (β = -0.199; p = 0.005) and depression (β = -0.156; p = 0.029) are associated with an individual's consistent condom use. Having more network members with whom participants talked about HIV prevention (β = 0.051; p = 0.006) was also found to be associated with an individual's consistent condom use. HIV prevention programs should focus on increasing their condom efficacy to help reduce HIV risks among this vulnerable homeless subpopulation. PMID:25845531

  5. Homeless healthcare: raising the standards.

    PubMed

    Medcalf, Pippa; Russell, Georgina K

    2014-08-01

    Over the past 3 years the number of homeless people in the UK has increased by 34%. Most will die young, largely due to treatable conditions. Secondary care can, and must, do more for the silent killer that homelessness is. PMID:25099832

  6. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  7. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the

  8. Contextual Variations in Young Women's Gender Identity Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores young women's strategies for seeking personal power and resisting gender-based stereotypes in a wealthy, suburban, White community and a working-class, urban, community of color. Semi-structured interviews with 27 young women were used to examine contextual variations in these gender identity negotiation processes. Both

  9. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  10. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with

  11. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer

  12. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  13. Correlates of Lifetime Physical Activity in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2003-01-01

    This study retrospectively examined physical activity patterns across three specific age periods (childhood, teenage, and young adulthood) in a cross sectional sample of young Caucasian undergraduate women (N = 44). All women (mean age = 22.27 plus or minus 3.14 years) completed questionnaire packets assessing transtheoretical model of behavior…

  14. Ann Eliza Young: A Nineteenth Century Champion of Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Jack B.

    Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's

  15. Ann Eliza Young: A Nineteenth Century Champion of Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Jack B.

    Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's…

  16. Young women who underwent induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Ma, H; Zhang, M

    1989-01-01

    Premarital sex is becoming increasingly more common in China. As a result, there is a greater need for pregnancy termination, often in very young women. This paper presents case vignettes of 4 Chinese women who were forced, by a variety of circumstances, to undergo induced abortion. C, a 23-year-old shop assistant, was planning marriage and had obtained housing when she discovered she was pregnant. However, her shop manager, whose sexual advances she had spurned, refused to give her a letter of reccommendation for a marriage certificate. M came from the countryside to Shanghai, hoping that through her work as a maid, she would be able to amass modern possessions such as a television and stereo. When this proved impossible on her wage of 40 yuan/month, she engaged in prostitution for 10 yuan/night and did not even know the name of the man who impregnated her. W, a 13-year-old aspiring actress, found that having sexual relations with the director of her theater troupe was the only way to get a leading role. She won the role, but was unable to perform due to her pregnancy. B, a college woman, planned to marry when she learned she was pregnant but broke off the relationship when she discovered the extent of her financee's possessiveness. She became engaged to another man, but he rejected her when she revealed that she was not a virgin. These vignettes demonstrate the extent to which modernization has placed Chinese women in complex psychological situations as they struggle to liberate themselves from traditionalism. PMID:12342848

  17. Experiences Associated with Intervening with Homeless, Substance-Abusing Mothers: The Importance of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists,…

  18. Experiences Associated with Intervening with Homeless, Substance-Abusing Mothers: The Importance of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists,

  19. "If something happened, I will leave it, let it go and move on": resiliency and victimized homeless women's attitudes toward mental health counseling.

    PubMed

    Huey, Laura; Fthenos, Georgios; Hryniewicz, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we draw on interviews conducted with 60 homeless women (N = 60) in Detroit and Chicago about their experiences of violent criminal victimization and their attitudes toward accessing various postvictimization assistance-in particular, mental health counseling. Contrary to the research literature, which tends to overemphasize pathological responses to victimization within this population, what our data reveals is the extent to which victimized homeless women exhibit signs of resiliency through both attitudes and coping behaviors. Further, their expressed attitudes demonstrate the existence of a complex set of relationships between trauma, resiliency, and the desire to access mental health services. These findings we suggest have implications for the delivery of mental health services to this group. PMID:22871790

  20. Childhood risk factors for homelessness among homeless adults.

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, P; Melamid, E; Burnam, m A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This effort used data from the Course of Homelessness study and comparative secondary data on the general population to identify negative childhood and family background experiences that may increase risk for adult homelessness. METHODS. Frequencies of negative childhood experiences were examined among a probability sample of 1563 homeless adults. Differences in risk for such experiences were calculated by sex, age cohort, and racial/ethnicity status. Where possible, rates of negative childhood experiences among the homeless were compared with the general population. RESULTS. Substantial numbers of this sample experienced multiple problems as children across several domains: poverty, residential instability, and family problems. Women and Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of poverty. Homeless adults were at increased risk of childhood out-of-home placement, tenure in public housing, and homelessness, but not at greater risk for physical abuse. Women appeared to be at greater risk for sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS. The problems that homeless individuals experience as adults have very clear analogs in their childhoods. Vulnerability to homelessness stems from factors unevenly distributed across age, sex, and race/ethnicity groups. PMID:7503338

  1. Unwritten: Young Women Faculty in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.; Beaty, Danna M.; Crum, Karen S.; Peters, April

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: As women professors of educational leadership who are involved with feminist research and the preparation of k-12 women leaders, the authors came to the realization that while they have dedicated their professional lives to advancing women leaders in the k-12 environment, they have neglected women like themselves, particularly young…

  2. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  3. Increasing Access to Higher Education for Unaccompanied Youth: Information for Colleges and Universities. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…

  4. "It's Good to Have Wheels!" Perceptions of Cycling among Homeless Young People in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Belinda; Rissel, Chris; Yamazaki, Rowena; Franke, Elise; Amanatidis, Sue; Ravulo, Jioji; Bindon, Jenni; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2012-01-01

    Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth. Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight

  5. "It's Good to Have Wheels!" Perceptions of Cycling among Homeless Young People in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Belinda; Rissel, Chris; Yamazaki, Rowena; Franke, Elise; Amanatidis, Sue; Ravulo, Jioji; Bindon, Jenni; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2012-01-01

    Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth. Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight…

  6. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural

  7. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended for 11 and 12 ... help prevent fainting and injuries. Why is HPV vaccination only recommended for women through age 26? HPV ...

  8. Finding Our Stride: Young Women Professors of Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewcomb, Whitney Sherman; Beaty, Danna M.; Sanzo, Karen; Peters-Hawkins, April

    2013-01-01

    This work is grounded in the literature on women in the academy and offers glimpses into four young women professors' experiences in the field of educational leadership. We utilized reflective practice and interpersonal communication to create a dialogue centered on three qualitative research questions that allows a window into our lives. We

  9. Women in Technology Project Opportunity. End-of-Year Report, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Benedetto, Victoria; Ortiz, Rachel

    Project Opportunity of the Women in Technology (WIT) program at Texas' El Paso Community College is designed to provide a bridge curriculum for women who choose to enter nontraditional vocational fields that furnishes marketable skills to low-income individuals, single parents, displaced homemakers, young pregnant women, and near-homeless women.…

  10. Caffeine Use and Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vener, Arthur M.; Krupka, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed college women and men and found that caffeine was consumed by a large proportion of the respondents. Women consumed a larger amount of caffeine and used more substances containing this drug. An increase in caffeine usage with increased psychic stress was observed for women only. (Author)

  11. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  12. Young womens experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs

    PubMed Central

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A.; Steeves, Richard H.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 2039 years) who maintained an online cancer blog. Womens narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including: awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use. PMID:23820874

  13. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures

  14. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  15. Biographies of Women Scientists for Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Catherine; Smith, Walter S.

    The participation of women in the physical sciences and engineering woefully lags behind that of men. One significant vehicle by which students learn to identify with various adult roles is through the literature they read. This annotated bibliography lists and describes biographies on women scientists primarily focusing on publications after

  16. Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who…

  17. Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who

  18. The Unique and Combined Effects of Homelessness and School Mobility on the Educational Outcomes of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Chen, Chin-Chih; Rouse, Heather L.; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined associations of homelessness and school mobility with educational well-being indicators, as well as the mediating effect of absenteeism, for an entire cohort of third-grade students in Philadelphia. Using integrated archival administrative data from the public school district and the municipal Office of

  19. The Unique and Combined Effects of Homelessness and School Mobility on the Educational Outcomes of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Chen, Chin-Chih; Rouse, Heather L.; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined associations of homelessness and school mobility with educational well-being indicators, as well as the mediating effect of absenteeism, for an entire cohort of third-grade students in Philadelphia. Using integrated archival administrative data from the public school district and the municipal Office of…

  20. Femininity and sexual agency among young unmarried women in Hanoi.

    PubMed

    Quach, Trang

    2008-06-01

    In contemporary Vietnam, young, unmarried, educated women are struggling to negotiate the contradictory expectations of femininity. Qualitative research conducted in Hanoi with 13 unmarried, educated women, aged from 25 to 34 years, explored women's sexual agency in a context of changing discourses on sexuality and gender roles. Interviews were conducted several times with each woman to enable in-depth understanding of sexual experiences and meanings. Either implicitly or explicitly, women in the research were found to resist the power of public discourses on femininity and sexuality. Notions of femininity can be interpreted as a temporary means for women to gain control over sexual relationships. It is crucial to acknowledge the sexual agency of unmarried, educated women and its diverse forms in order to understand complex sexual behaviours and to promote their sexual rights and health. PMID:18446560

  1. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801

  2. Private Lives in Public Places: Loneliness of the Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2005-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, both loneliness and homelessness are more pervasive than we would possibly like to admit. In this study, the experience of loneliness of the homeless was compared to that of the general population. Two hundred and sixty six homeless and 595 men and women from the general population answered a 30 item yes/no

  3. Sexual Safety and Sexual Security among Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Participants Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. Methods We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. Results We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. Conclusions From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. PMID:24942676

  4. Impact of Poverty, Homelessness, and Drugs on Hispanic Women at Risk for HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Vasquez, Rose

    1989-01-01

    The overwhelming focus of the lives of 43 poor, at-risk Hispanic women was coping with threats to their role as providers for their children. Threats included poverty, potential loss of health, drug addiction, lack of social support, low self-esteem, helplessness, and loss of control. Contains 27 references. (SV)

  5. Antiabortion positions and young women's life plans in contemporary Ireland.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Laury

    2003-05-01

    At a critical time when Ireland's abortion ban faces legal challenges and the number of women obtaining abortions abroad each year continues to climb, some antiabortion advocates have turned their attention toward the social factors that influence women's abortion decision-making. Through an analysis of articles carried in the Irish mainstream and Catholic presses, this article examines how antiabortion advocates since the late 1990s have promoted an "antiabortion, pro-motherhood" message in response to trends that they identify as indicating that Irish reproduction has "gone awry". Antiabortion activists have focused in particular on the life plans of young, middle-class, career-oriented women, many of whom have benefited from increased employment opportunities within Ireland. These women are more likely than young women in past generations to postpone childbearing or opt for abortion in the face of an unwanted pregnancy, and thus, symbolize for antiabortion advocates the devaluation of a "traditional" Irish culture centered on the privileging of motherhood and married family life. This article examines antiabortion ideologies deployed around motherhood, work, and childcare, and argues that antiabortion advocates' "pro-motherhood" campaign fails to adequately respond to the changing realities of young, middle-class Irish women's life opportunities and expectations. PMID:12650733

  6. Learning from Families Experiencing Homelessness--How School Leaders Can Make a Difference through Transformative Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warke, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing phenomenon, especially among women and children (Hulchanski, 2009). This study was conducted because of the increase in families experiencing homelessness registering in my school. In none of the current studies about homelessness have the researchers spoken to the families and children experiencing homelessness. This

  7. Learning from Families Experiencing Homelessness--How School Leaders Can Make a Difference through Transformative Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warke, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing phenomenon, especially among women and children (Hulchanski, 2009). This study was conducted because of the increase in families experiencing homelessness registering in my school. In none of the current studies about homelessness have the researchers spoken to the families and children experiencing homelessness. This…

  8. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  9. Precursors of Young Women's Family Formation Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Landale, Nancy S.; Havasevich-Brooks, Tara C.; Booth, Alan; Eggebeen, David J.; Schoen, Robert; McHale, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    We used latent class analysis to create family formation pathways for women between the ages of 18 and 23. Input variables included cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, full-time employment, and attending school. Data (n = 2,290) came from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed

  10. Peer education reaches young women factory workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cash, K

    1993-12-01

    In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These young women are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the young women to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities. PMID:12288826

  11. Characteristics of Mothers Caring for Children During Episodes of Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa L; Whitbeck, Les B; Armenta, Brian E

    2015-11-01

    This study provides a description of the physical, psychological, and substance use problems of adult homeless women who are and are not caring for children. We also examined differences in the characteristics of these two groups of women. Interviews were conducted with 148 homeless women from three mid-sized U.S. cities, 24.3 % of whom were caring for at least one child. Our results showed that women caring for children were more likely to be sheltered and have health insurance. Homeless women caring for children and solitary homeless women were generally similar in terms of substance abuse problems. However, rates of Borderline Personality Disorder were higher among women caring for children than among solitary homeless women. Our results are somewhat consistent with previous research, with the exception of substance abuse problems and mental health problems, which were shown to be equally problematic for all women, regardless of current caregiving status. PMID:25536936

  12. "Singing into Language": Sudanese Australian Young Women Create Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ethnocinematic research project "Cross-Marked: Sudanese Australian Young Women Talk Education", and its relationship to the evolving notion of public pedagogies. The project explores the potential of alternative pedagogies, which include popular culture, especially audiovisual forms, to engage teachers and learners with

  13. Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of

  14. Dieting Behaviors of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health epidemic in the United States. During the past decade, obesity has increased across all education levels, including college graduates. The purpose of this research was to study the health decisions that young women, post-college graduation make regarding their food intake. The subjects in this study completed a…

  15. Totally Private & Personal: Journaling Ideas for Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, Jessica

    This book offers journaling ideas for girls and young women ages 11-16, although it states that others who like to "journal" will find something here for them, too. The book discusses the reasons for journaling, including that it can serve as a good release when angry, sad, troubled, or even happy. The book also states that a journal is a safe

  16. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  17. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per

  18. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  19. Invisible and Special: Young Women's Experiences as Undergraduate Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Melissa; Bartholomew, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on young women students participation in their undergraduate mathematics degree programme: their gendered trajectory is characterized in terms of their being both "invisible" in the dominant university mathematics community and yet "special" in their self -conception. It draws on data collected from a three-year longitudinal

  20. General Prospectus of Agricultural Education for Young Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).

    Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…

  1. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, Jos A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages

  2. Dieting Behaviors of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health epidemic in the United States. During the past decade, obesity has increased across all education levels, including college graduates. The purpose of this research was to study the health decisions that young women, post-college graduation make regarding their food intake. The subjects in this study completed a

  3. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the

  4. Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Y. S.; Daamen, N.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients.

  5. Young women's experiences and perceptions of cunnilingus during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y; Fava, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that cunnilingus may be as prevalent as fellatio among American adolescents. Despite this approximate equivalence in rates, there is an imbalance in the amount and type of attention paid to fellatio and cunnilingus. Furthermore, there has been little empirical examination of young women's experiences and perceptions of cunnilingus during adolescence. Two studies in response to this gap in knowledge were conducted. In Study 1, regression analyses indicated that a young woman's sexual assertiveness was linked to having more lifetime cunnilingus partners, as well as more cunnilingus experiences in the past three months. Study 2 explored young women's perceptions of cunnilingus and their speculations about their male partners' perceptions thereof. Linear mixed modeling revealed that participants had highly favorable impressions of cunnilingus, which they believed their male partners shared. These findings are considered in terms of positive adolescent sexual development and cultural norms regarding female sexuality. PMID:21128154

  6. Young women's preferences for market work: responses to marital events.

    PubMed

    Spitze, G D; Waite, L J

    1981-01-01

    A causal model of changes in women's longrun tastes for paid employment was developed. It is based on the premise that women have a certain preference for market versus home work at the beginning of a year and that during the year some women experience a marital event, which may be a 1st marriage, a 1st birth, or the breakup of an existing marriage. This marital event may then cause some of the women experiencing it to revise their relative tastes for employment and work in the home. It is argued that changes in the level of such resources as time and money and changes in feelings of personal fulfillment that occur as a result of marriage, 1st birth, or divorce are responsible for alterations in market work preferences. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women were used to examine how women's relative preference for market work and home work are affected by the transitions of 1st marriage, marital dissolution, and 1st birth. This survey includes yearly data on over 5000 young women over a recent 5 year period. Personal interviews were conducted with a national probability sample of the noninstitutionalized female population age 14-24 in 1968, with yearly reinterviews through 1973. The impact of a 1st marriage during a year on preference for market work at the end of that year was consistently negative from ages 14 through 23. The likelihood that a young woman prefers market to home work at age 35 decreases from 10-20 percentage points upon 1st marriage. Women who first marry beyond age 24 experience no change in preferences for labor force participation. The positive impact of marital dissolution on a young woman's preference for labor force participation was substantial--between 18 and 29 percentage points--and tended to be higher the later it occurred. The experience of marital dissolution causes women to need to prepare for work. The results suggest that it also increases their desire to work. A 1st birth had no immediate impact but was followed 1-2 years later by striking upward revisions in market work preferences. For women between ages 16-27 who experienced a 1st birth, the probability that they prefer paid employment to home was increased by 10-15 percentage points. This effect was consistently positive and was significant for 6 out of 7 age groups. The occurrence of a 1st birth continued to have an impact on a woman's preference for labor force participation up to about age 25; marriage had no impact beyond age 23. PMID:12265058

  7. The Bubble of Privilege. Young, Privately Educated Women Talk about Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Conceptualizations of the self in relation to others are examined among a group of young women attending a fee-paying school in England. As part of a larger study exploring intimacy and agency among young women from relatively privileged class backgrounds, 54 young women participated in focus group discussions and interviews. Findings reveal that

  8. Changing Times, Future Bodies? The Significance of Health in Young Women's Imagined Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Emma; Evans, John

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of authors recognise the increasing expectations placed on young women as the vanguard of economic, social and cultural change. This paper explores how these imaginings have come to bear upon young women's bodies, as part of a special issue on pedagogical responses to the changing position of girls and young women. In examining

  9. Changing Times, Future Bodies? The Significance of Health in Young Women's Imagined Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Emma; Evans, John

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of authors recognise the increasing expectations placed on young women as the vanguard of economic, social and cultural change. This paper explores how these imaginings have come to bear upon young women's bodies, as part of a special issue on pedagogical responses to the changing position of girls and young women. In examining…

  10. Experiences Associated with Intervening with Homeless, Substance-abusing Mothers: The Importance of Success

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists, experiences related to managing the chaotic nature of the client's lives, wanting to manage the client's lives, and frustration with client's life trajectories are reviewed. Observations related to the therapeutic process include the client's relationship to the therapist, balancing the client's independence and need for assistance, and unrealistic expectations among the clients. Recommendations for successfully approaching these clinical situations and experiences are offered. The purpose of this article is to document these therapy experiences to facilitate the work of future teams seeking to intervene in the lives of homeless families through homeless shelters or other settings. PMID:23285834

  11. Providing Young Women with Credible Health Information about Bleeding Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rhynders, Patricia A.; Sayers, Cynthia A.; Presley, Rodney J.; Thierry, JoAnn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1% of U.S. women may have an undiagnosed bleeding disorder, which can diminish quality of life and lead to life-threatening complications during menstruation, childbirth, and surgery. Purpose To understand young womens knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about bleeding disorders and determine the preferred messaging strategy (e.g., gain- versus loss-framed messages) for presenting information. Methods In September 2010, a web-assisted personal interview of women aged 1825 years was conducted. Preliminary analyses were conducted in 2011 with final analyses in 2013. In total, 1,243 women participated. Knowledge of blood disorders was tabulated for these respondents. Menstrual experiences of women at risk for a bleeding disorder were compared with those not at risk using chi-square analyses. Perceived influence of gain- versus loss-framed messages also was compared. Results Participants knew that a bleeding disorder is a condition in which bleeding takes a long time to stop (77%) or blood does not clot (66%). Of the women, 57% incorrectly thought that a bleeding disorder is characterized by thin blood; many were unsure if bleeding disorders involve blood types, not getting a period, or mother and fetus having a different blood type. Women at risk for a bleeding disorder were significantly more likely to report that menstruation interfered with daily activities (36% vs 9%); physical or sports activities (46% vs 21%); social activities (29% vs 7%); and school or work activities (20% vs 9%) than women not at risk. Gain-framed messages were significantly more likely to influence womens decisions to seek medical care than parallel loss-framed messages. Findings suggest that the most influential messages focus on knowing effective treatment is available (86% gain-framed vs 77% loss-framed); preventing pregnancy complications (79% gain- vs 71% loss-framed); and maintaining typical daily activities during menstrual periods. Conclusions Lack of information about bleeding disorders is a serious public health concern. Health communications focused on gain-framed statements might encourage symptomatic young women to seek diagnosis and treatment. These findings and corresponding recommendations align with Healthy People 2020 and with CDCs goal of working to promote the health, safety, and quality of life of women at every life stage. PMID:25245800

  12. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  13. Nutrition and health services needs among the homeless.

