Sample records for young homeless women

  1. Understanding survival sex: young women, homelessness and intimate relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliet Watson

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to explore gendered experiences of homelessness through an examination of survival sex. Survival sex is usually understood to be the exchange of sex for material support, however, this research found a greater complexity in the intimate relationships being undertaken by young women experiencing homelessness. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young women aged 18–25 years living in

  2. Pregnancy and mental health of young homeless women.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Devan M; Trotter, Emily C; Hartshorn, Kelley J Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B

    2011-04-01

    Pregnancy rates among young women who are homeless are significantly higher than rates among housed young women in the United States (J. M. Greene & C. L. Ringwalt, 1998). Yet, little research has addressed mental health or risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. Based on a sample from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents, this study explores pregnancy and motherhood in unaccompanied homeless young women over a period of 3 years. The data are supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of young women. Results show that almost half (46.4%) of sexually active young women who are homeless (n=222, M age = 17.2) had been pregnant at baseline. Among those who stated they had children between Waves 2 and 13 (n=90), only half reported caring for their children consistently over time, and one fifth reported never seeing their children. Of the participants with children in their care at the last interview (Wave 13), almost one third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode, lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder, and lifetime drug abuse, and half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder. Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed. PMID:21486259

  3. Does a Baby Help Young Women Transition out of Homelessness? Motivation, Coping, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…

  4. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  5. From Home to Street: Understanding Young People's Transitions into Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Justeen

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores why young people leave home and become homeless. Drawing on life history interviews conducted with 50 homeless youth in Los Angeles, explanations provided by participants for becoming homelessness and how they understand their experiences are presented. In professional discourses, homeless young people are often portrayed as…

  6. Health of the homeless street women in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olusola Olufemi

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative survey conducted among 88 homeless street women in Johannesburg inner city about their health profile. The survey analysis is a descriptive one that elicits information about the types and causes of diseases prevalent among the street homeless women as well as their access to health care services based on the experiences of the homeless

  7. Psychopathology in Young People Experiencing Homelessness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B.?M.; Los, Férenc J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340

  8. Homeless women's gynecological symptoms and use of medical care.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, S L; Andersen, R M; Gifford, D S; Gelberg, L

    2001-08-01

    Information is lacking on homeless women's gynecological symptoms and use of medical care for symptoms. This paper documents and explains gynecological symptoms and conditions and use of medical care in a probability sample of 974 reproductive-age (15-44) homeless women. Two-thirds of women reported symptoms during the previous year; 71 percent of those received medical care for their gynecological symptoms. Pregnancy, drug dependence, more episodes of homelessness, and general physical health symptoms were positively associated with a number of gynecological symptoms. Gynecological symptoms, younger age, better perceived health, and insurance coverage were positively associated with medical care; women reporting recent drug use and rape received less care. These findings support the importance of medical care and other treatment and support services for homeless women, including expanded care during pregnancy and substance abuse treatment. Health insurance coverage and an interruption in the cycle of homelessness also appear vital to women's health. PMID:11475550

  9. Homeless women with minor children in the Detroit metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Mills, C

    1989-11-01

    Eighty-seven homeless families served by the emergency shelter of the Coalition on Temporary Shelter in Detroit during the first quarter of 1987 were studies through a review of admission data. Most of the families were black and contained an adult female with one or two minor children. Most of the mothers were young, did not have a high school diploma, and had no income. Some had histories of psychiatric disorders or substance abuse. Many had been in a dependent living situation before becoming homeless. Children accounted for more than one-fourth of admissions during the study period. Policies should address prevention of homelessness through income support programs, provision of low-income housing, basic living skill training programs, and mental health service delivery. When available resources fail in prevention, programming should address the effects of homelessness on children, because these effects perpetuate a cycle that will increase the homeless population in future generations. PMID:10296495

  10. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  11. Swimming upstream: the strengths of women who survive homelessness.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, C

    1994-03-01

    A study of the strengths and personal resources of women who had overcome homelessness revealed that the experience of homelessness for these women was a temporary state of disruption resulting from an effort to free themselves from conditions associated with despair, such as abuse or addictions, and to search for a better life. Personal, interpersonal, and transpersonal categories of strengths were identified that enabled these women to move in a positive direction toward health and self-actualization. The synthesizing metaphor "swimming upstream" describes the stoic determination required to go against the overwhelming negative forces of their environment. PMID:7515608

  12. Women Speak: Healing the Wounds of Homelessness through Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Karen Anne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The Women Speak writing project explored the use of writing as therapy for homeless women at an urban drop-in center. By sharing experiences, a sense of empowerment began. Nursing students and faculty were challenged to rethink the traditional clinical relationship that gives highest priority to the needs of students and faculty rather than the…

  13. Characteristics of Home: Perspectives of Women Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Rutherford, Gayle E.; Kuzmak, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    We employed participatory, community-based research methods to explore the perceptions of home among women who are homeless. Twenty women engaged in one or more techniques including qualitative interviews, digital story telling, creative writing, photovoice, and design charrette to characterize their perceptions of home. Analysis of the data…

  14. The Dynamics of Violence and Homelessness among Young Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…

  15. Homeless and Disabled: Rights, Responsibilities, and Recommendations for Serving Young Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…

  16. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

  17. Patterns, Predictors, and Situational Contexts of HIV Risk Behaviors among Homeless Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Wagstaff, David A.; Whitson, Donna P.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates psychosocial, relationship, and situational factors associated with HIV risk in a sample of 152 inner-city homeless men and women. Results show gender differences in risk patterns. Concludes that HIV prevention efforts tailored to the different risk circumstances of men and women are needed in social services programs for homeless

  18. A Qualitative Study of Pregnancy Intention and the Use of Contraception among Homeless Women with Children

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sara; Grewal, MPH Mandeep; Roberts, Elizabeth M.; Steinauer, Jody; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2014-01-01

    We undertook a qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory to explore pregnancy intention and the barriers to contraceptive use as perceived by homeless women with children. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were performed in English and in Spanish. The dominant theme emerging from the interviews was a strong desire to avoid pregnancy while homeless. However, few women in our sample used contraception or accessed reproductive health care consistently. There were multiple barriers to using contraception and to accessing reproductive health care services that homeless women reported: (1) inability to prioritize health due to competing demands, (2) shelter-related obstacles and restrictive provider practices that impede access to reproductive health care services and the use of contraception, and (3) change in the power dynamics of sexual relationships while homeless, making women more vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Findings suggest a multifactorial approach is needed to help homeless women use contraception and access reproductive health services. PMID:24858884

  19. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

  20. Risks associated with long-term homelessness among women: battery, rape, and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fisher, B; Hovell, M; Hofstetter, C R; Hough, R

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of battery, rape, and HIV risk practices in a sample of long-term homeless women and to explore correlates of HIV risk practices. Fifty-three women who had been homeless for at least three months in the last year were interviewed at day and night shelters. The women were demographically similar to other samples of homeless men and women and had similar rates of drug use. However, a higher proportion of homeless women were exposed to battery (91 percent), rape (56 percent), and mental distress, and they had a smaller support network (three people). Eighty-six percent had been battered prior to homelessness. A positive association was found between HIV risk practices and the use of certain drugs and having a protector. A higher level of assertiveness was associated with less HIV risk. The study demonstrated that homeless women are at very high risk of battery and rape. Being homeless may require life-styles that increase the risk of HIV infection and transmission. PMID:7622323

  1. The Real Cost of Linking Homeless Young People to Employment, Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of the Victorian Youth Employment, Education and Training Initiative (YEETI). This statewide initiative delivered brokerage funds to homeless young people through their housing advocates. One of the findings of the project was that the main barrier to young people achieving a stable continuum in their lives…

  2. Correlates of Depressed Mood among Young Stimulant-Using Homeless Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine M.; Idemundia, Faith E.; Reback, Cathy J.; Shoptaw, Steve; Marfisee, Mary; Keenan, Colleen; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Liu, Yihang; Yadav, Kartik

    2013-01-01

    Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for reporting suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to be experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support while persons who reported severe body pain were almost 6 times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homeless young G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services. PMID:23017039

  3. Working Girls: Abuse or Choice in Street-Level Sex Work? A Study of Homeless Women in Nottingham

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Harding; Paul Hamilton

    2009-01-01

    SummaryThis paper uses fifteen indices of abuse and a definition of ‘coercion’ as ‘constraint, restraint, compulsion; the application of force to control the action of a voluntary agent’ (OED Online, 2006) to explore how homeless women understand their choice to sex work. Twenty-six homeless women were interviewed, nine of whom had sex worked. A structured, qualitative questionnaire was used in

  4. Contrasting a shelter and day center for homeless mentally Ill women: four patterns of service use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Grella

    1994-01-01

    This article examines a model of service delivery for homeless mentally ill women, a combined day center and shelter program. Using data from participant observation and in-depth interviews with 21 clients, four patterns of day center and shelter use are delineated. Overall, few women from the day center make the transition to the shelter, and then to permanent housing and

  5. Health problems of sheltered homeless women and their dependent children.

    PubMed

    Burg, M A

    1994-05-01

    Increasing numbers of homeless female-headed families are entering temporary shelters. Social workers who work with sheltered families are confronted with a complex array of health care problems. This article introduces an analytic framework that classifies the types of health problems that emerge among shelter residents and serves as a guide to social work intervention with the health problems of shelter residents. The framework covers three categories of health problems: illness coincident with homelessness, those exacerbated by limited health care access, and those associated with the psychosocial burdens of homelessness. The failures of the current structure of the health care reimbursement and the deficiencies of service delivery to homeless families are discussed. The analytic framework conceptualizes the interrelationship between health and poverty. It can be used as a tool for informed social work intervention, advocacy, training, and research activities. PMID:8045446

  6. Correlates of Engaging in Survival Sex among Homeless Youth and Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Eugene Walls; Stephanie Bell

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 1,625 homeless youth and young adults aged 10 to 25 from 28 different states in the United States, this study examines the correlates of having engaged in survival sex. Findings suggest that differences exist based on demographic variables (gender, age, race, and sexual orientation), lifetime drug use (inhalants, Valium™, crack cocaine, alcohol, Coricidin™, and morphine), recent

  7. Discrepancies in Reporting of Physical and Sexual Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated risk factors for discrepant reporting of physical and sexual abuse among 172 homeless young adults. Discrepant reporting includes situations in which a respondent denies experiencing abuse in general but reports being a victim of specific forms of maltreatment. The results revealed that discrepant reporting rates tended to…

  8. How Attention to Family Stress Dynamics can Prevent Homelessness Among Very Young Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin James Swick; Reginald Harrison Williams

    Despite the pervasiveness of homelessness among young families, few early childhood professionals realize the exacerbated\\u000a stresses that push them into their circumstances. This chapter seeks to explore the etiology of risk factors (especially substances\\u000a abuse and illiteracy), elaborate on how they affect the lives of young families, highlight ways that they respond to these\\u000a factors, and detail possible avenues that

  9. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children START With Kids Healing Hearts, Promoting Health Domestic Violence and Homelessness TA America's Youngest Outcasts Veterans Veterans ...

  10. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  11. Motivation to stop substance use and psychological and environmental characteristics of homeless women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adeline Nyamathi; Douglas Longshore; Elisha R. Galaif; Barbara Leake

    2004-01-01

    Characteristics associated with wanting to permanently quit their alcohol, cocaine or heroine use were examined in 748 homeless women. Only a third of Latinas wanted to stop using alcohol; they were also at relatively high risk for continued heroine use. Recognition that their substance use was an extremely serious problem was a consistent predictor of wanting to quit substance use.

  12. Homeless African American Women's Interpretations of Child Abuse as an Antecedent of Chemical Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trull, Loree A.; Carroll, Jane J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined how homeless African American women who have been professionally assessed and who self-report to be dependent on alcohol and other drugs make sense of their becoming chemically dependent. Found that interviewees perceived childhood physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and neglect to be among the antecedents to their chemical…

  13. New Visions of Me: Finding Joy in Recovery With Women Who Are Homeless

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Staeheli Lawless; Michael Rowe; Rebecca Miller

    2009-01-01

    Shifting from a problem-based system of supports for those who are experiencing co-occurring substance and mental health disorders, there has been an increased need to explore the importance of fun, play, and pleasure's role in recovery. The following article describes an innovative intervention, New Visions of Me, with women in New Haven, Connecticut, who have experienced homelessness and dual disorders

  14. Unprotected Sex of Homeless Women Living in Los Angeles County: An Investigation of the Multiple Levels of Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Kennedy; Suzanne L. Wenzel; Joan S. Tucker; Harold D. Green; Daniela Golinelli; Gery W. Ryan; Robin Beckman; Annie Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex of homeless women. Based on interviews\\u000a with 429 randomly selected women living in temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles, this project investigates multiple levels\\u000a of influence on unprotected sex with particular partners. Previous studies have investigated condom use of homeless women\\u000a primarily at the individual level. This project

  15. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  16. RN-to-MSN students' attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Chung-Park, Min; Hatton, Diane; Robinson, Linda; Kleffel, Dorothy

    2006-08-01

    When health professionals, including RNs, have negative attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness, they create barriers to services. It is incumbent on nursing faculty to develop curricula that address homelessness and associated stereotypes, as well as to prepare students to provide safe and appropriate care to the homeless population. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the attitudes of RN-to-MSN students toward mothers living with their children in a transitional shelter. A convenience sample of 10 students enrolled in a community health nursing course at a university in southern California participated in the study. Two focus groups were conducted: one before and one after a 15-week clinical experience. Data analysis revealed that during the clinical experience, students discovered that they, or perhaps an individual like them, could become homeless. Their attitudes and views changed to include a bigger picture of homelessness, described by public health nursing researchers as "moving upstream." This article suggests strategies for integrating clinical experiences with socioeconomically vulnerable individuals into undergraduate nursing curricula. PMID:16915991

  17. I WAS HERE: young mothers who have experienced homelessness use Photovoice and participatory qualitative analysis to demonstrate strengths and assets.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the participatory analysis process expanded the Photovoice methodology to facilitate self-reflection and an empowering collective dialogue among a group of women whose strengths and assets are rarely showcased. PMID:24830441

  18. Homelessness and Drug Abuse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…

  19. Young and Older Caregivers at Homeless Animal and Human Shelters: Selfish and Selfless Motives in Helping Others

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Ferrari; Michelle M. Loftus; Julia Pesek

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, young (n = 34) and older(n = 70) adult volunteers at either animal (n= 48) or human (n = 56) homeless shelters were asked to complete measures of caregiver stress\\/satisfaction, volunteer motives, and social desirability. Young compared to older volunteers assisting animals, but not humans, reported a significantly higher caseload and spending significantly more time per

  20. Risk profile of homeless pregnant adolescents and youth.

    PubMed

    Pennbridge, J; Mackenzie, R G; Swofford, A

    1991-11-01

    Pregnant homeless young women have special service needs. This article examine those needs by comparing the risk profiles of 55 pregnant homeless youths and 85 pregnant youths who live with their families. These young women were seen in a primary health care clinic and underwent extensive lifestyle interviews during their physical examinations. Clinical social workers provided social services and follow-up. The homeless pregnant youths were younger, primarily white, and from outside Los Angeles County. They were more likely to be diagnosed as depressed, to have previously attempted suicide, to have histories of sexual and physical abuse, and to be diagnosed as drug abusing. Review of pregnancy outcomes showed the difficulty of serving homeless pregnant youth and the lack of services for them. Following this study, the clinic instituted new monitoring procedures and established a team case management approach to serving homeless pregnant teens and youths. PMID:1772891

  1. Unprotected sex of homeless women living in Los Angeles county: an investigation of the multiple levels of risk.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Golinelli, Daniela; Ryan, Gery W; Beckman, Robin; Zhou, Annie

    2010-08-01

    This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex of homeless women. Based on interviews with 429 randomly selected women living in temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles, this project investigates multiple levels of influence on unprotected sex with particular partners. Previous studies have investigated condom use of homeless women primarily at the individual level. This project investigates unprotected sex at the level of the partnership, the individual woman, and her social network. Homeless women who believe in the efficacy of condoms to prevent HIV infection, believe that they have low susceptibility to HIV and have a greater proportion of their non-sex partner social network ties with whom they speak about HIV are less likely to engage in unprotected sex. Women are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior in relationships in which they have high commitment to their partner and experience physical violence. PMID:19876728

  2. Building a responsive network of support and advocacy for older African American homeless women through developmental action research.

    PubMed

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois; Crystal, Jennifer P

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP), a multimodal intervention that addresses the structural barriers and personal issues older African American women face in overcoming homelessness in a large mid-western city of the United States. The project incorporates a developmental action research design in partnership with homeless and formerly homeless women. Through developmental testing of interventions, LHIRP identifies promising practices at the individual, group life, intentional community, and city levels. The paper offers a rationale for the integration of both developmental research and action research, particularly community-based participatory inquiry. The authors document the nature of the helping network, identify and describe the project's aims, organizing framework, and methods that document the lived experience of homelessness. Action research strategies that support the design and intervention activities are described, as are the tools used to test promising practices that are useful in helping older women transition and remain out of homelessness. The paper identifies the knowledge products of the intervention project including lexicon, theory, and frameworks, considers the vicious cycle that serves as an advanced organizer of relevant intervention, illuminates core principles, and examines the importance of the web of affiliation that the project seeks to form among participants, staff, and technical assistants. PMID:19929159

  3. The telling my story quilting workshop: innovative group work with older African American women transitioning out of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences. PMID:19921762

  4. The Impact of Childhood Foster Care and Other Out-Of-Home Placement on Homeless Women and Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Wright, Marguerite A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 179 homeless women found that the variables associated with their children living in foster care or other out-of-home placements were: school-aged children, mother was age 35 or older, mother had a current alcohol or drug use disorder, mother experienced childhood sexual abuse, and mother had been a runaway. (Author/CR)

  5. Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

  6. Mantram Repetition Program Decreases Insomnia Among Homeless Women: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Barger, Mary K; Weinrich, Sally; Bormann, Jill E; Bouvier, Monique; Hardin, Sally Brosz

    2015-06-01

    The current pre-/posttest pilot study recruited homeless women from "safe" car parks and transitional housing to evaluate the use of mantram in regard to insomnia. At baseline, study participants completed measures of cognitive function, depression, and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). In 40 minutes, women were taught three skills of the Mantram Repetition Program (MRP) in the natural environment: (a) silently repeating a mantram several times, several times per day; (b) repeating the mantram slowly every night before sleep; and (c) focusing full attention on the mantram during repetitions. One week later, participants completed a second ISI. Of the 29 women recruited, 83% completed 1-week follow up. After 1 week, 88% were using their mantram daily and one half were using it prior to sleep. Insomnia severity significantly decreased (p = 0.03), with a mean difference of 2.36 (SD = 4.75). The practice of MRP, an intervention that is portable and easy to teach, shows significant promise in decreasing insomnia in this unique population. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(6), 44-49.]. PMID:26091550

  7. Perceptions of Students about Younger and Older Men and Women who May Be Homeless

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael N. Kane; Diane Green; Robin J. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Future human service providers will interact with homeless persons in health, mental health, and social service practice contexts. This study investigated the perceptions of students enrolled in social work courses who are pursuing degrees in human service programs toward older and younger female and male homeless individuals. Respondents (N = 207) were given one of four vignettes in which a

  8. The nutritional status and dietary adequacy of single homeless women and their children in shelters.

    PubMed

    Drake, M A

    1992-01-01

    Data were collected on the nutrient intake and nutritional status of 96 single mothers and their 192 dependent children who had been displaced from their homes. The objective of the study was to provide information on the dietary adequacy of a newly identified subgroup of homeless persons, single women and their dependent children. Once situated in temporary housing, those participating in the study indicated that they believed that they were receiving sufficient food. However, a nutrient analysis found that the study subjects in all age groups were consuming less than 50 percent of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for iron, magnesium, zinc, and folic acid. Adults were consuming less than 50 percent of the RDA for calcium. The type and amounts of fats consumed were in higher than desirable quantities for a significant number of subjects of all ages. The health risk factors of iron deficiency anemia, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia were prevalent. The findings indicate a need to examine and remedy nutrient intake deficiencies among single women who are heads of household and their dependent children in temporary housing situations. Diet-related conditions found included low nutrient intakes that may affect child growth and development, risk factors associated with chronic disease, and lack of appropriate foods and knowledge of food preparation methods in shelter situations. Applicable, understandable nutrition education should be offered mothers in shelter situations to help them make food choices at the shelter and when they become self-sufficient. Assistance programs such as the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children, and food stamps, should be available to this group. PMID:1594741

  9. Child Abuse, Street Victimization, and Substance Use among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research documents high rates of child abuse, street victimization, and substance use among homeless youth, few studies have investigated these three constructs simultaneously, and thus little is known about how various forms of victimization are uniquely associated with substance use among this population. The purpose of this…

  10. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

  11. Is Substance Use a Barrier to Protected Sex Among Homeless Women? Results From Between- and Within-Subjects Event Analyses*

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Ryan, Gery; Zhou, Annie; Beckman, Robin; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study used event-based analyses to examine how alcohol and drug use are associated with protected sex among women residing in temporary shelters in Los Angeles County. Method: Participants were 445 sexually active women age 18 and older who were sampled from 52 shelters serving homeless individuals. Data were collected through individual computer-assisted face-to-face structured interviews. Both between-subjects analyses (n = 445) and within-subjects analyses (n = 87) were used to examine the association between substance use and protected sex. Results: In both within- and between-subjects analyses, women who drank alcohol before sex were significantly more likely to engage in protected sex compared with women who did not drink alcohol. However, there was no association between women's drug use, or their male partner's alcohol or drug use, and whether they engaged in protected sex. The higher likelihood of protected sex during events when women drank alcohol could be explained by partner choice (both analyses) and discussing condom use before sex (within-subjects analyses only). Conclusions: These findings challenge the common belief that women's alcohol use before sex necessarily increases the likelihood of unprotected sex but are consistent with several previous studies suggesting that alcohol use may be associated with protected sex under certain conditions. Results from this study highlight the need to better understand the complexities of how alcohol use may influence the sexual behavior of impoverished women. PMID:20105418

  12. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  13. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes Among Homeless Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. TylerLisa; Lisa A. Melander

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about\\u000a how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared\\u000a those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a history of poor parenting

  14. Many Young Women Taking Up 'Very Light' Smoking, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 153624.html Many Young Women Taking Up 'Very Light' Smoking, Study Finds Defined as 5 or fewer ... exception: Young women who often opt for "very light" smoking. The study defined a very light habit ...

  15. Young Men and Young Women. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood. ASPE Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielewski, Erica H.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet considers differences in behaviors and outcomes between young men and young women as they transition to adulthood. It also considers whether differences between young men and young women are related to the fact that some women are caring for children. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the analysis compares…

  16. Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…

  17. Thermal maps of young women and men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  18. A TYPOLOGY OF DRUG-RELATED OFFENDING AMONG YOUNG HOMELESS INJECTION DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21423855

  19. Center for Young Women's Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children's Hospital Boston has created a health information site for teen girls that teaches them about important topics ranging from "Health & Development" to "Driving Safety" to "Emotional Health". Visitors will find that the "Ask Us!" feature is one that's vitally important for easily embarrassed teens, because it allows them to ask a health question without asking for their name or e-mail. This website also features three teen "Youth Advisors", participants in the Youth Advisory Program at the Children's Hospital Boston, who have been trained to educate their peers on health topics. They write and publish "Teen Talk", a quarterly newsletter with health information, and visit schools to give health presentations. Visitors will find that Children's Hospital Boston hasn't forgotten about teen boys' health, as they have their own site called "Young Men's Health", which can be accessed from this site by clicking on the "Guys' Guides" link on the left hand menu, near the bottom of the page.

  20. Homeless Youths and Young Adults in Los Angeles: Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and the Relationship Between Mental Health and Substance Abuse Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer B. Unger; Michele D. Kipke; Thomas R. Simon; Susanne B. Montgomery; Christine J. Johnson

    1997-01-01

    Although understanding of the subsistence patterns, service utilization, and HIV-risk behaviors of homeless youths and young adults is increasing, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of mental health problems in this group or the relationships between mental health problems and substance use. This study measured symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, ADHD, suicidality, self-injurious behavior (SIB), and drug and alcohol

  1. Voices of Young Women in Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bennett, Dorothy

    This report discusses the experiences of five 17 year old female pre-engineering students at a specialized science high school. Observations and interviews revealed that "there are a number of cultural and psychological pressures that they contend with on a regular basis in the classroom â?? pressures that have convinced many to opt out of pursuing engineering further." Consequently, alternative methods of intervention for educating young women in science are discussed.

  2. Realising Potential: Helping Homeless and Disenchanted Young People Back into Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxted, Peter

    This guide shows how "Foyers" (safe residences for working/learning youth) and other organizations provide routes back into learning for young people. Chapter 1, "Young People and the Current Learning Agenda," provides a summary of encouraging developments from government, ushering in new learning opportunities for young people. Chapter 2,…

  3. Global Female Homelessness: A MultiFaceted Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keri Weber Sikich

    2008-01-01

    International female homelessness is a difficult subject to address for a number of reasons. First, understanding what defines\\u000a homelessness poses a problem because female homelessness often takes on a different form than that of male homelessness. Also,\\u000a homelessness in industrialized countries looks different from that of developing nations where women are more likely to have\\u000a inadequate housing in temporary shelters

  4. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  5. Modifiable determinants of bone status in young women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Lloyd; T. J Beck; H.-M Lin; M Tulchinsky; D. F Eggli; T. L Oreskovic; P. R Cavanagh; E Seeman

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contributions of exercise, fitness, body composition, and calcium intake during adolescence to peak bone mineral density and bone structural measurements in young women. University Hospital and 75 healthy, white females in the longitudinal Penn State Young Women’s Health Study were included. Body composition, total body, and hip bone mineral density (BMD)

  6. Community Integration of Formerly Homeless Men and Women With Severe Mental Illness After Hospital Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Herman, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This exploratory study examined the impact of critical time intervention (CTI), a time-limited care coordination model, on community integration among formerly homeless adults with severe mental illness after discharge from inpatient psychiatric treatment. Methods Data were from a randomized trial that enrolled 150 participants, 95 of whom completed 18-month outcome measures. Relationships between two components of community integration (social and physical) and demographic characteristics, symptom ratings, housing status, and treatment condition were examined. Results Neither assignment to CTI nor housing stability was associated with integration outcomes. General and negative symptoms were inversely associated with both physical and social integration. Conclusions Although CTI and similar community support models may improve housing stability and reduce rehospitalization, they may not, by themselves, improve community integration. Future studies should focus on improving measurement of community integration so that it can be effectively studied as an important outcome of mental health interventions for this population. PMID:22549529

  7. 60 FR 19487 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Homelessness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-04-19

    ...child health, Nutrition, Nutrition education, Public assistance...the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants...246--SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS...poisoning, history of high risk pregnancies or factors associated...

  8. Contextual Variations in Young Women's Gender Identity Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores young women's strategies for seeking personal power and resisting gender-based stereotypes in a wealthy, suburban, White community and a working-class, urban, community of color. Semi-structured interviews with 27 young women were used to examine contextual variations in these gender identity negotiation processes. Both…

  9. Perceptions of sexual coercion among young women in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manvir Kaur Hayer

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper sets out to explore Ugandan young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A qualitative study was conducted with seven young women in rural Uganda. Participants filmed videos, wrote stories, made drawings and participated in transect walks before analysing their data through formal and informal discussions. Findings – Forced sex is defined narrowly to

  10. Correlates of Lifetime Physical Activity in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2003-01-01

    This study retrospectively examined physical activity patterns across three specific age periods (childhood, teenage, and young adulthood) in a cross sectional sample of young Caucasian undergraduate women (N = 44). All women (mean age = 22.27 plus or minus 3.14 years) completed questionnaire packets assessing transtheoretical model of behavior…

  11. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  12. 76 FR 9577 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women: Notice of Charter Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women: Notice of Charter...that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National Center...Officer, Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National...

  13. The Challenge of Pregnancy among Homeless Youth: Reclaiming a Lost Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Marcela; Bourgois, Philippe; Auerswald, Colette L.