    PubMed Central

    Wiecha, J L; Dwyer, J T; Dunn-Strohecker, M

    1991-01-01

    This review discusses nutrition and related health problems among homeless Americans, summarizes recent information, and identifies needs for services and future research. The nature of homelessness today provides a context for the discussion. Many homeless persons eat fewer meals per day, lack food more often, and are more likely to have inadequate diets and poorer nutritional status than housed U.S. populations. Yet many homeless people eligible for food stamps do not receive them. While public and private agencies provide nutritious food and meals for homeless persons, availability of the services to homeless persons is limited. Many homeless people lack appropriate health care, and certain nutrition-related health problems are prevalent among them. Compared with housed populations, alcoholism, anemia, and growth problems are more common among homeless persons, and pregnancy rates are higher. The risks vary among homeless persons for malnutrition, nutrition-related health problems, drug and alcohol abuse, and mental illness. For example, among homeless persons, fewer heads of families than single adults are substance abusers, and mental illness varies in prevalence among single men, single women, and parents in homeless families. Homeless persons need improved access to food, nutrition, and health services. More nutrition education needs to be available to them and to service providers. Use of representative samples and validation of self-reported nutrition and health data will help future investigators to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of the homeless and their nutritional status. PMID:1908587

  14. Epidemiology of drug and alcohol use in young women.

    PubMed

    Crome, Ilana B; Kumar, Manoj T

    2007-04-01

    An understanding of the epidemiology of alcohol and drug use in young women is important for three main reasons: (1) to appreciate that substance use, misuse, harmful use and dependence are associated with considerable mortality and physical and psychological morbidity; (2) to understand the nature and extent of these problems and the likely impact on the fetus, neonate and infant through childhood to adolescence; and (3) to utilize this information as part of a needs assessment to develop effective services, which detect problems and deliver appropriate interventions. Although abstention rates are consistently higher among women than men in general, substance misuse is increasing in young women. Simultaneously, there is great variability in prevalence rates in different countries, regions of countries and in different ethnic groups. This can be explained in part by differences in definitions, measurement techniques, availability, price, social acceptability, seizure and arrest policies, and in patterns and modes of use. During pregnancy, up to 15% of women may be using alcohol and about 5% may be using illicit drugs. The proportion of women using substances is less at term than in the early stages of pregnancy. Despite this, substance use rises sharply in the first 6 months postpartum. Detection of substance use in obstetric units is low but perinatal substance misuse intervention reduces adverse neonatal outcomes. On the basis of the relatively high rate of substance use disorders during pregnancy, effective screening and intervention strategies should be implemented. PMID:17292681

  15. Practical Advice for Emergency IUD Contraception in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Goldstuck, Norman D.; Wildemeersch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Too few women are aware of the very high efficacy of intrauterine copper devices (IUDs) to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Women who frequently engage in unprotected intercourse or seek emergency contraception (EC) are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and possible abortion. It is therefore important that these women receive precise and accurate information about intrauterine devices as they may benefit from using an IUD for EC as continuing contraception. Copper IUDs should be used as first choice options given their rapid onset of action and their long-term contraceptive action which require minimal thought or intervention on the part of the user. In the United States, there is only one copper IUD presently available which limits treatment options. There are numerous copper IUDs available for use in EC, however, their designs and size are not always optimal for use in nulliparous women or women with smaller or narrower uteruses. Utilization of frameless IUDs which do not require a larger transverse arm for uterine retention may have distinct advantages, particularly in young women, as they will be suitable for use in all women irrespective of uterine size. This paper provides practical information on EC use with emphasis on the use of the frameless IUD. PMID:26294910

  16. Young Womens Stroke Etiology Differs from that in Young Men: an Analysis of 511 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Emily; Hoffmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Women are known to have particular heterogeneity in stroke etiology related to childbearing and hormonal factors. Although there are continued acute stroke treatment advances focusing on clot dissolution or extraction, effective secondary prevention of stroke, however, is dependent on an accurate etiological determination of the stroke. Otherwise, more strokes are likely to follow. Analysis of young womens stroke etiology in a large stroke registry incorporating contemporary neurovascular and parenchymal imaging and cardiac imaging. Young people (18-49 years old) with stroke were consecutively accrued over a 4 year period and an investigative protocol prospectively applied that incorporated multimodality magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, cardiac echo and stroke relevant blood investigations. All patients were classified according to an expanded Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment TOAST classification and neurological deficit by the National Institute of Health stroke admission scores. In 511 registry derived, young stroke patients (mean age 39.8 years, 95% confidence interval: 39.1; 40.7 years), gender (women n=269, 53%) the etiological categories (women; men) included: i) small vessel disease (30/55;25/55), ii) cardioembolic (16/42;26/42), iii) large vessel cervical and intracranial disease (24/43;19/43), the other category (132/226; 91/226), which included, iv) substance abuse (15/41; 26/41, 4.6), v) prothrombotic states (22/37;15/37), vi) dissection (11/30;19/30), vii) cerebral venous thrombosis (15/19; 4/19, 12.4), viii) vasculitis (8/12; 4/12), ix) migraine related (10/11, 1/11) and x) miscellaneous vasculopathy (38/52;14/52). The latter entities comprised of aortic arch atheroma, vessel redundancy syndrome, vertebrobasilar hypoplasia, arterial fenestrations and dolichoectasia. Some conditions occurred solely in women, such as eclampsia (5), Call Fleming syndrome (4), fibromuscular dysplasia (3) and Moya Moya syndrome (2). Categories aside from bland infarction included: ii) intracerebral hemorrhage (43/106; 63/106) and xiii) stroke of undetermined etiology (6/10; 4/10). Admission mean National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores differed significantly between women and men (4.7; 6.0 t=1.8, P=0.03). Young womens stroke is significantly different from men in 7/12 stroke etiological categories in addition to 4 unique subtypes that require specific management. PMID:24147209

  17. Adverse Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Young New Yorkers, Particularly Young Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Maduro, Gil A.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Chen, Yu; Reynolds, Harmony R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality has been on the decline in the United States for decades. However, declines in IHD mortality have been slower in certain groups, including young women and black individuals. Hypothesis Trends in IHD vary by age, sex, and race in New York City (NYC). Young female minorities are a vulnerable group that may warrant renewed efforts to reduce IHD. Methods IHD mortality trends were assessed in NYC 1980–2008. NYC Vital Statistics data were obtained for analysis. Age-specific IHD mortality rates and confidence bounds were estimated. Trends in IHD mortality were compared by age and race/ethnicity using linear regression of log-transformed mortality rates. Rates and trends in IHD mortality rates were compared between subgroups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Results The decline in IHD mortality rates slowed in 1999 among individuals aged 35–54 years but not ≥55. IHD mortality rates were higher among young men than women age 35–54, but annual declines in IHD mortality were slower for women. Black women age 35–54 had higher IHD mortality rates and slower declines in IHD mortality than women of other race/ethnicity groups. IHD mortality trends were similar in black and white men age 35–54. Conclusions The decline in IHD mortality rates has slowed in recent years among younger, but not older, individuals in NYC. There was an association between sex and race/ethnicity on IHD mortality rates and trends. Young black women may benefit from targeted medical and public health interventions to reduce IHD mortality. PMID:26882207

  18. Brain structural alterations associated with young women with subthreshold depression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haijiang; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Neuroanatomical abnormalities in patients with major depression disorder (MDD) have been attracted great research attention. However, the structural alterations associated with subthreshold depression (StD) remain unclear and, therefore, require further investigation. In this study, 42 young women with StD, and 30 matched non-depressed controls (NCs) were identified based on two-time Beck Depression Inventory scores. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region of interest method were used to investigate altered gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) among a non-clinical sample of young women with StD. VBM results indicated that young women with StD showed significantly decreased GMV in the right inferior parietal lobule than NCs; increased GMV in the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus; and increased WMV in the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Together, structural alterations in specific brain regions, which are known to be involved in the fronto-limbic circuits implicated in depression may precede the occurrence of depressive episodes and influence the development of MDD. PMID:25982857

  19. Androgen replacement in adolescents and young women with hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Bilger, Marie; Speraw, Susan; LaFranchi, Stephen H; Hanna, Cheryl E

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that young women with androgen deficiency due to hypopituitarism would benefit from androgen replacement in the form of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Five young women, age 15.2-23.1 years, with panhypopituitarism were studied in a 12-month double blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of DHEA replacement in a dose 50 mg/day (Belmar Pharmacy, Lakewood, CO). All had growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and antidiuretic hormone deficiencies. Gonadotropin deficiency was complete in three and partial in two. The patients were evaluated at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Serum hormone levels, body composition, lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), exercise capacity and tests of psychological function were performed. DHEA replacement restored serum DHEA levels to normal, 359.8+/-337 ng/dl (12.5+/-11.7 nmol/l). The Life Situation Survey showed significantly better life satisfaction on DHEA than placebo (110 vs 102, p = 0.05). Trends for improved maximal oxygen uptake (VO2), and decreased percent body fat did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, androgen replacement with DHEA should be considered in young women with panhypopituitarism. Further studies over longer periods in larger groups of patients are necessary to better evaluate the effects of DHEA replacement on BMD, muscle strength and body composition. PMID:15844469

  20. Provider Counseling to Young Women Seeking Family Planning Services

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, Alexandra M.; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Luecke, Ellen; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Contraceptive nonuse and misuse contribute to rates of unintended pregnancy and STDs among young women in the United States. Clinical providers assume an important role in guiding youths contraceptive method choices. METHODS Sixty-seven women aged 1621 were recruited as part of a cohort study, conducted in 20092012, that examined provider-patient interactions during family planning visits at six San Francisco clinics. Interactions between patients and providers were audio-recorded. Participants completed questionnaires about method preference immediately before seeing the provider; they reported on method choice immediately after the visit and by telephone three and six months later. Transcripts were analyzed to examine providers strategies for guiding decision making and addressing youths contraceptive concerns. Missed opportunities for promoting young women's reproductive health were identified. RESULTS Twenty-one percent of young women who did not report desiring a hormonal or long-acting reversible method (IUD or implant) before seeing their provider chose one after counseling. Use of a highly effective (hormonal or long-acting reversible) method at follow-up was more common among women who had received interactive counseling by providers who guided them to consider contextual influences than among those who had not received such counseling. Attention to relationship characteristics, sexual behavior patterns and STD risk was largely absent from contraceptive counseling. CONCLUSION High-quality strategies used by providers to guide contraceptive decision-making were tailored to adolescents developmental and environmental needs. Several areas of counseling require increased attention and seem vital to providing comprehensive reproductive health care to adolescents. PMID:24786186

  1. Why some women look young for their age.

    PubMed

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Murray, Peter G; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D; Tomlin, Cyrena C; Strongitharm, Barbara H; Perrett, Dave I; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E; Messenger, Andrew G; Green, Martin R; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

  2. Why Some Women Look Young for Their Age

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, David A.; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Murray, Peter G.; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Strongitharm, Barbara H.; Perrett, Dave I.; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Green, Martin R.; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

  3. Homelessness Assistance and Resources

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk of becoming homeless? Go to the HUD Resource Locator and select "Find Homeless Resources Near Me" to find out where you can go for help. HUD Resource Locator What are HUD Homeless Programs Doing In ...

  4. Young women's construction of their post-cancer fertility.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Amy; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Younger women diagnosed with cancer often face compromised fertility as a result of their treatment. However, previous research has adopted a biomedical model of fertility and utilised hypothetico-deductive research methods which have not allowed for full exploration of women's subjectivity. This study explored younger women's construction of their fertility post-cancer, and their discussions of fertility with healthcare professionals, from a social constructionist epistemology. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews were conducted with eight women aged 18-26, across a variety of cancer types. Foucaultian Discourse Analysis identified three subject positions associated with fertility concerns: 'Inadequate woman: Accepting the motherhood mandate'; 'Adequate woman: Resisting the motherhood mandate'; and 'Survival of the fittest: Woman as genetically defective'. Implications of these subject positions included feelings of inadequacy, fear and devastation; feeling undesirable to romantic partners; and concern about passing on cancer-positive genes. In describing healthcare professional interactions, women adopted positions of 'Satisfied patient'; 'Passive recipient patient'; or 'Resisting the passive patient position'. Accounts of inadequate information provision were associated with anger and frustration, whereas feeling adequately informed was associated with satisfaction at making decisions about fertility preservation. These results suggest that fertility is of importance to young women cancer survivors, and that compromised fertility can negatively impact subjectivity. PMID:24916140

  5. Maintaining Fertility in Young Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hulvat, Melissa C.; Jeruss, Jacqueline S.

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement Breast cancer effects nearly 200,000 American women each year, with 9% of these women still in their childbearing years. For this subset of future survivors, the issue of fertility may be a significant quality-of-life concern. Both the causes and treatments for infertility in young breast cancer patients must be thoroughly understood by the multidisciplinary team caring for these women in order for the caregivers to be effective advocates for their patients. Radiation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy all effect ovarian function to greater or lesser degrees, with the incidence of permanent post-treatment amenorrhea following systemic treatment for breast cancer in women age 50 or younger estimated as between 33% and 76%. The science of fertility preservation continues to experience significant advances in terms of the success of oocyte, embryo, and ovarian tissue preservation, and it is crucial that physicians and patients are aware of the available fertility preservation options. The optimal time to address the possibility of treatment-related infertility and strategies to combat this with younger patients is prior to treatment, rather than after cancer therapy has begun, and a full knowledge of the available technologies is a prerequisite for an informed discussion. Causes of ovarian suppression and options for treatment, including consideration of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and alternative parenting approaches are also discussed to assist the clinician caring for young patients with cancer. PMID:20238254

  6. Nutritional characteristics, eating pathology, and hormonal status in young women.

    PubMed

    Rock, C L; Gorenflo, D W; Drewnowski, A; Demitrack, M A

    1996-10-01

    Ovulatory dysfunction is common in patients with eating disorders. However, many women engage in pathologic dieting behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathologic eating attitudes and behaviors that are present in many young women. Specific food choices and nutrient intakes may be associated with altered gonadal hormone status of these dieters. This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the nutritional characteristics of college-aged women defined by their eating attitudes and behaviors with a previously described questionnaire. We evaluated dietary intake, body composition, and selected biochemical indicators in 76 undergraduate women. Serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, lipids, and carotenoids were measured on days 6, 21, and 28 of one menstrual cycle. Dietary assessment was based on food records at two 3-d intervals during the cycle. Ovulatory status was definitively determined on the basis of biochemical data for 46 of the women. Increased degree of pathologic dieting was associated with a significantly lower intake of dietary fat (P < 0.02), despite similar mean body mass index and body composition across the eating pathology groups. Serum concentration of alpha-carotene was significantly greater (P < 0.005) in association with a greater degree of eating pathology. With ovulation as a between-group factor, serum lutein concentration and dietary intake of energy and fat differed significantly between groups (P < 0.003). Nutritional characteristics associated with pathologic dieting behavior may also be associated with menstrual irregularities in young women. PMID:8839501

  7. Complicating the "Public": Enabling Young Women's Participation in Public Engagement Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levac, Leah R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing attention to both public engagement in policy development, and youth civic engagement, the engagement of young women and young mothers receives little attention. This article proposes guidelines for engaging with young women in provincial public policy development via their participation in public engagement initiatives. Developed

  8. Young Women's Positive and Negative Perceptions of Self in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Siobhan; Neill, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents analysis of one aspect of a larger research project examining the everyday lives and experiences of young women in Northern Ireland. As an introductory exercise within focus groups, 48 young women considered and discussed the good and not so good things about being a young woman in Northern Ireland. Through these accounts

  9. 76 FR 9577 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women: Notice of Charter Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young.... 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and...

  10. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This

  11. Young women's experiences of intrusive behavior in 12 countries.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N?=?1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities. Aggr. Behav. 42:41-53, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26299620

  12. Seeking Health Information Online: Association With Young Australian Womens Physical, Mental, and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Loxton, Deborah; Dobson, Annette; Mishra, Gita Devi

    2015-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the extent to which young adults use the Internet as a health information resource and whether there are factors that distinguish between those who do and do not go online for health information. Objective The aim was to identify the sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with young womens use of the Internet for health information. Methods We used data from 17,069 young women aged 18-23 years who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Womens Health. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with searching the Internet for health information. Results Overall, 43.54% (7433/17,069) of women used the Internet for health information. Women who used the Internet had higher odds of regular urinary or bowel symptoms (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.36-1.54), psychological distress (very high distress: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.37), self-reported mental health diagnoses (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23), and menstrual symptoms (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36) than women who did not use the Internet for health information. Internet users were less likely to have had blood pressure checks (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93) and skin cancer checks (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97) and to have had a live birth (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86) or pregnancy loss (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98) than non-Internet users. Conclusions Women experiencing stigmatized conditions or symptoms were more likely to search the Internet for health information. The Internet may be an acceptable resource that offers anonymized information or support to young women and this has important implications for health service providers and public health policy. PMID:25986630

  13. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  14. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were

  15. Pressures, Satisfactions, and Their Link to Physical Health of Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbrugge, Lois M.

    Increasingly, young American women are engaged in multiple roles, combining job and family responsibilities. To investigate the links between role groups (employment, marriage, parenthood), and pressures, satisfactions, and physical health among young women, a subsample of 162 white women, aged 18 to 34, drawn from the 1978 Health in Detroit

  16. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  17. Gender, Family Negotiations and Academic Success of Young Moroccan Women in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrs, Marta Bertran; Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Rovira, Jordi Pmies

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the lives of pioneering young women from Morocco, the first to enjoy educational and social success in Catalonia, by analyzing the family negotiations entered into during this process. The study is based on the life stories of these young Moroccan women and on ideas that emerge from discussion groups involving the women

  18. Young Women do it Better: Sexual Dimorphism in Temporal Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Laura Jane; Butler, John S.; Molloy, Anna; McGovern, Eavan; Beiser, Ines; Kimmich, Okka; Quinlivan, Brendan; ORiordan, Sean; Hutchinson, Michael; Reilly, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which two sensory stimuli presented sequentially are detected as asynchronous by the observer. TDTs are known to increase with age. Having previously observed shorter thresholds in young women than in men, in this work we sought to systematically examine the effect of sex and age on temporal discrimination. The aims of this study were to examine, in a large group of men and women aged 2065?years, the distribution of TDTs with an analysis of the individual participants responses, assessing the point of subjective equality and the just noticeable difference (JND). These respectively assess sensitivity and accuracy of an individuals response. In 175 participants (88 women) aged 2065?years, temporal discrimination was faster in women than in men under the age of 40?years by a mean of approximately 13?ms. However, age-related decline in temporal discrimination was three times faster in women so that, in the age group of 4065?years, the female superiority was reversed. The point of subjective equality showed a similar advantage in younger women and more marked age-related decline in women than men, as the TDT. JND values declined equally in both sexes, showing no sexual dimorphism. This observed sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination is important for both (a) future clinical research assessing disordered mid-brain covert attention in basal-ganglia disorders, and (b) understanding the biology of this sexual dimorphism which may be genetic or hormonal. PMID:26217303

  19. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n=225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  20. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  1. Correlates of Homeless Episodes among Indigenous People

    PubMed Central

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the correlates of homeless episodes among 873 Indigenous adults who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study on four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Descriptive analyses depict differences between those who have and have not experienced an episode of homelessness in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses assess factors associated with a history of homeless episodes at the time of their first interview. Results show that individuals with a history of homeless episodes had significantly more individual and family health, mental health, and substance abuse problems. Periods of homelessness also were associated with financial problems. Among the female caretakers who experienced episodes of homelessness over the course of the study, the majority had been homeless at least once prior to the start of the study and approximately one–fifth met criteria for lifetime alcohol dependence, drug abuse, or major depression. Family adversity during childhood was also common for women experiencing homelessness during the study. PMID:21656303

  2. Breast cancer in young women: special considerations in multidisciplinary care

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Chantal; Lee, Marie Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in females, and 5%7% of breast cancer cases occur in women under 40 years of age. Breast cancer in the young has gained increased attention with an attempt to improve diagnosis and prognosis. Young patients tend to have different epidemiology, presenting with later stages and more aggressive phenotypes. Diagnostic imaging is also more difficult in this age group. Multidisciplinary care generally encompasses surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and social workers. Other special considerations include reconstruction options, fertility, genetics, and psychosocial issues. These concerns enlarge the already diverse multidisciplinary team to incorporate new expertise, such as reproductive specialists and genetic counselors. This review encompasses an overview of the current multimodal treatment regimens and the unique challenges in treating this special population. Integration of diagnosis, treatment, and quality of life issues should be addressed and understood by each member in the interdisciplinary team in order to optimize outcomes. PMID:25300196

  3. The Markers and Meanings of Growing Up: Contemporary Young Womens Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Growing up in the shadow of the womens movement has created contradictory life course and identity possibilities for young women. Although prior research has examined the formal markers of adulthood, we know little about how young women themselves perceive these markers. Forty-two in-depth interviews revealed that the subjective meanings of young womens transition to adulthood are actually far more complex than previously assumed. While becoming a parent and becoming financially independent were seen by interviewees as reflecting an adult orientation, completing schooling was tied to class-differentiated views of growing up. In addition, beginning full-time work was subjectively linked to future career uncertainty, and getting married did not diminish young womens emphasis on self-development and independence from men. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is a disjuncture between womens objective and subjective transition to adulthood. This study suggests that our previous understandings of the transition to adulthood do not reflect the full complexity of how young women subjectively experience it or the extent to which class impacts these perceptions. PMID:18418470

  4. Characterizing Alcohol Use Disorders and Suicidal Ideation in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Constantino, Anna M.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Glowinski, Anne; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and suicidal ideation (SI) co-occur, yet few studies have investigated the risk and protective factors that influence their comorbidity. Method: Data from 3,787 twin women ages 18—27 years were analyzed. AUD was defined as a lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. SI was coded as a lifetime report of any SI, and all subjects were queried about SI. Subjects were divided into those with neither AUD nor SI (AUD−SI−), those with AUD but no SI (AUD+SI−), those with SI but no AUD (AUD−SI+), and those with comorbid AUD and SI (AUD+SI+). Association with multiple measures of psychopathology, negative life events, personality, and family history was assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Results: Women with AUD were at 3.1 (95% confidence interval [2.5, 3.8]) odds of also reporting a lifetime history of SI. Psychopathology and negative life events were consistently high in the AUD+SI+ group. AUD+SI+ women also were more likely to report drinking to cope. Substance use was more common in the AUD+SI− versus the AUD−SI+ women, whereas major depressive disorder, social phobia, and panic attacks were more commonly reported by the AUD−SI+ versus the AUD+SI− women. Conclusions: The comorbidity between AUD and SI is characterized in young women by co-occurring psychopathology, drinking to cope, and negative life events. PMID:23490569

  5. Homelessness in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a theoretical and practical approach in defining the "problem" of homelessness in libraries. The author examines three fundamental problems on homelessness. The three fundamental questions are: (a) Who are the homeless? (b) Why are they homeless? (c) What are their information needs in libraries? These questions are important in

  6. Homelessness in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a theoretical and practical approach in defining the "problem" of homelessness in libraries. The author examines three fundamental problems on homelessness. The three fundamental questions are: (a) Who are the homeless? (b) Why are they homeless? (c) What are their information needs in libraries? These questions are important in…

  7. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia in active young women.