    2011-01-01

    Young, homeless women often become pregnant, but little is known about how street youth experience their pregnancies. We documented 26 pregnancy outcomes among 13 homeless women (ages 18–26) and eight homeless men through interviews and participant-observation. Eight pregnancies were voluntarily terminated, three were miscarried, and fifteen were carried to term. Regardless of pregnancy outcome, street youths’ narratives focused on ambivalence about parenting, traumatic childhood experiences, and current challenges. Despite significant obstacles, almost all were convinced of their personal capacity to change their lives. While most wanted to be parents, the majority lost custody of their newborns and consequently associated contact with medical and social services with punitive outcomes. Most of the youth who chose to terminate successfully sought safe medical care. We offer recommendations for changing the approach of services to take full advantage of pregnancy as a potential catalyst event for change in this highly vulnerable and underserved population. PMID:20453382

  14. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  15. Sexuality of young women surviving leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Puukko, L; Hirvonen, E; Aalberg, V; Hovi, L; Rautonen, J; Siimes, M

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 7 December 1996? This study was designed to assess the sexuality of young women surviving acute leukaemia in childhood or early adolescence. Thirty of 31 survivors were compared with 50 healthy age matched controls. Three methods were used: a self report questionnaire, a face to face interview conducted by a psychiatrist, and a projective psychological test. The age at initiation of dating and sexual activity, the frequency of sexual intercourse, and opinions on sexual behaviour were similar in the two groups. With regard to inner sexuality, however, the survivors differed significantly from the healthy controls. Their images of sexuality were more restrictive, and their attitudes, especially those concerning sexual pleasure, were more negative than those of the controls. Sexual identity among the survivors was less often feminine and more often infantile as compared with the controls. The findings obtained with the three methods of assessment were concordant.?? PMID:9135258

  16. Ann Eliza Young: A Nineteenth Century Champion of Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Jack B.

    Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's…

  17. Violent Victimization, Mental Health, and Service Utilization Outcomes in a Cohort of Homeless and Unstably Housed Women Living With or at Risk of Becoming Infected With HIV.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Weiser, Sheri D; Dilworth, Samantha E; Shumway, Martha; Riley, Elise D

    2015-05-15

    Most studies about the association between exposure to violence and higher psychological vulnerability have been cross-sectional in nature. Using longitudinal data from the Shelter, Health, and Drug Outcomes Among Women Study on 300 homeless or unstably housed women infected with or at risk of becoming infected with human immunodeficiency virus who were living in San Francisco, California, in 2008-2012, we examined the relationship between recent violent victimization and mental health status, mental health-related emergency department visits, and psychiatric hospitalization. We used generalized estimating equations to account for potentially confounding time-invariant and time-varying variables, including comorbid psychiatric conditions and lifetime history of child abuse. A total of 207 (69%) women experienced childhood abuse. The median number of psychiatric diagnoses per woman at baseline was 8 (interquartile range, 5-11). Recent exposure to violence was associated with lower mental health status (b = -1.85, 95% confidence interval: -3.02, -0.68) and higher risks of mental health-related emergency department visits (adjusted risk ratio = 2.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 5.78) and psychiatric hospitalizations (adjusted risk ratio = 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 4.91). We did not find strong evidence of a reciprocal relationship. Among homeless or unstably housed women with severe preexisting comorbid psychiatric conditions, recent violence has adverse mental health consequences. Reducing ongoing violence may improve mental health in this population. PMID:25834138

  18. Does the US Navy attract young women who smoke?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Weaver; S. I. Woodruff; T. L. Conway; C. C. Edwards; S. H. Zhu; J. P. Elder

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the United States Navy is disproportionately attracting and recruiting female smokers from the civilian sector. METHODS: Standardised comparisons of cigarette use among Navy women recruits and civilian women were conducted with data from a 1996-97 Department of Defense study and the 1994 National Health Interview Survey. RESULTS: Young Navy women recruits (18-22 years) had significantly higher

  19. The Unique and Combined Effects of Homelessness and School Mobility on the Educational Outcomes of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Chen, Chin-Chih; Rouse, Heather L.; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined associations of homelessness and school mobility with educational well-being indicators, as well as the mediating effect of absenteeism, for an entire cohort of third-grade students in Philadelphia. Using integrated archival administrative data from the public school district and the municipal Office of…

  20. Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Young African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Crosby; Ralph J. DiClemente; Laura F. Salazar; Gina M. Wingood; Jessica McDermott-Sales; April M. Young; Eve Rose

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of selected factors to the consistent use of condoms among\\u000a high-risk young African American women. A clinic-based, prospective, study of 242 young, African-American women (ages 15–21)\\u000a was conducted. In multivariate analysis, consistent condom use was predicted by having greater perceptions of condom negotiation\\u000a self-efficacy, lower fear of negotiating condom

  1. Transitions in emerging adulthood and stress among young Australian women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Bell; Christina Lee

    2008-01-01

    Background: Emerging adulthood involves major transitions in social roles and high levels of stress, which may affect later health.Purpose: To examine cross-sectionally and longitudinally the relationships of stress to roles in four life domains — residential\\u000a independence from family of origin, employment, relationships, and motherhood — among young adult women.Method: 8,749 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on

  2. The Effects of School Curriculum on Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, John T.

    The two largest programs of federally-funded vocational education for women are home economics and office programs, which suggests both sex-role stereotyping and occupational segregation. Investigated are correlates and consequences of high school curriculum on young women in curricular choice or assignment, persistence in schooling, and economic,…

  3. Caffeine Use and Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vener, Arthur M.; Krupka, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed college women and men and found that caffeine was consumed by a large proportion of the respondents. Women consumed a larger amount of caffeine and used more substances containing this drug. An increase in caffeine usage with increased psychic stress was observed for women only. (Author)

  4. Work with Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Graham, Abi

    Single-sex adventure education programs for adolescent women give them space to challenge traditional feminine roles, relate to other women without the pressures of mixed-sex groups, and examine issues such as personal relationships and health within a safe environment. If there are insufficient women facilitators, male staff should have awareness…

  5. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  6. Young women’s experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs

    PubMed Central

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A.; Steeves, Richard H.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20–39 years) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women’s narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including: awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use. PMID:23820874

  7. Sexual Safety and Sexual Security among Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Participants Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. Methods We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. Results We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. Conclusions From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. PMID:24942676

  8. Sense of Community of Young Women in Custody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomi Redman; Adrian T. Fisher

    \\u000a Young women in custody are among the most marginalized, disempowered groups in our society (Alder & Hunter, 1999). The lack of attention afforded them by the general population is reflected in the lack of psychological research regarding\\u000a their experiences and beliefs. While there is much anecdotal evidence related to women in custody and their experience of\\u000a support and community in

  9. Development of Sexual Orientation Among Adolescent and Young Adult Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. Diamond

    1998-01-01

    Although some research suggests that sexual orientation is a stable, early appearing trait, interviews with 89 young sexual-minority women revealed that a majority of women failed to report at least one of the following: childhood indicators of sexual orientation, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to the conscious process of sexual questioning. Lesbians were not more

  10. 77 FR 41188 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease...that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease...Officer, Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, HHS, CDC,...

  11. 78 FR 75923 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...and emerging topics related to breast cancer in young women. These may...

  12. 76 FR 47590 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...tools and resources related to breast cancer in young women including...

  13. 77 FR 16232 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in young women; and...

  14. 78 FR 57391 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...and emerging topics related to breast cancer in young women. These may...

  15. Adolescent Fertility and the Educational Attainment of Young Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel H. Klepinger; Shelly Lundberg; Robert D. Plotnick

    1995-01-01

    then public policies that focus on reduc- ing teenage pregnancy and childbearing may do little to improve the life chances of many disadvantaged young women. Proving, or disproving, the theory that teenage childbearing undermines a wom- an's chances of social and economic suc- cess in adulthood is essential if policies to reduce poverty and welfare dependence are to be grounded

  16. Correlates of Persistent Thinness in Black and White Young Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra L. Franko; Douglas Thompson; Rachel Russell; George B. Schreiber; Patricia B. Crawford; Stephen R. Daniels; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine health and psychosocial correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young adult women.Research Methods and Procedures: 1830 females (n = 988 black, n = 842 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were asked to indicate their current body size from a series of nine pictograms (1, emaciated

  17. Stress fracture injury in young military men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Armstrong; John-Paul H. Rue; John H. Wilckens; Frank J. Frassica

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 5% of all military recruits incur stress fracture injuries during intense physical training, predominately in the lower extremity. We compared young men and women with stress fracture injury (subjects) to a matched group of uninjured volunteers (controls) during a summer training program at the United States Naval Academy to identify possible risk factors for stress fracture injury. The subject

  18. General Prospectus of Agricultural Education for Young Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).

    Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…

  19. Totally Private & Personal: Journaling Ideas for Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, Jessica

    This book offers journaling ideas for girls and young women ages 11-16, although it states that others who like to "journal" will find something here for them, too. The book discusses the reasons for journaling, including that it can serve as a good release when angry, sad, troubled, or even happy. The book also states that a journal is a safe…

  20. "Singing into Language": Sudanese Australian Young Women Create Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ethnocinematic research project "Cross-Marked: Sudanese Australian Young Women Talk Education", and its relationship to the evolving notion of public pedagogies. The project explores the potential of alternative pedagogies, which include popular culture, especially audiovisual forms, to engage teachers and learners with…

  1. Proactive management of menstrual cycle abnormalities in young women.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mary Lee

    2004-01-01

    The goal of an integrative science of women's health is bringing together childbearing with women's health during the lifespan. Enhancing a woman's ability to conceive and maintain a pregnancy is influenced by decisions made well before the beginning of a pregnancy. Identifying ovulatory disorders makes it possible to intervene early in a young woman's childbearing years. Gynecologic charting typically used in natural family planning provides information to the woman and to the healthcare provider that is useful for diagnosis. If young women have a better understanding of fertility and menstrual cycle function, they are in a stronger position to make informed decisions about how they wish to manage their reproductive and sexual health. It may be possible to educate the young woman in health habits that will lead to a healthy pregnancy when she chooses and/or to treat the cause of the ovulatory disorder. This article focuses on polycystic ovary syndrome and hypothalamic dysfunction which can cause menstrual cycle abnormalities in which gynecologic charting is useful in young women. PMID:15214247

  2. Young women's scientific identity formation in an urban context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Potter, Jennifer T.

    2001-10-01

    In this article we examine the scientific identity formation of two young women of color who attend an urban vocational high school. One young woman lives in an urban setting, while the other lives in a suburban setting. We describe how these young women's identities influence and respond to experiences in school science. In particular, we describe how the experience of marginalization can make membership in a school science community impossible or undesirable. We also describe the advantages that accrue to students who fit well with the ideal identities of an urban school. Finally, we describe some of the difficulties students face who aspire to scientific or technological competence yet do not desire to take on aspects of the identities associated with membership in school science communities.

  3. Young women's experiences and perceptions of cunnilingus during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y; Fava, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that cunnilingus may be as prevalent as fellatio among American adolescents. Despite this approximate equivalence in rates, there is an imbalance in the amount and type of attention paid to fellatio and cunnilingus. Furthermore, there has been little empirical examination of young women's experiences and perceptions of cunnilingus during adolescence. Two studies in response to this gap in knowledge were conducted. In Study 1, regression analyses indicated that a young woman's sexual assertiveness was linked to having more lifetime cunnilingus partners, as well as more cunnilingus experiences in the past three months. Study 2 explored young women's perceptions of cunnilingus and their speculations about their male partners' perceptions thereof. Linear mixed modeling revealed that participants had highly favorable impressions of cunnilingus, which they believed their male partners shared. These findings are considered in terms of positive adolescent sexual development and cultural norms regarding female sexuality. PMID:21128154

  4. Changing Times, Future Bodies? The Significance of Health in Young Women's Imagined Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Emma; Evans, John

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of authors recognise the increasing expectations placed on young women as the vanguard of economic, social and cultural change. This paper explores how these imaginings have come to bear upon young women's bodies, as part of a special issue on pedagogical responses to the changing position of girls and young women. In examining…

  5. Family Risk Factors and Prevalence of Dissociative Symptoms among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…

  6. The time bounded glass ceiling and young women managers: career progress and career success – evidence from the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Simpson; Yochanan Altman

    2000-01-01

    This article presents evidence on the career success of young women managers and suggests an interaction between age and seniority as young women managers outpace their male counterparts in career progression. Hence the glass ceiling may be seen as “time bounded”. Three alternative explanations are presented: a sea change in women’s careers; that young women’s careers are fundamentally different from

  7. Early adulthood uprooted: transitoriness in young women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Maya; Bauer-Wu, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Young women with breast cancer face a more aggressive disease and lower survival rate compared with those who are older, thereby confronting the potential finitude of life or transitoriness at a time when they are establishing their careers, developing partnerships, and building families. Little is known about the perspectives of young women with breast cancer in how they consider issues of their own mortality. Patients with stage I to III breast cancer aged 39 years and younger who were diagnosed within the last year (N = 16) were included in this qualitative study, which was a secondary analysis of texts written during an expressive writing intervention. Thematic analysis was done by 2 researchers, who reached consensus in coding and theme identification. Nine of the 16 participants (56%) wrote about their mortality (transitoriness). Three themes (being remembered, landscape of emotions and perspectives, and omnipresence of life's finitude) and 10 subthemes were identified from the rich narrative texts. Despite early-stage diagnosis and the beginning phases of adulthood, young women with breast cancer contemplate their mortality and its potential repercussions on their loved ones and their careers. Oncology professionals need to be sensitive to these concerns and provide opportunities for discussion and/or referrals for their young patients as they grapple with such potentially overwhelming issues. PMID:19295418

  8. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  9. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  10. From sexism to sexy: Challenging young adults’ ageism about older women’s sexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine R. Allen; Karen A. Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study that explored young adults’ perceptions of sexual expression among older women in the context\\u000a of confronting ageism and sexism from a feminist perspective. Deirdre Fishel’s educational film about aging and sexuality,Still Doing It: The Intimate Lives of Women Over 65, was shown to 277 undergraduate students (82 male and 1 95 female) enrolled in

  11. Life shocks and homelessness.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  12. Health Status, Needs, and Health Care Barriers Among the Homeless

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie Wojtusik; Mary Castle White

    1998-01-01

    :Perceived health status, health conditions, and access and barriers to care are important predictors of mortality and the use of services among the homeless. This study assesses these issues by structured interview of 128 homeless adults from San Francisco. Of these adults, 21.1 percent were women (mean age 37 compared to 42 for men). In terms of ethnicity, 38 percent

  13. Hyperandrogenemia, psychological distress, and food cravings in young women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Siew S; Norman, Robert J; Clifton, Peter M; Noakes, Manny

    2009-09-01

    Reproductive disorders and psychological distress are common co-morbidities of obesity in young women. Psychological and reproductive disturbances may also be associated with increased food cravings but the relationships between these factors have not been explored. This study aimed to explore the pattern of food cravings and to determine the relationship between psychological distress, reproductive health and food cravings in overweight and obese young women using baseline data in a weight loss trial. A total of 198 young women were included in this analysis (BMI 33.3+/-0.3 kg/m(2), age 28+/-0.3 years). The most frequently craved food item was chocolate (3.9+/-0.08 i.e., sometimes-often). The most frequently craved food categories were fast foods (2.6+/-0.07) and sweets (2.5+/-0.05). Psychological distress was significantly correlated with food cravings (R(2)=0.18, P<0.05). High fat (r=0.2), sweets (r=0.17) and overall cravings (r=0.20) were significantly correlated with energy intake (P<0.05). Psychological distress did not correlate with energy intake (P>0.05). Participants with menstrual disturbances had greater fast food cravings independent of age, BMI and PCOS status (P<0.05). Participants with hyperandrogenemia had greater high fat food cravings independent of age, BMI and PCOS status (P<0.01). Energy intake did not differ with menstrual disturbances or hyperandrogenemia (P>0.05). These results suggest that psychological distress, hyperandrogenemia and menstrual disturbances are associated with greater food cravings. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relationship between hyperandrogenemia and food cravings in young women. PMID:19520095

  14. Brain structural alterations associated with young women with subthreshold depression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haijiang; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Neuroanatomical abnormalities in patients with major depression disorder (MDD) have been attracted great research attention. However, the structural alterations associated with subthreshold depression (StD) remain unclear and, therefore, require further investigation. In this study, 42 young women with StD, and 30 matched non-depressed controls (NCs) were identified based on two-time Beck Depression Inventory scores. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region of interest method were used to investigate altered gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) among a non-clinical sample of young women with StD. VBM results indicated that young women with StD showed significantly decreased GMV in the right inferior parietal lobule than NCs; increased GMV in the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus; and increased WMV in the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Together, structural alterations in specific brain regions, which are known to be involved in the fronto-limbic circuits implicated in depression may precede the occurrence of depressive episodes and influence the development of MDD. PMID:25982857

  15. Brain structural alterations associated with young women with subthreshold depression.

    PubMed

    Li, Haijiang; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Neuroanatomical abnormalities in patients with major depression disorder (MDD) have been attracted great research attention. However, the structural alterations associated with subthreshold depression (StD) remain unclear and, therefore, require further investigation. In this study, 42 young women with StD, and 30 matched non-depressed controls (NCs) were identified based on two-time Beck Depression Inventory scores. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region of interest method were used to investigate altered gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) among a non-clinical sample of young women with StD. VBM results indicated that young women with StD showed significantly decreased GMV in the right inferior parietal lobule than NCs; increased GMV in the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus; and increased WMV in the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Together, structural alterations in specific brain regions, which are known to be involved in the fronto-limbic circuits implicated in depression may precede the occurrence of depressive episodes and influence the development of MDD. PMID:25982857

  16. Pennsylvania's Rural Homeless Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    The Center for Rural Pennsylvania analyzed data from the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare concerning rural homelessness for fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Findings indicate that rural Pennsylvania has a homeless population and it is growing. In 1999, more than 21,700 clients received homeless assistance in rural areas, 44 percent of whom…

  17. Young Women in a Male Periphery: Experiences from the Scandinavian North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstrom, Margareta

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that young women migrate from rural to urban areas in northern Scandinavia because the rural "periphery" is dominated by male economic and leisure activities. A study in northern Norway indicates that more young women than young men valued higher education and highly qualified careers, both of which were more attainable in urban than in…

  18. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  19. Complicating the "Public": Enabling Young Women's Participation in Public Engagement Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levac, Leah R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing attention to both public engagement in policy development, and youth civic engagement, the engagement of young women and young mothers receives little attention. This article proposes guidelines for engaging with young women in provincial public policy development via their participation in public engagement initiatives. Developed…

  20. Is There a Trend of Increased Unwanted Childbearing Among Young Women in the United States?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitry M. Kissin; John E. Anderson; Joan Marie Kraft; Lee Warner; Denise J. Jamieson

    Purpose: The majority of births to young women are unintended (either mistimed or unwanted), bearing an increased risk of poor health outcomes for both mother and child. In this analysis, we describe trends of unwanted, mistimed, and intended births reported by all women and specifically by young women in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Methods: Using data from

  1. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  2. A Population-Based Inquiry of Homeless Episode Characteristics and Early Educational Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzo, John; Leboeuf, Whitney; Brumley, Benjamin; Perlman, Staci

    2013-06-01

    Child homelessness and educational well-being is an area of national research that requires more precise investigation to address mixed findings. The aim of this study was to extend the investigation of the relations between homelessness and educational well-being by determining if timing and frequency of homeless episodes are differentially associated with children's academic and classroom engagement outcomes. This investigation used a comprehensive research model to study the effects of these homeless episode characteristics within a large urban student cohort. Additionally, this study accounted for co-occurring early risk factors. Findings indicated that having a first homeless episode in early childhood was associated with non-proficiency in mathematics and academic engagement problems. Also more frequent homeless episodes were related to truancy in third grade. These results stress the importance of early intervention for homeless children and underscore the need to further understand the variation in young children's homeless experiences. PMID:24072948

  3. Seeking Health Information Online: Association With Young Australian Women’s Physical, Mental, and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Loxton, Deborah; Dobson, Annette; Mishra, Gita Devi

    2015-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the extent to which young adults use the Internet as a health information resource and whether there are factors that distinguish between those who do and do not go online for health information. Objective The aim was to identify the sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with young women’s use of the Internet for health information. Methods We used data from 17,069 young women aged 18-23 years who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with searching the Internet for health information. Results Overall, 43.54% (7433/17,069) of women used the Internet for health information. Women who used the Internet had higher odds of regular urinary or bowel symptoms (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.36-1.54), psychological distress (very high distress: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.37), self-reported mental health diagnoses (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23), and menstrual symptoms (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36) than women who did not use the Internet for health information. Internet users were less likely to have had blood pressure checks (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93) and skin cancer checks (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97) and to have had a live birth (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86) or pregnancy loss (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98) than non-Internet users. Conclusions Women experiencing “stigmatized” conditions or symptoms were more likely to search the Internet for health information. The Internet may be an acceptable resource that offers “anonymized” information or support to young women and this has important implications for health service providers and public health policy. PMID:25986630

  4. Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devendra

    2004-02-01

    The female physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported to contain both desirable (sociable, poised, interesting) and undesirable (snobbish, likely to request divorce and have extra-marital affairs) personal qualities. To investigate whether such an attractiveness stereotype is cross-cultural, I asked men and women from Azore Island, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, and the U.S. to judge the attractiveness of female figures differing in body weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to rank these figures according to perceived personal attributes. There was a strong cross-cultural consensus for attractiveness; figures with low WHR were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHR within each weight category. Participants also judged attractive figures as less faithful than less-attractive figures. To explore the basis of a possible 'darker side ' of the attractiveness stereotype, behavior tactics of young U.S. women were examined. Compared to women with high WHRs, low-WHR women reported engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous, suggesting some truth to the attractiveness stereotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that female attractiveness influences the type of mating strategies employed by women. PMID:15216423

  5. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  6. The economic costs of martial disruption for young women over the past two decades.

    PubMed

    Smock, P J

    1993-08-01

    This paper examines the economic costs of separation and divorce for young women in the United States from the late 1960s through the late 1980s. Broadened opportunities for women outside marriage may have alleviated some of the severe economic costs of marital disruption for women. This paper contrasts the experiences of two cohorts of young women: those who married and separated or divorced in the late 1960s through the mid-1970s and those who experienced these events in the 1980s. Based on panel data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979-1988. Young Women 1968-1978, and Young Men 1966-1978, the results show stability in the costs of disruption. A multivariate analysis shows that young women in the more recent cohort have more labor force experience before disruption than those in the earlier cohort, but prior work history does not protect women from the severe costs of marital disruption. PMID:8405603

  7. Risky Business: Sex-work and Young Southeast Asian American Women in Oakland

    E-print Network

    U, Nicol

    2008-01-01

    youth sex-workers (Hoyt, Ryan and Cauce 1999; Flowers 2001a), most of these youngYoung SEA American women were initially recruited through pre-existing relationships with youth-serving providers such as school counselors, social workers,

  8. Understanding the role of family on sexual-risk decisions of young women: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukdarut Bangpan; Don Operario

    2012-01-01

    Girls and young women are at high risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many research studies suggest that the family plays an important role in young women's sexual-risk decisions. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research studies to understand how and to what extent the family influences young women's sexual-risk decisions and sexual-risk behaviour. Systematic literature searches

  9. Oral Contraceptives Impair Muscle Gains In Young Women

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2006-04-17

    This is an APS press release on the findings of a new study entitled 'Oral Contraceptive Use Impairs Muscle Gains in Young Women'. It was conducted by Chang-Woock Lee and Steven E. Riechman, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX; and Mark A. Newman, Human Energy Research Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. The researchers will present their findings at the 122nd Annual Meeting of the American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-aps.org/press), which is part of the Experimental Biology 2009 scientific conference. The meeting was held April 18-22, 2009 in New Orleans.

  10. Pattern integrations in young depressed women: Part I.

    PubMed

    Beeber, L S

    1996-06-01

    The enduring patterns of interpersonal relations between young depressed women and their significant others create a theater for early interventions. As noted by Hildegard Peplau, interpersonal relations include patterns that are organized around appraisals from significant others, ultimately forming the internal sense of self-regard that is deeply disrupted in depression. Pattern integrations, or the "fit" of the woman and her significant others become maintained as a way of avoiding anxiety and negative appraisals. Complementary, mutual, alternating, and antagonistic patterns have been identified by Peplau, and the relationship to anxiety, the maintenance of self-worth, and the therapeutic use of these patterns by the nurse are explored. PMID:8687251

  11. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Gift, Thomas L.; Brunham, Robert C.; Bolan, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia screening program and assumed 2 prevaccination prevalences of 3.2% by main analysis and 3.7% by additional analysis. Estimated ICERs of vaccinating 14-year-old girls were $35,300/QALY by main analysis and $16,200/QALY by additional analysis compared with only screening. Catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women resulted in estimated ICERs of $53,200/QALY by main analysis and $26,300/QALY by additional analysis. The ICER was most sensitive to prevaccination prevalence for women, followed by cost of vaccination, duration of vaccine-conferred immunity, and vaccine efficacy. Our results suggest that a successful chlamydia vaccine could be cost-effective. PMID:25989525

  12. 76 FR 787 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...discussions on evidence-based recommendations and the public health aspects of breast cancer in young women including biology, genomics, prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship; appropriate venues to educate women at increased risk for...

  13. Helping the Homeless in School and Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgersson-Shorter, Helena

    2010-01-01

    However much the recession might be receding, the effects remain deep and cruel to families living in poverty. Many have fallen through their communities' social safety nets. Today, families with young children comprise 41% of the nation's homeless population. According to the Institute of Children and Poverty, more than 1.35 million kids in the…

  14. Characteristics of sheltered homeless families.

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, E L; Rubin, L; Lauriat, A S

    1986-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of homeless families, we interviewed 80 homeless mothers and 151 children living in 14 family shelters in Massachusetts (two-thirds of the shelters in the state). Ninety-four per cent of the families were headed by women, 91 per cent were on AFDC (aid to families with dependent children), with twice as many as the state average having been on AFDC for at least two years; most had long histories of residential instability. Although 60 per cent had completed high school, only a third had worked for longer than one month. One-third of the mothers reported having been abused during their childhood, and two-thirds had experienced a major family disruption. At the time of the interview, almost two-thirds either lacked or had minimal supportive relationships and one-fourth of these named their child as the major support. Eighteen mothers were involved with the Department of Social Services because of probable child abuse or neglect. Seventy-one per cent of the mothers had personality disorders. In contrast to many adult homeless individuals, however, deinstitutionalized persons or those suffering from psychoses were not overrepresented. About 50 percent of the homeless children were found to have developmental lags, anxiety, depression, and learning difficulties, and about half required further psychiatric evaluation. Two-thirds described housing and social welfare agencies as not helpful. Given the many serious problems of the mothers and the difficulties already manifested by their children, comprehensive psychosocial and economic interventions must be made to interrupt a cycle of extreme instability and family breakdown. PMID:3740332

  15. Social Capital and the Successful Transition to Adulthood among "At Risk" Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugland, Barbara W.; And Others

    Through a traditional status-attainment approach, this paper examines the attainments of young women in adult life across the four domains of education, labor-force participation, financial resources and avoidance of poverty, and experience with welfare. These life attainments were explored for a cohort of 62 young women, ages 14 to 25 in 1968,…

  16. Neural Tube Defects: Knowledge and Preconceptional Prevention Practices in Minority Young Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice L. Grover; Peggy B. Smith

    ABSTRACT. Objective. To assess 1) knowledge of neural tube defect (NTD) prevention by folic acid, 2) frequency of intake of multivitamins and folate- and folic acid–fortified food, and 3) factors associated with knowledge and prevention practices among sexually ac- tive minority adolescent and young adult women. Methods. Young minority women were enrolled in a folic acid program at 3 urban

  17. Some Women Marry Young: Transitions to First Marriage in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Diane K.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined extent to which timing of first marriage differed for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan young women. Individual-level data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were matched to local marriage market conditions to estimate discrete time hazard models of transitions to first marriage. Found that young nonmetropolitan women married at…

  18. Young women in a male periphery — Experiences from the Scandinavian north

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margareta Dahlström

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the migration of young women from rural areas in northern Scandinavia. The way from adolescence to adulthood is discussed and the notion of a male periphery is presented. An attempt is made to shift focus in studies of rural youth migration. The emphasis here is on the socially constructed space that the young women leave. Is

  19. "Are They Just Checking Our Obesity or What?" The Healthism Discourse and Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jessica; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural young women's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The young women's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE…

  20. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  1. Relationship between Self-Actualisation and Employment for At-Risk Young Unemployed Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Ephrat; Magos, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study used drawing and semi-structured interviews to access the visions of self-actualisation of a group of at-risk young women in an employment support group in Israel. The findings point to the synergetic relationship between the self-defined goals of the young women such as inner peace, self-regulation, assertiveness, good relationships…

  2. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2014 Hormone treatment restores bone density for young women with menopause-like condition NIH study reveals way to improve bone health for young ... mineral density in the treatment groups. When the study began, women with POI had significantly lower hip and spine ...

  3. Body height affects the strength of immune response in young men, but not young women.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis A; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Krama, Tatjana; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J

    2014-01-01

    Body height and other body attributes of humans may be associated with a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, we have little understanding of the relative role of each, and relationships between indices of physical appearance and general health. In this study we tested relationships between immune function and body height of young men and women. In men, we report a non-linear relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis-B vaccine and body height, with a positive relationship up to a height of 185?cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We did not find any significant relationship between body height and immune function in women. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits. PMID:25164474

  4. Syndemic Theory and HIV-Related Risk Among Young Transgender Women: The Role of Multiple, Co-Occurring Health Problems and Social Marginalization

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Julia; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Johnson, Amy K.; Belzer, Marvin; Wilson, Erin C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether multiple psychosocial factors are additive in their relationship to sexual risk behavior and self-reported HIV status (i.e., can be characterized as a syndemic) among young transgender women and the relationship of indicators of social marginalization to psychosocial factors. Methods. Participants (n?=?151) were aged 15 to 24 years and lived in Chicago or Los Angeles. We collected data on psychosocial factors (low self-esteem, polysubstance use, victimization related to transgender identity, and intimate partner violence) and social marginalization indicators (history of commercial sex work, homelessness, and incarceration) through an interviewer-administered survey. Results. Syndemic factors were positively and additively related to sexual risk behavior and self-reported HIV infection. In addition, our syndemic index was significantly related to 2 indicators of social marginalization: a history of sex work and previous incarceration. Conclusions. These findings provide evidence for a syndemic of co-occurring psychosocial and health problems in young transgender women, taking place in a context of social marginalization. PMID:22873480

  5. Careers in Drug and Alcohol Research: AN Innovative Program for Young Appalachian Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noland, Melody Powers; Leukefeld, Carl; Reid, Caroline

    Supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the University of Kentucky's Center on Drug and Alcohol Research developed the Young Women in Science Program to encourage young women from Appalachia to pursue scientific careers ?? drug and alcohol research. This 3-year program, which involved 26 young women entering the ninth grade in 13 counties in southeastern Kentucky, included a summer residential program, community educational sessions, and matching students with mentors. When participants' scores prior to and after the 3-week residential program were compared, it was found that participants increased their science knowledge and improved their scores on confidence in science. Other significant changes occurred as well. These preliminary data indicated that some positive changes resulted from the program, even though contact time with the young women has been modest to date. The program shows considerable promise for providing the encouragement and skills needed for these young women to pursue careers in drug and alcohol research.

  6. Associations between affect, context, and sexual desire in depressed young women.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Clare M; Walls, Courtney; Blood, Emily A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated associations of sexual desire with time of day, physical and social context, and positive and negative affect using momentary sampling in 44 depressed young women (mean age = 18). Analyses revealed that depressed young women experienced sexual desire when with their boyfriends and later in the evening. Sexual desire was also positively associated with positive affect. Sexual desire was not associated with negative affect or physical context. This research suggests that sexual desire is experienced by depressed young women in normative developmental social contexts. Our findings may help clinicians and sexual health educators in correcting the myth that depressed women do not have sexual desire. PMID:23631748

  7. The Rights of Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Penny

    This booklet presents information concerning homelessness and the education of homeless children nationwide and in Illinois. Estimates of the number of homeless children vary widely. Reasons for homeless children's failure to attend school include school residency requirements, delays in transfer of documents, and lack of transportation. The…

  8. Idealized TV friends and young women's body concerns.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Dara

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined which specific forms of interpersonal involvement with both female and male TV characters are linked to young women's body concerns. One hundred and fifty undergraduate females completed an on-line questionnaire which assessed wishful identification (desire to be and look like), parasocial interaction (imagined friendship), and perceived similarity (of personality, life, and appearance) to favorite female and male TV characters, as well as Body Shame and Body Surveillance. Results for female characters showed that Body Surveillance was positively associated with wishful identification but negatively associated with perceived similarity to that character. Wishful identification with a favorite female character alone predicted Body Shame. For male characters, Romantic Attachment was associated with increased Body Surveillance. No male character affinities were significantly associated with Body Shame. Importantly, these associations were significant after BMI and global self-esteem were taken into account. PMID:19195944

  9. 12Step Involvement and Treatment Outcomes Among Young Women With Substance Use Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey A. Klein; Valerie J. Slaymaker

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which young women with substance use disorders (SUDs) affiliate with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) or other 12-Step groups is currently unclear. This administrative data analysis examined 12-Step involvement and its impact on outcome during the first 6 months following treatment among a sample of young adults attending 12-step–based residential treatment. Young women were just as likely as similar-aged

  10. Homelessness and Hunger*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A; Greif, Meredith J

    2014-01-01

    We employ data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients to examine the character and correlates of hunger among homeless people. Our analysis, couched in an adaptation framework, finds more support for the differentiation hypothesis than for the leveling hypothesis: Complex patterns of food insecurity exist at the individual level, and they vary with the resources available (e.g., higher monthly income, regular shelter use) and obstacles faced (e.g., alcohol, drug, and physical and mental health problems). The chronically homeless, who suffer from multiple deficits, appear particularly food-insecure, a finding that favors the desperation hypothesis over its street-wisdom alternative. We conclude that hunger is not uniformly experienced by members of the homeless population. Rather, some individuals are better situated than others to cope with the stressful nature of homelessness when addressing their sustenance needs. PMID:18418982

  11. Young women's continued use of oral contraceptives over other hormonal methods: findings from a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M Williamson; Katie Buston; Helen Sweeting

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundLong-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) have become more commonly promoted in the UK, but most young women still rely on the contraceptive pill. Here, we describe young women's accounts of hormonal contraceptive use to explore why this might be the case.MethodsIn-depth interviews with twenty 20-year-old women from eastern Scotland in the UK.ResultsAll but one woman reported use of the pill. It

  12. Why so few young women in mathematics, science, and technology classes?

    SciTech Connect

    Wieda, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    Many factors influence the success of women in scientific and technical careers. Women represent over 50% of the U.S. population, yet less than 16% of women are employed in scientific and technical careers. Research over the last decade makes it clear that disparities exist in the participation, achievement, and attitudes of young men and young women in science classes. Young women are as interested in science experiences as young men up until age nine. After that age, the number of young women interested in science, mathematics, and technology classes drops. Not enrolling in science and mathematics classes in high school limits career options for young women, and their chance to succeed in a scientific or technical field becomes remote. Why is this happening? What can we, as educators, scientists, and parents do to address this problem? The literature identifies three principal factors that relate to the lack of female involvement in science classes: culture, attitude, and education. This paper reviews these factors and provides examples of programs that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and others have developed to increase the number of young women entering college ready and wanting to pursue a career in a scientific or technical field.

  13. Ineffective use of condoms among young women in managed care.

    PubMed

    Civic, D; Scholes, D; Ichikawa, L; Grothaus, L; McBride, C M; Yarnall, K S H; Fish, L

    2002-12-01

    Condoms must be used effectively in order to prevent pregnancy and the spread of HIV/STD. This study investigated two types of ineffective condom use, delayed condom use (initiated after penetration has occurred) and condom slippage and/or breakage. We estimated prevalence and identified predictors of ineffective condom use among young women at risk of STDs. The study used baseline survey data from a randomized trial of women 18-24 years old at two managed care sites; 779 participants who were recent condom users were included in this analysis. Forty-four per cent of the sample reported delayed condom use in the past three months and 19% reported condom slippage and/or breakage. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, primary partner, lack of partner support, multiple recent sexual partners and using condoms for contraception were positively associated with delayed condom use. Correlates of condom slippage and/or breakage were non-white race/ethnicity and history of any STD. Greater frequency of condom use independently predicted both outcomes. Ineffective condom use was common in this sample of experienced condom users and predictors were different for each outcome. HIV/STD prevention interventions must address more specific aspects of condom use than have previously been their focus, especially when condom use is already high. PMID:12511211

  14. Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context. PMID:24967887

  15. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  16. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection among young women in North India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Palika Datta; Neerja Bhatla; Lalit Dar; A. Rajkumar Patro; Arti Gulati; Alka Kriplani; Neeta Singh

    2010-01-01

    Background: The number of women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) and the distribution of the HPV genotypes vary across populations and with age. Objective: To determine the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV in young married women aged 16–24 years. Methods: 1300 women residing in an urban slum in Delhi donated samples of exfoliated cervical cells that were collected by

  17. Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Young Women: A Clinicopathologic Study of 21 Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Al-Ghamdi; D. Freedman; D. Miller; C. Poh; M. Rosin; L. Zhang; C. B. Gilks

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC) of the vulva occurs most often in older women and the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features of vulvar ISCC in young women are poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to examine clinical and pathological features of ISCC presenting in women younger than 40 years of age.Methods. Patients younger than 40 years of

  18. Total calcium intake and colorectal adenoma in young women

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Jennifer; Cho, Eunyoung; Orav, Endel J.; Willett, Walter C.; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Total calcium intake appears to reduce occurrence of colorectal adenoma; however, the dose necessary for prevention in young women is unclear. We examined fine categories of calcium intake in relation to occurrence of first colorectal adenoma in a cohort of mostly premenopausal (88%) women aged 26-60 at time of endoscopy. Design We conducted an analysis among 41,403 participants in the Nurses'Health Study II and assessed intakes of calcium prior to endoscopy through participants'responses to biannual questionnaires. Results Between 1991-2007, we documented 2,273 colorectal adenoma cases. There was a significant trend across categories of calcium intakes with lowest intakes suggestive of higher occurrence of adenoma (p=0.03) and those in the distal colon (p=0.03) and rectum (p=0.04). Compared with 1001-1250 mg/day of calcium intake, <=500 mg/day was suggestive of a modest increase in occurrence of adenoma (multivariable RR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.90-1.61); there were also suggestions of an increased risk with >500-<=700 mg/day of calcium. The association between <=500 mg/day of calcium intake and adenoma was stronger for multiple (RR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.38, 3.72), large (>=1cm) (RR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.21), and high risk adenoma (>=1cm or mention of villous histology/high grade dysplasia) (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.72). No differences in associations were noted between jointly categorized calcium and phosphorus or magnesium intakes. Conclusions Our findings suggest that low intakes of calcium, <500 and possibly 500-700 mg/day, in younger women are associated with an increased risk of multiple and advanced colorectal adenoma. PMID:24562904

  19. Young Women’s Dynamic Family Size Preferences in the Context of Transitioning Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Sara; Sennott, Christie; Culpepper, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic theories of family size preferences posit that they are not a fixed and stable goal but rather are akin to a moving target that changes within individuals over time. Nonetheless, in high-fertility contexts, changes in family size preferences tend to be attributed to low construct validity and measurement error instead of genuine revisions in preferences. To address the appropriateness of this incongruity, the present study examines evidence for the sequential model of fertility among a sample of young Malawian women living in a context of transitioning fertility. Using eight waves of closely spaced data and fixed-effects models, we find that these women frequently change their reported family size preferences and that these changes are often associated with changes in their relationship and reproductive circumstances. The predictability of change gives credence to the argument that ideal family size is a meaningful construct, even in this higher-fertility setting. Changes are not equally predictable across all women, however, and gamma regression results demonstrate that women for whom reproduction is a more distant goal change their fertility preferences in less-predictable ways. PMID:23619999

  20. A portrait of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Wallsten, S M

    1992-09-01

    The homeless elderly are vulnerable, silent, and fearful. Their trajectory into homelessness more often than not precludes recovery and takes them on a course toward early death or nursing home placement. Psychiatric nurses who work in community or acute care settings are in key positions to recognize elderly victims of homelessness, assess their needs, match them to services, start them on the road to recovery, and become their advocates. The definition of a homeless person as agreed on in the Report of the Federal Task Force on Homelessness and Severe Mental Illness (1992) is the one used in the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (Public Law 100-77). A homeless person is someone "who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence" and whose main nighttime residence is a "supervised public or private shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations; an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized; or a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings." This definition, then, excludes those individuals living on the "fringes" in substandard or condemned housing, a condition that warrants attention in general and particularly among the elderly. PMID:1404012

  1. Urban Young Women’s Experiences of Discrimination and Community Violence and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the interrelationships between urban young adult women’s experiences of discrimination and community violence and their reports of involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV). We explore whether such experiences are independent risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration, even when accounting for aggressive behaviors and related risk taking, including drinking and sexual initiation, during early adolescence. We use data from the Reach for Health study, in which a sample of 550 urban African American and Latina women was followed from recruitment in economically distressed middle schools into young adulthood, over approximately 7 years. At the last wave, respondents were 19–20 years old; 28% were raising children. More than 40% reported experiencing at least one form of racial/ethnic discrimination sometimes or often over the past year. About 75% heard guns being shot, saw someone being arrested, or witnessed drug deals within this time period; 66% had seen someone beaten up, 26% had seen someone get killed, and 40% knew someone who was killed. Concurrent reports of lifetime IPV were also high: about a third reported being a victim of physical violence; a similar proportion reported perpetration. Results of multivariate regression analyses indicate that discrimination is significantly associated with physical and emotional IPV victimization and perpetration, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, including ethnic identity formation, and early adolescent risk behaviors. Community violence is correlated with victimization, but the relationship remains significant only for emotional IPV victimization once early behaviors are controlled. Implications for violence prevention are discussed, including the importance of addressing community health, as well as individual patterns of behavior, associated with multiple forms of violence victimization and perpetration. PMID:18347993

  2. Homelessness and public policy priorities.

    PubMed

    Kiesler, C A

    1991-11-01

    Public policy issues related to homelessness and their priorities are reviewed. It is argued that the three most important policy issues are housing, income, and health. Cutting across these priority areas are the special problems of homeless children and youth, both in families and alone. Alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health services, although needed and effective, will neither stop nor slow the rate of increase in homelessness experienced in recent years. Psychologists, in emphasizing aspects of homelessness that they are expert in, are deflected from variables determining the prevalence and incidence of homelessness. The latter variables must be regarded as the priority policy issues in homelessness. PMID:1772163

  3. 78 FR 18601 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/what_cdc_is_doing/conference...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those...

  4. 77 FR 68782 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance...http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/what_cdc_is_doing/conference...activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those...

  5. 78 FR 64504 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) Cancellation: This notice...Federal Official, Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, CDC, 5770 Buford Hwy...

  6. 77 FR 22788 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW); Correction Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on March...

  7. Young women's experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A; Steeves, Richard H; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2013-11-01

    Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20 and 39 years of age) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women's narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use. PMID:23820874

  8. 'Hardcore drinking': portrayals of alcohol consumption in young women's and men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Antonia C; Dalton, Sue I; Hoy, Anna

    2006-03-01

    Young adults and young women in particular are drinking more alcohol than ever before, with implications for risky behaviours and long-term health. This study explored the ways in which alcohol and drinking were represented in six monthly UK magazines (three targeted at young men, three at young women) across a three-month period (18 magazines). We identified three main discourses across the texts, namely the drug alcohol; masculinity and machismo; and drinking as normality. These discourses constructed women's and men's drinks and drinking behaviours in sharp contrast. Drinking was aligned with traditional masculine images, although new kinds of drinks were aligned with traditional feminine images--and derided in men's magazines. Findings highlight how gender, constructed in relation to the other, is an important aspect of representations of drinking patterns in young adults. PMID:16464921

  9. Care and the Lives of Homeless Youth in Neoliberal Times in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fran Klodawsky; Tim Aubry; Susan Farrell

    2006-01-01

    Socio-spatial insights from feminist theories of care are examined in relation to the complex, difficult lives of some homeless youth in Ottawa, and their embeddedness within multiple scales of public policy construction and implementation. As lengthy interviews with 78 female and 78 male homeless youth in Ottawa revealed, both care and self-sufficiency figure strongly in these young peoples' lives. It

  10. Building an empowerment policy paradigm: self-reported strengths of homeless mothers.

    PubMed

    Banyard, V L; Graham-Bermann, S A

    1995-10-01

    Self-reported strengths and goals of a sample of 64 mothers of young children residing in a temporary shelter for homeless families, were documented. The strengths most frequently reported included ability to take action, parental competence, and determination in the face of stress. Program and policy implications of these positive attributes of homeless mothers are discussed. PMID:8561182

  11. The unique health needs of young women: application for occupational health professionals.

    PubMed

    Graves, Virginia A

    2005-07-01

    This article presents some alternate views on how young women maintain health and how occupational health nurses can intervene with illness. These interventions are based on relational theories that address the importance of healthy connections for health and growth, and propose disconnections as what (Miller & Stiver, 1977): underlies many of the problems common to women in particular, including depression, various forms of anxiety, eating problems, and so-called personality disorders." (p. 81) Interventions outlined include teaching young women and families how to deconstruct damaging media images and creating groups for young women or parents as a venue to learn (e.g., signs of healthy and unhealthy relationships and knowing how interaction in the group can be an intervention in itself). Offering parents and other adults support and resources to help them discuss health issues with young women will provide a way for young women to examine healthy choices more accurately. The occupational health nurse can teach the importance of keeping connected during an illness and refer clients to an EAP for additional support. Knowing that some young women do not have homes where they receive adequate safe and healthy messages reinforces the value of a nurse and managers to create a caring and respectful climate in the workplace. The effectiveness of applying relational theories to health care is evidenced when professionals offer young women a resonant relationship, with mutuality and respect which fosters a safe environment for voicing health concerns (Slater, Guthrie, & Boyd, 2001). Occupational health nurses can also make a difference for young women within their own communities. Whether taking social action in a town meeting, addressing media influences, writing a letter when offended, or supporting local and national girls' organizations, nurses' input is valuable. Interactions with girls outside the workplace are also important. Young women often consider relationships with the older women in their lives (e.g., mothers, aunts, parents for whom they babysit) to be among the most valuable. With cultural messages normalizing unhealthy behaviors and health consequences, young women can benefit greatly from their relationships with adult relatives and friends who care enough to stay connected. PMID:16097106

  12. Sexual victimization in young, pregnant and parenting, African-American women: psychological and social outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, J E; Ebert, L; Meyers, A B

    1993-01-01

    The influence of sexual victimization on the psychological and social adjustment of 177 pregnant and parenting African Americans was examined. Compared with those who had not been victimized, young women with a history of sexual victimization were more symptomatic, had lower self esteem, and had a more external locus of control than the non-victimized women. In addition, women who were sexually victimized at some time in their lives reported higher levels of economic strain. Victimized young women were less satisfied with their social support than their non-victimized peers. Taken together, these findings suggest that the link between sexual victimization and psychological distress in pregnant and parenting adolescents may be mediated through young women's interpersonal resources. PMID:8193056

  13. Weight Change and Depression Among US Young Women During the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Houle, Jason N.; Lippert, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    By using data from wave 2 (in 1996) and wave 3 (in 2000–2001) of the US-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we investigated the association between young women's body weight and depression during the transition to adulthood. Respondents (n = 5,243) were 13–18 years of age during wave 2 and 19–25 years of age during wave 3. We used Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores to classify young women as never depressed, consistently depressed, experiencing depression onset, or experiencing depression recovery from wave 2 to wave 3. Results from adjusted multinomial logistic regression models indicated that respondents who experienced significant weight gain were at risk of depression onset. Normal weight (adjusted odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 3.84) and overweight (adjusted odds ratio = 1.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.99) adolescent girls who were obese by young adulthood, as well as young women who were consistently obese during adolescence and young adulthood (adjusted odds ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.26), had roughly twice the odds of depression onset as did young women who were never overweight. We concluded that weight gain and obesity are risk factors for depression onset during the transition to adulthood. Policies prioritizing healthy weight maintenance may help improve young women's mental health as they begin their adult lives. PMID:23752915

  14. A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-02-01

    Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

  15. "I Was the Special Ed. Girl": Urban Working-Class Young Women of Colour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of young women of…

  16. The Short-Term Effects of Marital Disruption on the Labor Supply Behavior of Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sylvia F.

    A research study was conducted to measure (1) the extent to which a young woman is financially disadvantaged by the loss of her husband's income, (2) the ways in which she seeks to alleviate this loss, and (3) how successful she is in doing so. Data were collected from 519 young women, both white and black, who experienced a first disruption of…

  17. Life Transitions and Mental Health in a National Cohort of Young Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…

  18. Losing Self to the Future? Young Women's Strategic Responses to Adulthood Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    The multiple and conflicting identity pressures that young women in western society face have been remarked upon in the literature. Adolescence is a time when identity development activity intensifies, and this process can present young people with challenges. In this paper a social constructionist and interpretive frame is applied to such…

  19. Screening Bleeding Disorders in Adolescents and Young Women with Menorrhagia

    PubMed Central

    Çak? K?l?ç, Suar; Sarper, Nazan; Zengin, Emine; Aylan Gelen, Sema

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Chronic menorrhagia causes anemia and impairment of life quality. In this study the aim was the screening of bleeding disorders in adolescents and young women with menorrhagia. Materials and Methods: The study was performed prospectively by pediatric hematologists. A form including demographic characteristics of the patients, bleedings other than menorrhagia, familial bleeding history, characteristics of the menorrhagia, and impairment of life quality due to menorrhagia was filled out by the researcher during a face-to-face interview with the patient. A pictorial blood assessment chart was also used for evaluation of blood loss. All patients underwent pelvic ultrasound sonography testing and women also received pelvic examination by gynecologists. Whole blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood group, serum transaminases, urea, creatinine, ferritin, PFA-100, PT, aPTT, INR, TT, fibrinogen, VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, FVIII, and platelet aggregation assays were performed. Platelet aggregations were studied by lumiaggregometer. Results: Out of 75 patients enrolled, 60 patients completed the study. The mean age was 20.68±10.34 (range: 10-48) years and 65% (n=39) of the patients were younger than 18 years. In 18 (46%) of the adolescents, menorrhagia subsided spontaneously. In 20% (n=12) of the patients, a bleeding disorder was detected (1 case of type 3 von Willebrand disease, 2 patients with low VWF:Ag, 1 case of probable von Willebrand disease, 3 cases of Bernard-Soulier syndrome, 2 cases of Glanzmann thrombasthenia, 2 cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 1 case of congenital factor VII deficiency). Conclusion: In patients with menorrhagia, at least complete blood count, peripheral smear, aPTT, PT, VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, FVIII, and fibrinogen assays must be performed. When there is history of nose and gum bleeding, platelet function assay by lumiaggregometer must also be performed. In nearly 50% of adolescents, menorrhagia is dysfunctional and transient. Detailed coagulation assays can be postponed in adolescents if bleeding history other than menorrhagia and/or family history of bleeding and/or parental consanguinity is absent. All subjects with menorrhagia must consult with gynecologists and hematologists. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385781

  20. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  1. Family planning (re)defined: how young Nepalese women understand and negotiate contraceptive choices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iccha Basnyat; Mohan J. Dutta

    2011-01-01

    The dominant framework of health communication constitutes family planning under the framework of Third World pathology, writing over the bodies of women of the Third with a script of modernity. This manuscript engages the culture-centered approach to co-construct the narratives of young Nepalese women living under poverty, seeking to create entry points for cultural voices that have been rendered silent

  2. Oral contraceptives alter sleep and raise body temperature in young women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona C. Baker; Duncan Mitchell; Helen S. Driver

    2001-01-01

    Female reproductive steroids, oestrogen and progesterone, not only affect reproductive function, but also thermoregulation and sleep. Chronic administration of synthetic steroids, as occurs in women taking oral contraceptives, may affect these regulatory systems differently from endogenous oestrogen and progesterone. We therefore investigated body temperature and sleep in ten young women taking oral contraceptives, in the active and placebo phases of

  3. Beating the Biological Clock: The Compressed Family Life Cycle of Young Women with BRCA Gene Alterations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison Werner-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Empirical and clinical literature suggests a temporal thread running through family narratives of hereditary disease, linking past experiences to current beliefs about risk. This study asked young women with elevated risk of developing hereditary breast or ovarian cancer (HBOC) how their family histories with cancer and their gene status inform meaning construction around cancer risk and family development. Twenty-three women

  4. Branching out and Coming Back Together: Exploring the Undergraduate Experiences of Young Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Educational Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2010, "Harvard Educational Review" editor Chantal Francois sat down at a Manhattan diner with three young black women, two of whom were her former students at a New York City high school. Chantal invited the women to come together and share their experiences as freshmen at predominantly white institutions along the East Coast. While…

  5. ATTITUDES OF ADOLESCENT\\/YOUNG ADULT WOMEN TOWARD HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINATION AND CLINICAL TRIALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. It often inflicts adolescents and young adults shortly after onset of sexual activity. More than 30 types of HPV infect the anogenital area; some HPV types cause cervical cancer in women decades after infection, whereas other types cause genital warts in both men and women within a year after infection.

  6. Managing Meaning and Belonging: Young Women's Negotiation of Authenticity in Body Art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah C. E. Riley; Sharon Cahill

    2005-01-01

    It is a common-sense ideology that appearance is vertically representative, in that the outer surface reflects the inner self. This paper explores the impact of this ideology on women's understandings of their Body Art. Meaning and belonging were identified as central themes in accounts produced from two focus groups with young women in Glasgow, Scotland who had piercings and tattoos.

  7. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  8. Enhancing Recruitment and Retention of Minority Young Women in Community-Based Clinical Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constance M. Wiemann; Mariam R. Chacko; Jacinda C. Tucker; Mary M. Velasquez; Peggy B. Smith; Ralph J. DiClemente; Kirk von Sternberg

    2005-01-01

    Women are disproportionately affected by the sexually transmitted infections (STI) epidemic, with African-Americans and Latinos at significantly higher risk for STIs than Caucasians. Successful recruitment and retention strategies used with young minority women in community-based STI prevention or intervention research have not been previously reported. This communication presents eight key strategies learned in the recruitment and retention of 16- to

  9. Counting the homeless in Malta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyrus Vakili-Zad

    2006-01-01

    There are no visible signs of homelessness in Malta similar to what can be seen on the streets of many North American or European cities, yet there are few hundred homeless who stay in shelters and another few thousand households that are at risk of being homeless. Malta has a comparatively sizeable social housing sector (9000–10,000) and approximately 3300 households

  10. Effects of strength training and detraining on regional muscle in young and older men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason A. Melnyk; Marc A. Rogers; Ben F. Hurley

    2009-01-01

    To examine the effects of 9 weeks of strength training (ST) and 31 weeks of detraining on regional muscle area in young and\\u000a older men and women, three regions of the quadriceps muscle area (proximal, middle, and distal) were measured via MRI in 11\\u000a men ages 20–30, 11 men ages 65–75, 10 women ages 20–30, and 11 women ages 65–75. These effects

  11. Masturbation among young women and associations with sexual health: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Harriet; Ingham, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Much research into young people's developing sexuality is concerned with risk avoidance and the reduction of negative outcomes. Little research has been conducted into sexual self-exploration and, in particular, masturbation among young people, and this has generally been concerned merely with its prevalence. Little is known about the potential role of masturbation in relation to young people's developing sexuality, especially among young women. This study aimed to explore, using a qualitative approach, how young women reported their experiences of masturbation and whether and how these related to other aspects of their sexual activity. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was employed to identify the range of reported experiences across participants, as well as the relations between various aspects of sexual development and experiences within participants. The findings revealed a broad continuum of views and opinions on female masturbation, which had strong links with parent and partner communication and the young women's beliefs and values concerning their sexual selves. The article concludes by drawing attention to the apparent relation between positive early childhood communication, young women's positive views of their sexual self, and their subsequent sexual activity. PMID:19350442

  12. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy Among Young Women.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jennifer S; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status (SES), adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current SES. Compared with white women, black women generally have less positive attitudes toward young nonmarital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because black women are more religious than white women and partly because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, black women had higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence and partly because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained; net of all potential mediators in our models, black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but they are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry and they expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. PMID:25962867

  13. A retrospective comparative study of clinicopathological features between young and elderly women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingli; Ma, Baohua; Kang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This is a retrospective study to compare the clinicopathological features between young and elderly women with breast cancer. Methods: Totally 181 young and 186 elderly breast cancer patients were analyzed and compared in respects of the histological subtype, tumor number and size, tumor location, histological grading, UICC-pTNM pathological staging, and lymph node metastasis status. Results: Our results showed that invasive ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histotype in young and elderly breast cancer patients. The second most frequent histological subtype was intraductal carcinoma in the young group, while the second leading histotype was invasive lobular carcinoma in the elderly group. No significant differences in tumor number and location were observed between the young and elderly groups. The percentage of patients with tumor size T3 (diameter > 5 cm) and the proportion of patients with histological grade III in the young group were significantly higher than the elderly group. For UICC-pTNM pathological staging, patients at stages 0-I and II in the young group were less than, while patients at stage III was more than, in the elderly group. In addition, the axillary lymph node metastasis rate and the numbers of axillary lymph node metastasis were elevated in the young group, compared with the elderly group. Conclusion: Breast cancer in young female patients is associated with increased aggressiveness and potential malignancy. Our findings might contribute to future diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in young women.

  14. 75 FR 61860 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...readjustment counseling, women Veterans' legislative issues, special health initiatives, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. Interested persons may attend, appear before, or file...

  15. The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24?years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12?months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12?months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers. PMID:22695085

  16. Young Women Have Poorer Outcomes than Men after Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Martínez-Sánchez; Blanca Fuentes; Jessica Fernández-Domínguez; María José Aguilar-Amar; María José Abenza-Abildúa; Luis Idrovo-Freire; Exuperio Díez-Tejedor

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Gender differences in stroke outcome have not been fully assessed in young patients. Methods: We conducted an observational study of consecutive young ischemic stroke patients (?50 years of age) admitted to a stroke unit (January 1999 to December 2009). Basal data, subtype of ischemic stroke, stroke severity [Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS)], length of hospital stay, inhospital complications,

  17. The use of reproductive health services by young women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mirza, T; Kovacs, G T; McDonald, P

    1998-08-01

    Retrospective analysis of clinical data from 8 State/Territory Family Planning Organizations (FPO) was conducted to determine the reproductive health services used by young women. Between July, 1996 and June, 1997, a total of 185, 879 client visits were recorded at FPO clinics, of which 72,303 (39%) were by young clients. The results showed that young women tended to use a combined oral pill, postcoital pill and spermicides more than those older than 25 years (p<0.05). Young women were also more likely to use services for management of sexually transmitted disease (STD), counselling for HIV, STD and sexual assault (p<0.05). However, there were considerable differences among the 3 groups of women: Aboriginal clients, those who did not speak English at home, and those who were born outside Australia. This study confirms that young women are using FPO services especially for emergency/postcoital contraception, STD screening and counselling. FPOs need to continue their existing role of providing reproductive and sexual health services catering to the need of this special segment of the population. PMID:9761169

  18. Temporal changes in anthropometric measurements of idealized females and young women in general.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Murray, Jessica; Schlussel, Yvette R

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the temporal anthropometric changes in idealized female body images in the media (i.e., Playboy magazine Playmates of the Year, Miss America Pageant winners, and fashion models) and young women in general across eight decades. Overall, all anthropometric measures differed significantly over time. BMI for all women in the idealized groups tended to decline significantly over time, while the BMI for YoungWomen increased significantly. Models tended to have the smallest bust and hips, Playmates the largest bust, and young women in general the largest waist and hips. The general trend for all groups was to move from a less curvaceous body shape in the early part of the twentieth century to a more curvaceous shape at mid-century and returning to a less curvaceous shape at the end of the century. Idealized women have a body size unlike that of Young Women and the chasm between the media- defined ideal and reality is continuing to diverge. PMID:16219585

  19. Physical activity correlates in young women with depressive symptoms: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Young women are at high risk for developing depression and participation in physical activity may prevent or treat the disorder. However, the influences on physical activity behaviors of young women with depression are not well understood. The aim of this study was to gather in-depth information about the correlates of physical activity among young women with and without depressive symptoms. Methods A sample of 40 young women (aged 18-30 years), 20 with depressive symptoms (assessed using the CES-D 10) and 20 without depressive symptoms participated in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. A social-ecological framework was used, focusing on the individual, social and physical environmental influences on physical activity. Thematic analyses were performed on transcribed interview data. Results The results indicated several key themes that were unique to women with depressive symptoms. These women more often described negative physical activity experiences during their youth, more barriers to physical activity, participating in more spontaneous than planned activity, lower self-efficacy for physical activity and being influenced by their friends' and family's inactivity. Conclusions Interventions designed to promote physical activity in this important target group should consider strategies to reduce/overcome early life negative experiences, engage support from family and friends and plan for activity in advance. PMID:20157440

  20. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health, medicine, and substance abuse to proactively combat the “model minority” myth and to design and implement interventions targeting family dynamics, coping with immigration/acculturative stresses, mental illnesses, suicidal behaviors, and substance abuse among Asian-American populations across the developmental lifespan. Originality/value This paper provides specific suggestions for interventions to adequately respond to the mental health needs of young Asian-American women. These include addressing the cultural stigma and shame of seeking help, underlying family origin issues, and excessive alcohol and drug use as unsafe coping, as well as incorporating empowerment-based and mind-body components to foster an intervention targeting suicidality among Asian-American women in early adulthood. PMID:25031627

  1. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  2. Young women’s perceived health and lifetime sexual experience: Results from The National Survey of Family Growth

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sexuality is a component of health and wellbeing for all women, including adolescents. Yet relationships between young women’s health perceptions and sexual behavior are unclear. Aim We examined associations between perceived health and lifetime sexual experiences among young U.S. women. Methods We used data from 4,413 young women ages 15–24 years in the National Survey of Family Growth, 2002–2008. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistics estimated relationships between categories of perceived health and types of lifetime sexual experience. Main outcome measures A self-rated health Likert item and sexual history questions were administered with a computer-assisted survey instrument. Results Young women reported excellent (30%), very good (41%), good (23%) and fair-poor (6%) health. Sexual experiences included vaginal (64%), oral (64%) and anal (20%) sex. Negative experiences included involuntary sex (11%) and STI history (8%). In multivariate logistic regression models, lower perceived health (“good” rather than “excellent”) was positively associated with vaginal (OR 1.5, CI 1.1–2.1, p=0.02), oral (OR 1.5, CI 1.1–2.1, p=0.005) and anal (OR 1.4, CI 1.0–2.0, p=0.03) sex. In models stratified by age, point estimates for vaginal (OR 1.8, CI 1.2–2.6, p=0.002) and oral (OR 1.9, CI 1.4–2.6, p<0.001) sex were higher among adolescents ages 15–19 years but associations were insignificant among young adults ages 20–24 years. When controlling for negative sexual experiences, point estimates were stable in models including STI history but statistically insignificant when including involuntary sexual experience. Other characteristics associated with sexual experiences varied by type of experience and included age, race/ethnicity, employment situation, poverty level, insurance status, childhood family situation, religious service participation, cohabitation/marital experience and body mass index. Conclusions Further investigation is warranted to disentangle potentially negative relationships between perceived health (as well as response bias and more objective health outcomes), sociodemographic factors and diverse sexual experiences among young women in the United States. PMID:22429682

  3. Homelessness during pregnancy: a unique, time-dependent risk factor of birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Diana B; Coleman, Sharon; Black, Maureen M; Chilton, Mariana M; Cook, John T; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Heeren, Timothy C; Meyers, Alan; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate homelessness during pregnancy as a unique, time-dependent risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. 9,995 mothers of children <48 months old surveyed at emergency departments and primary care clinics in five US cities. Mothers were classified as either homeless during pregnancy with the index child, homeless only after the index child's birth, or consistently housed. Outcomes included birth weight as a continuous variable, as well as categorical outcomes of low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm delivery (<37 weeks). Multiple logistic regression and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, comparing prenatal and postnatal homelessness with the referent group of consistently housed mothers, controlling for maternal demographic characteristics, smoking, and child age at interview. Prenatal homelessness was associated with higher adjusted odds of LBW (AOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.80, p < 0.01) and preterm delivery (AOR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.56, p = 0.08), and a 53 g lower adjusted mean birth weight (p = 0.08). Postnatal homelessness was not associated with these outcomes. Prenatal homelessness is an independent risk factor for LBW, rather than merely a marker of adverse maternal and social characteristics associated with homelessness. Targeted interventions to provide housing and health care to homeless women during pregnancy may result in improved birth outcomes. PMID:25404405

  4. A cross-sectional examination of the mental health of homeless mothers: does the relationship between mothering and mental health vary by duration of homelessness?