    PubMed

    Guenette, Jordan A; Sheel, A William

    2007-12-01

    Studies examining pulmonary gas exchange during exercise have primarily focused on young healthy men, whereas the female response to exercise has received limited attention. Evidence is accumulating that the response of the lungs, airways, and (or) respiratory muscles to exercise is less than ideal and this may significantly compromise oxygen transport in certain groups of otherwise healthy, fit, active, male subjects. Women may be even more susceptible to exercise-induced pulmonary limitations than height-matched men, by virtue of their smaller lung volumes, lower maximal expiratory flow rates, and smaller diffusion surface areas. We have recently shown that exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) is more prevalent and occurs at relatively lower fitness levels in females than in males. Despite this finding, few physiologically based mechanisms have been identified to explain why women may be more susceptible to EIAH than men. Potential mechanisms of EIAH include relative alveolar hypoventilation, ventilation-perfusion inequality, and diffusion limitation. Whether these mechanisms are different between sexes remains controversial. The primary purpose of this review is to summarize the available data on EIAH in women and to discuss potential sex-based mechanisms for gas exchange impairment. Furthermore, we discuss unresolved questions dealing with pulmonary system limitations during exercise in women. PMID:18059604

  8. Shifting Motivations: Young Womens Reflections on Physical Activity Over Time and Across Contexts

    PubMed Central

    ODougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 1830, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were interviewed. For the majority of women (n = 24), obligation to the study prevailed as the motivator during the intervention. Some (n = 15) became physically active for their own benefit. Afterward, exercisers and controls said they were physically active to feel better and/or healthy (n = 20), for body image and/or weight loss (n = 20), or both. Women expressed motivations for physical activity in ways that resonated with self-determination theory. Their commentaries expand on theory to include experiencing multiple motivations simultaneously and motivations shifting over time and in differing contexts. Social motivations were compelling, both those associated with societal values (research, health) and cultural trends (body image). PMID:20530640

  9. Sexual Health Knowledge and Needs: Young Muslim Women in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Rebecca M; Liamputtong, Pranee; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the sexual health knowledge and needs among young Muslim women living in Melbourne, Australia. Eleven young Muslim women were individually interviewed about issues relating to sexual health knowledge and needs, access to sexual health services, and their experiences of balancing their lives in relation to sexual health. Findings revealed a marked influence of religion and culture on sexual health of young Muslim women. They often faced challenges balancing Muslim culture, Australian culture, and Islamic religion. Our findings have implications for health services in a multicultural society. They could be used to promote culturally sensitive sexual health services for young Muslim women in Australia and elsewhere. PMID:26536914

  10. A New Reduction Mastopexy Design for Young Women: Snowman Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Cil, Yakup; Kocman, Atacan Emre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many young women are satisfied with their large breasts but suffer from sagging due to heaviness. In this article; we present a novel modification of vertical scar breast reduction based on a special indication. METHODS From January 2006 to May 2012, twenty five individual patients underwent operation using modified technique with superior pedicle and vertical scar. Young women between ages 25-35 years with voluminous breasts who requested mastopexy rather than reduction were selected for the surgery. RESULTS The mean patient age was 30 years and body mass index (BMI) was 27.81.07 kg/m2. Mean nipple transposition was 6.5 cm. Mean weight for resected tissue was 415 g for left and 419 g for right breast. Mean operative time was 125 minutes. Patients were followed up for 9-22 months. No serious complications encountered in consecutive patient series. The only complication was permanent wrinkling probably due to vertical closure in 5 of 25 patients which did not resolve during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION We recommend that the Snowman design is a useful tool for superior pedicle breast reduction technique providing good projection and a short scar in selected patients. PMID:26284179

  11. Using Evidence-Based Programs to Support Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebel, Nancy L.; Bassuk, Ellen; Medeiros, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This article was originally published (November 2011) as a brief created on behalf of the Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Coordinating Center, which is a partnership of The National Center on Family Homelessness, National Alliance to End Family Homelessness, and ZERO TO THREE. The article offers a definition of

  12. Using Evidence-Based Programs to Support Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebel, Nancy L.; Bassuk, Ellen; Medeiros, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This article was originally published (November 2011) as a brief created on behalf of the Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Coordinating Center, which is a partnership of The National Center on Family Homelessness, National Alliance to End Family Homelessness, and ZERO TO THREE. The article offers a definition of…

  13. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods.

    PubMed

    Joly, Lauren E; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24-0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31-0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  14. Injection drug use among homeless adults with severe mental illness.

    PubMed Central

    Susser, E; Betne, P; Valencia, E; Goldfinger, S M; Lehman, A F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined injection drug use among homeless men and women with severe mental illness in two sites. METHODS: The data were drawn from related clinical trials conducted in Baltimore (101 men, 49 women) and Boston (85 men, 33 women). RESULTS: The percentages of homeless men with a history of injection drug use were 26% in Baltimore and 16% in Boston; the corresponding rates among homeless women were 8% and 6%. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these and previous results suggest high lifetime prevalences of injection drug use-and associated risks of HIV transmission-in this elusive population. PMID:9184521

  15. "Lamyai" teaches young Thai women about AIDS and STDs.

    PubMed

    Cash, K; Anasuchatkul, B; Busayawong, W

    1994-01-01

    The young women 13-21 years of age who migrate in large numbers from villages in Northern Thailand to obtain employment in urban factories comprise a group at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To encourage these women to protect themselves from infection, workplace projects were developed in textile factories in Chiang Mai. Pre-project research conducted among 250 female factory workers revealed good awareness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) coupled with a perception of personal invulnerability and a reluctance to request that partners use condoms due to fears of being considered promiscuous. To address these issues, a romantic illustrated novel about a factory worker who is infected with the AIDS virus by her fiance and a humorous comic book featuring "Brother Protector Condom" were prepared. The materials were introduced to groups of 10 or more women led by either trained peer educators or health promoters. Participants overcame initial shyness about the explicit pictures and reported the group meetings gave them confidence to talk to their sexual partners about condom use. Post-intervention evaluation showed that peer-led groups were most effective in improving self-esteem, communication skills, and commitment to AIDS prevention. Although the health promoters had more in-depth knowledge of AIDS and human reproduction, they tended to lecture rather than facilitate discussion. Moreover, the age and educational differences between the factory workers and health promoters impeded the trust and open discussion that developed in peer-led groups. PMID:12287664

  16. Effects of yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Juliana Costa; Bezerra, Lídia Mara Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a systematized yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women. Twenty six women (24 ± 3.5 years old) participated in six weeks of yoga classes, and twenty one women (25 ± 5.1 years old) participated as the control group. The yoga intervention was composed of eighteen sessions, three times per week, at 1 h per session. The muscular endurance of upper limbs (push-up) and abdominal (sit-up) was assessed through the protocol suggested by Gettman (1989) [1] and Golding, Myers and Sinning (1989) [2] to the maximum repetitions performed in 1 min. To verify the significant differences intra groups and between groups a SPANOVA was performed, and the level of significance was p ≤ 0.05. The findings suggest that yoga provides improvement in upper limb and in abdominal muscular endurance. PMID:26850809

  17. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination Among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural Versus Urban Rates

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n = 251) and young women attending an urban university health clinic (n = 209) were recruited in Kentucky. After completing a brief questionnaire, women received a free voucher for HPV vaccination. Whether women redeemed the voucher for the initial dose of vaccine served as the study outcome variable. Findings In controlled analyses, the contrast in initial uptake between urban clinic women (reference category) and rural college women was significant (P < .0001). However, the contrast in initial uptake between urban clinic women (reference category) and rural clinic women was not significant (P = .42). The model predicting uptake of subsequent doses among those with initial uptake (n = 235) also indicated significant differences as a function of recruitment location, with rural clinic women being about 7 times more likely than urban clinic women (P < .0001) to not return for at least 1 follow-up dose. The contrast between urban clinic women and rural college women was also significant (P = .014). Conclusion Initial uptake of free HPV vaccination among young rural college women may be problematic. Moreover, uptake of subsequent free doses among rural women may be problematic regardless of whether contact is made in a clinic or through college recruitment. PMID:21967381

  18. Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men. PMID:25525800

  19. Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan.

    PubMed

    Viwatpanich, Kanvee

    2015-03-01

    The combination between quantitative and qualitative research, "Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan" aimed to study causes of homelessness, patterns of living, problems, health status, social and health needs. Purposive sampling of 60 older homeless people could be divided into two groups; temporary and permanent homeless. Causes of homelessness were health problems, money problems, family background, emotional management, cultural sensitivities, limitation of extended family, financial management, political control, and domestic violence. Their living problems included:financial insecurity, police suppression, social and medical services, attacks from the young generations, sexual harassment, stealing, and social hierarchy of homelessness. 63.3% reported having hearing problems and a peptic ulcer before becoming homeless. These evolved into musculo-skeletal problems, accident-injuries, and skin diseases. 95% performed ADL/IADLs independently, 78.3% were depressed, 5% diagnosed with severe stress depression. 70% rated themselves happier than the rest ofthe population, and 75% were identified as having normal cognition. 58.3% had a good relationship with a religious network, 55% still had some contacts with theirfamily members. More than 90% indicated that they were satisfied, could sustainin a life on the street, were happy with theirfreedom, liked being close to green areas, learned about human life,fulfilled the dhamma, and felt close to the king. PMID:26211113

  20. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  1. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental

  2. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological

  3. Empowered Positions? Listening to Sexually Experienced Young Women Talking about Sex, Disappointments, and Compromise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieg, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how sex and relationship education (SRE) could benefit from considering current levels of young women's empowerment in (hetero)sexual relationships and challenge popular notions of twenty-first century young women "having it all" and occupying powerful relational and sexual positions.…

  4. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  5. Success in Science among Young African American Women: The Role of Minority Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    A conceptual framework that integrates critical gender theory and a multicultural approach is used to examine young African American women's experiences in high school science. Research reveals considerable success for these young women. The multicultural approach suggests that the unique history and culture of African American families may play a

  6. Empowered Positions? Listening to Sexually Experienced Young Women Talking about Sex, Disappointments, and Compromise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieg, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how sex and relationship education (SRE) could benefit from considering current levels of young women's empowerment in (hetero)sexual relationships and challenge popular notions of twenty-first century young women "having it all" and occupying powerful relational and sexual positions.

  7. Gender, Family Negotiations and Academic Success of Young Moroccan Women in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrés, Marta Bertran; Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Rovira, Jordi Pàmies

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the lives of pioneering young women from Morocco, the first to enjoy educational and social success in Catalonia, by analyzing the family negotiations entered into during this process. The study is based on the life stories of these young Moroccan women and on ideas that emerge from discussion groups involving the women…

  8. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n

  9. "Are They Just Checking Our Obesity or What?" The Healthism Discourse and Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jessica; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural young women's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The young women's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE

  10. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

  11. CHOICES. Community Model for Expanding Economic Opportunities for Young Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldus, Lorayne; And Others

    CHOICES, a community model, was developed to be used by community organizations serving young women. The ultimate goal was to develop programs, using local resource persons, to help young women recognize and take advantage of the many options available to them in preparation for a fulfilling career. Other activities of the CHOICES project staff

  12. 76 FR 47590 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young..., development, implementation and evaluation of evidence-based activities designed to prevent breast cancer... breast cancer in young women including appropriate venues to educate women at increased risk...

  13. Relationship between Self-Actualisation and Employment for At-Risk Young Unemployed Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Ephrat; Magos, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study used drawing and semi-structured interviews to access the visions of self-actualisation of a group of at-risk young women in an employment support group in Israel. The findings point to the synergetic relationship between the self-defined goals of the young women such as inner peace, self-regulation, assertiveness, good relationships

  14. Managing Risk and Experiencing Danger: Tensions between Government AIDS Education Policy and Young Women's Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Janet; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Government AIDS education programs in Britain have focused on nonheterosexual behavior. Protection of population depends on changes in high-risk sexual practices among heterosexuals. The part played by young women has received little attention. Reviews data from a survey of young women's sexual beliefs and behavior and suggests that appropriate…

  15. Careers in Drug and Alcohol Research: AN Innovative Program for Young Appalachian Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noland, Melody Powers; Leukefeld, Carl; Reid, Caroline

    Supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the University of Kentucky's Center on Drug and Alcohol Research developed the Young Women in Science Program to encourage young women from Appalachia to pursue scientific careers гп drug and alcohol research. This 3-year program, which involved 26 young women entering the ninth grade in 13 counties in southeastern Kentucky, included a summer residential program, community educational sessions, and matching students with mentors. When participants' scores prior to and after the 3-week residential program were compared, it was found that participants increased their science knowledge and improved their scores on confidence in science. Other significant changes occurred as well. These preliminary data indicated that some positive changes resulted from the program, even though contact time with the young women has been modest to date. The program shows considerable promise for providing the encouragement and skills needed for these young women to pursue careers in drug and alcohol research.

  16. Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context. PMID:24967887

  17. Amygdala Functional Connectivity in Young Women with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vizueta, Nathalie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Han, Georges J.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Camchong, Jazmin; Mueller, Bryon A.; Bell, Christopher H.; Heller, Monika D.; Schulz, S. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex psychiatric disorder that involves the core feature of affect dysregulation. Prior neuroimaging studies have indicated that BPD patients have (1) excessive amygdala activation to negative emotion and (2) diminished frontal regulation. This study examined amygdala functional connectivity in 12 women with BPD and 12 matched healthy comparison volunteers. We explored how connectivity patterns would change in the context of processing neutral, overt fear, or masked fear face expressions. Each participant underwent three 5-min fMRI scans in which they primarily viewed: (1) neutral, (2) overt fear, and (3) masked fear faces. In comparison to their healthy counterparts, young women with BPD showed (1) lower connectivity between bilateral amygdala and mid-cingulate cortex during the neutral scan; (2) higher connectivity between bilateral amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex during the overt fear scan; and (3) higher right amygdala connectivity with bilateral thalamus and right caudate during the masked fear scan. Exploratory analyses revealed interesting correlations between amygdala connectivity in these conditions with multiple clinical measures. Results from the neutral scan add to the few prior connectivity studies in BPD that have been suggestive of lower fronto-limbic connectivity in BPD. However, the connectivity findings during fear processing are novel, and map onto basic research models for amygdala connectivity, that is, connections to frontal areas for overt fear processing versus connections to thalamus for automatic fear processing. Further, results suggest that BPD subjects tap into both pathways more strongly than healthy comparisons. PMID:22432955

  18. Why so few young women in mathematics, science, and technology classes?

    SciTech Connect

    Wieda, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    Many factors influence the success of women in scientific and technical careers. Women represent over 50% of the U.S. population, yet less than 16% of women are employed in scientific and technical careers. Research over the last decade makes it clear that disparities exist in the participation, achievement, and attitudes of young men and young women in science classes. Young women are as interested in science experiences as young men up until age nine. After that age, the number of young women interested in science, mathematics, and technology classes drops. Not enrolling in science and mathematics classes in high school limits career options for young women, and their chance to succeed in a scientific or technical field becomes remote. Why is this happening? What can we, as educators, scientists, and parents do to address this problem? The literature identifies three principal factors that relate to the lack of female involvement in science classes: culture, attitude, and education. This paper reviews these factors and provides examples of programs that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and others have developed to increase the number of young women entering college ready and wanting to pursue a career in a scientific or technical field.

  19. Parenting while Being Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  20. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  1. Postponing Marriage: The Influence of Schooling, Working, and Work Plans for Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherlin, Andrew

    The paper examines trends of postponement of marriage among women in their early twenties. Data for the study were taken from a national longitudinal study of 5,159 women (ages 14 to 24) who were interviewed from 1968 to 1975. The author specifically examined the young women for three characteristics: current employment status, level of education,

  2. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  3. Work Expectations, Human Capital Accumulation, and the Wages of Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Steven H.; Shapiro, David

    Based on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women aged fourteen to twenty-four in 1968, a study was made to determine the impact that women's ex ante labor market expectations have on their salary and development and to examine the effect of women's postschool training and maturation (human capital accumulation) on wages. Six findings

  4. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),

  5. Nontraditional, Nongender Stereotyped Experiences: Do They Make a Difference for Young Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Beth H.

    What impact did a nontraditional work experience have on subsequent life decisions in older women's lives, and what can be learned from these experiences that could have an impact on the educational and career decisions of girls and young women? This paper presents data from a collaborative research project with a group of eight older adult women

  6. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  7. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both

  8. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia in healthy young women

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Craig A; McClaran, Steven R; Nickele, Glenn A; Pegelow, David F; Nelson, William B; Dempsey, Jerome A

    1998-01-01

    We questioned whether exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) occurs in healthy active women, who have smaller lungs, reduced lung diffusion, and lower maximal O2 consumption rate () than age- and height-matched men.Twenty-nine healthy young women with widely varying fitness levels ( 57 ± 6 ml kg−1 min−1; range, 35–70 ml kg−1 min−1; or 148 ± 5 %; range, 93–188 % predicted) and normal resting lung function underwent an incremental treadmill test to during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Arterial blood samples were taken at rest and near the end of each workload.Arterial PO2 (Pa,O2) decreased > 10 mmHg below rest in twenty-two of twenty-nine subjects at (Pa,O2, 77.5 ± 0.9 mmHg; range, 67–88 mmHg; arterial O2 saturation (Sa,O2), 92.3 ± 0.2 %; range, 87–94 %). The remaining seven subjects maintained Pa,O2 within 10 mmHg of rest. Pa,O2 at was inversely related to the alveolar to arterial O2 difference (A-aDO2) (r = -0.93; 35–52 mmHg) and to arterial PCO2 (Pa,CO2) (r = -0.62; 26–39 mmHg).EIAH was inversely related to (r = -0.49); however, there were many exceptions. Almost half of the women with significant EIAH had within 15 % of predicted normal values ( 40–55 ml kg−1 min−1); among subjects with very high (55–70 ml kg−1 min−1), the degree of excessive A-aDO2 and EIAH varied markedly (e.g. A-aDO2, 30–50 mmHg; Pa,O2, 68–91 mmHg).In the women with EIAH at many began to experience an excessive widening of their A-aDO2 during moderate intensity exercise, which when combined with a weak ventilatory response, led to a progressive hypoxaemia. Inactive, less fit subjects had no EIAH and narrower A-aDO2 when compared with active, fitter subjects at the same (40–50 ml kg−1 min−1).These data demonstrate that many active healthy young women experience significant EIAH, and at a that is substantially less than those in their active male contemporaries. The onset of EIAH during submaximal exercise, and/or its occurrence at a relatively low implies that lung structure/function subserving alveolar to arterial O2 transport is abnormally compromised in many of these habitually active subjects. PMID:9518719

  9. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Harms, C A; McClaran, S R; Nickele, G A; Pegelow, D F; Nelson, W B; Dempsey, J A

    1998-03-01

    1. We questioned whether exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) occurs in healthy active women, who have smaller lungs, reduced lung diffusion, and lower maximal O2 consumption rate (VO2,max) than age- and height-matched men. 2. Twenty-nine healthy young women with widely varying fitness levels (VO2,max, 57 +/- 6 ml kg-1 min-1; range, 35-70 ml kg-1 min-1; or 148 +/- 5%; range, 93-188% predicted) and normal resting lung function underwent an incremental treadmill test to VO2,max during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Arterial blood samples were taken at rest and near the end of each workload. 3. Arterial PO2 (Pa,O2) decreased > 10 mmHg below rest in twenty-two of twenty-nine subjects at VO2,max (Pa,O2, 77.5 +/- 0.9 mmHg; range, 67-88 mmHg; arterial O2 saturation (Sa,O2), 92.3 +/- 0.2%; range, 87-94%). The remaining seven subjects maintained Pa,O2 within 10 mmHg of rest. Pa,O2 at VO2,max was inversely related to the alveolar to arterial O2 difference (A-aDO2) (r = -0.93; 35-52 mmHg) and to arterial PCO2 (Pa,CO2) (r = -0.62; 26-39 mmHg). 4. EIAH was inversely related to VO2,max (r = -0.49); however, there were many exceptions. Almost half of the women with significant EIAH had VO2,max within 15% of predicted normal values (VO2,max, 40-55 ml kg-1 min-1); among subjects with very high VO2,max (55-70 ml kg-1 min-1), the degree of excessive A-aDO2 and EIAH varied markedly (e.g. A-aDO2, 30-50 mmHg; Pa,O2, 68-91 mmHg). 5. In the women with EIAH at VO2,max, many began to experience an excessive widening of their A-aDO2 during moderate intensity exercise, which when combined with a weak ventilatory response, led to a progressive hypoxaemia. Inactive, less fit subjects had no EIAH and narrower A-aDO2 when compared with active, fitter subjects at the same VO2 (40-50 ml kg-1 min-1). 6. These data demonstrate that many active healthy young women experience significant EIAH, and at a VO2,max that is substantially less than those in their active male contemporaries. The onset of EIAH during submaximal exercise, and/or its occurrence at a relatively low VO2,max, implies that lung structure/function subserving alveolar to arterial O2 transport is abnormally compromised in many of these habitually active subjects. PMID:9518719

  10. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  11. What HIV-Positive Young Women Want from Behavioral Interventions: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Jennifer; Lemos, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Young women living with HIV in the United States face many social and psychological challenges, including involvement in health care and secondary prevention efforts. The factors that put these young women at risk for HIV acquisition initially, such as poverty, gender roles, cultural norms, and limited perceived control over sexual relationships, continue to place them at risk for both adverse mental and physical health outcomes that impact their daily lives and secondary prevention efforts. This study utilized focus groups with young HIV-positive women in order to better understand their perceived problems and pressures and to inform a developmentally appropriate secondary prevention intervention for young HIV-positive women that could be implemented in clinical care settings. Focus groups with young HIV-positive women were convened in three U.S. cities: Baltimore, Chicago, and Tampa. A total of 17 young, HIV-positive women, age range 17–24 (mean age=21), participated in the focus groups. This article describes the psychological and social challenges these young women face as well as their suggestions regarding secondary HIV prevention intervention components. PMID:22675725

  12. A Population-Based Inquiry of Homeless Episode Characteristics and Early Educational Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzo, John; Leboeuf, Whitney; Brumley, Benjamin; Perlman, Staci

    2013-06-01

    Child homelessness and educational well-being is an area of national research that requires more precise investigation to address mixed findings. The aim of this study was to extend the investigation of the relations between homelessness and educational well-being by determining if timing and frequency of homeless episodes are differentially associated with children's academic and classroom engagement outcomes. This investigation used a comprehensive research model to study the effects of these homeless episode characteristics within a large urban student cohort. Additionally, this study accounted for co-occurring early risk factors. Findings indicated that having a first homeless episode in early childhood was associated with non-proficiency in mathematics and academic engagement problems. Also more frequent homeless episodes were related to truancy in third grade. These results stress the importance of early intervention for homeless children and underscore the need to further understand the variation in young children's homeless experiences. PMID:24072948

  13. Young women as smokers and nonsmokers: a qualitative social identity approach.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Alexia; Gallois, Cindy; Owen, Neville; McDermott, Liane

    2005-12-01

    The authors used a social identity perspective to explore young women's perceptions of smoking. They carried out 13 focus groups and 6 intercept interviews with women aged 16 to 28 years in regards to the social identities that might influence young women's smoking behavior. Three identities emerged: the cool smoker applied to the initiation of smoking; considerate smokers, who were older addicted smokers; and the actual and anticipated good mother identity, which applied to young women who quit smoking during pregnancy. These identities add to our understanding of the meaning of smoking within the lives of young women and might allow more focused initiatives with this group to prevent the progression to regular addicted smoking. PMID:16263916

  14. Dilemmas associated with rehousing homeless people who have companion animals.

    PubMed

    Singer, R S; Hart, L A; Zasloff, R L

    1995-12-01

    66 individuals were given a questionnaire during the initial visit to a veterinary clinic for homeless pet owners. Among the 35 men and 31 women, 32 had been homeless for 6 mo. or less and were termed the acutely homeless subgroup, and 34 had been homeless multiple times or for more than 6 mo. and were termed the chronically homeless subgroup. In responding to the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, both men and women participants had significantly higher mean scores on attachment to their pets than did the scale's standardization population. Participants did not differ from the normative sample of adults on the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Both men and women participants stated a preference for being rehoused. 93% of men and 96% of women said that housing would not be acceptable if pets were not allowed. 61% of the men and 33% of the women stated they would be willing to live anywhere pets were allowed except in a shelter. Reluctance to live in a shelter was significantly greater among chronically homeless men than other subgroups, and they also had low desire to be rehoused. A majority of the participants had been refused housing because they had pets. Attempts to rehouse homeless individuals who have pets are likely to be unsuccessful unless accommodation for pets is included. PMID:8559923