    PubMed Central

    Zabkiewicz, Denise M; Patterson, Michelle; Wright, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study draws on baseline data from the At Home/Chez Soi demonstration project to examine the association between parenting status and mental health among homeless women and whether the association varies by duration of homelessness. Setting Structured interviews were conducted with participants in five cities across Canada including Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver and Winnipeg. Participants Eligibility criteria included those with legal adult status, with a mental illness, and who lacked a regular, fixed shelter. All 713 women who participated in the larger project were selected for inclusion in this analysis. Measures The mental health conditions of interest include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol dependence and substance dependence. Results The relationship between parenting status and depression, as well as PTSD, varied by duration of homelessness. Among women who had been homeless for less than 2?years, no relationship was found between parenting status and depression, or PTSD. However, among women who had been homeless for 2 or more years, the odds of depression was twice as high among parenting women compared with others (aOR=2.05, p?0.05). A similar relationship was found between parenting status and PTSD (aOR=2.03, p?0.05). The odds of substance dependence was found to be 2.62 times greater among parenting women compared with others and this relationship did not vary by duration of homelessness (aOR=2.62; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.69). No relationship was found between parenting and alcohol dependence. Conclusions Overall, the findings from this study suggest that there is a relationship between long-term homelessness and mothers’ risk of poor mental health. Given the multiple demands mothers face, a failure to recognise their unique needs is likely to contribute to intergenerational legacies of homelessness and mental health problems. Trial registration number World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ISRCTN66721740 and ISRCTN57595077). PMID:25492272

  5. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high?risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L; Murray, Pamela J; Chang, Chung?Chou H; Comer, Diane M; Ness, Roberta B

    2007-01-01

    Objective Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Aim To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high?risk sample of young women. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, 403 young women (mean age 18.9?years, 70% black) with a recent STD or with STD?related risk factors were enrolled. Participants were recruited from clinics and high?prevalence neighbourhoods and then randomly assigned to receive either a home testing kit or an invitation to attend a medical clinic for testing at 6, 12 and 18?months after enrollment. Over 80% of women were followed for 2?years. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 00177437. Results Of 197 women in the intervention group, 140 (71%) returned at least one home test and 25 of 249 (10%) home tests were positive. Women who received home screening tests completed significantly more STD tests overall (1.94 vs 1.41 tests per woman?year, p<0.001) and more STD tests in the absence of symptoms (1.18 vs 0.75 tests per woman?year, p<0.001). More women in the intervention group completed at least one test when asymptomatic (162 (82.2%) vs 117 (61.3%), p<0.001). The intervention was most effective among women recruited outside medical clinics. There was no significant difference in the overall rate of STDs detected. Conclusions Home screening significantly increased the utilisation of chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing in this sample of high?risk young women, and thus represents a feasible strategy to facilitate STD testing in young women. PMID:17301105

  6. Frequency of eating occasions reported by young New Zealand Polynesian and European women.

    PubMed

    Amosa, T; Rush, E; Plank, L

    2001-03-01

    The frequency of eating occasions reported by young New Zealand Polynesian and European women was examined. The timing and content of meals and snacks were analysed from 80 self-reported seven-day food diaries from a previous study of 80 young women (39 New Zealand Polynesian and 41 European) aged between 18 and 27 years. Nineteen Polynesian and 20 European women had a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg.m-2 and were classified as obese. Breakfast was eaten more often by the European women than the Polynesian (median 4 versus 3 times.week-1, P = 0.012). Eleven (28%) of the Polynesian women skipped breakfast every day of the study week compared to only three (7%) of the Europeans (P = 0.019). Dinner was eaten more frequently by the European women (P = 0.020) who also ate significantly more meals during the week than the Polynesian (P = 0.039). Non-obese Europeans ate breakfast more frequently than their obese counterparts (P = 0.002) while no significant difference was observed between non-obese and obese Polynesians. The obese European and Polynesian groups reported similar patterns of breakfast consumption which differed significantly from the non-obese Europeans (P = 0.008). The young women in this study did not eat breakfast every day with the young Polynesian women eating fewer meals than the Europeans. There was an association between ethnic origin, body size and eating patterns in the women. These findings in comparison with previous studies in other countries indicate that the frequency of eating breakfast may be declining with time. PMID:12017838

  7. Homelessness and Dual Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Robert E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews recent research on the epidemiology, subject characteristics, and service needs of the homeless population who are dually diagnosed to suffer both severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders. Discusses evolving approaches to providing social services, various treatments, system and legal issues, and problems with current research.…

  8. Readings in Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuszowicz, Peter F.

    Researchers have documented links between a number of behavioral issues and homelessness, including the following: limited/no social networks; social isolation; proneness of victimization; history of emotional, physical, sexual, and substance abuse; lack of education; and anxiety resulting from inadequate physical space. The possible benefits of…

  9. Hope for Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Cyndy Jones

    1996-01-01

    The Thomas J. Pappas Regional Education Center in Phoenix, Arizona, is a magnet school for homeless students from unorganized territories, military installations, Indian reservations, and national forest lands. This "accommodation" school, supported by federal grants, in-kind business donations, and committed volunteer mentors from the local…

  10. Recruitment and retention of young women into nutrition research studies: practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Successful recruitment and retention of participants into research studies is critical for optimising internal and external validity. Research into diet and lifestyle of young women is important due to the physiological transitions experienced at this life stage. This paper aims to evaluate data related to recruitment and retention across three research studies with young women, and present practical advice related to recruiting and retaining young women in order to optimise study quality within nutrition research. Methods Recruitment and retention strategies used in three nutrition studies that targeted young women (18 to 35 years) were critiqued. A randomised controlled trial (RCT), a crossover validation study and a cross-sectional survey were conducted at the University of Newcastle, Australia between 2010 and 2013Successful recruitment was defined as maximum recruitment relative to time. Retention was assessed as maximum participants remaining enrolled at study completion. Results Recruitment approaches included notice boards, web and social network sites (Facebook and Twitter), with social media most successful in recruitment. The online survey had the highest recruitment in the shortest time-frame (751 participants in one month). Email, phone and text message were used in study one (RCT) and study two (crossover validation) and assisted in low attrition rates, with 93% and 75.7% completing the RCT and crossover validation study respectively. Of those who did not complete the RCT, reported reasons were: being too busy; and having an unrelated illness. Conclusion Recruiting young women into nutrition research is challenging. Use of social media enhances recruitment, while Email, phone and text message contact improves retention within interventions. Further research comparing strategies to optimise recruitment and retention in young women, including flexible testing times, reminders and incentives is warranted. PMID:24433229

  11. The risk of unintended pregnancy among young women with mental health symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Yasamin; Gatny, Heather; Barber, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Depression and stress have been linked with poor contraceptive behavior, but whether existing mental health symptoms influence women's subsequent risk of unintended pregnancy is unclear. We prospectively examined the effect of depression and stress symptoms on young women's pregnancy risk over one year. We used panel data from a longitudinal study of 992 U.S. women ages 18-20 years who reported a strong desire to avoid pregnancy. Weekly journal surveys measured relationship, contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes. We examined 27,572 journal surveys from 940 women over the first study year. Our outcome was self-reported pregnancy. At baseline, we assessed moderate/severe depression (CESD-5) and stress (PSS-4) symptoms. We estimated the effect of baseline mental health symptoms on pregnancy risk with discrete-time, mixed-effects, proportional hazard models using logistic regression. At baseline, 24% and 23% of women reported moderate/severe depression and stress symptoms, respectively. Ten percent of young women not intending pregnancy became pregnant during the study. Rates of pregnancy were higher among women with baseline depression (14% vs. 9%, p=0.04) and stress (15% vs. 9%, p=0.03) compared to women without symptoms. In multivariable models, the risk of pregnancy was 1.6 times higher among women with stress symptoms compared to those without stress (aRR 1.6, CI 1.1,2.7). Women with co-occurring stress and depression symptoms had over twice the risk of pregnancy (aRR 2.1, CI 1.1,3.8) compared to those without symptoms. Among women without a prior pregnancy, having co-occurring stress and depression symptoms was the strongest predictor of subsequent pregnancy (aRR 2.3, CI 1.2,4.3), while stress alone was the strongest predictor among women with a prior pregnancy (aRR 3.0, CI 1.1,8.8). Depression symptoms were not independently associated with young women's pregnancy risk. In conclusion, stress, and especially co-occurring stress and depression symptoms, consistently and adversely influenced these young women's risk of unintended pregnancy over one year. PMID:24444840

  12. Diet Quality, Measured by Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Predicts Weight Change in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Aljadani, Haya M.; Patterson, Amanda; Sibbritt, David; Hutchesson, Melinda J.; Jensen, Megan E.; Collins, Clare E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between diet quality and weight gain in young women. Young women (n = 4,287, with 1,356 women identified as plausible subsample aged 27.6?±?1.5 years at baseline) sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health study completed food frequency questionnaires in 2003, which were used to evaluate diet quality using three indices: Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), Australian Diet Quality Index (Aus-DQI), and Fruit and Vegetable Index (FAVI). Weight was self-reported in 2003 and 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of each diet quality index and weight change from 2003 to 2009. The ARFS and FAVI were significant predictors of 6-year weight change in this group of young women, while Aus-DQI did not predict weight change (P > 0.05). In the fully adjusted model, those who were in the top tertile of the ARFS significantly gained lower weight gain compared with the lower tertile for the plausible TEI sub-sample (? = ?1.6?kg (95% CI: ?2.67 to ?0.56), P = 0.003). In the fully adjustment model, young women were classified in the highest FAVI tertile and gained significantly less weight than those in the lowest tertile for the plausible TEI (? = ?1.6?kg (95% CI: ?2.4 to ?0.3) P = 0.01). In conclusion, overall diet quality measured by the ARFS and the frequency and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption may predict long-term weight gain in young women. Therefore, health promotion programs encouraging frequent consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are warranted. PMID:24062946

  13. Intergenerational Systems Theory and Identity Development in Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda M.; Perosa, Sandra L.; Tam, Hak Ping

    2002-01-01

    Explored via questionnaires how intergenerational family systems theory is related to identity development in 164 undergraduate women. Found intergenerational factors of intimacy, intimidation, and individuation along with autonomy versus fusion, contributed variance to various identity statuses. (Author/DLH)

  14. Disordered eating among young Jewish American women: exploring religion's role 

    E-print Network

    Tartakovsky, Margarita

    2009-05-15

    There has been little scientific work exploring eating pathology among Jewish women in the United States, even though research has suggested that body image and eating behavior may be especially problematic within this group. Research has also...

  15. Correlates of intimate partner physical violence among young reproductive age women in Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Reingold, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) in south India. This article examines the frequency and correlates of IPPV among 898 young married women from urban, rural, and periurban areas of Mysore, India. Most (69.2%) of the participants were Hindus and 28.7% were Muslims. Overall, 50% of participants reported some type of IPPV. Factors that were independently associated with IPPV included being younger than 18 years at the time of marriage, contributing some household income, having anal sex, reporting sexual violence, and having a sex partner who drinks alcohol and smokes cigarettes. Women with skilled occupation were at reduced odds of experiencing IPPV compared with women who did not work. These findings suggest that IPPV is highly prevalent in this setting and that additional interventions are needed to reduce morbidity particularly among young women. These data also suggest that more studies are needed among men who perpetrate IPPV in south India. PMID:22186382

  16. Cardiac abnormalities in young women with anorexia nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. de Simone; L. Scalfi; M. Galderisi; A. Celentano; G. Di Biase; P. Tammaro; M. Garofalo; G. F. Mureddu; O. de Divitiis; F. Contaldo

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and

  17. HIV Risk, Partner Violence, and Relationship Power Among Filipino Young Women: Testing a Structural Model

    PubMed Central

    LUCEA, MARGUERITE B.; HINDIN, MICHELLE J.; KUB, JOAN; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.

    2012-01-01

    A person’s ability to minimize HIV risk is embedded in a complex, multidimensional context. In this study, we tested a model of how relationship power impacts IPV victimization, which in turn impacts HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed data from 474 young adult women (aged 15–31) in Cebu Province, Philippines, using structural equation modeling, and demonstrated good fit for the models. High relationship power is directly associated with increased IPV victimization, and IPV victimization is positively associated with increased HIV risk. We highlight in this article the complex dynamics to consider in HIV risk prevention among these young women. PMID:22420674

  18. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually nonexistent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a nonprobability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self- identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the Internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women's health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25 years. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25642782

  19. Immigration and Schools: Supporting Success for Undocumented Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…

  20. Helping Unaccompanied Homeless Youth Access College Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Unaccompanied homeless youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public…

  1. The link between substance use and reproductive health service utilization among young U.S. women

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James

    2013-01-01

    Background We sought to investigate associations between young women's use of alcohol and other substances and their sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service utilization. Methods We used data from 4,421 young women ages 15-24yrs in the nationally-representative study, National Survey of Family Growth, 2002-2008. We examined frequency of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and illicit drug use and SRH service use in the past year with logistic regression. Results Over half (59%) young women used SRH services including contraception (48%), gynecological exam (47%), and STI testing/treatment (17%) services. Proportions of SRH service use increased with higher frequencies of substance use (all p-values<0.001); service use was particularly common among daily substance users (range: 72% of daily marijuana users to 83% of daily binge drinkers). In multivariable analyses, associations between substance and SRH service use varied by substance and service type: weekly marijuana (OR 2.5,CI 1.4-4.3,p=0.002) and alcohol (OR 1.7,CI 1.1-2.4,p=0.01) use were positively associated with gynecological service use. All substances were positively associated with STI service use. However, daily smoking was negatively associated with contraceptive service use (OR 0.6,CI 0.4-0.8,p=0.001). Conclusion SRH service use was common among women reporting frequent substance use. SRH settings provide an opportunity to deliver substance use screening and preventive care to young women. PMID:23844960

  2. Depression and early experiences among young Japanese women: multiple facets of experiences and subcategories of depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kitamura; N. Kijima; W. Aihara; A. Tomoda; R. Fukuda; M. Yamamoto

    1998-01-01

      \\u000a The link between childhood experiences (before age of 16) and later onset of depression was examined among 98 young Japanese\\u000a women who had all been newly employed by a company in Tokyo, Japan. We compared three groups: (a) 15 women who had reported\\u000a a single episode of DSM-III-R Major Depression of less than two years duration (single episode; S.E.);

  3. Correlates of Forearm Bone Mineral Density in Young Norwegian Women The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian A. Hawker; Siri Forsmo; Suzanne M. Cadarette; Berit Schei; Susan B. Jaglal; Lisa Forsén; Arnulf Langhammer

    Maximizing attainment of optimal peak bone mineral density (BMD) is a potential osteoporosis prevention strategy. The main objective of this study was to identify correlates of forearm BMD in young adult women. Population-based data derived from standardized questionnaires administered to healthy women aged 19-35 years in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway (n = 963), were collected in 1995-1997. Forearm BMD was assessed by

  4. Use of the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (CHIAS) in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Amanda F.; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Konrath, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background Validated measures that can accurate describe young adults’ HPV vaccination attitudes and how these relate to vaccination intention and receipt are needed for developing interventions to improve low HPV vaccination levels. The Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes Scale (CHIAS) is a validated measure of these outcomes that was originally designed for parents. Objective To assess the performance of the CHIAS among young adult women using an exploratory factor analysis. Methods A convenience sample of 139 young adult women (age 18–26 years) were given the CHIAS measure at baseline. Factor analysis was used to determine attitudinal factor groupings and the association of these factors with HPV vaccination intention. A 6-month follow up assessment examined the stability of the CHIAS over time and the association of baseline vaccine factors with vaccine receipt. Results Five factors loaded on to the CHIAS in young adults - “Barriers,” “Harms,” “Effectiveness,” “Risk Denial” and “Uncertainty,” - which was similar to the factor loadings of CHIAS for parents. “Harms” was the factor most consistently associated with vaccination intention at all time points assessed. Only 5 women had received or made an appointment to receive the vaccine at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions In terms of categorizing HPV vaccination attitudes, the CHIAS appears to have similar performance among young adults as in parents. However, additional studies are needed to assess the utility of the CHIAS for predicting HPV vaccine receipt among the young adult population. PMID:24945630

  5. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by requiring couples to consider two STEM careers when making career decisions. Women's partners more often worked full time than did the partners of men. This may limit the possibility of work-related travel for female geoscientists and increase the burden of household duties on two working partners. In fact, women did report doing significantly more household upkeep and more parenting than men. Another barrier to retention and promotion of women includes a lack of mentors and role models. The example of women in senior positions is especially important, justifying young women's aspiration to be successful geoscientists. In our data, young female geoscientists less often saw women as adequately represented in senior roles than did male respondents. While ESWN cannot solve these problems for individuals, ESWN activities do seem to address these concerns. In discussions on the ESWN listserv, women share ideas and strategies for navigating these obstacles. Young female geoscientists may also find role models among the more experienced members. Knowledge of these obstacles also provides ESWN and other organizations aiming to advance women in science with the potential best practices in supporting women through these challenges.

  6. Cardiac abnormalities in young women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    de Simone, G.; Scalfi, L.; Galderisi, M.; Celentano, A.; Di Biase, G.; Tammaro, P.; Garofalo, M.; Mureddu, G. F.; de Divitiis, O.; Contaldo, F.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and 22 constitutionally thin women (21 (4) years) with body mass index < 20. RESULTS--13 patients (62%) had abnormalities of mitral valve motion compared with one normal weight woman and two thin women (p < 0.001) v both control groups). Left ventricular chamber dimension and mass were significantly less in women with anorexia nervosa than in either the women of normal weight or the thin women, even after standardisation for body size or after controlling for blood pressure. There were no substantial changes in left ventricular shape. Midwall shortening as a percentage of the values predicted from end systolic stress was significantly lower in the starving patients than in women of normal weight: when endocardial shortening was used as the index this difference was overestimated. The cardiac index was also significantly reduced in anorexia nervosa because of a low stroke index and heart rate. The total peripheral resistance was significantly higher in starving patients than in both control groups. The left atrial dimension was significantly smaller in anorexia than in the women of normal weight and the thin women, independently of body size. The transmitral flow velocity E/A ratio was significantly higher in anorexia than in both the control groups because of the reduction of peak velocity A. When data from all three groups were pooled the flow velocity E/A ratio was inversely related to left atrial dimension (r = -0.43, p < 0.0001) and cardiac output (r = -0.64, p < 0.0001) independently of body size. CONCLUSIONS--Anorexia nervosa caused demonstrable abnormalities of mitral valve motion and reduced left ventricular mass and filling associated with systolic dysfunction. PMID:8142200

  7. Culture and sex education: the acquisition of sexual knowledge for a group of Vietnamese Australian young women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen A. Rawson; Pranee Liamputtong

    2010-01-01

    Background. This paper explores how a group of Vietnamese Australian young women acquire knowledge of sexual issues, and the impact the traditional Vietnamese culture has on the acquisition of this knowledge. It is based on a qualitative study that examined the factors which shape the sexual behaviour of Vietnamese Australian young women living in Australia.Methods. A Grounded Theory methodology was

  8. Breast carcinomas occurring in young women (< 35 years) are different.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, R. A.; Lees, E.; Webb, M. B.; Dearing, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-three breast carcinomas occurring in women aged between 26 and 44 years were examined for pathological features, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status, proliferation as determined by Ki-67 labelling and the presence of c-erbB-2 and p53 protein, and were compared with a control group of carcinomas from women in the 50-67 years age group. Carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years had a significantly high incidence of being poorly differentiated and of having high proliferation rates. This group also had a significantly high incidence of p53 protein staining. Carcinomas in the under 30 years age group had a lower incidence of oestrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. No differences were found in c-erbB-2-positive staining between the groups. Infiltrating lobular carcinomas were only identified in women aged 40 years and over. There was a higher incidence of a family history in the 35-44 years age group (18%) than in the under 35 years age group (11%). Breast carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years are more aggressive. An important finding is the high incidence of p53 positivity, which may indicate genetic instability. Images Figure 1 PMID:8956795

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Young Adult Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Katherine B.; Benard, Vicki B.; Soman, Ashwini; Breen, Nancy; Kepka, Deanna; Saraiya, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer screening guidelines have evolved significantly in the last decade for young adult women, with current recommendations promoting later initiation and longer intervals. Methods Using self-reported cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2000–2010 data, trends in Papanicolaou (Pap) testing among women ages 18–29 years were examined. NHIS 2010 data were used to investigate age at first Pap test (N =2,198), time since most recent Pap test (n =1,622), and predictors of Pap testing within the last 12 months (n = 1,622). Results The percentage of 18-year-olds who reported ever having a Pap test significantly decreased from 49.9% in 2000 to 37.9% in 2010. Mean age at first Pap test in 2010 was significantly younger for non-Hispanic black women (16.9 years), women < high school education (16.9 years), women who received the HPV vaccine (17.1 years), and women who have ever given birth (17.3 years). The majority reported their last Pap test within the previous 12 months (73.1%). Usual source of healthcare (OR, 2.31) and current birth control use (OR, 1.64) significantly increased chances of having a Pap test within the previous 12 months. Conclusions From 2000 to 2010, there was a gradual decline in Pap test initiation among 18-year-olds; however, in 2010, many women reported ?12 months since last screening. Evidence-based guidelines should be promoted, as screening young adult women for cervical cancer more frequently than recommended can cause considerable harms. Impact A baseline of cervical cancer screening among young adult women in the United States to assess adherence to evidence-based screening guidelines. PMID:23355601

  10. Young Women’s Social and Occupational Development and Mental Health in the Aftermath of Child Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Schilling; Robert H. Aseltine Jr; Susan Gore

    2007-01-01

    We examined social role functioning and depressive symptoms of young adults who were abused as children in data from a longitudinal\\u000a community sample. Sexually abused women and men were more depressed during their senior year of high school, and this difference\\u000a was more pronounced 2 years later. We then examined a mediational model to determine whether social functioning explained\\u000a the course

  11. Gender roles and sexual behavior among young women.

    PubMed

    Lucke, J C

    1998-08-01

    The associations between gender role orientation and high-risk sex behaviors were explored in a study of 400 sexually active women 16-24 years of age (mean, 20.4 years) recruited from two metropolitan family planning clinics in Queensland, Australia. Three dimensions of gender role orientation were examined: gender role personality traits, gender role attitudes, and gender role dating behavior. It was hypothesized that women with more nontraditional or "masculine" characteristics are more likely than those with traditional or "feminine" characteristics to engage in unsafe sexual behaviors. Only partial support was found for this hypothesis. Although a number of univariate relationships emerged, very few associations between sexual behavior and gender roles remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis indicated that women with two or more sexual partners in the year preceding the study were significantly more likely than those with 0-1 sex partners to have masculine personality traits and to be more liberal in their attitudes toward women in society. Nonuse of condoms with the most recent sexual partner was not significantly associated with the gender role variables; however, women who reported masculine dating behaviors were more likely to have used a condom with their most recent nonsteady sexual partner. Similarly, substance use before or during last sexual intercourse was associated with masculine traits when the partner was nonsteady but was not related to gender role orientation when the partner was steady. The association of "masculine" personality traits with multiple partners and substance use indicates that caution should be exercised in assuming that masculine gender role characteristics are beneficial for women in sexual situations. PMID:12295048

  12. A pilot survey on abortions among young Armenian women.

    PubMed

    Dolian, G

    1997-12-01

    This article summarizes findings from a pilot survey study among women from Armenia. The survey aimed to determine the reasons for use of abortion as a method of fertility regulation and to develop a comprehensive policy for preventing abortion, unwanted pregnancy, abortion complications, and secondary infertility due to abortion. Findings indicate that 75% of women aged 15-25 years had used abortion for fertility regulation. 91.1% were married, and 8.9% were single. 93.8% of the pregnancies were unplanned, and 94.6% were unwanted. 86.6% had not used contraception during the month of conception. The average number of abortions was 2.3 among women aged 15-20 years and 2.4 among women aged 21-25 years. 37% of abortions occurred due to lack of financial means of support for a child. 38% of women did not want a child due to difficult or complicated social and economic circumstances. 46.7% used abortion as a means of fertility regulation due to lack of information on contraceptives, 30.7% used abortion because others did, and 13.3% used abortion because of lack of knowledge of another contraceptive method. 24% reported that contraceptive methods were not available or were expensive. Only 9% were fearful of side effects. 96.0% of married women did not receive contraceptive counseling before their marriage, 97.3% did not receive post-delivery contraceptive counseling, and 93.3% did not have post-abortion contraceptive counseling. 72.0% reported a fear of pregnancy at each time of sexual intercourse. 44.0% reported an intention after an abortion to never have an abortion again. PMID:12222286

  13. But Was It Wanted? Young Women's First Voluntary Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houts, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    Existing literature on sexual intercourse is based on the assumption that if an individual engages in sexual activity, not self-defined as rape, then the activity must have been wanted by both partners. This study, using "National Survey of Family Growth," identifies factors associated with the "wantedness" of first sexual intercourse for young

  14. Challenges to immunization: the experiences of homeless youth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Homelessness is a critical social issue, both a product of, and contributing to, poor mental and physical health. Over 150,000 young Canadians live on the streets. Homeless youth experience a high incidence of infectious diseases, many of which are vaccine preventable. Early departure from school and limited access to public health services makes them a particularly vulnerable high-risk group. This study explores challenges to obtaining essential vaccines experienced by homeless youth. Methods A qualitative research study to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences surrounding immunization of hard-to-reach homeless youth was designed. Participants were recruited for focus groups from Phoenix House and Shelter, a non-profit, community-based organization assisting homeless youth in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. An experienced facilitator guided the recorded discussions. Transcripts of audiotapes were analyzed using a constant comparative method until data revealed a set of exemplars and themes that best captured participants’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences surrounding immunization and infectious diseases. Results Important themes emerged from our analysis. Considerable variability in knowledge about immunization and vaccine preventable diseases was found. The homeless youth in the study had limited awareness of meningitis in contrast to a greater knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and influenza, gained during the H1N1/09 public health campaign. They recognized their poverty as a risk for contracting infectious diseases, along with their inability to always employ known strategies to prevent infectious diseases, due to circumstances. They showed considerable insight into the detrimental effects of poor hygiene, sleeping locations and risk behaviour. Interviewed homeless youth regarded themselves as good compliers of health professional advice and offered valuable suggestions to improve immunization in their population. Conclusions To provide effective public health interventions, it is necessary to consider the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of hard to reach, high risk groups. Our study shows that homeless youth are interested and capable in discussing immunization. Active targeting of homeless youth for public health immunization programs is needed. Working collaboratively with non-profit organizations that assist homeless youth provides an opportunity to increase their knowledge of infectious risks and to improve immunization strategies in this vulnerable group. PMID:22568937

  15. Weight Overestimation as an Indicator of Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Young Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Amanda; Boardman, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This paper examines the association between weight overestimation and symptoms of disordered eating behaviors using a nationally representative sample of young women. Method We use data from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to compare self-reported weight (in pounds) to measure weight obtained by interviewers using a scale. Focusing on normal weight women between the ages of 18 and 24 (n = 2,805) we compare the discrepancy in self-reported and measured weight among women with and without any disordered eating behaviors. Results Women who over report their weight by at least five percent are significantly more likely than those who either under report or accurately report their weights to exhibit disordered eating behaviors. These results persist despite controlling for distorted body image. Conclusion Our findings support both motivational and perceptual bias explanations for overestimating weight among those who exhibit disordered eating behaviors. We argue that weight over-estimation, together with other important information regarding women’s nutrition, exercise, mental health, and health-related behaviors, should be treated as a potential indicator for the diagnosis of an eating disorder among young normal weight women. PMID:17497706

  16. Development of Sexual Orientation among Adolescent and Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Interviewed 16- to 23-year-old non-heterosexual women regarding development of their sexual orientation. Found that a majority failed to report at least one of following: childhood sexual orientation indicators, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to conscious sexual questioning. Lesbians reported greater…

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    in the high ver- sus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high with vaginal pen- etration (Binik, 2005). The symptom of pain in dyspareunia may be caused by multiple disease states, including under- lying infection, allergies, muscle tension, hormone deregu- lation, genital

  18. Career or Marriage?: Aspirations and Achievements of Able Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watley, Donivan J.; Kaplan, Rosalyn

    1971-01-01

    Women scholarship winners during the years 1956-1960 were followed up in 1965 to determine their marriage and/or career plans and to learn of conflicts encountered in implementing these plans. Altogether, 85 percent of them said that they definitely planned on having a career; those seeking an immediate career scored higher on scholastic ability…

  19. Home Journeys: Im/mobilities in Young Refugee and Asylum-Seeking Women's Negotiations of Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirriyeh, Ala

    2010-01-01

    Research with refugees and asylum seekers tends to be divided into research with adults or research with children under the age of 18. This is despite relational approaches to studying age that contest such dichotomous and fixed understandings of "life-stages". This article seeks to provide an insight into the experiences of young women who in…

  20. Suffering in silence: consequences of sexual violence within marriage among young women in Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahesh Puri; Jyotsna Tamang; Iqbal Shah

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the grave consequences of sexual violence, and it's persistence both within and outside marriages, this subject has received relatively little attention from researchers, policy makers, and programme managers in Nepal. This paper explores the definition of sexual violence and its various forms and consequences as reported by young married women in Nepal. In addition, it describes the coping

  1. Relationships and Betrayal among Young Women: Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescent Dating Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Candace W.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H.; Rehm, Roberta S.; Humphreys, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this paper presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. BACKGROUND Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists within nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. DATA SOURCES A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. DISCUSSION Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Gender, relationship, and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. CONCLUSION Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. PMID:21261691

  2. Male Partners of Young Women: Assessing their Attitudes towards Topical Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Auslander, Beth A.; Rupp, Richard E.; Short, Mary B.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Male partners’ attitudes toward microbicide use are important to understand; however, there are challenges in conducting research with adolescent couples. We describe the experience of recruiting male partners of adolescent females enrolled in a microbicide acceptability study. Creative solutions to enrolling partners of young women in studies need to be explored. PMID:18486872

  3. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  4. "Working Harder to Be the Same": Everyday Racism among Young Men and Women in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Despite Sweden's international reputation for human rights and democratic values, racism within Swedish schools is a relatively new issue, emerging only with the increased ethnic diversity of Swedish schools in recent years. This paper is thus one of the first Swedish interview studies on the perceptions of young men and women in Sweden from both…

  5. "Too Pretty to Do Math!" Young Women in Movement and Pedagogical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The article points out some pedagogical challenges in supporting girls and young women in their emancipatory movements today. It spotlights a specific section in gender pedagogy by focusing on the aim of self-determination (rather than achievement) in the field of social-pedagogy and it refers to the concept of "girls work" in Germany. A critical…

  6. Ideas for Action: Helping Girls and Young Women in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Barbara K.

    This idea book is a resource to help individuals focus their good will and energy on helping girls and young women in their communities. After a brief introduction to each of seven advocacy strategies, ideas for action are listed under each. The first advocacy strategy focuses on organizing your community for action. Ideas for action include…

  7. Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Osteoporosis Prevention Intervention in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred…

  8. Non-Traditional School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women. Resource Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School-to-Work Opportunities Office, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin presents an overview of strategies that practitioners identify as methods of increasing young women's access to and success in school-to-work programs in nontraditional occupations. These strategies are discussed: outreach to female students; career information and advising; training for teachers and counselors; math and science…

  9. ‘Two's up and poncing fags’: young women's smoking practices, reciprocity and friendship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fin Cullen

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small?scale doctoral research into teenage

  10. Cumulative absolute breast cancer risk for young women treated for Hodgkin lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois B. Travis; D. A. Hill; G. M. Dores; M. Gospodarowicz; Leeuwen van F. E; E. Holowaty; B. Glimelius; M. Andersson; E. Pukkala; C. F. Lynch; D. Pee; S. A. Smith; Veer van't M. B; T. Joensuu; H. Storm; M. Stovall; Boice J. D. Jr; Ethel Gilbert; Mitchell H. Gail

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women develop breast cancer after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) at a young age. We estimated this future risk, taking into account age and calendar year of HL diagnosis, HL treatment information, population breast cancer incidence rates, and competing causes of death. METHODS: Relative risks of breast cancer for categories defined by radiation dose to the chest (0,

  11. "Two's up and Poncing Fags": Young Women's Smoking Practices, Reciprocity and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Fin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small-scale doctoral research…

  12. Material Realities in the Basic Writing Classroom: Intersections of Discovery for Young Women Reading "Persepolis 2"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Susan Naomi

    2008-01-01

    This essay focuses on how young women students in a first-year, first-quarter basic reading and writing course wrote about their connections to the process of identity development as portrayed in the graphic novel "Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return" by Marjane Satrapi. While the circumstances of becoming a student in a required…

  13. Changes in Bone Turnover in Young Women Consuming Different Levels of Dietary Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANE E. KERSTETTER; MARYANN E. MITNICK; CAREN M. GUNDBERG; DONNA M. CASERIA; ALICE F. ELLISON; THOMAS O. CARPENTER; KARL L. INSOGNA

    Although high protein diets are known to increase urinary calcium excretion and induce negative calcium balance, the impact of dietary protein on bone turnover and fractures is controversial. We therefore evaluated the effect of dietary protein on markers of bone turnover in 16 healthy young women. The experiment consisted of 2 weeks of a well balanced diet containing moderate amounts

  14. Shifting Selves: The Struggle for Identity and Spirituality in the Work of Three Young Women Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhillips, Kathleen; Mudge, Peter; Johnston, Jay

    2007-01-01

    This essay looks at contemporary art works produced by three young women who took part in a research project that was exploring the spiritual meanings of art in the lives of adolescents. Nineteen students were interviewed and we asked them to tell us about their art works which we then analysed in relation to a set of descriptors that we developed…

  15. Formal and Informal Support Needs of Young Women with BRCA Mutations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison Werner-Lin

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative investigation aims to identify the salient support concerns of young women with BRCA mutations, a frequently understudied population with unique developmental, psychosocial, and family needs. Twenty-three unaffected BRCA gene alteration carriers aged 21 to 36 completed illness genograms and open-ended interviews. Transcripts were analyzed using the Listening Guide to highlight key themes, relationships, and meaning structures. Results reveal

  16. Why do young women smoke? II. Role of traumatic life experience, psychological characteristics and serotonergic genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Lerer; K Kanyas; O Karni; R P Ebstein; B Lerer

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a complex behavioral phenotype to which environmental, psychological and genetic factors contribute. The purpose of this study was to investigate these multifactorial effects with a specific focus on young women and on genes that encode serotonin (5-HT) receptors and the 5-HT transporter. A case–control sample of female Israeli college students provided comprehensive background data and details of

  17. services on contraceptive use and abortion rate among young women in China: a cluster randomised trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Liang Zhu; Wei-Hong Zhang; Yimin Cheng; Juncai Xux; Xiao Xuþ; Diana Gibson; Henrik Støvring; Patricia Claeys; Marleen Temmerman

    Objectives To compare two post-abortion family planning (FP) service packages on contraceptive use and repeat abortion rate among young women in three cities in China. Methods In this cluster-randomized trial, one FP service package included provision of limited information and referral to existing FP services, and the other, more comprehensive, package consisted - in addition to the above simple package

  18. Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…

  19. Resources for Ensuring Quality School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wider Opportunities for Women, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography lists 49 resources for ensuring high quality school-to-work opportunities for young women. These resources are grouped into 10 categories: print material for middle and high school girls; videos for middle and high school girls; administrator/school guides; curriculum guides/resources for teachers; resources for…

  20. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

  1. Nutritional Intervention in Young Women with Eating Disorders: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…

  2. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  3. Sources of psychological pain and suicidal thoughts among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D; Kong, Jooyoung; Bockenstedt, Julie K W

    2015-06-01

    Homeless adults experience problems in multiple areas of their lives. It was hypothesized that adults who were troubled by problems in more areas of their lives would be more likely to report suicidal thoughts. The sample included 457 homeless men and women who resided in three emergency shelters. The number of sources of psychological pain, past suicide attempts, and being a man predicted current suicidal thoughts, but being diagnosed with a depressive disorder did not. Shelter workers should ask adults whether they have attempted suicide in the past and how troubled they are by each area of their lives. PMID:25255999

  4. Fractured Identity: A Framework for Understanding Young Asian American Women's Self-harm and Suicidal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors. PMID:24563680

  5. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie L; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; McConnell, Margaret; van Rooyen, Heidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kurth, Ann; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Desmond, Chris; Morton, Jennifer; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Discussion Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies for delivering oral PrEP, a first-generation biomedical HIV prevention product, will inform development of new and less user-dependent PrEP formulations and delivery of an expanding choice of prevention options in HIV prevention programmes for young African women. PMID:26198350

  6. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  7. Health Characteristics and Medical Service Use Patterns of Sheltered Homeless and Low-Income Housed Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Weinreb, Linda; Goldberg, Robert; Perloff, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the health characteristics and service utilization patterns of homeless women and low-income housed women who are heads of household. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Community of Worcester, Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS A sample of 220 homeless mothers and 216 low-income housed mothers receiving welfare. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Outcome measures included health status, chronic conditions, adverse lifestyle practices, outpatient and emergency department use and hospitalization rates, and use of preventive screening measures. Both homeless mothers and housed mothers demonstrated low levels of physical and role functioning and high levels of bodily pain. Prevalence rates of asthma, anemia, and ulcer disease were high in both groups. More than half of both groups were current smokers. Compared with the housed mothers, homeless mothers reported more HIV risk behaviors. Although 90% of the homeless mothers had been screened for cervical cancer, almost one third had not been screened for tuberculosis. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the homeless mothers, compared with the housed mothers, had more frequent emergency department visits in the past year (adjusted mean, homeless vs housed, 1.41 vs .95, p = .10) and were significantly more likely to be hospitalized in the past year (adjusted odds ratio 2.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13, 4.38). CONCLUSIONS Both homeless mothers and low-income housed mothers had lower health status, more chronic health problems, and higher smoking rates than the general population. High rates of hospitalization, emergency department visits, and more risk behaviors among homeless mothers suggest that they are at even greater risk of adverse health outcomes. Efforts to address gaps in access to primary care and to integrate psychosocial supports with health care delivery may improve health outcomes for homeless mothers and reduce use of costly medical care services. PMID:9669568

  8. Infected Lives: Lived Experiences of Young African American HIV-Positive Women.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Jill N; Domian, Elaine W; Teel, Cynthia S

    2014-09-18

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of young African American HIV-infected women. Eleven women between the ages of 21 and 35 participated. One pattern, Infected Lives, and three themes-Living Alone With HIV, Living With Unresolved Conflicts, and Living With Multiple Layers of Betrayal-emerged. The pattern and themes portray the very complex and challenging experiences faced by these young women living with HIV infection. They have experienced isolation, abandonment, betrayal, and discrimination in their interpersonal and social systems. They often dealt with conflicts of hope and anguish in the relationships with their children, and portraying strength, while feeling fragile. These complexities negatively influence the ability to fully engage in self-care activities. Implications for future research include further investigation about the experiences of psychological distress experienced post-diagnosis, development and evaluation of holistic nursing interventions, and evaluative research on mass media educational campaigns to reduce HIV-related stigma. PMID:25239137

  9. Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits. PMID:21153441

  10. Suffering in silence: consequences of sexual violence within marriage among young women in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the grave consequences of sexual violence, and it's persistence both within and outside marriages, this subject has received relatively little attention from researchers, policy makers, and programme managers in Nepal. This paper explores the definition of sexual violence and its various forms and consequences as reported by young married women in Nepal. In addition, it describes the coping mechanisms used by young married women to avoid sexual violence perpetrated against them by their husbands. Methods This paper analyzes data collected during the qualitative study on "Sexual violence among young couples in Nepal", conducted amongst two major ethnic groups - Brahmin/Chhetri and Tharu - between 2006 and 2007. The data is comprised of 39 free-lists and 15 in-depth case histories with married women aged 15-24 years. The average rank and Smith's Salience were calculated from the free-listing data. The thematic analysis approach was used for the analysis of information from the case histories. Results Approximately three-quarters (74%) of the young women mentioned 'sex against one's wishes' as sexual violence within marriage (SVWM). Sixty-two percent of respondents described 'forced sex during illness' and 'forced sex after consumption of alcohol' as SVWM. About half of young women (48.7%) who participated in the free-listing exercise reported having experienced SVWM. The types of SVWM ranged from unwanted sexual touch to forced sex. Backache, headache, lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and thoughts of suicide were the most commonly reported negative physical and psychological health consequences of SVWM. Women reported various coping strategies including 'trying to convince husbands', 'sleeping in a separate room', 'visiting maternal home', 'waking up the children', and 'using pretexts such as being ill or menstruating', to avoid SVWM. However, in most cases, women reported that these coping strategies were unsuccessful. Almost all women experiencing SVWM were socially isolated and did not turn to institutions, relatives or friends for advice and support. Conclusions Sexual violence within marriage is common in Nepal. Findings provide circumstantial evidence of links between sexual violence and negative general and reproductive health outcomes for women. Various actions are required to prevent SVWM and provide immediate support to the victims. PMID:21223603

  11. Health and Nutrition Messages in Food Advertisements: A Comparative Content Analysis of Young and Mature Australian Women's Magazines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan M. Hill; Kathy L. Radimer

    1996-01-01

    Surveys investigating adults’ sources of nutrition information have consistently found magazines to be nominated most frequently, particularly among women. A content analysis was undertaken to compare the advertisements in two magazines with a target audience of young women with those in four magazines oriented towards mature women. Seventy-two magazine issues having a 1992 publication date were sampled, and all food

  12. Avoiding Unwanted Pregnancy-The Role of Communication, Information and Knowledge in the Use of Contraception among Young Norwegian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundby, Johanne; Svanemyr, Joar; Maehre, Tale

    1999-01-01

    Study identified early entry points to sexuality, contraception, abortion, and post-abortion counseling. Young women (N=102) seeking an abortion or contraceptives were interviewed. Results showed there are different levels of consistency in contraceptive use among women, and that even women with few partners and fairly good contraceptive…

  13. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil. PMID:25181400

  14. Reproductive health characteristics of young Malawian women seeking post-abortion care.

    PubMed

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Pearson, Erin; Lunguzi, Juliana; Katengeza, Hans R

    2012-06-01

    Abortion is illegal in Malawi except when the pregnancy endangers the mother's life, yet complications of abortion account for the majority of admissions to gynecological wards. This study collected data on all post-abortion care (PAC) cases reporting to all PAC-providing health facilities in Malawi over a 30-day period. Of a total of 2,028 PAC clients, 20.9% were adolescents (age 10-19) and 29.6% were young adults (age 20-24). More than half of adolescents and almost 80% of young adults were married. Less than 5% of adolescents and 22.5% of young adults reported using contraception when they became pregnant. Being unmarried was associated with previous abortion and contraceptive use among young adults. These statistics indicate a high proportion of unwanted pregnancy and lack of access to modern contraception among young women. Programs to increase access to pregnancy prevention services and protect young women from unsafe abortions are greatly needed. PMID:22916557

  15. Determinants of Plasma Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Young Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. PaikGary; Gary C. Curhan; John P. Forman; Eric N. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    While the effects of calcium, phosphorus intake, and vitamin D on parathyroid hormone (PTH) have been well studied, less is\\u000a known about other factors that impact PTH. Our goal was to delineate associations between demographic, dietary, and plasma\\u000a factors and PTH. We conducted a cross-sectional study of intact PTH among 1,288 nonblack women in the Nurses Health Study\\u000a II aged

  16. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

  17. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  18. Homelessness: An Annotated Bibliography of Australian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…

  19. The Homeless in Contemporary Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Richard D.; And Others

    This book consists of 15 chapters on understanding and helping the homeless. The first seven chapters present the "new" homeless in historical context and describe this population and its situation. The remaining eight chapters discuss policy and program options of the government and other organizations in attempting to alleviate the problems of…

  20. Homeless Youth: A Concept Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philisie Starling Washington

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. A variety of terms have been used to describe the homeless youth population. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to analyze the conceptual meanings of the term homeless youths by examining the evolution of the concept and its related terms in the current literature. Method. Online databases from 1990–2010 were analyzed using the Rodgers evolutionary approach. Results. The

  1. Social Supports among the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solarz, Andrea

    The homeless have long been considered a disaffiliated and socially isolated group. Research has indicated that most of the homeless are single and have no family relationships or friends to provide support. A study was conducted to gather information on both objective and subjective measures of social support from 125 individuals residing at a…

  2. Compliance with cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus testing guidelines among insured young women

    PubMed Central

    HIRTH, Jacqueline M.; TAN, Alai; WILKINSON, Gregg S.; BERENSON, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In December 2009, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that women under 21 years old should not receive cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) or HPV tests. This study examined whether clinicians stopped administering Pap and HPV tests among women less than 21 years of age after new ACOG guidelines were issued. Study Design This study was a retrospective secondary data analysis of administrative claims data that included insurance enrollees from across the US that examined the frequency of Pap tests and HPV tests among 178,898 non-immunocompromised females 12–20 years old who had a paid claim for a well-woman visit in 2008, 2009, or 2010. Young women with well-woman exams in each observed year were examined longitudinally to determine whether past diagnoses of cervical cell abnormalities accounted for Pap testing in 2010. Results The proportion of women less than 21 years old that received a Pap test as part of her well-woman exam dropped from 77% in 2008 and 2009 to 57% by December of 2010, while HPV testing remained stable across time. A diagnosis of cervical cell abnormalities in 2009 was associated with Pap testing in 2010. However, a previous Pap test was more strongly associated with a Pap test in 2010. Conclusions These data show that some physicians are adjusting their practices among young women according to ACOG guidelines, but Pap and HPV testing among insured women less than 21 years of age still remains unnecessarily high. PMID:23727519

  3. Motivations for Sex Among Low-Income African American Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna B.; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  4. Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  5. Physical attractiveness, attitudes toward career, and mate preferences among young Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Teng, Fei; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Denghao

    2014-01-01

    We examined young Chinese women's mate preferences as a function of their self-perceived attractiveness and career attitudes. A total of 264 young Chinese women rated their own attractiveness, reported their attitudes toward career, and rated the importance of 20 mate characteristics. The characteristics encompassed four facets that individuals typically consider when seeking a long-term mate: good-genes indicators, good investment ability indicators, good parenting indicators, and good partner indicators. We found that both self-perceived attractiveness and attitudes toward career were positively associated with the importance attached to several of the characteristics. Moreover, women who had high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to intelligence, ambition, and industriousness than women who had low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness; women with low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to physical attractiveness in a mate than women with high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness. We discussed the limitations of our research and directions for future research. PMID:24525338

  6. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  7. Young single women using abortion in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Belanger, D; Khuat Thu Hong

    1998-06-01

    This study describes the population characteristics among a hospital-based sample of single women who experienced an abortion in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Data were obtained from topical and in-depth interviews with women in two Hanoi hospitals, a district health center, and a private clinic in Hadong, a Hanoi suburb. The total sample consisted of 279 single women. 75% were residents of Hanoi. In-migrants had lived in Hanoi for an average of 4 years. Over 80% lived with their parents or relatives, of whom 60% lived in privately-owned housing. Nearly 20% lived alone. Nearly 40% had a college education; almost 50% had completed secondary school. The average monthly income was 358,000 dong. Over 95% had a boyfriend at the time of the survey. 33% had engaged in their first sexual intercourse within the prior year. The average duration between first sex and abortion was about 15 months. Among those with the first boyfriend, the interval was shorter (7 months). About 45% waited 6 months before having their first sexual intercourse; 38% waited 1 year. Among first abortion users, under 20% had ever used a contraceptive method. The few that had used contraception used it ineffectively. Almost 50% had never talked about sexuality with anyone. Over 93% believed that the pregnancy could have been avoided. Most desired high-quality printed information and a youth-specific health center. Qualitative findings revealed misconceptions about contraception. Following abortion, most did not want another unwanted pregnancy. The implications for policies and programs are identified. PMID:12321740

  8. Living the reality of forced sex work: perspectives from young migrant women sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Rosanne; Watts, Charlotte; Rushing, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Young women are often lured or forced into selling sex as a result of migrating from rural to urban areas to find work. In this setting, they are exposed to high-risk situations, which may leave them vulnerable to exploitation. Using interviews with young migrant women currently working as sex workers in northern Vietnam, we recorded the perspectives of their initiation into sex work and life as a sex worker. The study found that high levels of forced sex and sexual exploitation were experienced by the majority of the young women interviewed. The young women describe their entry into sex work, first sexual experience (intercourse), violence, and condom negotiation and use. Although access to health care was available, the young women perceived the stigma attached to sex work as a barrier to receiving health care, and thus, preferred health education and care from peers. Health education programs focusing on peer education and support are essential for protecting and empowering these young women. In addition, policies and programs must work toward effective strategies to protect young migrant women. PMID:15973256

  9. Sustained High HIV Incidence in Young Women in Southern Africa: Social, Behavioral, and Structural Factors and Emerging Intervention Approaches.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Abigail; Colvin, Christopher J; Kuo, Caroline; Swartz, Alison; Lurie, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Young women in southern Africa experience some of the highest incidence rates of HIV infection in the world. Across southern Africa, HIV prevalence among women increases rapidly between the teenage years and young adulthood. Adult HIV prevalence is 16.8 % in South Africa, 23 % in Botswana, 23 % in Lesotho, and 26.5 % in Swaziland. Existing research has illuminated some of the key social, behavioral, and structural factors associated with young women's disproportionate HIV risk, including gendered social norms that advantage male power in sexual relationships and age disparities in relationships between younger women and older male partners. Important structural factors include the region's history of labor migration and legacy of family disruption, and entrenched social and economic inequalities. New interventions are emerging to address these high levels of HIV risk in the key population of young women, including structural interventions, biomedical prevention such as PrEP, and combined HIV prevention approaches. PMID:25855338

  10. Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their relationships, and the implications of these negotiations for the HIV epidemic. Method An ethnographic research design was used, with information collected primarily using participant observation and in-depth interviews in a rural community in North Western Tanzania. The qualitative approach was complemented by an innovative assisted self-completion questionnaire. Findings Transactional sex underlay most non-marital relationships and was not, per se, perceived as immoral. However, women's motivations varied, for instance: escaping intense poverty, seeking beauty products or accumulating business capital. There was also strong pressure from peers to engage in transactional sex, in particular to consume like others and avoid ridicule for inadequate remuneration. Macro-level factors shaping transactional sex (e.g. economic, kinship and normative factors) overwhelmingly benefited men, but at a micro-level there were different dimensions of power, stemming from individual attributes and immediate circumstances, some of which benefited women. Young women actively used their sexuality as an economic resource, often entering into relationships primarily for economic gain. Conclusion Transactional sex is likely to increase the risk of HIV by providing a dynamic for partner change, making more affluent, higher risk men more desirable, and creating further barriers to condom use. Behavioural interventions should directly address how embedded transactional sex is in sexual culture. PMID:20429913

  11. Becoming a 'real' smoker: cultural capital in young women's accounts of smoking and other substance use.

    PubMed

    Haines, Rebecca J; Poland, Blake D; Johnson, Joy L

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws from a qualitative study of tobacco use by young women in Toronto, Canada. Narrative interviews were used to understand the multiple roles and functions of smoking within the everyday lives of female adolescents. Guided by a Bourdieusian theoretical framework this study employed the core construct of cultural capital in order to position tobacco and other substance use as field-specific capital that young women accumulate while navigating the social worlds of adolescence. Departing from the psychosocial or peer-influence models that inform the majority of tobacco research with young people, this analysis provides a nuanced understanding of how smoking, drinking, using drugs are much more than simple forms of teenage experimentation or rebellion, but can also serve as key resources for defining the self, acquiring status and making social distinctions within adolescent social worlds. In this context it is also argued that initiation into substance use practices is a way that young women demonstrate and develop social and cultural competencies. PMID:18764804

  12. 'Women are supposed to be the leaders': intersections of gender, race and colonisation in HIV prevention with Indigenous young people.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Vanessa; Flicker, Sarah; Danforth, Jessica; Konsmo, Erin; Wilson, Ciann; Jackson, Randy; Restoule, Jean-Paul; Prentice, Tracey; Larkin, June; Mitchell, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Focusing on gender, race and colonialism, this paper foregrounds the voices of Indigenous young people, their histories of oppression, their legacies of resistance and the continuing strengths rooted in Indigenous peoples, their cultures and their communities. Exploring the relationship between gender and colonialism, the paper speaks to the lived realities of young people from Indigenous communities across Canada. Over 85 young people participated in six different Indigenous community workshops to create artistic pieces that explored the connections between HIV, individual risk and structural inequalities. In the course of the research, Indigenous young people, and young Indigenous women in particular, talked about how gender intersects with race and colonisation to create experiences that are, at times, especially difficult for them. In this paper, young people discuss the ways in which colonialism has demeaned women's roles and degraded women's sexuality, and how continuing cultural erasure and assimilationist policies impact on their lives and on their bodies. PMID:25702802

  13. Young women under 16?years with experience of sexual intercourse: who becomes pregnant?

    PubMed Central

    Buston, Katie; Williamson, Lisa; Hart, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Background The UK has the highest rate of teenage pregnancies in western Europe. Although there is a large body of literature focusing on predictors of conception among this age group, almost all the work compares those young women who have become pregnant with their peers, regardless of whether or not their peers have experienced sexual intercourse. Objective To compare 16?year?old young women who have become pregnant with their peers who also have experience of sexual intercourse, but who have not conceived. Design Analysis of data from the baseline and follow?up surveys conducted as part of a trial of sex education. Setting and participants Female school students aged 14–16?years from the East of Scotland. Main results Young age of self and partner, and non?use of contraception, all at first intercourse, are most strongly associated with pregnancy. Conclusions Those who engage in sexual intercourse at a relatively young age will often have had more opportunity to become pregnant than those whose sexual debut comes later. Similarly, the fact that those who use contraception at first intercourse have been less likely to conceive than those who do not could reflect the overall patterns of contraceptive use: young women who have used contraception at each occasion of intercourse will have had less chance to conceive than those who have not. Having a young partner at first intercourse suggests that, if this pattern continues, the couple may lack the resources needed to prevent a pregnancy due to the immaturity of both partners. PMID:17325399

  14. Walking a tightrope: the many faces of violence in the lives of racialized immigrant girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Yasmin

    2005-07-01

    This article explores a hidden yet pervasive form of violence that marks the lives of young women from racialized immigrant communities in western Canada. It argues for an intersectional analysis that takes into consideration their heightened vulnerability to systemic and institutional forms of violence. Situated at the intersections of race, class, gender, and age, these young women walk a tightrope between the violence of racism they experience from the host and/or dominant society and the pressures to conform imposed from within their communities. Challenging previous culturalist explanations, the article suggests that racism constitutes a significant form of structural violence experienced by these young women. PMID:16043575

  15. The Influence of Oral Contraceptive Knowledge on Oral Contraceptive Continuation Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, Paula M.; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Using a multidimensional approach, we assessed young women's knowledge of oral contraceptives (OC) and its influence on OC continuation rates. Methods: We used data from 659 women aged 13–25 years participating in a randomized controlled trial of an educational text message OC continuation intervention. Women received 6 months of daily text messages or routine care. At baseline and 6 months, we administered a comprehensive 41-item questionnaire measuring knowledge of OC's mechanism, effectiveness, use, side effects, risks, and benefits. We ascertained OC continuation status and reasons for discontinuation at 6 months. We analyzed relationships between OC knowledge and continuation with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Young women scored, on average, 22.8 out of 41 points on the OC knowledge assessment at baseline and 24.7 points at 6 months. The 6-month OC continuation rate was 59%. OC continuers had >2-points-higher OC knowledge scores at 6 months than discontinuers (p<0.001). Those who reported discontinuing their OCs for side effects and forgetfulness scored >2 points lower than women who discontinued for other reasons (p-values<0.001). In multivariable regression models, each correct response on the baseline and 6-month knowledge assessments was associated with a 4% and 6% increased odds of OC continuation, respectively. Six-month OC knowledge scores were negatively associated with OC discontinuation due to side effects (odds ratio [OR] 0.94) and forgetfulness (OR 0.88). Conclusions: OC knowledge, which was low among young women in our study, was associated with OC continuation and common reasons for discontinuation. Continued efforts to characterize relationships between OC knowledge and behavior and to test the effectiveness of different components of interventions aimed at increasing knowledge, addressing side effects, and improving use of OCs are warranted. PMID:24571282

  16. Effects of altered muscle temperature on neuromuscular properties in young and older women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Dewhurst; Andrea Macaluso; Leonardo Gizzi; Francesco Felici; Dario Farina; Giuseppe De Vito

    2010-01-01

    Muscle temperature has a profound effect on the neuromuscular system of young individuals, however, little is known about\\u000a the effects of altered temperature on the muscles of older individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect\\u000a of altered local temperature on maximal torque and electromyography signal characteristics in 15 young (21.5 ± 2.2 years;\\u000a mean ± SD) and 12 older (73.6 ± 3.2 years) women.

  17. Sleep difficulties and the development of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Sztendur, Ewa M; Diamond, Neil T; Byles, Julie E; Bruck, Dorothy

    2014-06-01

    Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that poor sleep may precede depression and anxiety. The current study examined the association between self-reported sleeping difficulties and new onset depression and anxiety in young women. A nationally representative sample of 9,683 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health was analyzed. Women were surveyed in 2000 (aged 22 to 25 years), 2003, 2006, and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between sleeping difficulties in 2000 and new-onset depression (excluding postnatal depression) and anxiety at each subsequent survey. Significant increased risk of new onset depression (odds ratio (OR)=2.6 in 2003; OR=4.4 in 2006; OR=4.4 in 2009) and anxiety (OR=2.4 in 2006; OR=2.9 in 2009) was found at each follow-up survey in women who reported sleeping difficulties "often" in 2000. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the link between sleep problems and mental health. PMID:24647705

  18. Strategies and Outcomes of HIV Status Disclosure in HIV-Positive Young Women with Abuse Histories

    PubMed Central

    Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualitative interviews with 40 HIV-positive young women with childhood physical and/or sexual abuse were conducted; some women had also experienced adult victimization. Results suggest that HIV-positive women with abuse histories use a host of strategies to deal with disclosure of HIV status, including delaying disclosure, assessing hypothetical responses of partners, and determining appropriate stages in a relationship to disclose. Stigma was an important theme related to disclosure. We discuss how these disclosure processes impact sexual behavior and relationships and discuss intervention opportunities based on our findings. PMID:23596649

  19. Sex and Relationships on the Street: How Homeless Men Judge Partner Risk on Skid Row

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan A. BrownDavid; David P. Kennedy; Joan S. Tucker; Suzanne L. Wenzel; Daniela Golinelli; Samuel R. Wertheimer; Gery W. Ryan

    Homeless men in the U.S. represent a large and growing population, and have elevated rates of HIV\\/AIDS and sexual risk behaviors,\\u000a including unprotected sex with women. We conducted qualitative interviews (n = 30) with homeless men using shelters and meal lines in downtown Los Angeles (Skid Row) to better understand how such men\\u000a view the risks of sexual encounters with female partners.

  20. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

    PubMed

    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. PMID:25618536

  1. [Why young women apply for abortion without permission from their parents].

    PubMed

    Hansen, S K; Benn, C; Andersen, A T; Husfeldt, C; Petersson, B H

    1992-12-14

    Review of all of the abortion consultations from 1986 revealed that 46 of the young women under the age of 18 years utilised the possibility of applying for abortion without permission from their parents which the Danish legislation on termination of pregnancy in 1973 permits. Forty-two of the young women were granted permission for abortion without permission from the parents as it was considered that the relationship between the girl and her parents would otherwise deteriorate. This was not considered to be the case in the four girls for whom application for termination of pregnancy was refused. This material, which is focussed on a problem which has not previously been illustrated, is too limited to permit drawing of any conclusions but there is no information about whether the requirement of parental permission is beneficial or deleterious for the parent/daughter relationship. Relevant investigations are required. PMID:1471293

  2. The Relationship Between Maximum Unilateral Squat Strength and Balance in Young Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Kevin; Langford, George

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs) and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs) completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2) for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects’ dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s) and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s) leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s) and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s) leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help practitioners make evaluative decisions during the rehabilitation process. Key Points 1RM unilateral squat strength is unrelated to measures of unilateral static balance in young adult men and women Static balance is similar between the dominant and non-dominant leg in young adult men and women Side-to-side differences in balance warrant assessment and training to correct imbalances prior to participation in activities that present a high risk for injury. PMID:24260001

  3. Mood Changes in Response to Psychosocial Stress in Healthy Young Women: Effects of Pretreatment With Cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serkan Het; Oliver T. Wolf

    2007-01-01

    Effects of cortisol on human mood during stress situations are still incompletely understood, although this topic has important clinical implications. In this experiment, the mood of 44 healthy young women (all oral contraceptive users) was examined. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled time series paradigm was used. Subjects were treated with either 30-mg cortisol or placebo orally. Forty-five minutes later, subjects attended

  4. New treatment option for young women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A drug used for treating breast cancer, known as exemestane, is more effective than a common breast cancer prevention drug, tamoxifen, in preventing breast cancer recurrence in young women who also receive post-surgical treatment to suppress ovarian function. The combined results of the Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial and Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial were presented at the 2014 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago.