  15. Physiological demands of young women's competitive gymnastic routines.

    PubMed

    Marina, M; Rodrguez, F A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological indices of competitive routines in women's artistic gymnastics by characterizing post-exercise heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2) and peak blood lactate concentration (Lmax) in a group of eight young elite-oriented female gymnasts. HR was continuously monitored with Polar RS400 monitors during the test event simulating a competition environment. Within 5 s of the end of each routine, the breath-by-breath gas analyser mask was placed on the face to record VO2. VO2max was calculated by the backward extrapolation method of the VO2 recovery curve. Lmax was obtained during recovery (min 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10) subsequent to each event. One week later, HR, VO2 and Lmax were measured during an incremental continuous treadmill test. The treadmill test was confirmed as the assessment with the highest physiological demand. The gymnasts reached their highest values of HR (183-199 beats min(-1)), VO2/Bm (33-44 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and Lmax (7-9 mmol l(-1)) in the floor and uneven bars exercises. The vault was the event with the lowest HR (154-166 beats min(-1)) and Lmax (2.4-2.6 mmol l(-1)), and the balance beam had the lowest VO2 (27-35 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). The mean relative peak intensities attained in the different events, which ranged from 65 to 85% of the individual VO2max and HRmax recorded in the laboratory, suggest that cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands are higher than previously indicated. The high percentage of VO2 measured, particularly after the floor event, suggests that aerobic power training should not be neglected in women's artistic gymnastics. PMID:25177100

  16. Regional differences in physical appearance identity among young adult women in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rongmuang, Daravan; McElmurry, Beverly J; McCreary, Linda L; Park, Chang G; Miller, Arlene G; Corte, Colleen

    2011-02-01

    Physical appearance concerns lead to serious health compromising behaviors among women in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in physical appearance identity among young women in four regions of Thailand based on 30 physical appearance characteristics generated and validated in two previous samples of young Thai women. Using Q methodology, 200 Thai young women sorted the physical appearance characteristics in terms of importance. Across-region differences exist for the most important physical appearance characteristics. Regional differences in physical appearance identity may explain the variety of behaviors used by Thai women to enhance their physical appearance. Further research should focus on regional factors that contribute to these aspects of physical appearance becoming a dominant source of self-definition so that effective prevention strategies can be developed and targeted to women at high risk. PMID:20947796

  17. Sexual dysfunction related to the treatment of young women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakewell, Rose Townley; Volker, Deborah L

    2005-12-01

    Women have a 13.4% chance of developing breast cancer over their lifetime, and an estimated 60,000 women aged 20-50 will develop breast cancer in 2005. Surgical, radiologic, and chemotherapeutic treatments used to treat breast cancer can alter women's body image and menopausal status, ultimately affecting sexual health. A diagnosis of breast cancer is more traumatic for young women because of psychosocial concerns, side effects of treatment, and a potentially shortened life expectancy. Alterations in sexual health interfere with intimate relationships. Nurses can play a pivotal role in improving the sexual health of young women with breast cancer. This article explores the potential side effects of treatment that can affect sexual health, the unique needs of young women, and nursing interventions that systematically address sexual health concerns. PMID:16381545

  18. Urban Young Womens Experiences of Discrimination and Community Violence and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    ODonnell, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the interrelationships between urban young adult womens experiences of discrimination and community violence and their reports of involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV). We explore whether such experiences are independent risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration, even when accounting for aggressive behaviors and related risk taking, including drinking and sexual initiation, during early adolescence. We use data from the Reach for Health study, in which a sample of 550 urban African American and Latina women was followed from recruitment in economically distressed middle schools into young adulthood, over approximately 7years. At the last wave, respondents were 1920years old; 28% were raising children. More than 40% reported experiencing at least one form of racial/ethnic discrimination sometimes or often over the past year. About 75% heard guns being shot, saw someone being arrested, or witnessed drug deals within this time period; 66% had seen someone beaten up, 26% had seen someone get killed, and 40% knew someone who was killed. Concurrent reports of lifetime IPV were also high: about a third reported being a victim of physical violence; a similar proportion reported perpetration. Results of multivariate regression analyses indicate that discrimination is significantly associated with physical and emotional IPV victimization and perpetration, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, including ethnic identity formation, and early adolescent risk behaviors. Community violence is correlated with victimization, but the relationship remains significant only for emotional IPV victimization once early behaviors are controlled. Implications for violence prevention are discussed, including the importance of addressing community health, as well as individual patterns of behavior, associated with multiple forms of violence victimization and perpetration. PMID:18347993

  19. Family and Child Homelessness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homelessness Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains documents that provide information about family and child homelessness and the need to address homelessness within the context of community development. The following sections are included: (1) "Family Homelessness" (Homelessness Information Exchange); (2) "A Report on the 1988 National Survey on Shelters for the Homeless"

  20. Who's There to Help? Assessment of Social Supports Received by Homeless and Unaccompanied Youth in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brase, Monica Kay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how urban, young adults assessed received social supports (Vaux, 1988) during homelessness in high school. According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness (2007), approximately 1 to 1.5 million youth under the age of 18 in America experience at least one incident of homelessness each

  1. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless

  2. Who's There to Help? Assessment of Social Supports Received by Homeless and Unaccompanied Youth in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brase, Monica Kay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how urban, young adults assessed received social supports (Vaux, 1988) during homelessness in high school. According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness (2007), approximately 1 to 1.5 million youth under the age of 18 in America experience at least one incident of homelessness each…

  3. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in young women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) led to increases in their bone mineral density, restoring ... with normal ovarian function. Both hormone treatment regimens led to significant increases in the bone mineral density ...

  4. Young women's experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A; Steeves, Richard H; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2013-11-01

    Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20 and 39 years of age) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women's narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use. PMID:23820874

  5. 'I am a mother': young women's negotiation of femininity and risk in the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lauren

    2016-03-01

    In studies of sexual risk behaviour among youth, the role of dominant conceptions of masculinity and femininity has received increasing attention. However, where research has sought to explore femininity, it has predominantly focused on adolescent girls. This paper departs from previous research by offering insights into how young women negotiate their femininity as they transition from adolescence to adulthood and encounter changing social contexts. Drawing on data from ethnographic enquiry, it argues that as young women transition out of school and into emerging adulthood, their options for negotiating different types of femininity become constrained, with consequences for engagement in sexual risk behaviours. This may to some extent explain why in some South African contexts older young women are more vulnerable to HIV infection than adolescent girls. The paper offer insights into future prospects for youth development programming seeking to reduce young women's vulnerability to risk. PMID:26413859

  6. 'Hardcore drinking': portrayals of alcohol consumption in young women's and men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Antonia C; Dalton, Sue I; Hoy, Anna

    2006-03-01

    Young adults and young women in particular are drinking more alcohol than ever before, with implications for risky behaviours and long-term health. This study explored the ways in which alcohol and drinking were represented in six monthly UK magazines (three targeted at young men, three at young women) across a three-month period (18 magazines). We identified three main discourses across the texts, namely the drug alcohol; masculinity and machismo; and drinking as normality. These discourses constructed women's and men's drinks and drinking behaviours in sharp contrast. Drinking was aligned with traditional masculine images, although new kinds of drinks were aligned with traditional feminine images--and derided in men's magazines. Findings highlight how gender, constructed in relation to the other, is an important aspect of representations of drinking patterns in young adults. PMID:16464921

  7. Helping the Homeless in School and Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgersson-Shorter, Helena

    2010-01-01

    However much the recession might be receding, the effects remain deep and cruel to families living in poverty. Many have fallen through their communities' social safety nets. Today, families with young children comprise 41% of the nation's homeless population. According to the Institute of Children and Poverty, more than 1.35 million kids in the

  8. Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Messages From the Director Email Facebook Twitter Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons January 2013 Homelessness is a ... in sickness and mortality. The leading cause of death among homeless Americans used to be HIV, but ...

  9. Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Director Email Facebook Twitter Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons January 2013 Homelessness is a persistent problem—nearly 690,000 people are homeless on a given night in America—and it ...

  10. Children and Young People at Risk of Social Exclusion: Links between Homelessness, Child Protection and Juvenile Justice. Data Linkage Series. Number 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalders, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Current research demonstrates relationships between child abuse and neglect, homelessness and criminal activity. This report presents key findings from analysis of a data set linking three community-sector data collections: Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP), juvenile justice supervision, and child protection notifications and

  11. Children and Young People at Risk of Social Exclusion: Links between Homelessness, Child Protection and Juvenile Justice. Data Linkage Series. Number 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalders, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Current research demonstrates relationships between child abuse and neglect, homelessness and criminal activity. This report presents key findings from analysis of a data set linking three community-sector data collections: Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP), juvenile justice supervision, and child protection notifications and…

  12. Understanding the Attainment of Stable Housing: A Seven-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Homeless Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Braciszewski, Jordan M.; Toro, Paul A.; Stout, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Stable housing provides a solid foundation for youth development, making it an essential topic of study among young homeless people. Although gains have been made in research with adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness, few longitudinal studies of this population exist, clouding the long-term housing outcome picture. The current study examined the course and risk factors for homelessness in a sample of 243 homeless adolescents followed over a seven-year period. The vast majority of youth returned to stable housing quickly; however, early experiences of homelessness, even at this young age, were observed to have a substantial negative impact on future housing. Participants from poorer neighborhoods and those identifying as ethnic minorities also took longer to achieve stable housing. The data suggest that family reunification interventions may serve this population well. Preparing youth for returning home may prevent subsequent homeless episodes, while also improving their overall functioning. PMID:26997683

  13. Security lies in obedience - Voices of young women of a slum in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Existing literature shows that young people, especially women, have poor knowledge about sexuality and reproductive health. Many of the difficulties young women experience are related to beliefs and expectations in society making them more vulnerable to reproductive ill health. The objective of this study was to explore how young women living in a slum in Islamabad are prepared for marriage and how they understand and perceive their transition to marriage and the start of sexual and childbearing activity. Methods Twenty qualitative interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with young women residing in a slum of Islamabad. Content analysis was used to explore how the participants represented and explained their situation and how decisions about their marriage were made. Results The main theme identified was security lies in obedience. The two sub-themes contributing to the main theme were socialization into submissiveness and transition into adulthood in silence. The theme and the sub-themes illustrate the situation of young women in a poor setting in Pakistan. Conclusion The study demonstrates how, in a culture of silence around sexuality, young women's socialization into submissiveness lays the foundation for the lack of control over the future reproductive health that they experience. PMID:20346107

  14. Life Transitions and Mental Health in a National Cohort of Young Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…

  15. Young Women's Career and Educational Development through Extracurricular Activity Participation: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkerson, Annette H.

    The effects of participation in extracurricular activities on young women's career and educational development were examined. A constant comparative method was used to analyze the open-ended responses to questionnaires completed by 156 high school girls and the transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 5 female college freshmen and 2 young

  16. Routes Into Education and Employment for Young Pakistani and Bangladeshi Women in the UK. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Angela; Shaheen, Nusrat; Kalra, Virinder; Fieldhouse, E.

    Routes into education and employment for young Pakistani and Bangladeshi women in Oldham, England, were examined. The data sources were as follows: group discussions with Pakistani and Bangladeshi young people at different stages in the educational system and at an early stage of labor market participation; interviews with public and voluntary

  17. "I Was the Special Ed. Girl": Urban Working-Class Young Women of Colour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of young women of

  18. 77 FR 16232 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... evaluation of evidence-based activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at... as breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in young women; and...

  19. 78 FR 75923 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at heightened risk) and promote the... the current and emerging topics related to breast cancer in young women. These may include...

  20. The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this

  1. Life Transitions and Mental Health in a National Cohort of Young Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in

  2. Young Women of Achievement: A Resource for Girls in Science, Math, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; Stephens, Kristen R.

    This book is intended to be a resource guide for girls and young women considering careers in science, math, and technology. An introductory chapter considers the status of girls and women in these fields, the importance of role models, and suggestions for using the book. Part 1 introduces readers to the various career opportunities available in…

  3. Attempted Suicide among Young Rural Women in the People's Republic of China: Possibilities for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Veronica; Phillips, Michael R.; He, Fengsheng; Ji, Huiyu

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a sample of 147 young women living in rural areas in China who had attempted suicide. The women's suicidal behavior was characterized by high levels of impulsivity and low rates of mental illness, including depression. Detailed suggestions are made about ways to implement suicide prevention strategies within the particular social and

  4. Branching out and Coming Back Together: Exploring the Undergraduate Experiences of Young Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Educational Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2010, "Harvard Educational Review" editor Chantal Francois sat down at a Manhattan diner with three young black women, two of whom were her former students at a New York City high school. Chantal invited the women to come together and share their experiences as freshmen at predominantly white institutions along the East Coast. While…

  5. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions

  6. Child-Free and Unmarried: Changes in the Life Planning of Young East German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Marina A.

    2004-01-01

    Using evidence from demographic and survey data, this research examines how one decade of post-socialism has changed the life planning of young East German women. Aggregate data reflect marriage and fertility postponement and increased nonmarital birth rates and cohabitation. The analysis shows East German women's stubbornness (Dolling, 2003) in…

  7. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  8. Young Women of Achievement: A Resource for Girls in Science, Math, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; Stephens, Kristen R.

    This book is intended to be a resource guide for girls and young women considering careers in science, math, and technology. An introductory chapter considers the status of girls and women in these fields, the importance of role models, and suggestions for using the book. Part 1 introduces readers to the various career opportunities available in

  9. The New Homelessness Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Wright, James D.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘new homelessness’ has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus. PMID:24910495

  10. Hidden behind the gunfire: young women's experiences of gang-related violence.

    PubMed

    Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

    2012-06-01

    This article uses data from a 3-year multisite ethnographic research study of gangs within an English city, to explore the different ways that "gang culture" shapes the victimization experiences and everyday lives of (young) women. Victims of lethal gang violence in Research City are almost exclusively young men, rendering invisible the ways in which gangs have an impact on the lives of women living in neighborhoods with a gang presence. The article also discusses how the adoption of a transdisciplinary approach could be useful in developing a holistic picture of the impact of gang-related violence on the lives of women. PMID:22926187

  11. Physical Health of Young, Australian Women: A Comparison of Two National Cohorts Surveyed 17 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Ingrid J; Dobson, Annette J; Mishra, Gita D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the extent of physical health issues among young women in early adulthood and whether this is changing over time. Methods We used data from two national samples of young women aged 18–23 years, surveyed 17 years apart, who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare the women’s physical health (i.e., self-rated health, common symptoms and conditions) and identify whether sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and stress explained any physical health differences between the samples. Results Women aged 18–23 years in 2013 (N = 17,069) were more likely to report poor self-rated health and physical symptoms (particularly urogenital and bowel symptoms) than women aged 18–23 years in 1996 (N = 14,247). Stress accounted for a large proportion of the physical health differences between the cohorts, particularly for allergies, headaches, self-rated health, severe tiredness, skin problems, severe period pain and hypertension. Conclusions Women’s health appears to be changing, with young women born in more recent decades reporting greater physical symptom levels. Changing socio-cultural and economic conditions may place pressure on young adults, negatively affecting their health and wellbeing. Assessing the extent to which social structures and health care policies are offering adequate support to young women may offer avenues for promoting positive health and wellbeing. PMID:26528902

  12. Young women's education and behavioural risk trajectories: clarifying their association with unintended-pregnancy resolution.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Cooney, Teresa M

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, most pregnancies occurring to teenage women are unplanned, making both the decisions regarding their resolution and the consequences of those decisions important topics of inquiry. Substantial debate surrounds the potential consequences for young women of either carrying an unintended pregnancy to term or voluntarily terminating it. The present study utilises data from The US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health prospectively to examine the predictors of pregnancy resolution decisions in terms of young women's educational goals and their engagement in risk behaviours. Additionally, the long-term consequences of these decisions for education and risk-taking behaviours are identified. Results indicate that young women with strong educational goals have a greater likelihood of terminating an unintended pregnancy than those with low aspirations, and that pregnancy termination predicts higher educational attainment compared to motherhood. Risk behaviours did not predict pregnancy-resolution decisions, but young women who became mothers reported lower rates of subsequent substance use and fewer sexual partners post-pregnancy than those who terminated the pregnancy or who had never been pregnant. Motherhood appears to be a catalyst for lifestyle change among young women, limiting substance use and sexual partnering, in contrast to abortion, which appears to allow adolescents to continue risk-taking trajectories. PMID:24735279

  13. Child Abuse in Young, HIV-Positive Women: Linkages to Risk

    PubMed Central

    Clum, Gretchen A.; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the lives of young women living with HIV who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. Using a modified version of the Life Story Interview, 40 women recruited from HIV clinics in three different states participated in a qualitative interview. Interviews covered abuse experiences, cognitive and emotional consequences of abuse, coping strategies, and sexual behavior and relationships. Overall, these young women had complex abuse histories, often experiencing more than one type of abuse in the context of other difficult life events. Avoidance and substance use were frequently utilized as coping strategies for abuse-related distress. Young women reported sexual and relationship concerns, including avoidance of sex, sexual dysfunction, sex as a trigger for abuse memories, and difficulty establishing intimacy and trust. Relationships between abuse-related reactions and sexual risk behavior, as well as recommendations for interventions, are discussed. PMID:19949224

  14. Gender and cultural patterns of suicidal behavior: young Hindustani immigrant women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Diana D; Smit, Johannes H; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Saharso, Sawitri

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of social integration and regulation with ecological insights into family relations and psychological and psychiatric theories on individual distress are relevant. It is suggested that young Hindustani women who display suicidal behavior possess certain personality and cognitive constellations that are interlocked with specific parenting styles in stressful family environments. These families are embedded in a context of moral transformations resulting from migration to a Western culture and may be facing difficulties accompanying the transitional processes encountered in the West, particularly those regarding gender roles. Durkheimian fatalistic and anomic suicides elucidate this. The Hindustani women who appear most at risk are those facing contradictory norms and overregulation, which prevent them from developing autonomy. PMID:17219750

  15. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy among Young Women1

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 Black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status, adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current socioeconomic status. Black women are less positive, in general, than white women, toward young non-marital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because Black women are more religious than white women, and in part because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, Black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year, and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, Black women have higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence, and in part because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained – net of all potential mediators in our models, Black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry, and expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. PMID:25962867

  16. Relationship between ghrelin and energy expenditure in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, David H; Karelis, Antony D; Cianflone, Katherine; Conus, Florence; Mignault, Diane; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; St-Onge, Maxime; Tremblay-Lebeau, Andranne; Poehlman, Eric T

    2004-12-01

    Ghrelin is a novel peptide that has been isolated from human and rat stomach tissues. Despite its known stimulatory effects on appetite and eating behavior, little information is available regarding its relationship with energy expenditure in normal-weight humans. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between serum ghrelin and resting metabolic rate (RMR), the thermic effect of food (TEF), fasting and postprandial respiratory quotient, physical activity level, peak aerobic capacity (VO(2 peak)), energy intake, and psychological measures of feeding behavior. We recruited 65 young healthy women and determined RMR and TEF by indirect calorimetry after a 12-h fast. Physical activity was determined by a leisure time physical activity questionnaire; VO(2 peak) was determined by bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion; energy intake was determined by a 24-h dietary recall; and food behavior was determined by a three-factor eating questionnaire. Our cohort showed a broad range of body mass index (range, 16.8-28.3 kg/m2), RMR (range, 820-1550 kcal/d), TEF (range, 74.4-136.5 kcal/d), and percent body fat (range, 14.0-37.7%). We noted significant inverse correlations between ghrelin and RMR (r = -0.350, P = 0.004) and TEF (r = -0.396, P = 0.001). These inverse correlations persisted after statistical control for both fat-free mass and fat mass (ghrelin vs. RMR partial, r = -0.284, P = 0.024; and ghrelin vs. TEF partial, r = -0.329, P = 0.01) and insulin levels (ghrelin vs. RMR partial, r = -0.255, P = 0.046; and ghrelin vs. TEF partial, r = -0.287, P = 0.024) using partial correlation analysis. We also observed a significant inverse correlation between ghrelin and daily caloric intake (r = -0.266, P = 0.032), but ghrelin levels were not significantly correlated with fasting (r = -0.002), postprandial respiratory quotient (r = -0.016), leisure time physical activity (r = 0.104), VO(2 peak) (r = 0.138), dietary disinhibition (r = -0.071), dietary restraint (r = 0.051), or feeling of general hunger (r = -0.028). These results suggest that higher levels of ghrelin are associated with low levels of resting and postprandial thermogenesis, which is independent of individual differences in fat-free mass and fat mass. Although speculative, serum ghrelin may play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by acting as a hormonal marker of increased energy efficiency. PMID:15579749

  17. Risk Factors for Pregnancy and Childbearing in Single Young Women: Evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial predictors of early pregnancy and childbearing in single young women, consistent with the Eriksonian developmental perspective. Two mail-out surveys assessing reproductive behaviour and sociodemographic, education/competence, psychosocial well-being, and aspiration factors were completed 4 years apart by 2635

  18. Expectations for and Precursors to Leaving Home in Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1996-01-01

    Examined the nature of adult transitions, including adjustment at different phases of the transition from college and the effects on family relations of returning home in young adulthood, in 169 young adult females followed since adolescence. Found that while this transition period is not without some elements of stress, most individuals did not…

  19. Expectations for and Precursors to Leaving Home in Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1996-01-01

    Examined the nature of adult transitions, including adjustment at different phases of the transition from college and the effects on family relations of returning home in young adulthood, in 169 young adult females followed since adolescence. Found that while this transition period is not without some elements of stress, most individuals did not

  20. Number of pregnancies, outcome expectancies, and social norms among HIV-infected young women.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D A; Mann, T; O'Keefe, Z; Rotheram-Borus, M J

    1998-09-01

    In this descriptive study, researchers examined pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and sexual behaviors among 67 HIV-infected young women, as well as the women's outcome expectancies and peer and partner norms regarding pregnancy. Many of the women (69%) had been pregnant; 42% had been pregnant at least once since learning their HIV status, with 71% choosing to carry to term, resulting in 25% (N = 5) of the babies infected. The women had positive outcome expectancies related to pregnancy, which were significantly correlated with peer and partner social norms. Lack of knowledge regarding infant transmission, high rates of STDs, and inconsistent condom use all indicate a need for improved intervention regarding pregnancy and decision-making. Suggestions for better methods of providing information to HIV+ young women are provided. PMID:9776006

  1. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Lema, Valentino M

    2015-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in outpatient clinical settings globally. Young healthy women are at highest risk of community-acquired UTI. While uncomplicated UTI is not life-threatening, it is associated with high morbidity and treatment costs. The pathogenesis of urinary tract infection in young healthy women is complex. It is influenced by a number of host biological and behavioural factors and virulence of the uropathogen. The infecting uropathogens in community-acquired UTI originate from the fecal flora, E. coli being the most predominant, accounting for 80-90% of these UTIs. Vaginal colonization with uropathogens, a pre-requisite for bladder infection may be facilitated by sexual intercourse, which has been shown to be a strong risk factor and predictor of UTI. While majority of studies have explored the association between heterosexual vaginal intercourse and UTI in healthy young women, the possible association with heterosexual receptive anal intercourse has not received adequate attention despite evidence of high prevalence globally. This paper presents two young healthy married women who had severe UTI following heterosexual anal intercourse and discusses possible association thereof. Understanding the risk factors for UTI and identification of possible predisposing conditions in a particular individual are important in guiding therapeutic approaches and preventive strategies. Cognisant of reportedly high prevalence of various sexual practices including receptive heterosexual anal intercourse and their impact on individuals' health, details on sexual history should always be enquired into in young women presenting with genito-urinary complaints. PMID:26506666

  2. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a

  3. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  4. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health, medicine, and substance abuse to proactively combat the “model minority” myth and to design and implement interventions targeting family dynamics, coping with immigration/acculturative stresses, mental illnesses, suicidal behaviors, and substance abuse among Asian-American populations across the developmental lifespan. Originality/value This paper provides specific suggestions for interventions to adequately respond to the mental health needs of young Asian-American women. These include addressing the cultural stigma and shame of seeking help, underlying family origin issues, and excessive alcohol and drug use as unsafe coping, as well as incorporating empowerment-based and mind-body components to foster an intervention targeting suicidality among Asian-American women in early adulthood. PMID:25031627

  5. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot

    2016-03-01

    Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after losing rental housing. Our findings may enable targeted interventions for those with different manifestations of homelessness. PMID:26896877

  6. The Homelessness Muddle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellickson, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    Examines subgroups of the homeless population and their needs for shelter. Argues that governments and charities should make distinctions among the highly diverse groups of the homeless and cease providing unlimited and unconditional aid to the able bodied, which tends to ensnare youth in the culture of dependency. (FMW)

  7. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a

  8. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  9. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities. PMID:24087911

  10. Position-Specific HIV Risk in a Large Network of Homeless Youths

    PubMed Central

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Monro, William

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined interconnections among runaway and homeless youths (RHYs) and how aggregated network structure position was associated with HIV risk in this population. Methods. We collected individual and social network data from 136 RHYs. On the basis of these data, we generated a sociomatrix, accomplished network visualization with a spring embedder, and examined k-cores. We used multivariate logistic regression models to assess associations between peripheral and nonperipheral network position and recent unprotected sexual intercourse. Results. Small numbers of nominations at the individual level aggregated into a large social network with a visible core, periphery, and small clusters. Female youths were more likely to be in the core, as were youths who had been homeless for 2 years or more. Youths at the periphery were less likely to report unprotected intercourse and had been homeless for a shorter duration. Conclusions. HIV risk was a function of risk-taking youths' connections with one another and was associated with position in the overall network structure. Social networkbased prevention programs, young women's housing and health programs, and housing-first programs for peripheral youths could be effective strategies for preventing HIV among this population. PMID:22095350

  11. "Mean mugging": an exploration of young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports.