  5. An Exploration of Psychological Well-being with Young Somali Refugee and Asylum-seeker Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Whittaker; Gillian Hardy; Kathryn Lewis; Linda Buchan

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore individual and collective understandings of psychological well-being among young Somali (black African Muslim) asylum-seeker or refugee women. Three groups and five individual semi-structured interviews were undertaken and themes were identified using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Themes included resilience and protection; identity and beliefs; and concealment, distancing and secrets; which reflected acculturation, Islamic and

  6. Bone Mineral Density and Leg Muscle Strength in Young Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. C. Liang; Stanley Bassin; Darren Dutto; William Braun; Nathan Wong; Andria M. Pontello; Dan M. Cooper; Sara B. Arnaud

    2007-01-01

    Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) of ethnically diverse populations are usually attributed to anthropometric characteristics, but may also be due to life style or diet. We studied healthy young sedentary women with Asian (ASN, n=40), Hispanic (HIS, n=39), or Caucasian (CAU, n=36) backgrounds. Body composition and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic) or PIXI (Lunar GE)

  7. The independent and combined effect of personality and coping style on eating related outcomes in young women

    E-print Network

    Russell-Pavier, Anna Louise

    2008-06-27

    Objective: The objectives of the present study were to examine whether personality factors and coping methods can predict attitudes towards eating and patterns of eating behaviour among young women. In addition, it was ...

  8. Neighborhood food store availability in relation to food intake in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K, Japan Dietetic Students' Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. Neighborhood food store availability in relation to food intake in young Japanese women.

  9. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  10. Sexual functioning in young women in the context of breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide. The number of breast cancer survivors has been growing because of earlier detection and improved treatment. Young women under 50 years of age account for relatively small percentage of all newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. However, their medical and psychosocial context of the disease is unique. Breast cancer is diagnosed at the most productive time in life. Concerns about childbearing, partner rejection, sexual function, body image, sexual attractiveness and career are common. For all these reasons experience of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment among young women requires special attention. Researches indicate that oncological treatment may negatively affect female sexual functioning. Chemotherapy is one of the greatest risk factors of sexual dysfunctions, especially when it results in medication-induced menopause. The duration and severity of sexual problems depend on a wide variety of factors: medical, psychological and interpersonal. These side effects may last for many years after the end of treatment. It is known that breast cancer affects both patients and their partners. The first sexual experience after surgery may be a turning point in sexual adaptation in couples. Communication is crucial in this process. More knowledge about sexual difficulties and sexual adaptation process of young breast cancer survivors (YBCSs) and their partners is needed. Knowing protective and risk factors is necessary to identify couples at risk for sexual dysfunctions in order to professionally support them in the best way and at the right time. PMID:24416553

  11. Earlier Menarche Is Associated with Lower Insulin Sensitivity and Increased Adiposity in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dyanne A.; Derraik, José G. B.; Rowe, Deborah L.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess whether age at menarche was associated with insulin sensitivity in young adult women. Methods We studied 54 healthy young women aged 20–30 years. Participants were grouped according to age at menarche: Early (?11.0 years; n=13), Average (>12.0 and ?13.0 years; n=28), and Late (?14.0 years, n=13). Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity measured using intravenous glucose tolerance tests and Bergman’s minimal model. Body composition was assessed using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Earlier menarche was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p=0.015). There was also a continuous increase in adiposity with younger age at menarche, which was associated with increased weight (p=0.001), BMI (p=0.002), total body fat (p=0.049), and truncal fat (p=0.020). Stratified analyses showed that insulin sensitivity in Early women (5.5 x10-4·min-1(mU/l)) was lower than in Average (8.0 x10-4·min-1(mU/l), p=0.021) and Late (8.6 x10-4·min-1(mU/l), p=0.033) groups. Early women (weight=66.1 kg; BMI=24.1 kg/m2) were considerably heavier and fatter than Average (59.0 kg, p=0.004; 21.4 kg/m2, p=0.002) and Late (57.0 kg, p=0.001; 20.8 kg/m2, p=0.0009) women. Conclusions Early menarche is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and increased adiposity in young adulthood, potentially increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:26061526

  12. Risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis in young women with hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Medic-Stojanoska, Milica; Icin, Tijana; Pletikosic, Ivana; Bajkin, Ivana; Novakovic-Paro, Jovanka; Stokic, Edita; Spasic, Dragan T; Kovacev-Zavisic, Branka; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2015-04-01

    Prolactin is a metabolic hormone. The hypothesis is that hyperprolactinemia can cause metabolic and inflammatory changes which are associated with accelerated atherosclerotic process, but the treatment of hyperprolactinemia with dopamine agonists, leads to reversibility of these processes. The first aim of this study was to determine whether hyperprolactinemia in premenopausal women is accompanied with the increase in body mass index (BMI), changes in body composition, lipid disturbances, the presence of inflammation and changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as risk factors for the development of early atherosclerosis. The second aim was to know whether the therapy of hyperprolactinemia and prolactin normalization lead to improvement of the observed parameters. Twenty female patients with prolactinomas, before and during treatment with dopamine agonists and 16 healthy controls were evaluated. Prolactin, BMI, total body fat, free fat mass, total body water, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and fibrinogen as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline and during the therapy. Hyperprolactinemic patients had pathologic and significantly higher levels of prolactin (PRL) than the controls (p=0.000). The BMI, body fat, total body water (TBW), total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL were in normal range and higher in the patients than in the controls. HDL was lower in hyperprolactinemic females than controls. The difference was significant only for body fat (fat % p=0.006; fat kg p=0.009). Fibrinogen was slightly increased in patients compared with the controls. Hyperprolactinemic patients had normal, but increased levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the controls. The difference with border significance was found in diastolic blood pressure (p=0.065). The correlation of PRL with all the observed parameters was positive apart from HDL, but relatively significant only with diastolic blood pressure (r=0.31). The therapy with dopamine agonists caused the decrease of all the observed parameters, but significant decreases was achieved only in BMI (p=0.028), total cholesterol levels (p<0.001) and LDL (p<0.002). Changes in BMI, body composition, serum lipids and lipoproteins, fibrinogen level and blood pressure confirm our hypothesis about the possible role of hyperprolactinemia in developing adverse metabolic disturbances which are reversible after treatment. PMID:25649851

  13. Pleasure Reading: Associations between Young Women's Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women's Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2004-01-01

    Associations between magazine use and sexual attitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexual attitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…

  14. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  15. 'The family is only one part …': understanding the role of family in young Thai women's sexual decision making.

    PubMed

    Bangpan, Mukdarut; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand young Thai women's perspectives about family influences on their sexual decisions with the goal of informing the future development of HIV programmes and interventions for young Thai women in urban areas. Eight focus groups were conducted with 40 young single women aged 18-25 years, recruited through a peer network of key informants from four sites across Bangkok: universities, government offices, slums and garment factories. Predetermined topics relating to family, sexual decisions and HIV were discussed with 4-5 participants in each group. Qualitative thematic and framework-analysis techniques were used to explore participants' narratives. Findings suggest that young Thai women's sexual decisions are complex and take place under a wide range of personal, familial and social influences. Parents were perceived as a barrier to parent-child communication about sex and HIV. Young women regarded mothers as more supportive and receptive than fathers when discussing sensitive topics. Young Thai women described a tension between having a strong sense of self and modern sexual norms versus traditionally conservative relational orientations. Future HIV interventions could benefit by developing strategies to consider barriers to parent-child communication, strengthening family relationships and addressing the coexistence of conflicting sexual norms in the Thai context. PMID:24597979

  16. Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control

    PubMed Central

    Dellar, Rachael C; Dlamini, Sarah; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2015-01-01

    Introduction At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 15–24 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 5–7 years earlier than their male peers. This age–sex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Discussion Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. Conclusions There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim, a pragmatic approach of integrating existing HIV prevention efforts into broader sexual reproductive health services is a public health imperative. PMID:25724504

  17. Girls' schooling and transition to marriage and motherhood: exploring the pathways to young women's reproductive agency in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feyza Bhatti; Roger Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced young women's reproductive agency could contribute to much-needed improvements in reproductive and child health in Pakistan. The RECOUP programme of research was designed to unpack the channels through which schooling might contribute to such an enhancement for young mothers in the two provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Key decisions concerning marriage and motherhood involve not only the woman's

  18. Hmong Food Helps Us Remember Who We Are: Perspectives of Food Culture and Health among Hmong Women with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vue, Wa; Wolff, Cindy; Goto, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine perspectives on food habits, acculturation, and health among Hmong women with young children in northern California. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 Hmong mothers with young children in a low-income community of northern California. The interviews were transcribed and coded based on the principles of…

  19. “If I buy the Kellogg’s then he should [buy] the milk”: young women’s perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey; MacPhail, Catherine; Anderson, Althea D.; Maman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women’s decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24 year old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women’s expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power, and how this influences HIV risk. We found that the majority of young women reported expectations of power in relationships that conform to a model of femininity marked by financial independence, freedom to make decisions, including over sexuality, and equality (resistant femininity). The majority of young women, however, were in relationships marked by intimate partner violence, infidelity or lack of condom use. In spite of this, more young women who subscribed to a resistant model of femininity were in less risky relationships than young women who subscribed to acquiescent models, in which power was vested in their male partners. Further, young women who subscribed to resistant femininity had more education than women who subscribed to an acquiescent model. The disconnect between expectations of relationships and young women’s lived realities emphasises the need for structural changes that afford women greater economic and thus decision making power. PMID:22449022

  20. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions. PMID:23721781

  1. The Spatial Origins of the Homeless: How the Homeless Vary in Their Geographic Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deden Rukmana

    2006-01-01

    There has been no such study to date to investigate the residential origin of the varying categories of homeless. This study investigates the spatial distribution of residential origins of the varying categories of homeless and the factors that contribute to the vulnerability of individuals to become homeless. The study categorizes homeless people based on gender, family status, the occurrence of

  2. Young Women's Leadership Alliance: Youth-Adult Partnerships in an All-Female After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Meyer, Beth; Bean, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article describes program strategies and adult practices that can build youth-adult partnerships. In particular, it focuses on strategies to empower girls in all-female after-school programs. The Young Women's Leadership Alliance has involved 164 girl leaders and five adult women leaders over three years. To build the partnerships, adults…

  3. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antje Ludwig; Nicoline Jochmann; Andras Kertesz; Claudia Kuhn; Simone Mueller; Christine Gericke; Gert Baumann; Karl Stangl; Verena Stangl

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of

  4. Getting Ahead: The Determinants of Payoffs to Internal Promotion for Young U.S. Men and Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah A. Cobb-Clark

    2001-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper examines the role of gender in the promotion process and the importance of promotions in the relative labor market outcomes of young men and women in their early careers. Specifically, how do the factors related to promotion differ for men and women? How do gender differences in promotion translate

  5. Effects of panel sex composition on the physiological stress responses to psychosocial stress in healthy young men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Duchesne; E. Tessera; K. Dedovic; V. Engert; J. C. Pruessner

    Men and women differ in regard to psychosocial stress responses. Biological and contextual factors are known to mediate these differences; however, few studies investigated their interaction. In the present study, we examined contributions of both contextual and biological factors to the stress response of young healthy adults. Men and women were exposed to a modified version of Trier Social Stress

  6. The Work-to-College Transition: Postsecondary Expectations and Enrolment for Young Men and Women in the US Labour Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Bills, David B.; Devlin, Maura E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates early employment influences on postsecondary expectations and enrolment for working men and women who have recently completed high school in the United States. We find that young workers still have very high expectations for postsecondary education, but that women are more likely to enrol. However, this difference is…

  7. The Views of Young Women on HPV Vaccine Communication in Four European Countries.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Dafina; Brunton, Carol Gray; Jaeger, Moritz; Lenneis, Anita; Munoz, Rocio; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Todorova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and can cause cervical cancer. Two vaccines are available to protect against the most common strands of the virus. Vaccination programs differ across Europe but most neglect young adults, who are the group with the highest risk of contracting STIs. Our aim was to explore the views of young women from four European countries-Scotland, Spain, Serbia, and Bulgaria - about the HPV vaccine communication strategy. These countries are characterized by different cervical cancer prevalence and vaccine implementation policies. We conducted focus group discussions with young women (aged 18-26) with various vaccination histories in a purposive sample. We subjected the data to thematic analysis with the purpose of identifying themes related to communication about the HPV vaccine. We recorded the information sources mentioned by participants. Participants discussed numerous sources of vaccine-related information. They approached information critically rather than naively and questioned the sources' trustworthiness and motives. Participants desired transparent information about the risks of the virus and the risks and benefits of the vaccine. These risks and benefits were individualized in view of personal and external factors. Particular aspects of the vaccine and the way information was communicated resulted in feelings of uncertainty. There were notable cross-cultural differences in experiences with HPV vaccine communication. Our results suggest that transparent risk communication about the HPV vaccine is valued by young women. In addition, both individual and culturally-dependent factors influenced experiences with, and preference for information. PMID:26149158

  8. Soap Opera Video on Handheld Computers to Reduce Young Urban Women’s HIV Sex Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Jones

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a soap opera video, A Story about Toni, Mike, and Valerie, designed to communicate HIV risk reduction themes. The study evaluated viewing the video and responding to audio computer\\u000a assisted self-interview (ACASI) on a handheld computer. The sample was 76 predominately African American women, aged 18–29,\\u000a in sexual relationships with men. Data

  9. BRCA sequencing and large rearrangement testing in young Black women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pal, Tuya; Bonner, Devon; Cragun, Deborah; Johnson, Sharland; Akbari, Mohammad; Servais, Lily; Narod, Steven; Vadaparampil, Susan

    2014-04-01

    Young Black women in the United States are disproportionately afflicted with breast cancer, a proportion of which may be due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) gene mutations. In a cancer registry-based sample of young Black women with breast cancer, we evaluated: (1) the prevalence of BRCA mutations detected through full gene sequencing and large rearrangements testing and (2) proportions that accessed genetic services pre-dating study enrollment. Black women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer ?age 50 years in 2009-2012 were recruited through the Florida Cancer Registry. Participants completed genetic counseling, a study questionnaire, and consent for medical record release. Saliva specimens were collected for BRCA testing. Overall, 13 participants (9 %) had BRCA mutations detected (including 11 through full gene sequencing and two through large rearrangements testing). One of these large rearrangements, BRCA1 (delExon8), was identified in a participant who had previously tested negative on clinical comprehensive BRCAnalysis that was performed prior to undergoing a lumpectomy. Although all 144 participants met national criteria for referral for cancer genetic risk assessment, 61 (42 %) were referred for genetic counseling and/or had genetic testing preceding study enrollment, and only 20 (14 %) received genetic counseling. Our findings emphasize the importance of large rearrangements testing to increase detection of deleterious BRCA mutations in young Black women with breast cancer. The registry-based design of our study increase the generalizability of findings compared with efforts focused on clinic-based populations. Furthermore, results suggest efforts are needed to improve access to genetic counseling and testing. PMID:24013928

  10. Clinical performance of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and oral contraceptives in young nulliparous women: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satu Suhonen; Maija Haukkamaa; Tell Jakobsson; Ilkka Rauramo

    2004-01-01

    This 1-year randomized study was carried out at family-planning clinics of two university hospitals to compare the safety and acceptability of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS) and oral contraceptives (OCs) in young nulliparous women. The study population consisted of 200 women aged 18–25 years seeking contraception. Ninety-four women entered the LNG IUS group and 99 entered the OC group.

  11. Multiple Abortions and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Young Migrant Women Working in Entertainment Venues in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (1) multiple abortions and (2) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4 percent) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3 percent had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0 percent) of the sample had had an STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7 percent) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5 percent) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues. PMID:25902189

  12. A challenge to the menopause stereotype: young Australian women's reflections of 'being diagnosed' as menopausal.

    PubMed

    Boughton, Maureen; Halliday, Lesley

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study designed to examine (i) possible explanations for difficulties young Australian women (under 40 years) encountered in the process of gaining a diagnosis of premature menopause and (ii) to address issues underpinning this aspect of menopause. Drawing on hermeneutic phenomenology, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 35 women who consented to share their experiences of 'being diagnosed' with premature menopause. The participants responded to an advertisement in a newspaper article, a radio announcement or through a menopause support centre. While all participants were located in Australia, larger numbers were from the metropolitan areas of Sydney, New South Wales, and Perth, Western Australia. This research reports that the process of finding an explanation for the physical and emotional symptoms the women were experiencing was very complex. The findings varied regarding the psychological and physical symptoms experienced, described feelings, and reasons that led to a diagnosis of menopause. This paper suggests that the age of the women and the non-specific symptoms experienced by them contributed significantly to the delay and uncertainty surrounding the experience of being diagnosed with premature menopause. There was uncertainty of the origin of symptoms, which led the women to feel as though they were 'going insane' or that it was 'all in their heads'. This frequently led to symptoms of menopause being attributed (by health professionals) to a psychiatric basis and menopause being overlooked for varying lengths of time. PMID:18371169

  13. Disordered eating behaviors in young adult Mexican American women: prevalence and associations with health risks.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Corte, Colleen; Keller, Colleen; Trabold, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has shown that disordered eating behaviors are as prevalent in heterogenous samples of Latinas living in the U.S. as in non-Hispanic white women, yet less is known about the prevalence in women of Mexican origin. The primary purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and associations among DE behaviors and health risk of alcohol, tobacco use and obesity in a sample of N = 472 young adult college enrolled Mexican American (MA) women living in the United States. This report focuses on baseline data from a 12-month repeated measures longitudinal study. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture the prevalence of disordered eating and health risk behaviors in the context of everyday activities. Disordered eating behaviors including purging, binge eating, fasting and exercise were reported by approximately 15% of the sample. Food/calorie restricting, was the most prevalent behavior reported by 48% of the sample and along with binge eating was a positive predictor of BMI. Fasting was the only disordered eating behavior associated with tobacco use. These findings suggest that subclinical levels of DE behaviors are prevalent in a community sample of women of Mexican origin and are associated with health risks of tobacco use and higher BMI. Early identification of DE behaviors and community-based interventions targeting MA women may help reduce disparities associated with overweight and obesity in this population. PMID:24183140

  14. Son preference and sterilization use among young married women in two slums in Bengaluru city, India

    PubMed Central

    Edmeades, Jeffrey; Pande, Rohini Prabha; Falle, Tina; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which women’s sterilisation decisions are influenced by the combination of a preference for male children and a desire for smaller family size among young married women in two urban slums in Bengaluru, India. While both son preference and an emphasis on sterilisation are well-known demographic characteristics of most south-Asian countries, relatively little research has been conducted that links the two. We take advantage of a longitudinal survey of 416 unsterilised married women aged 16–25 to explore how having sons and the number of children influence a woman’s sterilisation decision. Discrete-time event-history techniques are used to estimate two models: the first examines the effect of having sons and number of children separately, and the second examines them in combination in the form of an interaction. The results suggest sterilization is motivated by son preference mainly at lower parities (three or fewer children) and by concerns about family size at higher parities. Understanding how sterilisation and other reproductive behaviours are influenced by the interaction of family size and sex preferences will help policymakers and programmers to meet the needs of women while continuing to address discriminatory behaviour against females. PMID:21218299

  15. Poverty, Food Insufficiency and HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviour among Young Rural Zimbabwean Women

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Sophie J. S.; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Mavhu, Webster; Hargreaves, James; Jaffar, Shabbar; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18–22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. Objective To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Methods Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. Results 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7–8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9–12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. Conclusions This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should be developed and evaluated alongside behaviour and biomedical interventions, as a component of HIV prevention programming and policy. PMID:25625868

  16. Association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and dietary intake in Vietnamese young women

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ahra; Kim, Hyesook; Han, Chan-Jung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Chung, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a strong independent predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the relationship between hsCRP and dietary intake in apparently healthy young women living in southern Vietnam. SUBJECTS/METHODS Serum hsCRP was measured and dietary intake data were obtained using the 1-day 24-hour recall method in women (n = 956; mean age, 25.0 ± 5.7 years) who participated in the International Collaboration Study for the Construction of Asian Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) in 2011. RESULTS Women in the high risk group (> 3 mg/L) consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, total plant food, potassium, and folate than those in the low risk group (< 1 mg/L). A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates revealed a significant negative association between hsCRP and fruit and vegetable consumption. A logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) of having a high hsCRP level in women with the highest quartiles of consumption of fruits and vegetables [OR, 0.391; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.190-0.807], potassium [OR, 0.425; 95% CI, 0.192-0.939] and folate [OR, 0.490; 95% CI, 0.249-0.964] were significantly lower than those in the lowest quartiles. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that, in young Vietnamese women, an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables might be beneficial for serum hsCRP, a risk factor for future CVD events. PMID:25110566

  17. Predictors of Homelessness Among Street Living Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha Slesnick; Suzanne Bartle-Haring; Pushpanjali Dashora; Min Ju Kang; Erin Aukward

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify\\u000a these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless\\u000a youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were assessed at baseline, 3 and\\u000a 6 months. The sample

  18. Successful EPO Strategies for Engaging Girls and Young Women in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Smith, D. A.; Dussault, M.; Hasan, H.; Krishnamurthi, A.; Lowes, L.; Stimmer, M.

    2010-08-01

    This mini workshop is geared toward participants—both researchers and educators—interested in sparking and supporting the interest of girls and young women in Earth and space sciences. Its prime focus is on strategies and lessons learned in creating resources and implementing activities that aim to achieve this goal. The workshop involves interactive discussions and mini-roundtables on the specifics of how to improve opportunities through formal (K-16) and informal education and public outreach programs. The emphasis is on drawing out successful strategies and why they have been successful, and on how education and public outreach (EPO) program leaders can work together or use each others' programs and practices. Underlying the discussions will be connections with the International Year of Astronomy project "She is an Astronomer" as well as what we can learn from cross-disciplinary studies to encourage women's participation in science and engineering fields and careers. Mini-roundtables will feature EPO practitioners who are directly involved with creating and implementing NASA-funded resources and activities to engage girls and young women in science. Discussions will be relevant to a wide range of EPO programs funded by various agencies.

  19. Women sleep objectively better than men and the sleep of young women is more resilient to external stressors: effects of age and menopause.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Edward O; Papaliaga, Maria N; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Lin, Hung-Mo; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Chrousos, George P

    2009-06-01

    The aims of this study were to: (i) assess gender differences of objective sleep patterns in a general population sample; (ii) evaluate the effects of menopause and hormone treatment (HT) on the sleep of the same cohort; and (iii) examine gender differences in sleep resilience towards external stressors. The participants were (i) 1324 subjects without sleep complaints, recruited from the general population of Central Pennsylvania that spent one night in the sleep laboratory and (ii) 66 young, healthy volunteers whose sleep was disturbed during night four by an external stressor, i.e. 24-h blood drawing (average of nights 2 and 3 versus night 4). Women compared with men in the general population sample had significantly higher percentage of sleep time, lower percentage of stage 1, and higher percentage of slow wave sleep. Also, menopause, in the absence of HT, was associated with prolonged sleep latency and decreased deep sleep. Finally, young, healthy women compared with men experienced less sleep disturbance because of blood draws as indicated by a significantly smaller change in per cent sleep time, and percentage of stage 1 sleep. These findings suggest that women without sleep complaints sleep objectively better across age than men and the sleep of young women is more resistant to external stressors. Also, gonadal hormones exert a beneficial effect on women's sleep. This gender dimorphism in sleep regulation may have been to protect women from the demands of infant and child care, and in part, might contribute to women's lower cardiovascular risks and greater longevity. PMID:19302341

  20. Leisure time physical activity of young women from the Carpathian Euroregion in relation to the Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Zadarko, Emilian; Barabasz, Zbigniew; Nizio?-Babiarz, Edyta; Zadarko Domaradzka, Maraia; Barabasz, Monika; Sobolewski, Marek; Palanska, Andrea; Bergier, Józef; Junger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Carpathian Euroregion gathers the population of 5 countries, including Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania- the European Union members, as well as Ukraine. Young women are statistically less involved in high-intensity physical activity than young men. The objective of this work was to assess the relation between physical activity of young women aged 18-21 years old and BMI and conditioning factors. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 among 2339 women. The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnarie (MLTPAQ) was applied. It results from the study that 74,2% of young women is considered to have the proper BMI rate (18,5-24,9). As many as 16,2% is considered underweight and almost 10% have higher BMI rate and are overweight. More than one third of respondents did not gain the level of physical activity of 1000 kcal/week, and that is the minimum recommended amount of leisure physical activity time per week. In case of women with low level of physical activity (<1000 kcal), as many as 52% of week activity considered low-intensity activity EEPAlight. The character of changes of the BMI index with reference to the level of physical activity is very similar in the women from towns/cities and the women from villages. An increase of BMI along with the total physical activity was related among all to the increase of free fat mass FFM despite of the level of physical. PMID:25292141

  1. Critical Homelessness: Expanding Narratives of Inclusive Democracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Finley; Marcelo Diversi

    2010-01-01

    The experience (as opposed to the concept) of homelessness is hardly part of the academic discourse in education, cultural studies, or human development. One of the central goals of our special issue is to create a bridge between homelessness as a personal experience and homelessness as a public issue. Along with the personal experience that breaks free from the deficit-model

  2. My Body is a Temple: Eating Disturbances, Religious Involvement, and Mental Health Among Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Andrea K; Ellison, Christopher G

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of the literature outlines the undesirable mental health consequences of eating disturbances. However, little attention has been given to the possible mitigating effects of cultural institutions, such as religion, in the lives of women suffering from such pathologies. Our work contributes to the literature by (a) outlining a series of arguments linking eating disturbances, religion, and mental health; (b) specifying two conceptual models of these relationships; and (c) testing relevant hypotheses using data on a large nationwide sample of young women. Results indicate that religious involvement-organizational, non-organizational, and subjective religiousness-moderates the effects of eating disturbances on mental health, particularly for self-esteem. Study limitations are identified and several promising directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24563369

  3. Young adult women who report childhood intrafamilial sexual abuse: subsequent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J L; Calhoun, K S; Amick, A E; Maddever, H M; Habif, V L

    1990-06-01

    Young adult women who had experienced incest and a matched comparison group were examined for differences in interpersonal functioning, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and emotional adjustment. Those reporting incest reported significantly poorer general social adjustment, especially in dating relationships. They had significantly lower levels of sexual satisfaction, lower self-esteem, and distorted body images, as well as greater depression and lower positive affect. These characteristics may be related not only to the incest experience but to the general family environment in which incest occurred, as significant differences in family characteristics were also observed. PMID:2360872

  4. Giving young Emirati women a voice: participatory action research on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Berger, Gabriella; Peerson, Anita

    2009-03-01

    International evidence on health promotion indicates the importance of regular physical activity for preventing and reducing the incidence of obesity and chronic diseases. This study investigated the relationship between physical activity and the social milieu of young Muslim women in the United Arab Emirates. This participatory action research project included semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus groups and yielded qualitative data. Set within a context of rapid social change, perceived barriers to daily exercise influenced participants' physical activity levels and overall well-being. Results indicated a lack of physical exercise and strategies were proposed for implementation by college staff and students. PMID:18515171

  5. Effects of multidimensional pelvic floor muscle training in healthy young women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Talasz; Elisabeth Kalchschmid; Markus Kofler; Monika Lechleitner

    Purpose  Cross-sectional and interventional study to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in healthy young nulliparous women and\\u000a to determine the effects of a 3-month PFM training program with emphasis on co-contraction of PFM and anterolateral abdominal\\u000a muscles and on correctly performed coughing patterns.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  PFM function was assessed by digital vaginal palpation in 40 volunteers and graded according to the 6-point

  6. Effects of oral dehydroepiandrosterone on bone density in young women with anorexia nervosa: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine M; Grace, Estherann; Emans, S Jean; Feldman, Henry A; Goodman, Elizabeth; Becker, Kelly A; Rosen, Clifford J; Gundberg, Caren M; LeBoff, Meryl S

    2002-11-01

    Young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have subnormal levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrogen that may be mechanistically linked to the bone loss seen in this disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 1-yr course of oral DHEA treatment vs. conventional hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in young women with AN. Sixty-one young women were randomly assigned to receive oral DHEA (50 mg/d) or HRT (20 micro g ethinyl estradiol/0.1 mg levonorgestrel). Anthropometric, nutrition, and exercise data were acquired every 3 months, and bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every 6 months over 1 yr. Serum samples were obtained for measurements of hormones, proresorptive cytokines, and bone formation markers, and urine was collected for determinations of bone resorption markers at each visit. In initial analyses, total hip BMD increased significantly and similarly (+1.7%) in both groups. Hip BMD increases were positively correlated with increases in IGF-I (r = 0.44; P = 0.030) and the bone formation marker, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase increased significantly only in the DHEA treatment group (P = 0.003). However, both groups gained significant amounts of weight over the year of therapy, and after controlling for weight gain, no treatment effect was detectable. There was no significant change in lumbar BMD in either group. Both bone formation markers, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, increased transiently at 6-9 months in those subjects receiving DHEA compared with the estrogen-treated group (P < 0.05). Both DHEA and HRT significantly reduced levels of the bone resorption markers, urinary N-telopeptides (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between changes in IGF-I and changes in weight, body fat determined by DXA, and estradiol for both groups. In addition, patients receiving DHEA exhibited improvement on three validated psychological instruments (Eating Attitudes Test, Anorexia Nervosa Subtest, and Spielberger Anxiety Inventory). Both DHEA and HRT had similar effects on hip and spinal BMD. Over the year of treatment, maintenance of both hip and spinal BMD was seen, but there was no significant increase after accounting for weight gain. Compared with HRT, DHEA appeared to have anabolic effects, evidenced by the positive correlation between increases in hip DXA measurements and IGF-I and significant increases in bone formation markers. Both therapies significantly decreased bone resorption. Replicating results from studies of the elderly, DHEA resulted in improvements in specific psychological parameters in these young women. PMID:12414853

  7. The health of homeless immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Shirley; Redelmeier, Donald A.; Tolomiczenko, George; Kiss, Alex; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between immigrant status and current health in a representative sample of 1,189 homeless people in Toronto, Canada. Methods Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and current health status (assessed using the SF-12) among homeless recent immigrants (?10 years since immigration), non-recent immigrants (>10 years since immigration), and Canadian-born individuals recruited at shelters and meal programs (response rate 73%). Results After adjusting for demographic characteristics and lifetime duration of homelessness, recent immigrants were significantly less likely to have chronic conditions (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9), mental health problems (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7), alcohol problems (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5), and drug problems (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.4) compared to non-recent immigrants and Canadian-born individuals. Recent immigrants were also more likely to have better mental health status (+3.4 points, SE ±1.6) and physical health status (+2.2 points, SE ±1.3) on scales with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10 in the general population. Conclusion Homeless recent immigrants are a distinct group who are generally healthier and may have very different service needs compared to other homeless people. PMID:19654122

  8. Association between blood lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Roh, Seung-Ju; Kim, Han-Na; Shim, Unjin; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Su-Jin; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age ?=?24.9±4.6 years (range 17-39)] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between blood lipid levels and personality traits may have a beneficial effect for the managing of dyslipidemia. PMID:25268499

  9. Influence of high ovarian hormones on QT interval duration in young African women

    PubMed Central

    Balayssac?Siransy, Edwige; Ouattara, Soualiho; Adoubi, Anicet; Kouamé, Chantal; Hauhouot?Attoungbré, Marie?Laure; Dah, Cyrille; Bogui, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The longer QT interval duration observed in women compared to men is usually attributed to sexual hormones. The aim of our study was to investigate, among black African women, the influence of hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle on the duration of the QT interval. Fourteen young black African women, healthy, sedentary, aged 24 ± 1.7 years, with a regular menstrual cycle (28 ± 1 days) were selected from 59 volunteers. At each phase of their menstrual cycle, menstrual 2.9 ± 0.6 days, follicular 13 ± 1.5 days, and luteal 23.1 ± 1.4 days, an electrocardiogram was performed in supine position after a resting period of 30 min, to measure QT interval duration. QT interval was corrected by Bazett's (QTcb) and Fridericia's (QTcf) formulae. Then, blood samples were obtained to measure estradiol, progesterone, and serum electrolytes (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). There was no significant difference in uncorrected QT intervals between the three phases of the menstrual cycle. It was the same for QTcb and QTcf. Moreover, during the menstrual cycle, we did not observe any correlation between each QT, QTcb, QTcf, and estradiol levels which raised during the follicular phase (356.61 ± 160.77 pg/mL) and progesterone levels which raised during the luteal phase (16.38 ± 5.88 ng/mL). Finally, the method of Bland and Altman demonstrated that the corrections of QT by Bazett and Fridericia formulae were not interchangeable. The results of this study showed that high levels of estradiol and progesterone in young black African women did not influence the QT, QTcb and QTcf intervals duration during the menstrual cycle. PMID:24760517

  10. Effects of oral contraceptives on sympathetic nerve activity during orthostatic stress in young, healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jenna C.; Schwartz, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies report that the menstrual cycle alters sympathetic neural responses to orthostatic stress in young, eumenorrheic women. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether oral contraceptives (OC) influence sympathetic neural activation during an orthostatic challenge. Based on evidence that sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is increased during the “low hormone” (LH) phase (i.e., placebo pills) in women taking OC, we hypothesized an augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) response to orthostatic stress during the LH phase. MSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP; ?5, ?10, ?15, ?20, ?30, ?40 mmHg; 3 min/stage) in 12 healthy women taking OC (age 22 ± 1 years). Sympathetic BRS was assessed by examining relations between spontaneous fluctuations of diastolic arterial pressure and MSNA. Subjects were examined twice: once during LH phase and once ?3 wk after LH during the “high hormone” phase (randomized order). Resting MSNA (10 ± 2 vs. 13 ± 2 bursts/min), MAP (85 ± 3 vs. 84 ± 3 mmHg), and HR (62 ± 2 vs. 65 ± 3 beats/min) were not different between phases. MSNA and HR increased during progressive LBNP (P < 0.001), and these increases were similar between phases. Progressive LBNP did not change MAP during either phase. Sympathetic BRS increased during progressive LBNP, but these responses were not different between LH and high hormone phases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that OCs do not alter cardiovascular and sympathetic neural responses to an orthostatic challenge in young, healthy women. PMID:19828840

  11. Association between Blood Lipid Levels and Personality Traits in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Seung-Ju; Shim, Unjin; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Su-Jin; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age ?=?24.9±4.6 years (range 17–39)] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between blood lipid levels and personality traits may have a beneficial effect for the managing of dyslipidemia. PMID:25268499

  12. Associations of endogenous 17-?-estradiol with theta amplitude and performance in semantic categorization in young women

    PubMed Central

    Brötzner, C.P.; Klimesch, W.; Kerschbaum, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    In semantic categorization processes, individuals form a relation between perceived or imagined objects and knowledge about these objects. In the present semantic categorization study, we correlated endogenous 17-?-estradiol levels (E2) with performance as well as amplitude of theta oscillations in young women (age 23.1 ± 3.4 years). The semantic categorization task consisted of nouns representing either living or non-living items. Each item was characterized either by many or by few features. We identified parameters associated or not associated with menstrual cycle phases. Irrespective of the menstrual cycle phase, women (1) responded faster to living items as well as to nouns characterized by many features compared to non-living items and items characterized by few features, (2) showed higher accuracy to non-living items and items having many features, and (3) showed negative correlation between response time (RT) and theta amplitude. RT, accuracy and post-stimulus theta amplitude were not statistically significantly different among early follicular, late follicular or luteal women. In early follicular but not in late follicular or luteal women, we observed (1) a positive correlation between E2 and latency in RT, (2) a negative correlation between E2 and accuracy, and (3) a negative correlation between E2 and post-stimulus theta amplitude. A mosaic of menstrual cycle phase-dependent and -independent associations may indicate that a similar performance in each menstrual cycle phase is related to different modulation of synaptic activity by hormones. PMID:25451285

  13. Unintended Pregnancies among Young Women Living in Urban Slums: Evidence from a Prospective Study in Nairobi City, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Beguy, Donatien; Mumah, Joyce; Gottschalk, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. This paper aims to fill this research gap by examining the levels of and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young women aged 15–22 in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods We use data from two waves of a 3-year prospective survey that collected information from adolescents living in the two slums in 2007–2010. In total, 849 young women aged 15–22 were considered for analysis. We employed Cox and logistic regression models to investigate factors associated with timing of pregnancy experience and unintended pregnancy among adolescents who were sexually active by Wave 1 or Wave 2. Findings About two thirds of sexually experienced young women (69%) have ever been pregnant by Wave 2. For 41% of adolescents, the pregnancies were unintended, with 26% being mistimed and 15% unwanted. Multivariate analysis shows a significant association between a set of factors including age at first sex, schooling status, living arrangements and timing of pregnancy experience. In addition, marital status, schooling status, age at first sex and living arrangements are the only factors that are significantly associated with unintended pregnancy among the young women. Conclusions Overall, this study underscores the importance of looking at reproductive outcomes of early sexual initiation, the serious health risks early fertility entail, especially among out-of school girls, and sexual activity in general among young women living in slum settlements. This provides greater impetus for addressing reproductive behaviors among young women living in resource-poor settings such as slums. PMID:25080352

  14. A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D

    2014-02-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1? dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90?min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90?min of exercise, and at 20?min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54?min of a 90?min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90?min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism. PMID:24062088

  15. Multiple case study analysis of young women's experiences in high school engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Meagan C.

    At a time when engineers are in critical demand, women continue to be significantly underrepresented in engineering fields (11.7%) and degree programs (21.3%) in the United States. As a result, there is a national demand for improved K-12 STEM education and targeted efforts to improve equity and access to engineering and science careers for every underrepresented group. High school engineering has become a nascent and growing market for developers and an emergent opportunity for students across the United States to learn introductory engineering skills through strategic career pathways; however there is a disparity in participation at this level as well. Much useful research has been used to examine the problematization of underrepresentation (K Beddoes, 2011), but there is a dearth of literature that helps us to understand the experiences of young women in high school engineering. By examining the experiences of young women in high school engineering, we can learn ways to improve the curriculum, pedagogy, and environment for underrepresented groups such as females to ensure they have equitable access to these programs and are subsequently motivated to persist in engineering. Understanding the needs of marginalized groups is complex, and intersectional feminism seeks to understand gender in relation to other identities such as race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, and nationality. This theory asserts that gender alone is neither a total identity nor a universal experience, and it is thus advantageous to consider each of the intersecting layers of identity so as to not privilege a dominate group as representative of all women. Thus, to understand how female students engage with and experience engineering in grade school, it is useful to examine through the lens of gender, class, race, and sexuality, because this intersection frames much of the human experience. The purpose of this study is to examine high school females' experiences in engineering, with a goal to richly describe the diversity of experiences. A multiple case study analysis, this study answers the question: How do gender, class, race, and other components of intersectionality, influence high school females' experiences in engineering? Nine young women taking a high school engineering course in a suburban high school in Central Texas during the school year 2011-2012 volunteered to participate. The students were observed in their engineering classes for half of the spring 2012 semester, with bi-weekly interviews with the students, monthly interviews with the teacher, and a single interview with a parent of each volunteer. The nine rich case studies provide us with new stories that help prevent us from narrowing the experiences of women to a single incomplete stereotype, because these young women vary across race, socioeconomic backgrounds, and sexual orientation. Although each story is unique, there are commonalities among their experiences, including family, influence, classroom environment, biases, and beliefs. By drawing from their collective experiences in high school engineering, the findings direct us toward recommendations for educators, parents, engineering curriculum developers, designers of teacher professional development, and future research to improve equity and access for every student in engineering.

  16. Homelessness: Issues and Legislation in the 101st Congress. Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasem, Ruth Ellen

    This report discusses the nature of homelessness and the homeless in America, recent programs that have been implemented to help the homeless, and issues concerning the Federal government's role in helping these people. The following topics concerning the characteristics of the homeless and the causes of homelessness are covered: (1) "Mental…

  17. Relationship Characteristics and the Relationship Context of Nonmarital First Births Among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Manlove, Jennifer; Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Welti, Kate; Scott, Mindy E.; Ikramullah, Erum

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine whether and how characteristics of the relationship dyad are linked to nonmarital childbearing among young adult women, additionally distinguishing between cohabiting and nonunion births. Methods We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort and discrete-time event history methods to examine these objectives. Results Our analyses found that similarities and differences between women and their most recent sexual partner in educational attainment, disengagement from work or school, race/ethnicity, and age were linked to the risk and context of nonmarital childbearing. For example, partner disengagement (from school and work) was associated with increased odds of a nonmarital birth regardless of whether the woman herself was disengaged. Additionally, having a partner of a different race/ethnicity was associated with nonmarital childbearing for whites, but not for blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions We conclude that relationship characteristics are an important dimension of the lives of young adults that influence their odds of having a birth outside of marriage. PMID:22942478

  18. Effect of a nighttime magnetic field exposure on sleep patterns in young women.

    PubMed

    Tworoger, Shelley S; Davis, Scott; Emerson, Scott S; Mirick, Dana K; Lentz, Martha J; McTiernan, Anne

    2004-08-01

    Since poor sleep quality is associated with multiple health problems, it is important to understand factors that may affect sleep patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a continuous, 60-Hz, nighttime magnetic field exposure on sleep outcomes in young women sleeping at home. The study was a randomized crossover trial, comparing intervention (0.5-1.0 micro T above ambient levels) with ambient magnetic field levels, during two 5-night measurement periods. Subjects lived in the Seattle, Washington, area and were 20-40 years of age, had regular menstrual cycles, were not taking oral contraceptives, and had not breastfed or been pregnant during the previous year. The study was conducted between March and September of 2001. Sleep outcomes were measured via actigraphy. The range of magnetic field exposure was 0.001-0.50 micro T during the ambient period and 0.41-1.21 micro T during the intervention period. Sleep outcomes were not significantly different between the intervention and the ambient measurement periods. The intervention magnetic field had no effect on sleep patterns, suggesting that this exposure may not be an important factor in predicting sleep of young women who sleep at home. PMID:15257995

  19. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI?6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  20. Desire for Pregnancy and Risk Behavior in Young HIV-Positive Women

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Julie L.; Trent, Maria E.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study utilized data from 130 young women with behaviorally acquired HIV to examine the association between desire for pregnancy (DFP) and both sociodemographic variables and sexual risk behaviors. A single item was utilized to assess DFP. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. At the bivariate level, DFP was associated with increased rates of intercourse, decreased condom use, increased partner concurrency, increased rates of unprotected sex with a nonconcordant partner, and a higher number of previous sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Multivariate analyses suggested that DFP was associated with increased likelihood of recent intercourse, condom-unprotected sex, and oral sex. DFP was related to few sociodemographic variables but was associated with having fewer children currently, a history of victimization, and decreased rates of disclosure of HIV status. The few sociodemographic variables that were associated with DFP suggest that social relationships may play a role in DFP. DFP was associated with sexual behaviors that may place young women at risk for STI acquisition and secondary HIV transmission to partners. Health care providers should assess DFP in routine HIV care, providing education about fertility options, interventions for vertical transmission, family planning, and risk reduction counseling. PMID:22482121

  1. Relationship Characteristics and the Relationship Context of Nonmarital First Births Among Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Manlove, Jennifer; Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Welti, Kate; Scott, Mindy E; Ikramullah, Erum

    2012-06-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine whether and how characteristics of the relationship dyad are linked to nonmarital childbearing among young adult women, additionally distinguishing between cohabiting and nonunion births. METHODS: We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort and discrete-time event history methods to examine these objectives. RESULTS: Our analyses found that similarities and differences between women and their most recent sexual partner in educational attainment, disengagement from work or school, race/ethnicity, and age were linked to the risk and context of nonmarital childbearing. For example, partner disengagement (from school and work) was associated with increased odds of a nonmarital birth regardless of whether the woman herself was disengaged. Additionally, having a partner of a different race/ethnicity was associated with nonmarital childbearing for whites, but not for blacks and Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that relationship characteristics are an important dimension of the lives of young adults that influence their odds of having a birth outside of marriage. PMID:22942478

  2. [The influence of calcium and phosphorus intake on bone mineral density in young women].

    PubMed

    Basabe Tuero, Beatriz; Mena Valverde, María Carmen; Faci Vega, Marta; Aparicio Vizuete, Aranzazu; López Sobaler, Ana María; Ortega Anta, Rosa María

    2004-06-01

    The threat of osteoporosis in later life means that the bone mass women achieve during their youth is important. Eighty seven women aged 18-35 y from the Madrid region were studied to determine the relationship between their calcium, phosphorus and milk product intakes and bone mineral density (BMD). Intakes of these items were moniroed using a three day food intake record. BMD was measured by double photonic densitometry of the lumbar region, hip and right forearm. Mean calcium intake (802.1+/-258.7 mg/day) was less than that recommended for 45% of women. A linear, positive correlation was seen between calcium intake and BMD at the hip (r=0.23) and greater trochanter (r=0.24) (p<0.05). Women whose calcium intake was >1000 mg/day had greater hip BMDs than those whose intake was below this level (0.97+/-0.11 g/cm2 compared to 0.90+/-0.10 g/cm2). Similar results were seen for the femur head and greater trochanter in subjects whose Ca/P ratio was >0.74 (50th percentile). In addition, an intake of more than two rations of milk per day was optimum for achieving adequate bone mass in different areas of the hip. These results show that greater calcium consumption and a Ca/P ratio of >0.74 are associated with better BMD values in young women, and that milk is the lactic product best associated with good bone health. PMID:15586689

  3. Deficits in Trabecular Bone Microarchitecture in Young Women With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Abdalrahaman, Naiemh; McComb, Christie; Foster, John E; McLean, John; Lindsay, Robert S; McClure, John; McMillan, Martin; Drummond, Russell; Gordon, Derek; McKay, Gerard A; Shaikh, M Guftar; Perry, Colin G; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2015-08-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism of increased fractures in young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is unclear. We conducted a case-control study of trabecular bone microarchitecture and vertebral marrow adiposity in young women with T1DM. Thirty women with T1DM with a median age (range) age of 22.0 years (16.9, 36.1) attending one outpatient clinic with a median age at diagnosis of 9.7 years (0.46, 14.8) were compared with 28 age-matched healthy women who acted as controls. Measurements included MRI-based assessment of proximal tibial bone volume/total volume (appBV/TV), trabecular separation (appTb.Sp), vertebral bone marrow adiposity (BMA), and abdominal adipose tissue and biochemical markers of GH/IGF-1 axis (IGF-1, IGFBP3, ALS) and bone turnover. Median appBV/TV in cases and controls was 0.3 (0.22, 0.37) and 0.33 (0.26, 0.4), respectively (p?=?0.018) and median appTb.Sp in T1DM was 2.59 (2.24, 3.38) and 2.32 (2.03, 2.97), respectively (p?=?0.012). The median appBV/TV was 0.28 (0.22, 0.33) in those cases with retinopathy (n?=?15) compared with 0.33 (0.25, 0.37) in those without retinopathy (p?=?0.02). Although median visceral adipose tissue in cases was higher than in controls at 5733 mm(3) (2030, 11,144) and 3460 mm(3) (1808, 6832), respectively (p?=?0.012), there was no difference in median BMA, which was 31.1% (9.9, 59.9) and 26.3% (8.5, 49.8) in cases and controls, respectively (p?=?0.2). Serum IGF-1 and ALS were also lower in cases, and the latter showed an inverse association to appTbSp (r?=?-0.30, p?=?0.04). Detailed MRI studies in young women with childhood-onset T1DM have shown clear deficits in trabecular microarchitecture of the tibia. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may include a microvasculopathy. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25627460

  4. Influencing young women to pursue a career in the creative information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosco, Michele

    A leaky pipeline is often cited as the cause for the underrepresentation of women in computer-related professions. However, females may not even enter the pipeline; that is, they do not even enroll in creative information technology coursework as early as high school. Creative information technology careers include web design, digital photography, and multimedia. Constructs of the social cognitive career theory---outcome expectations and self-efficacy--provided the theoretical framework for this investigation to determine why young women are not exhibiting interest in these careers. Using an action research structure, a female-segregated technology club was implemented at the high school. The study intended to increase the participants' interest in pursuing careers in the creative information technology field through the components of career choice as outlined in the theoretical framework. The outcome expectations of "With whom will I work?" and "What will I do?" were addressed through the presentation of female role models and career information. Self-efficacy was targeted through technology skills' instruction directly related to the creative information technology fields. Data was collected through the administration of a pretest/posttest survey instrument, researcher observations, individual participant interviews, and an analysis of the participants' creative products. Quantitative findings indicated that there were few statistically significant program effects. The participants' perceptions of those employed in these careers did not change, but their technology self-efficacy increased on three indicators. Analysis of qualitative data yielded a more complete picture: although the young women had little prior knowledge of those employed in these fields, they did enjoy learning technology to develop creative projects in a social atmosphere where they could persevere through the technology frustrations they encountered. All of the data types affirmed that the participants' interest in these careers changed positively after the intervention.

  5. Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Deborah B.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception. PMID:26010318

  6. Idealised versus tainted femininity: discourses of the menstrual experience in Australian magazines that target young women.

    PubMed

    Raftos, M; Jackson, D; Mannix, J

    1998-09-01

    Information and messages concerning health-related issues are not confined to material provided by official figures or sources. Much information exists in the community and comes from a variety of sources. One such source is the media. This paper reports the findings of a study conducted over a 12-month period of advertisements for menstrual products in a selection of four monthly Australian magazines (n = 48) directed towards young women. The study examined the way in which menstruation and the menstrual experience were depicted in terms of page space, textual content and visual images. Findings revealed that advertisements for menstrual products provided confusing, conflicting and paradoxical messages. These included stressing the normality of menstruation while also emphasising the importance of keeping it hidden and secret. Menstruation was depicted as being a state of tainted (idealised) femininity because of the potential for the menstrual silence to be shattered by people finding out. Protection failure was depicted as being the ultimate in tainted femininity and a result of a woman's incorrect choice of product. Choosing menstrual-care products was depicted as simple but, paradoxically, complex and confusing. Women were depicted as liberated and sophisticated but images and language related to infancy were used. Freedom and liberation were conferred by the use of the advertised product. Overall, in common with previous studies, menstruation was depicted as a crisis of hygiene that is a risk to femininity. Advertisements for pantyliners suggest that femininity itself poses a threat to (idealised) femininity. This study demonstrates the crucial role of the media as a source of health information for young women. PMID:9923315

  7. Associations between body mass index, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child maltreatment in young women.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alexis E; Sartor, Carolyn E; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Eschenbacher, Michaela A; Diemer, Elizabeth W; Nelson, Elliot C; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine interrelationships between child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and body mass index (BMI) in young women. We used multinomial logistic regression models to explore the possibility that PTSD statistically mediates or moderates the association between BMI category and self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical abuse (CPA), or neglect among 3,699 young women participating in a population-based twin study. Obese women had the highest prevalence of CSA, CPA, neglect, and PTSD (p<.001 for all). Although all three forms of child maltreatment were significantly, positively associated with overweight and obesity in unadjusted models, only CSA was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates (OR=2.21, 95% CI: 1.63, 3.00). CSA and neglect, but not CPA, were associated with underweight in unadjusted models; however, after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates, the associations were no longer statistically significant (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 0.90-2.28 and OR=2.16, 95% CI: 0.90-5.16 for CSA and neglect, respectively). Further adjustment for PTSD generally resulted in modest attenuation of effects across associations of child maltreatment forms with BMI categories, suggesting that PTSD may, at most, be only a weak partial mediator of these associations. Future longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking CSA and obesity and to further evaluate the role of PTSD in associations between child maltreatment and obesity. PMID:25770346

  8. Sex trade among young women attending family-planning clinics in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and nature of sex trade in a clinic-based sample of young women and to evaluate associations with sexual and reproductive health. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with women aged 16–29 years (n=1277) presenting to family-planning clinics in Northern California, USA. Results Overall, 8.1% of respondents indicated a lifetime history of trading sex for money or other resources. Sex trade was associated with unintended pregnancy (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.48), multiple abortions (ARR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19–2.23), STI diagnosis (ARR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27–1.68), and unwanted sex (vaginal ARR 3.64; 95% CI, 2.39–5.56; anal ARR 4.99; 95% CI, 2.17–11.50). Of the women ever involved in sex trade, 12 (37.3%) reported that their first such experience was before they were 18 years of age. Conclusion Approximately 1 in 12 participants had been involved in sex trade, illustrating the presence of patients with this history within the family-planning clinical setting. Sex trade was associated with multiple indicators of poor sexual and reproductive health. Family-planning clinics may represent an underused mechanism for engaging this high-risk population. PMID:22356762

  9. Forced sex: a critical factor in the sleep difficulties of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Astbury, Jill; Bruck, Dorothy; Loxton, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of forced sex and its contribution to sleep difficulties among young Australian women aged 24-30 years (n=9,061) was examined using data from the 2003 Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. The lifetime prevalence of reported forced sex was 8.7%. Significantly higher levels of recurrent sleep difficulties, prescription sleep medication, clinical depression, anxiety disorder, self-harm, and substance use, as well as lower socioeconomic status (SES) indicators, were reported by the forced sex group compared to the no forced sex group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed the high odds (OR=1.95, CI=1.66-2.26) of recurrent sleep difficulty in such women becomes partially attenuated, but remains statistically significant, after adjusting for key psychological, SES, and behavioral variables. Clinical implications for primary care providers and sleep specialists are discussed. Sleep difficulties are highly prevalent and affect more than 30% of those seeking primary health care (Kushida et al., 2005). They negatively impact on the way a person feels and functions (Dinges et al., 1997) and make a significant contribution to accidents, health care costs, and problems at work (Roth, 2005). PMID:21776829

  10. Human papillomavirus 16/18 types among young women from tula (Russia).

    PubMed

    Volkov, Valery G; Zakharova, Tatyana V; Koroleva, Larisa N

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE.: To study the prevalence of human papillomavirus 16/18 types among sexually active young women. STUDY DESIGN.: From October 1998 until May 1999 we examined 160 women between the ages of 15 and 24 (mean = 19.5 +/- 2.5) years. Histology and colposcopy verified diagnoses of cervical pathology were present in 19 cases (11.9%) of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1,2. At each visit, we collected information about lifestyle and sexual behavior. Human papillomavirus-DNA typing of cervical scrapes was performed by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS.: Positive results of DNA test were present in 39 cases (24.4%): 27 of 141 with cytologically normal women (19.1%), 12 of 19 with CIN 1,2 (63.2%). An increased risk of human papillomavirus infection was significantly associated with increased number of vaginal-sex partners and smoking. A protective effect was noted from the use of condoms. CONCLUSIONS.: This data showed a high frequency of human papillomavirus 16/18 infection. PMID:17051036

  11. Impact of maternal marital status on birth outcomes among young malaysian women: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Zain, Norhasmah; Low, Wah-Yun; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the impact of maternal marital status on birth outcomes among young Malaysian women and investigated other risk factors influencing the birth outcomes. Pregnant women with and without marital ties at the point of pregnancy diagnosis were invited to participate in this study. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire at pregnancy diagnosis and shortly after childbirth. From a total of 229 unmarried and 213 married women who participated, marital status was significantly associated with preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-2.61) and low birth weight (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.98-6.57). Other factors significantly associated with birth outcomes was prenatal care (OR, 4.92; 95% CI, 1.43-16.95), "use of drugs" (OR, 10.39; 95% CI, 1.14-94.76), age (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.16), and number of prenatal visits (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07). Promoting access to prenatal care and social support programs for unmarried mothers may be important to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25005933

  12. Associations between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in healthy young adult women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Zava, David T; Piper, Walter T; Saturn, Sarina R; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F

    2015-05-30

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women?s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n=185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for 4 weeks (W1-W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D?16) were 34-42% at W1-W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1-W5 (?=-0.20, p<0.05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  13. Copenhagen Community Psychiatric Project (CCPP): characteristics and treatment of homeless patients in the psychiatric services after introduction of community mental health centres.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, M; Knudsen, H C; Jessen-Petersen, B; Krasnik, A; Saelan, H; Brodersen, A M; Treufeldt, P; Løppenthin, P; Sahl, I; Ostergård, P

    1997-10-01

    The main purpose of the study was to describe the characteristics of homeless psychiatric patients, and to compare the treatment they are offered to that offered to domiciled patients by the psychiatric services. Another purpose was to analyse the prevalence of homelessness among psychiatric patients before and after the introduction of community mental health centres in Copenhagen. Cross-sectional studies were conducted in two intervention and two control districts before and after introduction of the new treatment modalities. In 1991, 80 of 1008 patients (8%) were homeless. Male sex, young age, living on general welfare, schizophrenia and alcohol or substance abuse were the factors that most markedly differentiated homeless from domiciled patients. Compared with the treatment of domiciled patients, the homeless were more likely to be offered no further treatment after consultation in a psychiatric emergency and, if admitted, they were more likely to be placed in locked wards, given compulsory medication, and medicated with depot neuroleptics. The homeless were also less likely to be offered psychotherapy and consultation with a social worker. Schizophrenia and alcohol or substance abuse characterised the majority of the patients discharged homeless. In the intervention districts, the number of homeless patients in contact with the psychiatric services was found to increase at the same rate as the number of all patients in contact with the psychiatric services. In the control districts, no changes in prevalence of homeless patients or other patients in contact with the psychiatric services occurred. It is concluded that homeless psychiatric patients comprise a difficult patient group, with problems of schizophrenia, substance abuse and lack of motivation for treatment. It is recommended that special efforts be made to create housing facilities that fit the needs of different types of homeless patients, and that the homeless mentally ill are assisted in obtaining and maintaining an acceptable housing situation. PMID:9383967

  14. Hostility-related differences in the associations between stress-induced physiological reactivity and lipid concentrations in young healthy women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward C. Suarez; Tina L. Harralson

    1999-01-01

    We examined the relations of fasting lipid levels to stress-induced neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses as a function\\u000a of hostility in 36 healthy young women. Participants were women who scored above 17 (n = 23) or below 12 (n = 13) on the Cook-Medley Hostility (Ho) Inventory. Lipids were determined following an overnight fast. Individuals participated\\u000a in a solvable anagram task,

  15. Adrenal antibodies detect asymptomatic auto-immune adrenal insufficiency in young women with spontaneous premature ovarian failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Bakalov; V. H. Vanderhoof; C. A. Bondy; L. M. Nelson

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auto-immune adrenal insufficiency is a potentially fatal disorder. Young women with spontaneous premature ovarian failure (POF) are at increased risk of developing this condition. METHODS: We further characterized auto-immune adrenal insufficiency in this population by conducting an in-depth cross-sectional evaluation of adrenal function in a series of 123 women. RESULTS: We uncovered a new diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in

  16. Determination of Changes in the Sexual Lives of Young Women Receiving Breast Cancer Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma CebeciHatice; Hatice Balci Yangin; Aysel Tekeli

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study was performed to identify changes in the sexual lives of young women receiving breast cancer treatment.\\u000a The study was conducted with eight exclusively self-defined heterosexual married women whose breast cancer treatments were\\u000a ongoing in the ambulatory chemotherapy unit. The data were collected through semi-structured and in-depth individual interviews.\\u000a All interviews were tape-recorded. The raw results were obtained

  17. 75 FR 79323 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...38 CFR Part 63 RIN 2900-AN73 Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program AGENCY...community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV...response to ``RIN 2900-AN73, Health Care for Homeless Veterans...