    PubMed

    Kentel, Jennifer L; McHugh T, Leigh F

    2015-08-01

    Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying. Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport. PMID:26442768

  12. Young Transgender Women May Face Mental Health Woes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the positive news from their study was that transgender people don't necessarily face a lifetime of mental ... of transgender women, Reisner said the stigma that transgender people face in society likely plays a significant role. ...

  13. The Community College and the Homeless: A Model for the Nation. Job Training for the Homeless Demonstration Program Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehrlin, Cynthia D.

    Established in 1981, the Alternatives Program at Elgin Community College (ECC) has provided services for displaced homemakers, single parents, welfare recipients, and homeless women, laying the groundwork for the 1988 formation of the Fox Valley Consortium for Job Training and Placement of the Homeless. Using federal funding, the Consortium offers…

  14. Recruitment and retention of young women into nutrition research studies: practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Successful recruitment and retention of participants into research studies is critical for optimising internal and external validity. Research into diet and lifestyle of young women is important due to the physiological transitions experienced at this life stage. This paper aims to evaluate data related to recruitment and retention across three research studies with young women, and present practical advice related to recruiting and retaining young women in order to optimise study quality within nutrition research. Methods Recruitment and retention strategies used in three nutrition studies that targeted young women (18 to 35 years) were critiqued. A randomised controlled trial (RCT), a crossover validation study and a cross-sectional survey were conducted at the University of Newcastle, Australia between 2010 and 2013Successful recruitment was defined as maximum recruitment relative to time. Retention was assessed as maximum participants remaining enrolled at study completion. Results Recruitment approaches included notice boards, web and social network sites (Facebook and Twitter), with social media most successful in recruitment. The online survey had the highest recruitment in the shortest time-frame (751 participants in one month). Email, phone and text message were used in study one (RCT) and study two (crossover validation) and assisted in low attrition rates, with 93% and 75.7% completing the RCT and crossover validation study respectively. Of those who did not complete the RCT, reported reasons were: being too busy; and having an unrelated illness. Conclusion Recruiting young women into nutrition research is challenging. Use of social media enhances recruitment, while Email, phone and text message contact improves retention within interventions. Further research comparing strategies to optimise recruitment and retention in young women, including flexible testing times, reminders and incentives is warranted. PMID:24433229

  15. Diet Quality, Measured by Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Predicts Weight Change in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Aljadani, Haya M.; Patterson, Amanda; Sibbritt, David; Hutchesson, Melinda J.; Jensen, Megan E.; Collins, Clare E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between diet quality and weight gain in young women. Young women (n = 4,287, with 1,356 women identified as plausible subsample aged 27.6 ± 1.5 years at baseline) sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health study completed food frequency questionnaires in 2003, which were used to evaluate diet quality using three indices: Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), Australian Diet Quality Index (Aus-DQI), and Fruit and Vegetable Index (FAVI). Weight was self-reported in 2003 and 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of each diet quality index and weight change from 2003 to 2009. The ARFS and FAVI were significant predictors of 6-year weight change in this group of young women, while Aus-DQI did not predict weight change (P > 0.05). In the fully adjusted model, those who were in the top tertile of the ARFS significantly gained lower weight gain compared with the lower tertile for the plausible TEI sub-sample (β = −1.6 kg (95% CI: −2.67 to −0.56), P = 0.003). In the fully adjustment model, young women were classified in the highest FAVI tertile and gained significantly less weight than those in the lowest tertile for the plausible TEI (β = −1.6 kg (95% CI: −2.4 to −0.3) P = 0.01). In conclusion, overall diet quality measured by the ARFS and the frequency and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption may predict long-term weight gain in young women. Therefore, health promotion programs encouraging frequent consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are warranted. PMID:24062946

  16. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually nonexistent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a nonprobability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self- identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the Internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women's health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25 years. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  17. Second international consensus guidelines for breast cancer in young women (BCY2).

    PubMed

    Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Pagani, Olivia; Partridge, Ann H; Bar-Meir, Eran; Fallowfield, Lesley; Fenlon, Deborah; Friedman, Eitan; Gelmon, Karen; Gentilini, Oreste; Geraghty, James; Harbeck, Nadia; Higgins, Stephen; Loibl, Sibylle; Moser, Elizabeth; Peccatori, Fedro; Raanani, Hila; Kaufman, Bella; Cardoso, Fatima

    2016-04-01

    The 2nd International Consensus Conference for Breast Cancer in Young Women (BCY2) took place in November 2014, in Dublin, Ireland organized by the European School of Oncology (ESO). Consensus recommendations for the management of breast cancer in young women (BCYW) were updated from BCY1 with incorporation of new evidence to inform the guidelines, and areas of research priorities were identified. This manuscript summarizes these international consensus recommendations, which are also endorsed by the European Society of Breast Specialists (EUSOMA). PMID:27017247

  18. HIV Risk, Partner Violence, and Relationship Power Among Filipino Young Women: Testing a Structural Model

    PubMed Central

    LUCEA, MARGUERITE B.; HINDIN, MICHELLE J.; KUB, JOAN; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.

    2012-01-01

    A persons ability to minimize HIV risk is embedded in a complex, multidimensional context. In this study, we tested a model of how relationship power impacts IPV victimization, which in turn impacts HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed data from 474 young adult women (aged 1531) in Cebu Province, Philippines, using structural equation modeling, and demonstrated good fit for the models. High relationship power is directly associated with increased IPV victimization, and IPV victimization is positively associated with increased HIV risk. We highlight in this article the complex dynamics to consider in HIV risk prevention among these young women. PMID:22420674

  19. Correlates of intimate partner physical violence among young reproductive age women in Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Reingold, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) in south India. This article examines the frequency and correlates of IPPV among 898 young married women from urban, rural, and periurban areas of Mysore, India. Most (69.2%) of the participants were Hindus and 28.7% were Muslims. Overall, 50% of participants reported some type of IPPV. Factors that were independently associated with IPPV included being younger than 18 years at the time of marriage, contributing some household income, having anal sex, reporting sexual violence, and having a sex partner who drinks alcohol and smokes cigarettes. Women with skilled occupation were at reduced odds of experiencing IPPV compared with women who did not work. These findings suggest that IPPV is highly prevalent in this setting and that additional interventions are needed to reduce morbidity particularly among young women. These data also suggest that more studies are needed among men who perpetrate IPPV in south India. PMID:22186382

  20. The association of tanning behavior with psycho-tropic medication use among young adult women.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Munshi, Teja; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Perlis, Clifford; Oslin, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite its known association with skin cancer, tanning remains popular among young adult women. Indoor tanning behavior has been found to be associated with affective and addictive disorders. To better understand potential psychological and biological mechanisms of tanning behavior, we investigated associations between tanning and medication (psychotropic and other) use among young women. Two hundred and fifty-three women age 18-29years old were recruited from two northeastern university campus communities. Women self-reported tanning frequency and chronic medication use. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, indoor tanning ?12 times last year was significantly associated with use of psychotropic medication and anti-depressants in particular. Sunbathing was not associated with medication use. Potential reasons for associations between tanning and psychotropic medication use are discussed. Indoor tanners should be warned that some psychotropic medications are photosensitizing, thus increasing risk for burns and other skin damage from indoor tanning. PMID:26068581

  1. Parity and primary liver cancer among young women.

    PubMed

    Hsing, A W; McLaughlin, J K; Hoover, R N; Co Chien, H T; Blot, W J; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-07-15

    Researchers from the US National Cancer Institute compared data on 25-49 year old US women who died of primary liver cancer between 1985 and 1986 with data on age matched controls who died of causes other than liver conditions or oral contraceptive (OC) related conditions to determine the association between primary liver cancer and parity. Women who had experienced at least 1 live birth wear 1.9 times more likely to have died of primary liver cancer than were nulliparous women. The association was not significant (p=.22), however. The highest risks were among children with at least 6 children (odds ratio [OR]=2.9) and with 2 children (2.1). Further the risks were greater when the parents or spouse completed the questionnaire and the association almost reached significance (p=.07). This may have been due to parents and spouse providing more complete information than a friend or neighbor. The risks of developing primary liver cancer were higher among women who had never used OCs than they were among those who ever did. For example, the OR for never users past parity 2 was 3.6 compared with 1.3 for ever OC users. There was a higher risk associated with parity among long term OC users (=or 5 years) than with short-term OC users, however. The researchers concluded that since parity was positively associated with increased risk of primary liver cancer in the US (a low risk country), endogenous hormones may contribute to liver cancer development. The following facts add to this plausibility. Estrogen profiles of parous women are different from those of nulliparous women. Estrogen levels rise considerably during pregnancy. Estrogens alter liver metabolism. Pregnancy makes the body more defenseless against hepatitis and its sequelae. In low risk countries, the risk of primary liver cancer rises among women using exogenous hormones. PMID:1619686

  2. Sexually Related Behaviors as Predictors of HPV Vaccination Among Young Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Laurel A.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Crosby, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore whether sexually related behaviors predict refusal of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among a sample of women aged 1826 in Appalachian Kentucky. Methods Using a convenience sample, young women attending health clinics and a community college in southeastern Kentucky were recruited to participate in a Womens Health Study. After completing a questionnaire, women received a free voucher for the three-dose HPV vaccine series. Completion of dose one served as the outcome variable. Results Women with a history of an abnormal Pap test were almost two times more likely to decline the HPV vaccine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.143.20, p = 0.015), and women who reported they had never had a Pap test were four times more likely to decline the vaccine (AOR 4.02, 95% CI 1.1314.32, p = 0.032). Women engaging in mutual masturbation were nearly two times more likely to decline the free vaccine (AOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.173.10, p = 0.009). Use of hormonal birth control showed a protective effect against refusal of the free HPV vaccine (AOR 0.593, 95% CI 0.440.80, p = 0.001). Conclusions Among this sample of Appalachian women, those engaging in behaviors that increase their risk for HPV infection were more likely to refuse the vaccine. Conversely, those women engaging in protective health behaviors were more likely to accept the vaccine. These findings suggest that those women not being vaccinated may be the very group most likely to benefit from vaccination. Cervical cancer prevention programs need to be creative in efforts to reach young women most in need of the vaccine based on a higher profile of sexually related behaviors and the proxy measure of this risk (having an abnormal Pap test result). PMID:22136319

  3. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by requiring couples to consider two STEM careers when making career decisions. Women's partners more often worked full time than did the partners of men. This may limit the possibility of work-related travel for female geoscientists and increase the burden of household duties on two working partners. In fact, women did report doing significantly more household upkeep and more parenting than men. Another barrier to retention and promotion of women includes a lack of mentors and role models. The example of women in senior positions is especially important, justifying young women's aspiration to be successful geoscientists. In our data, young female geoscientists less often saw women as adequately represented in senior roles than did male respondents. While ESWN cannot solve these problems for individuals, ESWN activities do seem to address these concerns. In discussions on the ESWN listserv, women share ideas and strategies for navigating these obstacles. Young female geoscientists may also find role models among the more experienced members. Knowledge of these obstacles also provides ESWN and other organizations aiming to advance women in science with the potential best practices in supporting women through these challenges.

  4. Response to resistance training in young women and men.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, F T; Sale, D G; MacDougall, J D; Garner, S H

    1995-07-01

    Six women and 6 men trained the elbow flexors 3 days per week for 20 wks, one arm performing in each session 3-5 sets of 10 maximal concentric actions on an accommodating resistance device, the other arm 3-5 sets of 8-12 coupled eccentric/concentric actions on a weight training device. With results collapsed across the two training modes, the women made significantly (p < 0.05) greater relative increases than men in strength measured on the weight (116 vs. 46%) and accommodating (99 vs. 46%) resistance devices, and greater absolute (3.5 vs. -1.3 N.m) and relative (13.7 vs. -3.2%) increases in strength measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Absolute (cm2) and relative (%) biceps, brachialis, and total elbow flexor cross-sectional area (from CT scans) increased significantly; however, the women's vs. men's respective relative and absolute increases did not differ significantly: biceps (13 vs. 7%, 0.9 vs. 1.0 cm2), brachialis (53 vs. 31%, 2.1 vs. 2.3 cm2), and total (26 vs. 15%, 3.1 vs. 3.3 cm2) flexor area. Biceps type I and II fiber area, and the II/I area ratio did not increase significantly. The data indicate that in response to the same short-term training program, muscle size increases similarly in women and men but women make greater relative increases in strength. PMID:7558529

  5. But Was It Wanted? Young Women's First Voluntary Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houts, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    Existing literature on sexual intercourse is based on the assumption that if an individual engages in sexual activity, not self-defined as rape, then the activity must have been wanted by both partners. This study, using "National Survey of Family Growth," identifies factors associated with the "wantedness" of first sexual intercourse for young

  6. Recognizing the Needs of the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Joseph B.

    This paper summarizes reports and research on the homeless in the United States, presents findings of a survey of Red Cross chapters on services to the homeless, and describes programs for the homeless of selected Red Cross chapters. Section 1 discusses definitions of homelessness and methodologies used to count homeless people. The homeless are…

  7. Recognizing the Needs of the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Joseph B.

    This paper summarizes reports and research on the homeless in the United States, presents findings of a survey of Red Cross chapters on services to the homeless, and describes programs for the homeless of selected Red Cross chapters. Section 1 discusses definitions of homelessness and methodologies used to count homeless people. The homeless are

  8. Responding to the needs of the homeless mentally ill.

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, S H

    1985-01-01

    The homeless mentally ill represent a pivotal and urgent challenge to the mental health field in the 1980s. Those homeless who have extended histories of psychiatric hospitalization stand as harsh reminders of the failures of deinstitutionalization, while young mentally ill homeless adults who never have been treated as inpatients testify to the gaps and unrealized promises of community-based care under deinstitutionalization. Homelessness and mental illness are social and clinical problems, respectively, distinct in some ways but intertwined in others. Some of the factors that contribute to homelessness--such as economic deprivations, a dearth of low-cost housing, discontinuities in social service systems, and radical changes in the composition of American families--are felt particularly keenly by many persons who are mentally ill. And symptoms of mental disorders, in turn, frequently impede an individual's capacities to cope with those, as well as other, stressors. Developing appropriate and effective responses to the needs of homeless people who are mentally ill requires precise definition and identification of the target population, innovations in the mental health service system, encouragement of those who staff it to work with homeless mentally ill patients, and public education. Ultimately, however, fundamental answers will be found in an improved understanding of severe mental illness, enhanced treatment capacities, and greater attention to the rehabilitative needs of mentally ill persons. PMID:3931159

  9. Breast cancer in young women and its impact on reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, M.; Peate, M.; Saunders, C.M.; Friedlander, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries, and 12% of breast cancer occurs in women 20–34 years. Survival from breast cancer has significantly improved, and the potential late effects of treatment and the impact on quality of life have become increasingly important. Young women constitute a minority of breast cancer patients, but commonly have distinct concerns and issues compared with older women, including queries regarding fertility, contraception and pregnancy. Further, they are more likely than older women to have questions regarding potential side effects of therapy and risk of relapse or a new primary. In addition, many will have symptoms associated with treatment and they present a management challenge. Reproductive medicine specialists and gynaecologists commonly see these women either shortly after initial diagnosis or following adjuvant therapy and should be aware of current management of breast cancer, the options for women at increased genetic risk, the prognosis of patients with early stage breast cancer and how adjuvant systemic treatments may impact reproductive function. METHODS No systematic literature search was done. The review focuses on the current management of breast cancer in young women and the impact of treatment on reproductive function and subsequent management. With reference to key studies and meta-analyses, we highlight controversies and current unanswered questions regarding patient management. RESULTS Chemotherapy for breast cancer is likely to negatively impact on reproductive function. A number of interventions are available which may increase the likelihood of future successful pregnancy, but the relative safety of these interventions is not well established. For those who do conceive following breast cancer, there is no good evidence that pregnancy is detrimental to survival. We review current treatment; effects on reproductive function; preservation of fertility; contraception; pregnancy; breastfeeding and management of menopausal symptoms following breast cancer. CONCLUSION This paper provides an update on the management of breast cancer in young women and is targeted at reproductive medicine specialists and gynaecologists. PMID:19174449

  10. Coming unmoored: Disproportionate increases in obesity prevalence among young, disadvantaged White women

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane; Lee, Hedwig; Johnson/Lawrence, Vicki; Seamans, Marissa J.; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since the 1980s, older low-educated White women experienced an unprecedented decrease in life expectancy. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was evident among younger women for obesity. Design and Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we estimated age-adjusted changes in prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference>88 cm) between 1988-1994 and 2003-2010 among non-Hispanic White women aged 25-44 years, stratified by educational attainment (women's changes in obesity prevalence to changes among similarly educated Black women. Results Relative increases in overall obesity were disproportionately larger for low- educated (women: 12.3 (95% CI: 3.1, 21.5) percentage points (ppts). For overall and abdominal obesity, general trends indicated dissimilar racial differences by educational attainment. For instance, overall obesity increased more in Blacks than Whites among college-educated (9.9 ppts) but not low- educated (−2.5 ppts) women. Conclusions Contemporary young, low-educated White women showed indications of disproportionate worsening of overall obesity prevalence compared to more educated White and similarly educated Black women. Low education levels are more powerful indicators of obesity risk among contemporary White women than 30 years ago. PMID:25294582

  11. Supporting Homeless Youth during the Transition to Adulthood: Housing-Based Independent Living Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy

    2010-01-01

    While many young people depend on parental financial and emotional support well past the age of 18, those who are homeless must make the transition to adulthood without that support. This article discusses the needs of homeless youth as they transition to adulthood. It then describes three housing-based independent living programs designed to…

  12. Supporting Homeless Youth during the Transition to Adulthood: Housing-Based Independent Living Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy

    2010-01-01

    While many young people depend on parental financial and emotional support well past the age of 18, those who are homeless must make the transition to adulthood without that support. This article discusses the needs of homeless youth as they transition to adulthood. It then describes three housing-based independent living programs designed to

  13. Paving the Road to Higher Ed for Students Hit by Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opper, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    With higher education offering a potential avenue out of a bleak alternative, School on Wheels of Massachusetts (SOWMA) has devoted countless hours to increasing the educational opportunities for young people impacted by homelessness. SOWMA first meets a student when he or she is experiencing homelessness. Once part of the SOWMA family, the

  14. A Home Away: Meeting the Needs of Infants, Toddlers, and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakian, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Families are one of the fastest-growing groups affected by homelessness in the U.S. Very young children are profoundly affected by the loss of a consistent living situation, most especially in the first 3 years when routine and familiarity confer a sense of safety and security. The stress of homelessness--and the multiple traumas that frequently

  15. Paving the Road to Higher Ed for Students Hit by Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opper, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    With higher education offering a potential avenue out of a bleak alternative, School on Wheels of Massachusetts (SOWMA) has devoted countless hours to increasing the educational opportunities for young people impacted by homelessness. SOWMA first meets a student when he or she is experiencing homelessness. Once part of the SOWMA family, the…

  16. A Home Away: Meeting the Needs of Infants, Toddlers, and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakian, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Families are one of the fastest-growing groups affected by homelessness in the U.S. Very young children are profoundly affected by the loss of a consistent living situation, most especially in the first 3 years when routine and familiarity confer a sense of safety and security. The stress of homelessness--and the multiple traumas that frequently…

  17. Development of Sexual Orientation among Adolescent and Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Interviewed 16- to 23-year-old non-heterosexual women regarding development of their sexual orientation. Found that a majority failed to report at least one of following: childhood sexual orientation indicators, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to conscious sexual questioning. Lesbians reported greater

  18. Sympathetic reactivity in young women with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Matthews, Evan L; Wenner, Megan M

    2015-04-15

    Young adults with a family history of hypertension (+FH) have increased risk of developing hypertension. Furthermore, the blood pressure (BP) response to sympathoexcitatory stimuli in young adults can predict the future development of hypertension. Therefore, we hypothesized young women with a +FH would have exaggerated cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivity compared with young women without a family history of hypertension (-FH). Beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured in 14 women +FH (22 1 yr, 21 1 kg/m(2), MAP 80 2 mmHg) and 15 women -FH (22 1 yr, 22 1 kg/m(2), MAP 78 2 mmHg) during acute sympathoexcitatory maneuvers: cold pressor test, 2 min of isometric handgrip (HG) exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, and 3 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI; isolated activation of the skeletal muscle metaboreflex). During cold pressor test, the increase in BP was greater in women +FH (?MAP: +FH 16 2 vs. -FH 11 1 mmHg, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by an exaggerated increase in MSNA (?MSNA: +FH 17 2 vs. -FH 8 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). The increase in BP was greater in +FH during the last minute of HG (?MAP: +FH 23 3 vs. -FH 12 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and during PEI (?MAP: +FH 17 3 vs. -FH 9 2 mmHg, P < 0.05). Similarly, the increase in MSNA was greater in +FH during both HG (?MSNA: +FH 12 2 vs. -FH 6 2 burst/min, P < 0.05) and PEI (?MSNA: +FH 16 2 vs. -FH 4 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that +FH women have greater BP and sympathetic reactivity compared with -FH women. PMID:25681430

  19. Young Womens Sexual and Reproductive Health Post HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ports, Katie A.; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Mosavel, Maghboeba; Murithi, Lydia Karuta

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the authors sought to explore, in greater depth, the impact that HPV vaccination has on college-aged womens reproductive and sexual health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 HPV-vaccinated, college women and analyzed for reoccurring themes. Although findings revealed that womens HPV-related knowledge was suboptimal, most women correctly believed that they were still at risk for HPV after having received the vaccination. Women indicated that having the HPV vaccine made them more aware of sexually transmitted infections and prompted them to continue to take care of their sexual health. Women reported that having the HPV vaccine did not influence their condom use or birth control choices, and they believed that obtaining Pap smears was still important. These results help us to understand the impact of HPV vaccination on womens reproductive and sexual health. These findings are promising and reinforce the importance of educating women about behaviors that will help them maintain reproductive and sexually healthy lives. PMID:24910854

  20. An Inside Look at Homeless Youths’ Social Networks: Perceptions of Substance Use Norms1

    PubMed Central

    Melander, Lisa A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use among homeless young people is a pervasive problem, and there have been many efforts to understand more about the dynamics of this health compromising behavior. The current study examined perceived substance use norms within homeless youths’ social networks utilizing in-depth interviews. The sample included 19 homeless individuals aged 16 to 21. Four elements of substance use within networks emerged: substance use choices, drug use safety issues, encouragement and/or discouragement, and appropriate situations in which substance use is condoned. These findings provide unique insight into the norms associated with drug and alcohol use within homeless youths’ social networks. PMID:26989340

  1. Arterial oxygen desaturation response to repeated bouts of sprint exercise in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Kuniyoshi, Shimpei; Endoh, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Minoru; Endoh, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The decline in arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin during exercise has been termed exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH). We examined whether repeated bouts of sprint exercise (SprE) would induce EIAH in healthy young men and women. Ten men and 11 women (20.4 +/- 0.3 year) performed an anaerobic power test (three bouts of 10 s cycling with 120 s intervals) using a cycle ergometer. Arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin measured by pulse oximeter (SpO(2)), heart rate (HR), rate perceived exertion (RPE), and the blood lactate concentration ([La](b)) were assessed at rest, during, and 5 min after repeated bouts of SprE. Women exhibited a lower maximal anaerobic power (MAnP) compared to men (498 +/- 23 vs. 759 +/- 22 watts, respectively, p < 0.01). HR, RPE, and [La](b) in women were comparable with those in men throughout the test. However, the only significant decline in SpO(2) after a single bout of SprE (95.5 +/- 0.7%) from the resting value (97.9 +/- 0.2%) was observed in women, and further declines occurred following heavier SprE (< 95%). In 8 of 11 women, mild to moderate EIAH developed, whereas only 2 men showed mild EIAH. Thus, these findings suggest that repeated bouts of SprE might induce mild EIAH in young women but not men. PMID:20204812

  2. Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…

  3. Resources for Ensuring Quality School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wider Opportunities for Women, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography lists 49 resources for ensuring high quality school-to-work opportunities for young women. These resources are grouped into 10 categories: print material for middle and high school girls; videos for middle and high school girls; administrator/school guides; curriculum guides/resources for teachers; resources for

  4. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer

  5. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  6. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the

  7. Growth in Motion: Supporting Young Women's Embodied Identity and Cognitive Development through Dance after School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Mira-Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This article highlights the perspectives of young women who have participated in dance for many years. Their viewpoints reveal the unique multimodal nature of embodied learning; in dance classes, teachers and learners communicate through a variety of modes: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, spatial, musical, tactile, gestural, and linguistic. The

  8. Evaluation of the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae Yong; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Ju Hee; Kim, Kang Hyuk; Moon, Hong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance and compare the results with those from the general population. Methods Twenty-five linear, nine angular, and three area measurements were made and four ratios were calculated using a sample of standardized frontal and lateral photographs of 46 young adult women with a preferred facial appearance (Miss Korea group) and 44 young adult women from the general population (control group). Differences between the two groups were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results Compared with the control group, the Miss Korea group exhibited a significantly greater facial height, total facial height (TFH; trichion-menton), facial width (tragus right-tragus left), facial depth (tragus-true vertical line), and trichion-nasion/TFH ratio and smaller subnasale-menton/TFH and facial width/TFH ratios. Furthermore, the control group had smaller intercanthal and interpupillary widths. Conclusions The Miss Korea group exhibited longer, wider, and deeper faces compared with those from the general population. Furthermore, the Miss Korea group had larger eyes, longer but less protruded noses, longer and more retruded lower lips and chins, larger lip vermilion areas, and smaller labiomental angles. These results suggest that the latest trends in facial esthetics should be considered during diagnosis and treatment planning for young women with dentofacial abnormalities. PMID:26445720

  9. Social Acceptability of Menstrual-Care Training Methods for Young Women with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The acceptability of two different training methods (simulation training using a doll and simulation training on self) for teaching menstrual hygiene skills to young women with developmental disabilities was evaluated in two experiments. Results suggested that opinions about treatment acceptability should be obtained from both professional and

  10. "Too Pretty to Do Math!" Young Women in Movement and Pedagogical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The article points out some pedagogical challenges in supporting girls and young women in their emancipatory movements today. It spotlights a specific section in gender pedagogy by focusing on the aim of self-determination (rather than achievement) in the field of social-pedagogy and it refers to the concept of "girls work" in Germany. A critical

  11. The Self-Injury Experiences of Young Adult Women: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Milliken, Tammi F.

    2010-01-01

    Many counselors lack a clear understanding of the phenomenon of self-injury. This article presents results of a qualitative study examining the experiences of young adult women who engage in self-injurious behaviors. Interpretation of the participants' narrative data offers insight into the value of a humanistic approach to counseling this

  12. Young Women and the City: Adolescent Deviance and the Transformation of Educational Policy, 1870-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlak, Michael W.

    1983-01-01

    Evangelical residential homes and intermediate care facilities in urban centers, professional clinical programs, and financial assistance from the federal government characterize three periods in the history of institutional response to pregnant and delinquent young women. Each period is analyzed in terms of funding sources, clientele, and

  13. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

  14. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  15. Non-Traditional School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women. Resource Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School-to-Work Opportunities Office, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin presents an overview of strategies that practitioners identify as methods of increasing young women's access to and success in school-to-work programs in nontraditional occupations. These strategies are discussed: outreach to female students; career information and advising; training for teachers and counselors; math and science…

  16. Ideas for Action: Helping Girls and Young Women in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Barbara K.

    This idea book is a resource to help individuals focus their good will and energy on helping girls and young women in their communities. After a brief introduction to each of seven advocacy strategies, ideas for action are listed under each. The first advocacy strategy focuses on organizing your community for action. Ideas for action include

  17. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  18. Designing from Their Own Social Worlds: The Digital Story of Three African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ted

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the literacy work of three African American young women (through data drawn from a larger qualitative study), particularly their ways of knowing, such as double consciousness (Du Bois, 1989), and the multiple subject positions they occupy as they write themselves into a digitally created story. My analysis is guided by the…

  19. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during

  20. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened

  1. "Too Pretty to Do Math!" Young Women in Movement and Pedagogical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The article points out some pedagogical challenges in supporting girls and young women in their emancipatory movements today. It spotlights a specific section in gender pedagogy by focusing on the aim of self-determination (rather than achievement) in the field of social-pedagogy and it refers to the concept of "girls work" in Germany. A critical…

  2. Teaching Cooking Skills to Young Women with Mild Intellectual Disability: The Effectiveness of Internet Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Hanadi Hussein; Schoenfeld, Naomi A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using streaming video websites to improve, maintain, and generalize the cooking (meal-making) skills of four young women (18-22 years old) diagnosed with intellectual disabilities. A pre-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based multimedia…

  3. "Two's up and Poncing Fags": Young Women's Smoking Practices, Reciprocity and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Fin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small-scale doctoral research…

  4. Diaspora Literacies: An Exploration of What Reading Means to Young African Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This research study explored two young African immigrant women English learners' perspectives on reading, and literacy more broadly, in relation to motivation and identity during a year-long qualitative study at a large, urban high school in the U.S. southeast. Data were collected through interviews and observations that focused on reading

  5. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Brje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical

  6. Nutritional Intervention in Young Women with Eating Disorders: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…

  7. Early Pubertal Timing and the Union Formation Behaviors of Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether the transition into adolescence, proxied by pubertal timing, shaped the transition into adulthood, proxied by union formation behaviors, among contemporary American women. In a sample drawn from Add Health (n = 7,523), early maturing girls reported an accelerated transition to marriage and cohabitation in young

  8. Material Realities in the Basic Writing Classroom: Intersections of Discovery for Young Women Reading "Persepolis 2"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Susan Naomi

    2008-01-01

    This essay focuses on how young women students in a first-year, first-quarter basic reading and writing course wrote about their connections to the process of identity development as portrayed in the graphic novel "Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return" by Marjane Satrapi. While the circumstances of becoming a student in a required

  9. Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Osteoporosis Prevention Intervention in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred

  10. Teaching Cooking Skills to Young Women with Mild Intellectual Disability: The Effectiveness of Internet Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Hanadi Hussein; Schoenfeld, Naomi A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using streaming video websites to improve, maintain, and generalize the cooking (meal-making) skills of four young women (18-22 years old) diagnosed with intellectual disabilities. A pre-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based multimedia

  11. Diaspora Literacies: An Exploration of What Reading Means to Young African Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This research study explored two young African immigrant women English learners' perspectives on reading, and literacy more broadly, in relation to motivation and identity during a year-long qualitative study at a large, urban high school in the U.S. southeast. Data were collected through interviews and observations that focused on reading…

  12. 77 FR 22788 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW); Correction Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on March...

  13. Nutritional Intervention in Young Women with Eating Disorders: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this

  14. What Makes Young Women More Resilient? Leadership, Work, Independence and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover what variables from the home and the high school may be related to a student having a high resilience score. The participants for the current research were all young women who attended the same all-girls, Catholic high school in the Midwest and were alumnae of the school. Resilience is defined as the

  15. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  16. "Two's up and Poncing Fags": Young Women's Smoking Practices, Reciprocity and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Fin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small-scale doctoral research

  17. Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Osteoporosis Prevention Intervention in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred…

  18. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

  19. Keep Calm and Contracept! Addressing Young Women's Pleasure in Sexual Health and Contraception Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanbury, Ali; Eastham, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical sexual health consultations with young women often focus on avoiding "risks;" namely pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection transmission. They also typically fail to explore how contraception use can impact on the capacity to enjoy sexual relationships. In contrast, this paper argues that sexual pleasure should be a…

  20. What Makes Young Women More Resilient? Leadership, Work, Independence and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover what variables from the home and the high school may be related to a student having a high resilience score. The participants for the current research were all young women who attended the same all-girls, Catholic high school in the Midwest and were alumnae of the school. Resilience is defined as the…

  1. Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and

  2. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception

  3. 76 FR 787 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  4. 78 FR 64504 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) Cancellation: This notice was published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2013, Volume 78, Number 181, page 57391. The...

  5. 78 FR 18601 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  6. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

  7. Relationships and Betrayal among Young Women: Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescent Dating Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Candace W.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H.; Rehm, Roberta S.; Humphreys, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this paper presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. BACKGROUND Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists within nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. DATA SOURCES A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. DISCUSSION Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Gender, relationship, and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. CONCLUSION Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. PMID:21261691

  8. Homeless Health Concerns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... children have high rates of emotional and behavioral problems, often from having witnessed abuse. Help such as shelters, health centers, and free meals are available. Contact your local homelessness assistance agency.

  9. For Homeless Veterans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... situations and connect them with VA bridge housing, health care and case management services that promote safe, stable living arrangements. More Information Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) HCHV Rule Change Helps ...

  10. ARE YOUNG ARAB WOMEN EATING A HEALTHY DIET? A QUALITATIVE DIETARY STUDY AMONG COLLEGE HOSTEL STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Parveen; Al-Kunji, Aisha A.; Al-Saffar, Basma M.; Al-Abdul Karim, Hanan M.; Al-Thawadi, Maysoon I.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Two recent studies conducted on young College Arab Women showed a trend towards over nutrition. It is well known that good eating habits adopted early in life not only improve health and control obesity in the youthful years but also promote healthy eating behaviours in later life. Objective: To investigate the dietary habits of young college women and identify specific areas for nutrition education. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire containing 20 items related to qualitative dietary history was distributed to all the college (King Faisal University, Dammam) women residing in the hostel during a one-week period in April 1998. Result: Out of a total of 56 women, 50.7% frequently missed out on breakfast and lunch. To satisfy their state of hunger, frequent snacking with deserts/carbohydrate-rich food items (21.4%) and consumption of regular cola drinks (32.1%) was common. Fast food rich in fat and calories from restaurants was popular among a majority (98.2%) of the students. On the other hand, there was a deficient intake of protective foods and nutrients for repair, maintenance and growth, such as fruits (73.2%), vegetables (85.6%), milk and milk products (66.1%) and protein-rich foods (82.1%). Conclusion: To decrease the risk of malnutrition among young college women, there is a need to target them for nutrition education and adoption of healthy eating practices within the context of a healthy life style. PMID:23008599

  11. Fractured Identity: A Framework for Understanding Young Asian American Women's Self-harm and Suicidal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors. PMID:24563680

  12. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie L; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; McConnell, Margaret; van Rooyen, Heidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kurth, Ann; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Desmond, Chris; Morton, Jennifer; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Discussion Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies for delivering oral PrEP, a first-generation biomedical HIV prevention product, will inform development of new and less user-dependent PrEP formulations and delivery of an expanding choice of prevention options in HIV prevention programmes for young African women. PMID:26198350

  13. Career interruptions and hours practiced: comparison between young men and women physicians.

    PubMed

    Woodward, C A; Cohen, M L; Ferrier, B M

    1990-01-01

    This study compares current level of workforce participation and number, type and length of career interruptions since entering medical school reported by young men and women physicians. By 10 years from medical school entry, one third of the women studied had taken a maternity/child care leave and 24% had taken time away from their careers for other reasons while only 11% of men had interrupted their careers. The average time taken and reasons given for non-maternity-related career interruption were similar for men and women. Both men and women in the types of medical careers that historically have attracted more women work shorter hours than those in medical career types where women are under-represented. Across career types, women worked shorter hours per week than men and the presence of children further reduced hours of work for women only. Although the women studied are more active professionally than previous generations during their childbearing/rearing years, a considerable gap in the participation level remains. PMID:2311044

  14. Food habits of young and middle-aged women living outside the capital cities of Australia.

    PubMed

    Dobson, A; Mishra, G; Brown, W; Reynolds, R

    1997-12-01

    Young (18-22 years) and middle-aged (45-49 years) women living in urban and rural areas of New South Wales completed a brief food frequency questionnaire as part of a wider health survey. Urban women in both age groups consumed meat less frequently than women in rural areas, and women in the less populated rural areas were more likely to eat green and yellow vegetables and least likely to eat dried beans. There were few other geographic differences in food habits. Middle-aged women consumed reduced-fat milk, fruit, vegetables, fish, biscuits and cakes significantly more frequently, and rice, pasta, full-cream milk, fried food and take-away food less frequently than younger women. Smokers in both age groups consumed fresh fruit, vegetables and breakfast cereals significantly less frequently than non-smokers, and women with low levels of habitual physical activity consumed fresh fruit and cereals less frequently than more active women. The findings suggest that strategies aimed at changing eating behaviours should be age-group-specific and targeted specifically to smokers and less active women. PMID:9489187

  15. Vitamin d, depression and coping self-efficacy in young women: longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kwasky, Andrea N; Groh, Carla J

    2014-12-01

    Depression is a significant health issue in young women with few assessment strategies for early detection. It has been suggested that self-efficacy and vitamin D levels can predict and prevent depression. The authors examined the relationship between vitamin D levels, coping self-efficacy and depression in 77 college age women over three seasons. The results of the repeated measures analysis showed that a strong, inverse relationship existed between self-efficacy and depression but not vitamin D levels. These findings were consistent across the three data collection points. The results implied that strengthening perceived coping self-efficacy may be useful in order to maintain the mental health of young college age women. PMID:25457684

  16. Infected Lives: Lived Experiences of Young African American HIV-Positive Women.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Jill N; Domian, Elaine W; Teel, Cynthia S

    2016-02-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of young African American HIV-infected women. Eleven women between the ages of 21 and 35 participated. One pattern, Infected Lives, and three themes-Living Alone With HIV, Living With Unresolved Conflicts, and Living With Multiple Layers of Betrayal-emerged. The pattern and themes portray the very complex and challenging experiences faced by these young women living with HIV infection. They have experienced isolation, abandonment, betrayal, and discrimination in their interpersonal and social systems. They often dealt with conflicts of hope and anguish in the relationships with their children, and portraying strength, while feeling fragile. These complexities negatively influence the ability to fully engage in self-care activities. Implications for future research include further investigation about the experiences of psychological distress experienced post-diagnosis, development and evaluation of holistic nursing interventions, and evaluative research on mass media educational campaigns to reduce HIV-related stigma. PMID:25239137

  17. Social discrimination, stress, and risk of unintended pregnancy among young women

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Yasamin; Gatny, Heather; Barber, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prior research linking young women’s mental health to family planning outcomes has often failed to consider their social circumstances and the intersecting biosocial mechanisms that shape stress and depression as well as reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood. We extend our previous work to investigate relationships between social discrimination, stress and depression symptoms, and unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women. Methods Data were drawn from 794 women 18–20 years in a longitudinal cohort study. Baseline and weekly surveys assessed psychosocial information including discrimination (EDS), stress (PSS), depression (CES-D), and reproductive outcomes. Multi-level, mixed-effects logistic regression and discrete-time hazard models estimated associations between discrimination, mental health, and pregnancy. Baron and Kenny’s method was used to test mediation effects of stress and depression on discrimination and pregnancy. Results The mean discrimination score was 19/45 points; 20% reported moderate/high discrimination. Discrimination scores were higher among women with stress and depression symptoms versus those without symptoms (21 versus 18 points for both, p’s<0.001). Pregnancy rates (14% overall) were higher among women with moderate/high (23%) versus low (11%) discrimination (p<0.001). Discrimination was associated with stress (aRR 2.2, 95%CI 1.4,3.4), depression (aRR 2.4, CI 1.5,3.7), and subsequent pregnancy (aRR 1.8, CI 1.1,3.0). Stress and depression symptoms did not mediate discrimination’s effect on pregnancy. Conclusions Discrimination was associated with an increased risk of mental health symptoms and unintended pregnancy among these young women. The interactive social and biological influences on reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood warrant further study. PMID:25586228

  18. Suffering in silence: consequences of sexual violence within marriage among young women in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the grave consequences of sexual violence, and it's persistence both within and outside marriages, this subject has received relatively little attention from researchers, policy makers, and programme managers in Nepal. This paper explores the definition of sexual violence and its various forms and consequences as reported by young married women in Nepal. In addition, it describes the coping mechanisms used by young married women to avoid sexual violence perpetrated against them by their husbands. Methods This paper analyzes data collected during the qualitative study on "Sexual violence among young couples in Nepal", conducted amongst two major ethnic groups - Brahmin/Chhetri and Tharu - between 2006 and 2007. The data is comprised of 39 free-lists and 15 in-depth case histories with married women aged 15-24 years. The average rank and Smith's Salience were calculated from the free-listing data. The thematic analysis approach was used for the analysis of information from the case histories. Results Approximately three-quarters (74%) of the young women mentioned 'sex against one's wishes' as sexual violence within marriage (SVWM). Sixty-two percent of respondents described 'forced sex during illness' and 'forced sex after consumption of alcohol' as SVWM. About half of young women (48.7%) who participated in the free-listing exercise reported having experienced SVWM. The types of SVWM ranged from unwanted sexual touch to forced sex. Backache, headache, lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and thoughts of suicide were the most commonly reported negative physical and psychological health consequences of SVWM. Women reported various coping strategies including 'trying to convince husbands', 'sleeping in a separate room', 'visiting maternal home', 'waking up the children', and 'using pretexts such as being ill or menstruating', to avoid SVWM. However, in most cases, women reported that these coping strategies were unsuccessful. Almost all women experiencing SVWM were socially isolated and did not turn to institutions, relatives or friends for advice and support. Conclusions Sexual violence within marriage is common in Nepal. Findings provide circumstantial evidence of links between sexual violence and negative general and reproductive health outcomes for women. Various actions are required to prevent SVWM and provide immediate support to the victims. PMID:21223603

  19. Reproductive health characteristics of young Malawian women seeking post-abortion care.

    PubMed

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Pearson, Erin; Lunguzi, Juliana; Katengeza, Hans R

    2012-06-01

    Abortion is illegal in Malawi except when the pregnancy endangers the mother's life, yet complications of abortion account for the majority of admissions to gynecological wards. This study collected data on all post-abortion care (PAC) cases reporting to all PAC-providing health facilities in Malawi over a 30-day period. Of a total of 2,028 PAC clients, 20.9% were adolescents (age 10-19) and 29.6% were young adults (age 20-24). More than half of adolescents and almost 80% of young adults were married. Less than 5% of adolescents and 22.5% of young adults reported using contraception when they became pregnant. Being unmarried was associated with previous abortion and contraceptive use among young adults. These statistics indicate a high proportion of unwanted pregnancy and lack of access to modern contraception among young women. Programs to increase access to pregnancy prevention services and protect young women from unsafe abortions are greatly needed. PMID:22916557

  20. A Quantitative Review of Cognitive Functioning in Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2014-01-01

    Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full scale IQ, and pre-morbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full scale IQ score was 85, one standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to common among homeless adults, and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data is available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

  1. Laterality and age-level differences between young women and elderly women in controlled force exertion (CFE).

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Demura, Shinichi; Kawabata, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine laterality and age-level differences in maximal handgrip strength and CFE using women as subjects. The subjects were 50 young women (mean age 20.91.9 years) and 50 elderly women (mean age 72.96.6 years). The maximal handgrip strength was measured twice with a 1-min interval, and the larger value was used in this study. In the CFE test, the subjects matched their submaximal grip strengths to the demand values changing at a constant frequency (range=5-25% of the maximal grip strength). The CFE test was performed twice after one practice trial (one trial was 40s). The sum of the percent of differences between the demand value and the grip exertion value was used as an estimate of CFE. CFE was estimated using a mean from two trials, excluding the first 15s of each trial. The elderly were significantly inferior in maximal handgrip strength of the dominant and non-dominant hands to young adults (about 70%), and the non-dominant hand was significantly inferior to the dominant hand. The elderly were significantly inferior in CFE of both hands to young adults (about 50%), and the non-dominant hand was significantly inferior. In conclusion, the age-level differences in maximal handgrip strength and CFE are found in the dominant and non-dominant hands, and laterality is also found in both young adults and the elderly. The CFE relating closely to nerve function may have a larger age-level difference than maximal handgrip strength. PMID:21930309

  2. Avoiding Unwanted Pregnancy-The Role of Communication, Information and Knowledge in the Use of Contraception among Young Norwegian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundby, Johanne; Svanemyr, Joar; Maehre, Tale

    1999-01-01

    Study identified early entry points to sexuality, contraception, abortion, and post-abortion counseling. Young women (N=102) seeking an abortion or contraceptives were interviewed. Results showed there are different levels of consistency in contraceptive use among women, and that even women with few partners and fairly good contraceptive…

  3. Avoiding Unwanted Pregnancy-The Role of Communication, Information and Knowledge in the Use of Contraception among Young Norwegian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundby, Johanne; Svanemyr, Joar; Maehre, Tale

    1999-01-01

    Study identified early entry points to sexuality, contraception, abortion, and post-abortion counseling. Young women (N=102) seeking an abortion or contraceptives were interviewed. Results showed there are different levels of consistency in contraceptive use among women, and that even women with few partners and fairly good contraceptive

  4. Young Women's Knowledge and Beliefs about Osteoporosis: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of College Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Mark J.; Garber, Michele; Walsdorf, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Background: About 40% of White American women over age 50 experience osteoporosis-related fracture of the hip, spine, or wrist during their lives. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of osteoporosis knowledge and beliefs among young women. Methods: University women (n=302) completed a self-administered osteoporosis risk…

  5. Religiosity, denomination, and mental health among young men and women.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L C; Jensen, J; Wiederhold, T

    1993-06-01

    The relations among religiosity, denomination, and mental health were studied. Comparisons of groups high, medium, and low in religiosity were made possible by extracting data from a large data set for three denominational groups and gender in a three-way analysis of variance design. There were significant main effects, with higher scores on three mental health measures for high religious groups, Mormons, and men. There were interactions resulting from highly religious Mormon women, but not highly religious Mormon men scoring higher. The three scores were self-esteem, emotional maturity, and nondepression. PMID:8337319

  6. Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  7. Physical attractiveness, attitudes toward career, and mate preferences among young Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Teng, Fei; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Denghao

    2014-01-01

    We examined young Chinese women's mate preferences as a function of their self-perceived attractiveness and career attitudes. A total of 264 young Chinese women rated their own attractiveness, reported their attitudes toward career, and rated the importance of 20 mate characteristics. The characteristics encompassed four facets that individuals typically consider when seeking a long-term mate: good-genes indicators, good investment ability indicators, good parenting indicators, and good partner indicators. We found that both self-perceived attractiveness and attitudes toward career were positively associated with the importance attached to several of the characteristics. Moreover, women who had high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to intelligence, ambition, and industriousness than women who had low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness; women with low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to physical attractiveness in a mate than women with high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness. We discussed the limitations of our research and directions for future research. PMID:24525338

  8. SURPRISING RESULTS: HIV TESTING AND CHANGES IN CONTRACEPTIVE PRACTICES AMONG YOUNG WOMEN IN MALAWI.

    PubMed

    Sennott, Christie; Yeatman, Sara

    2016-03-01

    This study uses eight waves of data from the population-based Tsogolo la Thanzi study (2009-2011) in rural Malawi to examine changes in young women's contraceptive practices, including the use of condoms, non-barrier contraceptive methods and abstinence, following positive and negative HIV tests. The analysis factors in women's prior perceptions of their HIV status that may already be shaping their behaviour and separates surprise HIV test results from those that merely confirm what was already believed. Fixed-effects logistic regression models show that HIV testing frequently affects the contraceptive practices of young Malawian women, particularly when the test yields an unexpected result. Specifically, women who are surprised to test HIV positive increase their condom use and are more likely to use condoms consistently. Following an HIV-negative test (whether a surprise or expected), women increase their use of condoms and decrease their use of non-barrier contraceptives; the latter may be due to an increase in abstinence following a surprise negative result. Changes in condom use following HIV testing are robust to the inclusion of potential explanatory mechanisms, including fertility preferences, relationship status and the perception that a partner is HIV positive. The results demonstrate that both positive and negative tests can influence women's sexual and reproductive behaviours, and emphasize the importance of conceptualizing of HIV testing as offering new information only insofar as results deviate from prior perceptions of HIV status. PMID:26160156

  9. Young, southern women's perceptions of STEM careers: Examining science, technology, engineering & mathematics as a gendered construct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth

    Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in the present study were affected by gendered messages and stereotypes about a woman's place in STEM. The participants felt better suited for some STEM careers based on interest, experience, and skill level. However, the participants perceived other STEM careers to be out of reach due to a lack of knowledge of the careers and the influence of gendered messages.

  10. National Coalition for Homeless Veterans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a critical... continue Mayors Challenge to End Veteran Homelessness Call Hosted by HUD March 10, 2016 Mayors, ... to help in the campaign to end veteran homelessness. The portal will help your business capitalize on ...

  11. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Children START With Kids Healing Hearts, Promoting Health Domestic Violence and Homelessness TA America's Youngest Outcasts Veterans Veterans ... 6) the ways in which traumatic experiences, especially domestic violence, precede and prolong homelessness for families. Effective solutions ...

  12. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here Home National Center on Family Homelessness Center A staggering 2.5 million children are ... raise awareness of the current state of child homelessness in the United States, documents the number of ...

  13. "Red tips for hot lips": advertising cigarettes for young women in Britain, 1920-70.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, P

    2001-01-01

    The girl or woman smoker is a twentieth-century phenomenon. In 1900, smoking was invariably associated with sexually deviant womanhood. Today, smoking is firmly, if contentiously, established as a feminine practice in British society. This article examines one aspect of the twentieth-century feminisation of smoking in Britain, namely, the ways in which smoking practices have been presented as appropriate for young women in the period 1920-70. Advertisements featured in magazines for young women aged 15-29 years have been chosen as a particularly apt medium through which to explore some of the ways in which cigarettes and smoking practices have been delineated and infused with meaning. These advertisements constituted a discourse for the circulation of messages about the relationship of women to cigarettes. Findings reveal a number of shifts in cigarette advertisements featured in Women's magazines from 1920 to 1970. Firstly, during the 1930s and early 1940s, advertisements were, in contrast to later counterparts, preoccupied with establishing smoking as a feminine practice. Key to processes by which smoking was feminised were various mechanisms whereby the cigarette was depicted as part of the presentation of a heterosexual identity and where smoking practices were embedded in heterosexual relations and rituals. Secondly, there was a discernible shift in the way women were addressed by advertisements, from potential women smokers in the 1930s to more general consumers in the 1960s. Thirdly and relatedly, the significance attached to women smoking changed between 1920 and 1970. In the 1930s, smoking was utilised to signify that women were "modern"; in the period 1960-70, smoking served to indicate that women were recognised, and accorded status, as consumers. PMID:19673158

  14. Childbearing is not associated with young womens long-term obesity risk

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Cheng, Mariah C.; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Strmer, Til; Siega-Riz, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary childbearing is associated with greater gestational weight gain and post-partum weight retention than in previous decades, potentially leading to a more pronounced effect of childbearing on womens long-term obesity risk. Previous work on the association of childbearing with womens long-term obesity risk mostly examined births in the 1970s and 1980s and produced mixed results. OBJECTIVE We estimated the association of childbearing and obesity incidence in a diverse, contemporary sample of 2,731 U.S. women. DESIGN AND METHODS Propensity-score (PS) matching was used for confounding control when estimating the effect of incident parity (1996 to 2001) on 7-year incident obesity (BMI?30 kg/m2) (2001 to 2008). RESULTS In the sample, 19.3% of parous women became obese while 16.1% of unmatched nulliparous women did. After PS matching without and with replacement, the differences in obesity incidence were, respectively, 0.0 percentage points (ppts) (95% CI: ?4.7 to 4.7) and 0.9 ppts (95% CI: ?4.9 to 6.7). Results were similar in analyses of prevalent parity and obesity in 2008 (n=6601) conducted to explore possible selection bias. CONCLUSIONS These results imply that, in contemporary U.S. parous women in their late 20s and early 30s, childbearing may not increase obesity incidence. PMID:23929637

  15. The Developmental Compatibility of Young Women in Service to Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papertsian, Linda King

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that younger and older adults derive benefits from close reciprocal relationships; current health care training may lack a relational component. A small survey of 15 women aged 18-22 indicated that 12 had meaningful relationships with older women and 10 would consider working with the elderly. Those without such relationships were…

  16. Young Thai women who use methamphetamine: Intersection of sexual partnerships, drug use, and social networks

    PubMed Central

    German, Danielle; Sherman, Susan A.; Latkin, Carl A.; Sirirojn, Bangorn; Thomson, Nick; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; Aramrattana, Apinun; Celentano, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Given high rates of methamphetamine (MA) use among young people in Thailand and evidence of an association between MA and increased sexual risk behavior, we examined the association between womens recent sexual partnerships, social network characteristics and drug and alcohol use. Methods Female participants (n=320) in an HIV behavioral trial among young (1825 years) MA users in Chiang Mai completed a drug and sexual behavior survey and social network inventory. Multinomial regression analyses accounting for clustered data examined individual and network characteristics associated with recent sexual partnership category. We compared women with only one male partner in the past year (39%) to those with multiple male partners (37%) and those with only female partners (24%). Results Differences in levels of drug and alcohol use and social and sexual network characteristics were dependent on recent sexual partnership profiles. The multiple partner group reported an average of five male partners in the past year; 12% reported consistent condom use in the past 30 days. Compared to both groups, women with multiple male partners used MA more frequently, had larger non-sex networks with more MA users, were more likely to have an MA-using sex partner, and received less emotional support from their partners. Women with multiple male partners and only female partners reported more frequent alcohol use. Conclusions Policy and intervention efforts targeting drug use and sexual behavior among young Thai women are drastically needed and may benefit from consideration of the diversity within the population. These data point to the need for targeted prevention approaches that take into account the varying characteristics and social influences of these different groups of women. PMID:18191393

  17. Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their relationships, and the implications of these negotiations for the HIV epidemic. Method An ethnographic research design was used, with information collected primarily using participant observation and in-depth interviews in a rural community in North Western Tanzania. The qualitative approach was complemented by an innovative assisted self-completion questionnaire. Findings Transactional sex underlay most non-marital relationships and was not, per se, perceived as immoral. However, women's motivations varied, for instance: escaping intense poverty, seeking beauty products or accumulating business capital. There was also strong pressure from peers to engage in transactional sex, in particular to consume like others and avoid ridicule for inadequate remuneration. Macro-level factors shaping transactional sex (e.g. economic, kinship and normative factors) overwhelmingly benefited men, but at a micro-level there were different dimensions of power, stemming from individual attributes and immediate circumstances, some of which benefited women. Young women actively used their sexuality as an economic resource, often entering into relationships primarily for economic gain. Conclusion Transactional sex is likely to increase the risk of HIV by providing a dynamic for partner change, making more affluent, higher risk men more desirable, and creating further barriers to condom use. Behavioural interventions should directly address how embedded transactional sex is in sexual culture. PMID:20429913

  18. Evaluating the impact of pharmacist health education on the perceptions of the pharmacist’s role among women living in a homeless shelter

    PubMed Central

    Tsu, Laura; Buckley, Kelsey; Nguyen, Sarah; Kohn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of pharmacist-provided educational seminars on the participant’s perception of the pharmacist’s role in providing women’s health education. Secondary objectives include the participant’s level of perceived benefit from the information provided during each presentation, as well as determining characteristics of participants who are interested in attending seminars. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted within a homeless women’s shelter in Phoenix, Arizona. Pharmacists and pharmacy students provided 10 monthly educational seminars on topics related to women’s health. Participants completed a pre- and post-seminar survey regarding their perceptions of the presentations and pharmacists. Results: Fifty-six participants attended at least one of 10 seminars from January to November 2014. The average age was 46 years old, taking approximately 3 medications, and 66% completed a high school degree or lower. Prior to the presentations, 30% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would seek advice from a pharmacist on the topic presented, which increased significantly to 82% of participants after the presentation (p<0.001). Similarly, 55% of participants rated themselves as agreeing or strongly agreeing with being knowledgeable on the topic presented prior to the presentation, and this increased significantly to 77% after the presentation (p=0.001). After attending the educational session, 70% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would make changes to their health, and that they would attend an additional session. The participants noted their increased learning about the topic, the clarity of visual aids and presentation, and knowledge of the presenters as the best parts of the presentation. Conclusion: Pharmacist’s participation in providing educational seminars in the homeless women’s population increases the participant’s knowledge and perception of the pharmacist’s role within the population. Future studies can further investigate an evolving role of pharmacists in optimizing healthcare in the homeless population. PMID:26759620

  19. Interactions between risky decisions, impulsiveness and smoking in young tattooed women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to previous studies, one of the common problems of everyday life of persons with tattoos is risky behavior. However, direct examination of the decision making process, as well as factors which determine women’s risk-taking decisions to get tattoos, have not been conducted. This study investigates whether risk taking decision-making is associated with the self-assessment impulsiveness in tattooed women. Methods Young women (aged 18–35 years) with (N = 60) and without (N = 60) tattoos, performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), as a measure of decision-making processes, as well as completing the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Results Tattooed women showed significantly higher scores in the BIS-11 and preference for disadvantageous decks on the IGT compared to non-tattooed women. There was no significant correlation between risky decision-making in the IGT and BIS-11 impulsivity measures. A significantly higher rate of smoking was observed in the tattooed women. However, the analysis did not reveal a group effect after adjustment for smoking in the IGT and the BIS-11 measures. Conclusions The present study was specifically designed to resolve questions regarding associations between impulsiveness and risky decision-making in tattooed women. It shows that in tattooed women, risky decisions are not a direct result of their self-reported impulsiveness. Smoking does not explain the psychometric differences between tattooed women and controls. PMID:24180254

  20. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  1. Acute coronary syndromes in young women the scale of the problem and the associated risks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the cardiovascular system mainly affect elderly patients, but they are increasingly often encountered in young individuals. It is estimated that 1 in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease is under the age of 45 years. Only 20% of them are women. According to the PL-ACS register, cases of acute coronary syndromes in young women represent 0.6% of all acute coronary syndrome cases. The most common etiology is atherosclerosis (80%). Other causes include dissections and spasms of the coronary arteries as well as clotting disorders. Smoking tobacco is the most important risk factor, followed by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. The long-term prognosis is usually favorable, but it deteriorates significantly in the event of complications. The literature on this subject is not extensive. Most data come from non-randomized studies of young patients conducted regardless of sex. The purpose of this paper is to present the problem posed by acute coronary syndromes in young women. PMID:26336495

  2. Young Women with Breast Cancer: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Mary L.; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Meyer, Meghan E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Young women with breast cancer suffer distress both at the time of diagnosis and afterwards. This study aimed to elucidate which issues are most disturbing to this population and which might be amenable to intervention. Methods: English-speaking women treated or involved in research at the DanaFarber Cancer Institute for stage IIII breast cancer while aged 1842 years were invited to participate in one of four focus groups. A trained moderator led each 90-minute audio-recorded group using a semi-structured interview guide. All transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis with NVivo software. Results: Thirty-six women participated. Three major themes emerged from the analyses of these focus groups' data: (1) participants felt different from older breast cancer patients with regard to relationships, fertility, menopausal symptoms, treatment side effects, and work/finances; (2) participants faced unique challenges transitioning into the survivorship phase of care; and (3) participants desired assistance, including connections with other young patients, help navigating the healthcare system, educational materials, and lists of appropriate counselors. Conclusion: Young women with breast cancer have unmet needs for psychosocial support, education, and symptom management, and can identify potential support that may help meet these needs. PMID:24380034

  3. Botswana: where young girls are "easy prey". Special report: women and HIV.

    PubMed

    Mandevu, R

    1995-08-01

    The high rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among young women in Botswana reflects, in part, Setswanese cultural norms that permit older men to have sex with young girls or virgins. There is a belief that sex with a preadolescent girl will cleanse or rejuvenate an older man. Young girls, raised to respect and never question their elders, have little power to refuse these advances or insist on condom use. As a result of this practice, females in Botswana are becoming infected with HIV at a significantly younger age than men. Other factors contributing to female HIV infection include men's involvement with multiple sex partners and the large number of female-headed households created by abandonment of pregnant women. To provide for their children, many of these women engage in sex for money, and the rate of pay is higher when condoms are not required. To reduce women's vulnerability to HIV, efforts are being made to encourage parents to discuss sexuality with their children and to amend the marriage law to protect wives who do not want to have sex with husbands known to have engaged in high-risk extramarital behaviors. PMID:12289851

  4. No Homeless Child Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Although it is difficult to determine the precise number of homeless children, the National Coalition for the Homeless reports that there are more than 1.3 million children lacking a permanent residence on any given night. Further, 39 percent of the homeless population was comprised of children under the age of 18 in July 2009, the most recent…

  5. No Homeless Child Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Although it is difficult to determine the precise number of homeless children, the National Coalition for the Homeless reports that there are more than 1.3 million children lacking a permanent residence on any given night. Further, 39 percent of the homeless population was comprised of children under the age of 18 in July 2009, the most recent

  6. Understanding SSI: Spotlight on Homelessness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of homelessness. For more information, please visit Social Security's Homelessness web site at www.socialsecurity.gov/homelessness . THIS INFORMATION IS GENERAL. FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL 18007721213 (TTY 18003250778), VISIT OUR WEBSITE ... Accessibility Contact Us FAQs Espaol Other ...

  7. Homelessness: From the Clients' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Edwina L.

    Although homelessness is not a new phenomenon, the number of homeless people today has fostered mobilization on their behalf by public and private sectors. Principal factors accepted as contributing to homelessness are inadequate low-cost housing, unemployment, chemical dependency, family violence, and inadequate community services for the

  8. 'Women are supposed to be the leaders': intersections of gender, race and colonisation in HIV prevention with Indigenous young people.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Vanessa; Flicker, Sarah; Danforth, Jessica; Konsmo, Erin; Wilson, Ciann; Jackson, Randy; Restoule, Jean-Paul; Prentice, Tracey; Larkin, June; Mitchell, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on gender, race and colonialism, this paper foregrounds the voices of Indigenous young people, their histories of oppression, their legacies of resistance and the continuing strengths rooted in Indigenous peoples, their cultures and their communities. Exploring the relationship between gender and colonialism, the paper speaks to the lived realities of young people from Indigenous communities across Canada. Over 85 young people participated in six different Indigenous community workshops to create artistic pieces that explored the connections between HIV, individual risk and structural inequalities. In the course of the research, Indigenous young people, and young Indigenous women in particular, talked about how gender intersects with race and colonisation to create experiences that are, at times, especially difficult for them. In this paper, young people discuss the ways in which colonialism has demeaned women's roles and degraded women's sexuality, and how continuing cultural erasure and assimilationist policies impact on their lives and on their bodies. PMID:25702802

  9. Sexuality, pre-conception counseling and urological management of pregnancy for young women with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Daniela; Noia, Giuseppe; Triarico, Silvia; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Pellegrino, Marcella; Carducci, Brigida; De Santis, Marco; Caruso, Alessandro

    2012-08-01

    A great number of newborns with spina bifida now survive with a growing life expectancy. Support with regard to sexual issues is essential in the management of adolescents with spina bifida, who require specific knowledge of sexual problems related to their disability. Women with spina bifida are usually fertile and need pre-conception counseling. Furthermore, compared to healthy women they have a higher chance of conceiving a child with spina bifida, so they are treated with periconceptional folic acid supplements. In addition pregnancies in women with spina bifida require adequate management of secondary conditions, mainly urological issues, which are exacerbated during pregnancy. This article gives an overview of sexual education, sex functioning and sexual activity among adolescents with spina bifida. Moreover, we aim to support young women with spina bifida, providing pre-conception counseling and practical guidelines essential for the urological management of their pregnancy. PMID:22546496

  10. Oral contraceptives and fat patterning in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, R E; Grunewald, K K

    1988-10-01

    90 nulliparous white female college students, selected from 2 undergraduate introductory courses at Kansas University, participated in a cross-sectional study designed to compare the fat distribution of oral contraceptive (OC) users to that of nonusers matched for height and weight. The subjects ranged in age from 18-26 years. The 30 OC users had been using the same brand of OCs for an average of 17.7 months (range of 3-36 months) and had not used another brand previously. Each OC user was matched to 2 nonusers. Each subject's height was measured to the nearest cm. A Detecto sliding-weight balance was used to measure body weights of the women (in light clothing) to the nearest 0.1 kg. Circumference measurements also were taken to determine body shape and fat distribution. The waist girth to hip ratio (WHR) also was calculated. Fat distribution of the OC users was similar to that of nonusers matched for height and weight. Both groups were comparable in their circumference and skinfold measurements, except that the OC users had larger axilla skinfolds. Progestational activity of the combined OCs was not associated with any of the physical measurements. Estrogenic activity of the combined OCs was correlated positively with body mass index, arm and thigh circumference, and peripheral fat distribution. Estrogenic activity also was associated weakly with hip and low chest circumferences but no with any of the 7 skinfold thickness measurements. The women taking the higher estrogen OCs were more likely to have circumference measurements consistent with a more gynoid shape. Thigh skinfold thickness was consistent with those findings, though not statistically significant. PMID:3224970

  11. Breast Cancer in Young Women in Latin America: An Unmet, Growing Burden

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Christian; Magallanes-Hoyos, Maria C.; Mohar, Alejandro; Bargalló, Enrique; Meneses, Abelardo; Cazap, Eduardo; Gomez, Henry; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Chávarri-Guerra, Yanin; Murillo, Raúl; Barrios, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of malignancy-related deaths among women aged ≤45 years. There are unexplored and uncertain issues for BC in this particular group in Latin America. The aim of this study is to evaluate BC incidence and mortality among young women and related clinicopathological and survivorship aspects in this region. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from Globocan 2008 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series plus databases. We requested collaboration from the 12 different national cancer institutes in Latin America through SLACOM, the Latin American and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology, and conducted a systematic literature review to obtain local data regarding the prevalence of BC among young women and their characteristics, outcomes, and survivorship-related issues. Results. BC incidence and mortality proportions for Latin American women aged <44 years were higher when compared with those of developed countries (20% vs. 12% and 14% vs. 7%, respectively). We found only a few Latin American series addressing this topic, and prevalence varied between 8% and 14%. Stage II and III disease, high histological grade, and triple-negative and HER2 BC were features frequently observed among young Latin American BC patients. Conclusion. The rising incidence and mortality of BC in young Latin American women is a call to action in the region. It is necessary to monitor the epidemiological and clinical data through reliable cancer registries and to consider the implementation of protocols for education of patients and health professionals. This unmet, growing burden must be considered as a top priority of the national programs in the fight against BC, and models of specialized units should be implemented for this particular group of patients to provide better care for this emergent challenge. PMID:24277771

  12. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predicts Intimate Partner Victimization in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Maya D; Ahmad, Shaikh; Meza, Jocelyn I; Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with interpersonal dysfunction during childhood and adolescence, yet little is known about the romantic relationships of young women with childhood ADHD. In the present study, we draw from a longitudinal sample of girls followed prospectively into young adulthood, comparing those with (n?=?114) and without (n?=?79; comparisons) childhood ADHD in terms of their risk for physical victimization by an intimate partner (physical IPV; e.g., slapping, punching) by 17-24years of age. We examined ADHD both diagnostically and dimensionally, at the same time establishing reliable indicators of young adult physical IPV. Externalizing and internalizing problems, and academic achievement during adolescence, were tested as potential mediators. Overall, participants with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD experienced more physical IPV than did comparisons (30.7% vs. 6.3%). In parallel, IPV was associated with higher levels of childhood ADHD symptomatology (d?=?0.73). Young women with persistent ADHD stood the highest risk of experiencing IPV (37.3%), followed by those with transient ADHD (19.0%) and those never-diagnosed (5.9%). Academic achievement measured during adolescence was a significant partial mediator of the childhood ADHD symptomatology-young adult IPV relationship, even with control of sociodemographic, psychiatric, and cognitive factors, including childhood reading and math disorders. Findings indicate that in young women, childhood ADHD is a specific and important predictor of physically violent victimization in their intimate relationships. This vulnerable population requires IPV prevention and intervention, with academic empowerment as a key target. PMID:25663589

  13. Very young adolescent women in Georgia: has abortion or contraception lowered their fertility?

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, J D

    1977-01-01

    Despite a state law enacted in 1972 which allowed minors to obtain contraceptive services without parental consent, births to very young women in Georgia (age 14 and less) have risen in recent years. Beginning in 1974, however, this trend has reversed. Increased access to induced abortion following the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision appears to have been responsible for the decline. Supporting this assertion are: 1) the temporal relationship between increased access to abortion and the decline in births, 2) the geographic evidence that the decline in births occurred first in Atlanta where abortion utilization is the highest and then followed in areas with somewhat more limited utilization, and 3) a similar observation that the decline occurred earlier and more markedly among young white teenagers whose abortion utilization is higher. Although abortion appears to have had the most visible impact on births, most people would probably agree that efforts toward providing contraception to these young women remain worth the challenge. The ratio of young teenegers accepting contraceptives to young teenegers getting pregnant is suggested as a useful intermediator of the success of family planning programs. PMID:879388

  14. 'She met her (boy)friend online': Negotiating gender identity and sexuality among young Thai women in online space.

    PubMed

    Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Ojanen, Timo T; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Iamsilpa, Rachawadee; Topananan, Soifa; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experiences of women 15-24 years old living in one suburban district in Bangkok. Its objectives are to analyse processes of building and negotiating social identity and femininity in online spaces by young women; the ways in which young women express their sexuality using online technologies; connections between the 'online' and 'offline' worlds in terms of emotions as well as social and sexual networks; and traditional values regarding female sexuality reproduced through online media and how young women negotiate and resist these. Content and narrative analyses were conducted using qualitative data from 9 focus-group discussions and 14 narrative interviews. Findings indicated that the online media serve as tools that help young women develop and express their gender identities. Mobile phones and the Internet facilitate communication in order to express love, responsibility, intimacy and sexual desires. Discourse on women's chastity, which puts pressure on women to maintain their virginity, still influences online and mobile contents, messages and images among young women. However, women also exerted agency in negotiating and expressing their sexuality, both online and offline. PMID:23885969

  15. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Nishant; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean standard deviation = 27.5 6.2 years) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 0.02 g/cm2) in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029). BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 0.02 vs. 1.03 0.03, P = 0.057). The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range). There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored. PMID:26904470

  16. The Influence of Oral Contraceptive Knowledge on Oral Contraceptive Continuation Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Castao, Paula M.; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Using a multidimensional approach, we assessed young women's knowledge of oral contraceptives (OC) and its influence on OC continuation rates. Methods: We used data from 659 women aged 1325 years participating in a randomized controlled trial of an educational text message OC continuation intervention. Women received 6 months of daily text messages or routine care. At baseline and 6 months, we administered a comprehensive 41-item questionnaire measuring knowledge of OC's mechanism, effectiveness, use, side effects, risks, and benefits. We ascertained OC continuation status and reasons for discontinuation at 6 months. We analyzed relationships between OC knowledge and continuation with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Young women scored, on average, 22.8 out of 41 points on the OC knowledge assessment at baseline and 24.7 points at 6 months. The 6-month OC continuation rate was 59%. OC continuers had >2-points-higher OC knowledge scores at 6 months than discontinuers (p<0.001). Those who reported discontinuing their OCs for side effects and forgetfulness scored >2 points lower than women who discontinued for other reasons (p-values<0.001). In multivariable regression models, each correct response on the baseline and 6-month knowledge assessments was associated with a 4% and 6% increased odds of OC continuation, respectively. Six-month OC knowledge scores were negatively associated with OC discontinuation due to side effects (odds ratio [OR] 0.94) and forgetfulness (OR 0.88). Conclusions: OC knowledge, which was low among young women in our study, was associated with OC continuation and common reasons for discontinuation. Continued efforts to characterize relationships between OC knowledge and behavior and to test the effectiveness of different components of interventions aimed at increasing knowledge, addressing side effects, and improving use of OCs are warranted. PMID:24571282

  17. Is Mastectomy Superior to Breast-Conserving Treatment for Young Women?

    SciTech Connect

    Coulombe, Genevieve; Tyldesley, Scott . E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca; Speers, Caroline B.A.; Paltiel, Chuck M.Sc.; Aquino-Parsons, Christina; Bernstein, Vanessa; Truong, Pauline T.; Keyes, Mira; Olivotto, Ivo A.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: To examine whether modified radical mastectomy (MRM) improves outcomes compared with breast-conserving treatment (BCT) in young women. Methods and Materials: Women aged 20-49 years, diagnosed with early breast cancer between 1989 and 1998, were identified. Management with BCT or MRM was compared for local (L), locoregional (LR), and distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) by age group (20-39 years, 40-49 years). The analysis was repeated for patients considered 'ideal' candidates for BCT: tumor size {<=}2 cm, pathologically negative axillary nodes, negative margins, and no reported ductal carcinoma in situ. Results: A total of 1,597 women received BCT, and 801 had MRM. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, the outcomes (L, LR, BCSS) were worse for the younger age group; however, the outcomes were not statistically different by type of local treatment. For women aged 20-39 years considered 'ideal' for BCT, those treated with BCT had slightly lower LRFS compared with those treated with MRM (p = 0.3), but DRFS and BCSS were similar. Conclusions: A difference in LRFS at 10 years potentially favored MRM among women aged 20-39 years considered 'ideal' BCT candidates but was not statistically significant and did not translate into a noticeable difference in DRFS or BCSS. Our data suggest that young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

  18. Housing Patterns and Correlates of Homelessness Differ by Gender among Individuals Using San Francisco Free Food Programs

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Sheri D.; Sorensen, James L.; Dilworth, Samantha; Cohen, Jennifer; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2007-01-01

    Homeless individuals experience high rates of morbidity and mortality, yet many homeless studies include small percentages of female participants. We therefore sought to determine correlates of homelessness separately for men and women in a sample of individuals visiting free food programs. Between August 2003 and April 2004, 324 individuals were recruited from San Francisco free food programs and interviewed regarding housing, sociodemographics, health, drug use, sex trade, and incarceration. Over one-half of women and almost three-fourths of men reported homelessness in the prior year. Among women, white race, younger age, not living with minor children, engaging in sex trade and recent incarceration were strongly associated with homelessness; however, only incarceration maintained the strong association in adjusted analysis (OR = 7.16, CI = 3.83–13.4). Among men, heavy alcohol use, drug use, years spent living in San Francisco and monthly income were strongly associated with homelessness; however, only years living in San Francisco (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.19–0.42) and monthly income maintained strong association in adjusted analysis (OR = 0.27, CI = 0.13–0.57). Housing patterns and the strongest correlates of homelessness among individuals visiting free food programs differ by sex. These results suggest the need to characterize homelessness and develop effective homeless interventions separately for men and women. PMID:17265132

  19. Fertility in young men and women after treatment for lymphoma: a study of a population.

    PubMed Central

    King, D J; Ratcliffe, M A; Dawson, A A; Bennett, B; Macgregor, J E; Klopper, A I

    1985-01-01

    All young patients in the Grampian area attending the lymphoma review clinic who had received first line treatment for Hodgkin's disease and had attained complete remission without subsequent relapse were studied between 1980 and 1983. Chemotherapy with MVPP (mustine, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisolone) had more severe effects on the fertility of men than that of women; younger women and those taking oral contraceptives were more likely to retain fertility than those over 30 or not taking the pill at the time of chemotherapy, but these two effects could not be differentiated. Premature menopause was common after treatment with MVPP. Mantle radiotherapy had no discernible effect on gonadal function. PMID:3934229

  20. Urinary Incontinence and Levels of Regular Physical Exercise in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Da Roza, T; Brando, S; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R N; Duarte, J A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different levels of regular physical exercise on the frequency of urinary incontinence in young nulliparous women from the northern region of Portugal. Participants (n=386) self-reported demographic variables, frequency, and time spent practicing organized exercise per week, as well as completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. The level of exercise was calculated based on the time (in minutes) usually spent per week in organized exercise. 19.9% of Portuguese nulliparous women reported incontinence symptoms. Considering the distribution of urinary incontinence among the different quartiles of organized exercise, women from the 4(th)quartile (those who train for competitive purposes) demonstrated highest relative frequency (p=0.000) and a 2.53 greater relative risk to develop (95% CIs,1.3-2.7) incontinence compared to women from the 1(st) quartile (inactive). Women who practice exercise for recreational purposes (2(nd) and 3(rd) quartiles) did not show significant differences in the urinary incontinence prevalence and relative risk of developing it compared to women from the 1(st) quartile. The results showed that women participating in organized exercise involving high volume training for competition are potentially at risk of developing urinary incontinence, although organized exercise undertaken without the intent to compete seems to be safe for maintaining urinary continence. PMID:25875315

  1. Knowledge, Practices, and Restrictions Related to Menstruation among Young Women from Low Socioeconomic Community in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4?years and 30-40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24?years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls. PMID:25072044

  2. Knowledge, Practices, and Restrictions Related to Menstruation among Young Women from Low Socioeconomic Community in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4 years and 30–40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24 years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls. PMID:25072044

  3. Secretion of biliary lipids in young Chilean women with cholesterol gallstones.

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, V; Palma, R; Nervi, F; Covarrubias, C; Severin, C; Antezana, C

    1979-01-01

    The early appearance of cholesterol gallstones is very common in Chile. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, the size of the bile acid pool and the secretion of biliary lipids were studied in two groups of young women with normal weights and radiologically functioning gallbladders: nine with cholesterol gallstones and 14 healthy volunteers. The bile acid pool was similar in control and gallstone patients. The secretory rates of bile acids and phospholipids were comparable and significantly correlated in both groups. On the other hand, cholesterol output was higher in gallstone patients. In controls there was a significant correlation between the output of bile acids and cholesterol, but no correlation was found in the gallstone group. This study suggests that cholesterol hypersecretion into the bile is a major factor in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease in young Chilean women with normal weights. PMID:527876

  4. Conservative Treatment of Ewing's Sarcoma of the Uterus in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Loverro, Giuseppe; Resta, Leonardo; Di Naro, Edoardo; Caringella, Anna Maria; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Vicino, Mario; Tartagni, Massimo; Schonauer, Luca Maria

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNETs) constitute a family of neoplasms characterized by a continuum of neuroectodermal differentiations. ES/PNET of the uterus is rare. There are 48 cases of ES/PNET of the uterus published in the literature as far as we know. We describe a case of Ewing sarcoma of the uterus occurring in a 17-year-old woman presenting with a two-month history of pelvic pain. After surgical excision and microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopy examination, the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma of the uterus was suggested. This report will discuss the diagnosis and surgical and clinical management of Ewing uterine sarcoma in young women, according to the available literature. In spite of the rarity of ES/PNETs, they should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of uterine neoplasms in young women. PMID:25960901

  5. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH). Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital) among young women (ages 20-29) was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth. PMID:20565896

  6. Experiences With and Attitudes Toward Death and Dying Among Homeless Persons

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Edward R; Bartels, Dianne M.; Alderton, Lucy; Hudson, Brenda; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Homeless persons face many barriers to health care, have few resources, and experience high death rates. They live lives of disenfranchisement and neglect. Few studies have explored their experiences and attitudes toward death and dying. Unfortunately, studies done in other populations may not apply to homeless persons. Exploring these experiences and attitudes may provide insight into life, health care, and end-of-life (EOL) concerns of this population. Objective To explore the experiences and attitudes toward death and dying among homeless persons. Design Qualitative study utilizing focus groups. Participants Fifty-three homeless persons recruited from homeless service agencies. Measurements In-depth interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed. Results We present seven themes, some of which are previously unreported. Homeless persons described many significant experiences with death and dying, and many participants suffered losses while very young. These encounters influenced participants attitudes toward risks and risky behavior: e.g., for some, these experiences provided justification for high-risk behaviors and influenced their behaviors while living on the streets. For others, they may be associated with their homelessness. Finally, these experiences informed their attitudes toward death and dying as well as EOL care; homeless persons believe that care will be poor at the EOL. Conclusions Findings from this study have implications for addressing social services, health promotion, prevention, and EOL care for homeless persons, as well as for others who are poor and disenfranchised. PMID:17372788

  7. "Why Don't You Do It Properly?" Young Women Who Self-Injure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Yvette; Farrand, Julie

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes interviews with four self-injuring young women. Suggests the meaning of self-injury is not the same as the meaning of attempted suicide, and that the two acts are related in the sense that self-injury is an adaptive alternative to suicide. The function of self-injury is a communicative act. The extent to with self-injurers can control

  8. Psychosexual fixation and defense mechanisms in a sample of young Japanese women: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mogami, Tamiko

    2010-08-01

    The present pilot study examined psychosexual fixations and defense mechanisms in a sample of young Japanese women. The Lexical Rorschach count and the Defense Mechanisms Inventory were administered to 24 female college students. Sadism on the Lexical Rorschach count was positively correlated with Reversal of Affect. Phallic fixation on the Lexical Rorschach count was positively correlated with Projection. Psychoanalytic hypotheses about the associations between psychosexual fixations and defense mechanisms were partially confirmed. PMID:20923051

  9. Depression in homeless mothers: addressing an unrecognized public health issue.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, Ellen L; Beardslee, William R

    2014-01-01

    Homeless mothers experience disproportionately high rates of major depressive disorder compared with the general population. Stressed by their circumstances, these women struggle to protect their families. Children living with a depressed parent have poorer medical, mental health, and educational outcomes. Despite the adverse impact on children, depression among mothers experiencing homelessness remains unacknowledged, unrecognized, and untreated. This article reviews the evidence supporting preventive and therapeutic interventions with low-income and homeless mothers and children, and finds that few services have been adapted and evaluated for use in the homelessness service system. Based on the robust evidence describing positive outcomes in programs for low-income parents with depression, the authors propose guidelines for adapting and implementing services directly by programs serving homeless families. Once families are housed and urgent issues addressed, they recommend assessing all family members, routinely providing culturally competent parenting supports, trauma-informed services, and treatment for major depressive disorders. They also emphasize the critical importance of creating child-centered spaces and developmental services for the children. To ensure quality care, training must be available for the staff. Given the increasing numbers of homeless families and high rates of maternal depression and its negative impact on children, support for these programs should become a high public health priority. PMID:24826830

  10. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 1519 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  11. Earlier Menarche Is Associated with Lower Insulin Sensitivity and Increased Adiposity in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dyanne A.; Derraik, Jos G. B.; Rowe, Deborah L.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess whether age at menarche was associated with insulin sensitivity in young adult women. Methods We studied 54 healthy young women aged 2030 years. Participants were grouped according to age at menarche: Early (?11.0 years; n=13), Average (>12.0 and ?13.0 years; n=28), and Late (?14.0 years, n=13). Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity measured using intravenous glucose tolerance tests and Bergmans minimal model. Body composition was assessed using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Earlier menarche was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p=0.015). There was also a continuous increase in adiposity with younger age at menarche, which was associated with increased weight (p=0.001), BMI (p=0.002), total body fat (p=0.049), and truncal fat (p=0.020). Stratified analyses showed that insulin sensitivity in Early women (5.5 x10-4min-1(mU/l)) was lower than in Average (8.0 x10-4min-1(mU/l), p=0.021) and Late (8.6 x10-4min-1(mU/l), p=0.033) groups. Early women (weight=66.1 kg; BMI=24.1 kg/m2) were considerably heavier and fatter than Average (59.0 kg, p=0.004; 21.4 kg/m2, p=0.002) and Late (57.0 kg, p=0.001; 20.8 kg/m2, p=0.0009) women. Conclusions Early menarche is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and increased adiposity in young adulthood, potentially increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:26061526

  12. Neighborhood food store availability in relation to food intake in young Japanese women. Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K, Japan Dietetic Students' Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. Neighborhood food store availability in relation to food intake in young Japanese women.

  13. Homelessness during pregnancy: a unique, time-dependent risk factor of birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Diana B; Coleman, Sharon; Black, Maureen M; Chilton, Mariana M; Cook, John T; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Heeren, Timothy C; Meyers, Alan; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate homelessness during pregnancy as a unique, time-dependent risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. 9,995 mothers of children <48 months old surveyed at emergency departments and primary care clinics in five US cities. Mothers were classified as either homeless during pregnancy with the index child, homeless only after the index child's birth, or consistently housed. Outcomes included birth weight as a continuous variable, as well as categorical outcomes of low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm delivery (<37 weeks). Multiple logistic regression and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, comparing prenatal and postnatal homelessness with the referent group of consistently housed mothers, controlling for maternal demographic characteristics, smoking, and child age at interview. Prenatal homelessness was associated with higher adjusted odds of LBW (AOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.80, p < 0.01) and preterm delivery (AOR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.56, p = 0.08), and a 53 g lower adjusted mean birth weight (p = 0.08). Postnatal homelessness was not associated with these outcomes. Prenatal homelessness is an independent risk factor for LBW, rather than merely a marker of adverse maternal and social characteristics associated with homelessness. Targeted interventions to provide housing and health care to homeless women during pregnancy may result in improved birth outcomes. PMID:25404405

  14. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding womens information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

  15. Recent trends in the timing of first sex and marriage among young women in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, David

    2015-01-01

    Context Ethiopia has been characterized by high population growth. Recent social and economic developments have the potential to alter reproductive patterns in the country. Some of these developments include sustained economic growth, urbanization, rapid growth in school enrollments, expansion of primary health care, and a rise in contraceptive access and use. In other national contexts, these developments have been associated with a gradual decoupling of the transition into sexual activity and marriage among young women. We investigate recent trends in the transition into first sex and marriage among three cohorts of Ethiopian women. Methods Using data from the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) we estimate survival curves and discrete-time hazards models to examine recent trends in age at first sex and first marriage among women ages 20–29. Results Across the three survey years the median age at first sex has remained relatively stable at 17 years, although the median age at marriage has increased from 17 to 18 years between the 2005 and 2011 surveys. Net of the effects of education and place of residence, there is evidence of a slight trend away from premarital first sex to sexual initiation in the context of marriage. However, among the most educated women and women living in urban areas (who are a small minority of women), there is a much greater tendency to initiate sexual activity outside of marriage compared to women with little schooling and women living in rural areas, and once they have begun sexual activity they tend to wait longer before they get married. We also find evidence in the most recent survey that women who have first sexual intercourse before marriage are delaying marriage more than was the case among earlier cohorts.

  16. Young Urban Womens Patterns of Unprotected Sex with Men Engaging in HIV Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    This study explored reasons women engaged in unprotected sex with male partners they distrusted and perceived to engage in HIV risk behaviors. Seven focus groups were held in public housing and neighborhood centers in the urban Northeast with 43 African American and Latina women. Content analysis was conducted by open and axial coding. Barretts theory of power as knowing participation in change and sex script theory guided interpretation. Results indicated that Patterns of Unprotected Sex is a usual practice to maintain hope, sensuality, intimacy, strategic gain, and stability with a male partner. In low power sex scripts the salient risks of HIV were buried under an awareness of oneself as having to satisfy a man and accept cheating. High power sex scripts involved womens awareness of themselves as worthy of self care with diverse choices. High power scripts can be integrated into normative sex scripts as exemplars of more powerful ways of being and acting to reduce HIV risk. PMID:17160484

  17. Pleasure Reading: Associations between Young Women's Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women's Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2004-01-01

    Associations between magazine use and sexual attitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexual attitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…

  18. Pleasure Reading: Associations between Young Women's Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women's Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2004-01-01

    Associations between magazine use and sexual attitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexual attitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused

  19. Long-term survival in young women: hazards and competing risks after thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Stroup, Antoinette M; Harrell, C Janna; Herget, Kimberly A

    2012-01-01

    Background. Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) are one of the most common and survivable cancers diagnosed in women. We examine factors associated with long-term survival and competing risks of death in women diagnosed with DTC under the age of 40 (<40) and aged 40 and older (40+). Methods. SEER data was used to identify DTCs diagnosed in women from 1975 to 2009. We examined overall (OS), disease-specific (DSS), other cancer (OCS), and non-cancer-related (NCS) survival using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results. Observed survival was 97.2% for <40 (n = 14,540) and 82.5% for 40+ (n = 20,513). Distant stage (HR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.07), non-Hispanic Black (HR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.45-2.87), being unmarried (HR = 1.26, 95% 1.03-1.54), and subsequent primary cancers (HR = 4.63, 95% CI 3.76-5.71) were significant for OS in women <40. Age was an effect modifier for all survival outcomes. Racial disparities in NCS were most pronounced for young non-Hispanic black women (HR = 3.36, 95% CI 2.17-5.22). Women in both age groups were more likely to die from other causes. Conclusions. Age at diagnosis remains one of the strongest prognostic factors for thyroid cancer survival. More directed efforts to ensure effective care for comorbid conditions are needed to reduce mortality from other causes. PMID:23091489

  20. Predictors of Initial Uptake of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake Among Rural Appalachian Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Richard A.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Dignan, Mark; Bates, Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Women in Appalachian Kentucky experience a high burden of cervical cancer and have low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The purpose of this study was to identify normative influences predicting initial HPV vaccine uptake among a sample of young women in southeastern Kentucky. Women (N = 495), ages 18 through 26 years, were recruited from clinics and community colleges. After completing a questionnaire, women received a free voucher for HPV vaccination. Whether women redeemed the voucher for Dose 1 served as the primary outcome variable. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to estimate the influence of healthcare providers, friends, mothers, and fathers on vaccine uptake. One-quarter of the total sample (25.9 %) received Dose 1. Uptake was higher in the clinic sample (45.1 %) than in the college sample (6.9 %). On multivariate analysis, women indicating that their healthcare provider suggested the vaccine, that their friends would definitely want them to be vaccinated, and that their fathers would definitely want them to receive the vaccine all were 1.6 times more likely to receive Dose 1. Interaction effects occurred between recruitment site (clinic vs. community college) and all three of the normative influences retaining multivariate significance, indicating that the associations only applied to the clinic sample. HPV vaccine interventions may benefit from highlighting paternal endorsement, healthcare provider recommendation, and peer support. PMID:23325057