  18. Predictors of Homelessness Among Street Living Youth.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The sample included 118 males and the reported ethnicity included Latino (n = 54), Anglo (n = 73), Native American (n = 24), African American (n = 6) and mixed ethnicity or "other" (n = 23). Four distinct patterns of change in homelessness were identified among youth which included those who (1) had fairly low rates of homelessness at each follow-up point, (2) started in the mid-range of homelessness, increased at 3 months and sharply declined at 6-months (MHL), (3) reported high rates of homelessness at baseline and low rates at each follow-up point (HLL), and finally, (4) remained consistently homeless across time (HMH). These patterns of change were most strongly predicted by social connections and engagement in HIV risk behaviors. The findings from this study suggest that developing trust and linkages between homeless youth and service providers may be a more powerful immediate target of intervention than targeting child abuse issues, substance use and mental health problems. PMID:18584069

  19. Effects of endurance and resistance training on total daily energy expenditure in young women: a controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, Eric T; Denino, Walter F; Beckett, Travis; Kinaman, Kristen A; Dionne, Isabelle J; Dvorak, Roman; Ades, Philip A

    2002-03-01

    There exists considerable controversy regarding the impact of different modes of exercise training on total daily energy expenditure (TEE). To examine this question, young, nonobese women were randomly assigned to a supervised 6-month program of endurance training, resistance training, or control condition. TEE was measured before and 10 d after a 6-month exercise program was completed with doubly labeled water. Body composition was determined from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, maximum aerobic capacity from a treadmill test to exhaustion, and muscular strength from one-repetition maximum tests. Results showed that body composition did not change in endurance-trained women, but maximum aerobic capacity increased by 18%. Resistance-trained women increased muscular strength and fat-free mass (1.3 kg). TEE did not significantly change when measured subsequent to the endurance or resistance training programs. Absolute resting metabolic rate increased in resistance-trained women but not when adjusted for fat-free mass. No change in physical activity energy expenditure was found in any of the groups. These results suggest that endurance and resistance training does not chronically alter TEE in free-living young women. Thus, the energy-enhancing benefits of exercise training are primarily derived from the direct energy cost of exercise and not from a chronic elevation in daily energy expenditure in young, nonobese women. PMID:11889152

  20. Macroeconomic Causes of Family Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Kay Young

    The welfare of American families improved steadily for over 20 years after World War II. After the War on Poverty of the 1960s, the number of people living in poverty fell, reaching its lowest point in 1973. During the 1980s, homeless families, including those living in the streets, in cars, and in shelters seemingly appeared out of nowhere. As…

  1. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2007-01-01

    Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed significant…

  2. Homeless--And Doubled Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    The bank foreclosed on your home because your parents divorced and don't have enough money to pay the mortgage. You're locked out of your house. Where will the family sleep? Most families turn to friends and relatives at times like these. That's why about 75 percent of the 1,258,182 homeless students in the United States live…

  3. Contesting institutional discourse to create new possibilities for understanding lived experience: life?stories of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suniti Sharma

    2010-01-01

    This research explores autobiographies of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education as counter?stories to the official, institutional stories of their lives. The context of the study is a private detention facility in the United States; the participants are young women aged 15–19 years in a detention classroom; and data for the study comprises their autobiographies, official documents of their

  4. Narcissism as a Moderator of Satisfaction with Body Image in Young Women with Extreme Underweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Ma?gorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Objective Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. Methods The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI < 17.5, n = 85), and women with normal body weight (21.7 < “ideal BMI” > 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Principal Findings We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. Conclusion The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one’s body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body. PMID:25961302

  5. Universal screening for homelessness and risk for homelessness in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Fargo, Jamison D; Byrne, Thomas H; Kane, Vincent R; Culhane, Dennis P

    2013-12-01

    We examined data for all veterans who completed the Veterans Health Administration's national homelessness screening instrument between October 1, 2012, and January 10, 2013. Among veterans who were not engaged with the US Department of Veterans Affairs homeless system and presented for primary care services, the prevalence of recent housing instability or homelessness was 0.9% and homelessness risk was 1.2%. Future research will refine outreach strategies, targeting of prevention resources, and development of novel interventions. PMID:24148032

  6. Joined-Up Practice: Five Areas of Exemplary Practice for Social Workers and Educators to Re-Engage Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Phil; Livock, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Young people seen as "at risk" are a substantial focus across a wide range of policy and practice fields in national and international contexts. This article addresses two of those fields, youth homelessness and young people failing to obtain a basic education that will give them access to employment and full community participation. By comparing…

  7. Unaccompanied Homeless Youth: Intersections of Homelessness, School Experiences and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    School districts are faced with the challenge of how best to serve the needs of a growing homeless student population. As the numbers of homeless children and youth continue to rise, it is imperative for educators and others to understand the experiences of unaccompanied homeless youth. A qualitative research project was undertaken to obtain the…

  8. Exploring self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Leah J; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-04-01

    Using a mixed methods research design, we explored self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes. In a quantitative study (n = 83), we found that self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being were positively related (r = .76, p < .01). A model of multiple mediation was proposed, with self-compassion, passivity, responsibility, initiative, and self-determination accounting for 83% of the variance in eudaimonic well-being. In a qualitative study (n = 11), we explored when and how self-compassion might be useful in striving to reach one's potential in sport. Self-compassion was described as advantageous in difficult sport-specific situations by increasing positivity, perseverance, and responsibility, as well as decreasing rumination. Apprehensions about fully embracing a self-compassionate mindset in sport warrant additional research to explore the seemingly paradoxical role of self-compassion in eudaimonic well-being. PMID:24686956

  9. Healthy food consumption in young women. The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance.

    PubMed

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2015-07-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). PMID:25794685

  10. The preservation of ovarian function in young women undergoing pelvic radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Husseinzadeh, N.; Nahhas, W.A.; Velkley, D.E.; Whitney, C.W.; Mortel, R.

    1984-07-01

    Because cervical carcinoma rarely metastasizes to the ovaries, it became logical to preserve ovarian function by the method of lateral ovarian transposition as part of the management of young women with this disease. This technique prevents castration should subsequent radiation therapy be planned or become necessary. Forty patients with carcinoma of the cervix or vagina underwent unilateral or bilateral ovarian transposition. Eighteen patients received radiation therapy. Of these, 16 had gonadotropin measurements and only 6 (37%) had levels elevated to the postmenopausal range. If patients whose ovaries were not shielded or who received paraaortic radiotherapy are excluded, then only two (17%) had elevated gonadotropin values. It is concluded that, if properly performed, lateral ovarian transposition and ovarian shielding will protect ovarian function in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy.

  11. Promoting self-determination and self-directed employment planning for young women with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wehmeyer, Michael L; Parent, Wendy; Lattimore, Jennifer; Obremski, Shea; Poston, Denise; Rousso, Harilyn

    2009-01-01

    Self-determination, choice, and preference have become important issues in vocational rehabilitation and have long been staples of social work practice. This article provides an overview of a model, the self-determined career development model, which is designed to enable people with disabilities to self-direct planning that leads to employment. Specifically, this model is applied to young women with intellectual and developmental disabilities to obtain nontraditional employment through self-regulated, customized employment planning. This article examines issues pertaining to self-determination in the context of vocational guidance and planning, introduces the model and its use in secondary education and rehabilitation, and discusses the role of social workers in supporting consumer control and self-direction. PMID:20183627

  12. Thinking big: the effect of sexually objectifying music videos on bodily self-perception in young women.

    PubMed

    Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral music videos. Perceived and ideal body size were measured both before and after video exposure, using horizontally stretched and compressed photographs of the participant's own body in swimming garment. As expected, only women low (but not high) in self-esteem were negatively affected by the sexually objectifying content of the music videos: they perceived themselves as bigger and showed an increased discrepancy between their perceived and ideal body size after video exposure. The neutral music videos did not influence women's bodily self-perceptions. These findings suggest that body image is a flexible construct, and that high self-esteem can protect women against the adverse effects of sexually objectifying media. PMID:22960001

  13. Low-Level, High-Frequency Mechanical Signals Enhance Musculoskeletal Development of Young Women With Low BMD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente Gilsanz; Tishya AL Wren; Monique Sanchez; Frederick Dorey; Stefan Judex; Clinton Rubin

    2006-01-01

    The potential for brief periods of low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals to enhance the musculoskeletal system was evaluated in young women with low BMD. Twelve months of this noninvasive signal, induced as whole body vibration for at least 2 minutes each day, increased bone and muscle mass in the axial skeleton and lower extremities compared with controls. Introduction: The incidence of

  14. Girls and Young Women in Education: A European Perspective. Pergamon Comparative and International Education Series, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maggie, Ed.

    This book examines the experience of European young women in secondary and higher education. After an introductory chapter by Maggie Wilson, chapter 2 (by Nadine Plateau) presents an account of the failure of educational reforms and the introduction of co-education in French-speaking Belgium to mitigate divergent patterns of choice between boys…

  15. Perception of Supports and Barriers: Career Decision-Making for Sikh Indo-Canadian Young Women Entering the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Priya S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the supports and barriers that Sikh Indo-Canadian young women perceive in their career decision-making process to enter the applied social sciences at the university level. A qualitative descriptive case study approach (Yin, 2003) was used. Analyses indicated self-efficacy appraisals played an…

  16. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

  17. Effects of Short-Term Calcium Depletion and Repletion on Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Young Adult Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISTINA ÅKESSON; K.-H. WILLIAM; PATRICIA JOHNSTON; ELLEN IMPERIO; DAVID J. BAYLINK

    The skeletal responses to calcium depletion and repletion in ro- dents have been well characterized, but those in humans are poorly understood. The present study sought to evaluate the effects of short term dietary calcium depletion and repletion on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 15 young Caucasian women (age, 21-30 yr). The study contained 3 phases: 1) 5 days

  18. Uncommonly Good: Exploring How Mass Media May Be a Positive Influence on Young Women's Sexual Health and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Day, Kyla M.; Epstein, Marina

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Young Australian Women and Their Aspirations: "It's Hard Enough Thinking a Week or Two in Advance at the Moment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, Melissa; Lee, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Previous findings from quantitative research have shown that the majority of young Australian women aged 18 to 23 years aspire to be married, with children, and in the paid workforce when they are 35 years of age. However, the Theory of Emerging Adulthood suggests that this period of the lifespan is characterized by a prolonged stage of…

  20. Young Women and Men Aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Barque "Eagle": An Observation and Interview Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina

    1978-01-01

    Young women in service academies such as the Coast Guard Academy can break down the deep-rooted and still powerful sex stratification system only if they can break down the stereotypic, "exceptional woman" mechanisms that neutralize their achievements. To do this, they will have to be admitted in larger numbers. (Author/WI)

  1. Drivers and barriers to acceptance of human-papillomavirus vaccination among young women: a qualitative and quantitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gitte Lee Mortensen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer, and of genital warts. Few studies have examined attitudes to HPV vaccination since the introduction of HPV vaccines. We aimed to investigate the reasons for young women's acceptance or rejection of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine after its general availability in Denmark. METHOD: A literature review assessed attitudes

  2. The Use of Projective Drawings to Determine Visual Themes in Young Kuwaiti Women Impacted by the Iraqi Invasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin-Wakefield, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study is part of a larger qualitative research project which examines visual imagery created through projective art tasks undertaken by young Kuwaiti women who were resident in Kuwait during the 1990 Saddam-Hussein-led Iraqi invasion of their country. The purpose of this article is to present evidence from the study as it is evolving. This…

  3. Increasing Condom Use: Evaluation of a Theory-Based Intervention to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Young Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela D. Bryan; Leona S. Aiken; Stephen G. West

    1996-01-01

    A multicomponent intervention to increase condom use in sexually active young women was designed, implemented, and evaluated in a randomized experiment. Participants were 198 unmarried female college students (mean age = 18.6 years) who received a 1-session condom promotion intervention or a control (stress management) intervention. The condom promotion intervention led to increased self-reported condom use up to 6 months

  4. Capitalizing on Bourdieu: How Useful Are Concepts of "Social Capital" and "Social Field" for Researching "Marginalized" Young Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Andrea C.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and "social fields", comparing and contrasting his use of these concepts with that of James Coleman and Robert Putnam. It examines how Bourdieu's ideas offer a different way of understanding the lives of economically disadvantaged young women designated as "at risk" of leaving school…

  5. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  6. Single Muscle Fibre Contractile Properties in Young and Old Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Trappe, Scott; Gallagher, Philip; Harber, Matthew; Carrithers, John; Fluckey, James; Trappe, Todd

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an age-related decline in the isometric and isotonic contractile function of permeabilized slow (MHC I) and fast (MHC IIa) single muscle fibres. Vastus lateralis muscle fibres from six young men (YM; 25 ± 1 years), six young women (YW; 25 ± 1 years), six old men (OM; 80 ± 4 years) and six old women (OW; 78 ± 2 years) were studied at 15 °C for in vitro force-velocity properties, peak force and contractile velocity. Peak power was 23-28 % lower (P < 0.05) in MHC I fibres of YW compared to the other three groups. MHC IIa peak power was 25–40 % lower (P < 0.05) in OW compared to the other three groups. No difference was found in MHC I and IIa normalized peak power among any of the groups. Peak force was lower (P < 0.05) in the YW (MHC I fibres) and OW (MHC IIa fibres) compared to the other groups. Differences in peak force with ageing were negated when normalized to cell size. No age-related differences were observed in single fibre contractile velocity of MHC I and IIa fibres. These data show that YW (MHC I) and OW (MHC IIa) have lower single fibre absolute peak power and peak force compared to men; however, these differences are negated when normalized to cell size. General muscle protein concentrations (i.e. total, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar) from the same biopsies were lower (4–9 %, P < 0.05) in the OM and OW. However, myosin and actin concentrations were not different (P > 0.05) among the four groups. These data suggest that differences in whole muscle strength and function that are often observed with ageing appear to be regulated by quantitative rather than qualitative parameters of single muscle fibre contractile function. PMID:12837929

  7. Development of a 20-item food frequency questionnaire to assess a ‘prudent’ dietary pattern amongst young women in Southampton

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Barker, Mary E; Lawrence, Wendy T; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that can be used amongst young women in Southampton to assess compliance with a prudent dietary pattern characterised by high consumption of wholemeal bread, fruit and vegetables, and low consumption of sugar, white bread, and red and processed meat. Methods Diet was assessed using a 100-item interviewer-administered FFQ in 6,129 non-pregnant women aged 20-34 years. 94 of these women were re-interviewed two years later using the same FFQ. Subsequently diet was assessed in 378 women attending SureStart Children’s Centres in the Nutrition and Well-being Study using a 20-item FFQ. The 20 foods included were those that characterised the prudent dietary pattern. Results The 20-item prudent diet score was highly correlated with the full 100-item score (r=0.94) in the Southampton Women’s Survey. Both scores were correlated with red blood cell folate (r=0.28 for the 100-item score and r=0.25 for the 20-item score). Amongst the women re-interviewed after two years, the change in prudent diet score was correlated with change in red cell folate for both the 20-item (rS=0.31) and 100-item scores (rS=0.32). In the Nutrition and Well-being Study a strong association between the 20-item prudent diet score and educational attainment (r=0.41) was observed, similar to that seen in the Southampton Women’s Survey (r=0.47). Conclusions The prudent diet pattern describes a robust axis of variation in diet. A 20-item FFQ based on the foods that characterise the prudent diet pattern has clear advantages in terms of time and resources, and is a helpful tool to characterise the diets of young women in Southampton. PMID:19756032

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and experiences of sex trafficking by young women in Benin City, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonofua, F E; Ogbomwan, S M; Alutu, A N; Kufre, Okop; Eghosa, Aghahowa

    2004-09-01

    Benin City, the headquarters of Edo State, is known to have one of the highest rates of international sex trafficking of young women in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of young women in Benin City, towards international sex trafficking. A random household sample of 1456 women aged 15-25 years was interviewed with a structured questionnaire that elicited information on women's experiences of, and attitudes towards international sex trafficking. The results indicate that 97.4% of the women have heard of international sex trafficking; 70% had female relatives who lived in the receiving countries of Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands; while 44.0% knew of someone who was currently engaged in sex work abroad. Up to 32% of the women reported that they had been approached by someone offering to assist them to travel abroad. Women of poorer socio-economic status (being out-of-school, unemployed, parents uneducated and unemployed) were more likely to report having been offered assistance to travel abroad. Up to 81.5% of the women supported the notion that sex trafficking should be stopped, while 18.5% felt it should be allowed to continue. The perception that sex trafficking leads to wealth creation and economic gains for women was the most common reason proffered by those wanting the practice to continue. By contrast, the fear of adverse health consequences and the need to maintain social and religious morals were the reasons given by those wanting the practice to discontinue. These results suggest that programs that promote the economic well being of women, and social advocacy focusing on harm reduction will be most helpful in reducing the rate of sex trafficking in Benin City. PMID:15210102

  9. Street Kids--Homeless and Runaway Youth. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This hearing was the second in a series examining the impact of homelessness and dislocation on young people in America. This session focused on the problems of homeless and runaway adolescents. Witnesses described the need for multiple services for this population, for effective provision of services, and for greater coordination and planning.…

  10. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. Methodology A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. Principal Findings The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (–0.012, 95%CI: –.038?0.006, p?=?0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022?0.044, p<0.001) and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005?0.023, p<0.01), respectively. Conclusions Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population. PMID:23071655

  11. Place and sexual partnership transition among young American Indian and Alaska native women.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Cassels, Susan

    2014-08-01

    Multiple challenges expose American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women to high-risk sexual partnerships and increased risk for HIV/STI. Using a unique sample of sexually-active young AIAN women (n = 129), we examined characteristics of last three partners and whether transitional partnerships were associated with different risk profiles, including where partners met, lived, and had sex. Respondents were more likely to have met their previous or current secondary partner (P2) at a friend's or family setting (versus work or social setting) (AOR = 3.92; 95 % CI 1.31, 11.70). Condom use was less likely when meeting a partner at friend's or family settings (AOR = 0.17; 95 % CI 0.05, 0.59). Sexual intercourse with P2 (compared to P1) usually took place in "riskier" settings such as a car, bar, or outside (AOR = 4.15; 95 % CI 1.59, 10.68). Perceived "safe" places, e.g., friend's or family's house, were identified with risky behaviors; thus, homogeneous messaging campaigns may promote a false sense of safety. PMID:24276791

  12. Linear and daily undulating resistance training periodizations have differential beneficial effects in young sedentary women.

    PubMed

    de Lima, C; Boullosa, D A; Frollini, A B; Donatto, F F; Leite, R D; Gonelli, P R G; Montebello, M I L; Prestes, J; Cesar, M C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled study was to verify the impact of a 12-weeks muscular endurance (ME) training of high repetitions (i. e., 15-30) with 2 different periodization models on body composition, maximal strength, muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty eight sedentary women aged 20-35 years were randomly assigned to: control (CON) (n=8), linear periodization (LP) (n=10) and daily undulating periodization (DUP) (n=10). LP and DUP models significantly improved body composition, maximal strength and ME. However, no significant changes were detected for cardiorespiratory fitness. LP showed a higher body fat loss (- 12.73%) compared to DUP (- 9.93%) (p=0.049), and systematically higher effect sizes (ES) when compared with DUP for maximal strength and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters (e. g. ES=0.53 for ventilatory threshold). In contrast, DUP exhibited a significantly (p=0.002) greater ME gain (129.43%) compared to LP (70.72%) in bench press, and greater ES in all exercises. It may be suggested that LP performed with a high number of repetitions may be considered an appropriate periodization model for untrained young women that would likely lead to the improvement of body composition and maximum strength performance, whereas DUP is more effective for the development of ME. PMID:22562746

  13. Locoregional and Distant Recurrence Patterns in Young versus Elderly Women Treated for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rudra, Soumon; Yu, David S.; Yu, Esther S.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Mister, Donna; Torres, Mylin A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study examined recurrence patterns in breast cancer patients younger than age of 40 and older than age of 75, two groups that are underrepresented in clinical trials and not routinely screened by mammography. Methods. The records of 230 breast cancer patients (n = 125 less than 40 and n = 105 greater than 75) who presented to the Emory University Department of Radiation Oncology for curative treatment between 1997 and 2010 were reviewed. Data recorded included disease presentation, treatment, and areas of locoregional recurrence. Results. Women less than 40 years of age had higher rates of locoregional recurrence (20% versus 7%, P = 0.004) and distant recurrence (18% versus 5%, P = 0.003) than patients above 75 years of age. On multivariate analysis, patient age less than 40 was the only significant predictor of locoregional recurrence (P = 0.018). In a univariate analysis of each age group, receptor status and postlumpectomy radiation were significant predictors of locoregional recurrence-free survival in younger women while mammography screening predicted for distant recurrence-free survival in older patients. Conclusion. The factors identified in our age-stratified analysis highlight patients who are at high risk of locoregional and distant recurrence. Future studies aimed at enhancing therapies in young patients are warranted. PMID:25949828

  14. Risks and music - patterns among young women and men in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, M C; Sorbring, E; Widén, S E; Erlandsson, S I

    2011-01-01

    Music and high levels of sound have not traditionally been associated with risk-taking behaviors. Loud music may intensify and bring more power and meaning to the musical experience, but it can at the same time be harmful to hearing. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about young women's and men's risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men). The Australian instrument ARQ was used with additional questions on hearing risks and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behavior scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. Also, the factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender. The results are discussed from a gender- and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behavior needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence. PMID:21768735

  15. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  16. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  17. Fowler's syndrome--a cause of unexplained urinary retention in young women?

    PubMed

    Osman, Nadir I; Chapple, Christopher R

    2014-02-01

    Urinary retention in women is an uncommon and poorly understood condition. In 1986, Fowler and colleagues described a syndrome in young women with unexplained urinary retention associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. The underlying abnormality was a poorly relaxing external urethral sphincter that when studied using concentric needle electromyography showed a distinct abnormal pattern suggesting direct spread of impulses between muscle fibres. These findings were subsequently reproduced by other researchers and in larger patient cohorts, but remain the subject of much debate. A poorly relaxing sphincter is thought to cause increased urethral afferent activity, which inhibits bladder afferent signalling leading to poor bladder sensation and detrusor underactivity. Most studies of Fowler's syndrome are limited due to small cohorts with no control group and a lack of videourodynamic data. Whether Fowler's syndrome represents a distinct cause of urinary retention or results from a maladaptive behaviour and is similar to dysfunctional voiding is unclear. Application of sacral neuromodulation in patients diagnosed with Fowler's syndrome can restore normal voiding, in the absence of any effective pharmacotherapy or surgical treatment. PMID:24323131

  18. Self-Perception of Quality of Life and Its Association with Lifestyle Behaviours of Young Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    SALEHI, Asiyeh; HARRIS, Neil; SEBAR, Bernadette; COYNE, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limited studies have examined the relationship between quality of life and lifestyle behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of quality of life among young Iranian women and its association with lifestyle behaviors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 391 young women selected through a cluster convenience sampling strategy in Shiraz, Iran. WHOQoL-BREF and satisfaction with life scales were used to measure subjective well-being. The International Health and Behavior survey was used for measuring lifestyle behaviors. Results: Young Iranian women were averagely dissatisfied with their life circumstances. The score of psychological quality of life, and social quality of life were below average. According to the findings, higher quality of life is positively related to healthier lifestyle behaviors. Multiple regression analysis showed that smoking and physical activity are the main predictors of quality of life. Findings also demonstrate that diminished quality of life was significantly associated with older age, low income, being single, low level of religiosity, smoking and low levels of physical activity. Conclusion: In order to improve the situation of young Iranian women, the findings that should be sources of concern to policy makers include the average dissatisfaction with circumstances of life particularly in terms of psychological, social and environmental quality of life. While the health system focus is often upon addressing unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, policy initiatives aimed at improving these circumstances of life for young Iranian women would be of substantial medium to long-term benefit to their wellbeing. PMID:25905076

  19. A Welfare Reform--Homelessness--Foster Care Connection? The Story of "Lag Families" and "Limbo Children" in San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    An analysis of data from a survey of more than 100 parents residing in emergency shelter in San Diego, California, reveals a portrait of poverty that is prevalent among women and children in the United States today. Homeless families in San Diego, as in the rest of the country, are most often headed by women in their early thirties whose prospects…

  20. Occasional tobacco use among young adult women: a longitudinal analysis of smoking transitions

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Liane; Dobson, Annette; Owen, Neville

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe prospective transitions in smoking among young adult women who were occasional smokers, and the factors associated with these transitions, by comparing sociodemographic, lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics of those who changed from occasional smoking to daily smoking, non?daily smoking or non?smoking. Design Longitudinal study with mailed questionnaires. Participants/setting Women aged 18–23?years in 1996 were randomly selected from the Medicare Australia database, which provides the most complete list of people in Australia. Main outcome measures Self?reported smoking status at survey 1 (1996), survey 2 (2000) and survey 3 (2003), for 7510 participants who took part in all three surveys and who had complete data on smoking at survey 1. Results At survey 1, 28% (n?=?2120) of all respondents reported smoking. Among the smokers, 39% (n?=?829) were occasional smokers. Of these occasional smokers, 18% changed to daily smoking at survey 2 and remained daily smokers at survey 3; 12% reported non?daily smoking at surveys 2 and 3; 36% stopped smoking and remained non?smokers; and 33% moved between daily, non?daily and non?smoking over surveys 2 and 3. Over the whole 7?year period, approximately half stopped smoking, one?quarter changed to daily smoking and the remainder reported non?daily smoking. Multivariate analysis identified that a history of daily smoking for ?6?months at baseline predicted reversion to daily smoking at follow?up. Being single and using illicit drugs were also associated with change to daily or non?daily smoking, whereas alcohol consumption was associated with non?daily smoking only. Compared with stopping smoking, the change to daily smoking was significantly associated with having intermediate educational qualifications. No significant associations with depression and perceived stress were observed in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the prevalence of smoking among young women need to take account of occasional smokers, who made up 39% of all smokers in this study. Targeted interventions to prevent the escalation to daily smoking and to promote cessation should allow for the social context of smoking with alcohol and other drugs, and social and environmental influences in vocational education and occupational settings. PMID:17652240

  1. Biological, socio-demographic, work and lifestyle determinants of sitting in young adult women: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sitting is associated with health risks. Factors that influence sitting are however not well understood. The aim was to examine the biological, socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle determinants of sitting time (including during transport, work and leisure) in young adult Australian women. Methods Self-reported data from 11,676 participants (aged 22–27 years in 2000) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health were collected over 9 years in 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009. Generalised Estimating Equations were used to examine univariable and multivariable associations of body mass index (BMI), country of birth, area of residence, education, marital status, number of children, occupational status, working hours, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake and stress with week- and weekend-day sitting time. Results Compared with women in the respective referent categories, (1) women with higher BMI, those born in Asia, those with less than University level education, doing white collar work, working 41–48 hours a week, current smokers, non, rare or risky/high risk drinkers and those being somewhat stressed had significantly higher sitting time; and (2) women living in rural and remote areas, partnered women, those with children, those without a paid job and blue collar workers, those working less than 34 hours a week, and active women had significantly lower sitting time. Conclusions Among young adult Australian women, those with higher BMI, those born in Asia, those with higher level occupations and long working hours, were most at risk of higher sitting time. These results can be used to identify at-risk groups and inform intervention development. PMID:24457004

  2. 76 FR 64184 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...Strategic Health Care Group; and briefings on mental health, women Veterans' legislative issues, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. No time will be allocated at this meeting for receiving...

  3. 76 FR 6197 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...Strategic Health Care Group; and briefings on mental health, women Veterans' legislative issues, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. No time will be allocated for receiving oral presentations...

  4. Breaking the circle: challenging Western sociocultural norms for appearance influences young women's attention to appearance-related media.

    PubMed

    Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-06-01

    Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem. Seventy-one college women either received norm-confirming, norm-challenging, or no information regarding the sociocultural norms for appearance. Subsequently, participants' visual attention to appearance-related and neutral advertisements was measured using an eye-tracker. The results demonstrate that when no information or norm-confirming information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid more attention to the appearance-related advertisements than women with higher self-esteem. Importantly however, when norm-challenging information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid significantly less attention to the appearance-related ads than women with lower self-esteem who did not receive this manipulation. These findings indicate that challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance can attenuate the amount of attention women give to appearance-related media. PMID:23523085

  5. If, when and how to tell: a qualitative study of HIV disclosure among young women in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Haas, Sophia; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda; Lambdin, Barrot H; Dunbar, Megan S

    2012-12-01

    In the Shona culture of Zimbabwe, a high regard for childbearing contributes to strong pressures on women to have children. For young women living with HIV, consequently, disclosure of HIV status can be a central strategy to garner support for controlling fertility. This paper reports findings from qualitative interviews with 28 young women aged 16-20 living with HIV in urban Zimbabwe and discusses how these findings can contribute to better policies and programs for this population. Regardless of their current relationship status, interview participants described disclosure as a turning point in romantic partnerships, recounting stressful experiences with major ramifications such as abuse and abandonment on the one hand, and support and love on the other. All but one participant had been in a committed relationship, and most had disclosed to a previous or current partner, with about half of disclosure experiences resulting in adverse reactions. Findings suggest that sexual and reproductive health services must do more to help young women living with HIV negotiate the complexities of disclosure in the context of achieving desired fertility. PMID:23177677

  6. “THEY HAVE OPENED OUR MOUTHS”: INCREASING WOMEN’S SKILLS AND MOTIVATION FOR SEXUAL COMMUNICATION WITH YOUNG PEOPLE IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Phetla, Godfrey; Busza, Joanna; Hargreaves, James R.; Pronyk, Paul M.; Kim, Julia C.; Morison, Linda A.; Watts, Charlotte; Porter, John D.H.

    2012-01-01

    Communication between parents and young people about sex has been identified as a positive influence on young people’s sexual behavior. This article presents findings from South Africa, where a social intervention to reduce levels of HIV and intimate partner violence actively promoted sexual communication between adults and young people. We assessed this component of the program using quantitative and qualitative methods, collecting data through surveys, direct observation, interviews, and focus group discussions. Women participating in intervention activities reported sexual communication with children significantly more often than matched women in the control group (80.3% vs. 49.4%, adjusted risk ratio 1.59 (1.31-1.93). The content of communication with young people also appears to have shifted from vague admonitions about the dangers of sex to concrete messages about reducing risks. The congruence between these findings and existing literature on parent-child sexual communication suggests that conceptual frameworks and programs from developed settings can be adapted effectively for resource-poor contexts. PMID:19072526

  7. Arterial stiffness and blood flow adaptations following eight weeks of resistance exercise training in young and older women.

    PubMed

    Rossow, Lindy M; Fahs, Christopher A; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kim, Daeyeol; Mouser, James G; Shore, Erin A; Beck, Travis W; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2014-05-01

    Resistance training is recommended for all adults of both sexes. The arterial stiffness and limb blood flow responses to resistance training in young and older women have not been well-studied. The purpose of this study was to examine arterial stiffness and blood flow adaptations to high-intensity resistance exercise training in young and older women. Young (aged 18-25) and older (aged 50-64) women performed full-body high-intensity resistance exercise three times per week for eight weeks. The following measurements were performed twice prior to training and once following training: carotid to femoral and femoral to tibialis posterior pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure, heart rate, resting forearm blood flow and forearm reactive hyperemia. Data was analyzed by ANOVAs with alpha set at 0.05. Correlations were also examined between changes in arterial stiffness and baseline arterial stiffness values. Older subjects had higher carotid-femoral PWV than younger subjects. No significant effects were found for femoral-tibialis posterior PWV or for resting forearm blood flow. Changes in carotid-femoral and femoral-tibialis posterior PWV correlated significantly with their respective baseline values. Older subjects increased peak forearm blood flow while young subjects showed no change. Total hyperemia increased significantly in both groups. In conclusion, in both young and older women, eight weeks of high-intensity resistance training appeared to improve microvascular forearm function while not changing carotid-femoral or femoral-tibialis posterior arterial stiffness. However, a large degree of individual variation was found and arterial stiffness adaptations appeared positively related to the initial stiffness values. PMID:24566193

  8. Accessible to young women. Women's Health Care Foundation has served almost 31,000 clients for about 600,000 medical and other related services.

    PubMed

    Tadiar, F M

    1993-03-01

    In the Philippines, the Women's Health Care Foundation (WHCF) provides comprehensive health care, information, and training services to women throughout their life cycle. It targets young women, especially students and prostitutes. It operates 3 clinics in Metro Manila. Each clinic is staffed by women, including a physician, nurses, or midwives, and a medical technologist. They serve patients during hours when government health facilities are closed. Key services include prenatal care, family planning, delivery services, counseling, and diagnosis and management of reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases. The clinics provide quality care to all clients regardless of ability to pay, motive, profession, social and marital status, age, and health condition. Clients make their own decisions about health and reproductive care. Staff treat clients with respect and accord them privacy. Its outreach program conducts focus group discussions in poor communities to determine seminar topics and provides free clinics in these communities. It plans on doing information, education, and communication activities revolving around family planning for businesses that employ fewer than 50 workers, particularly women. It also hopes to conduct an AIDS information campaign. The Foundation has established the Institute for Social Studies and Action to address training, research, and evaluation needs. It plans on publishing research results to serve as a basis for decision makers to design policies, legislation, and programs. WHCF has established a good working relationship with other women's health nongovernmental organizations, government agencies, and with international organizations, e.g., Johns Hopkins University's Center for Communication Programs. PMID:12286369

  9. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Reasons for Homelessness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Tessler; Robert Rosenheck; Gail Gamache

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the ways in which the perceived pathways into homelessness are socially structured. We do this by examining the relative frequency of 11 different reasons homeless males and females cite for being homeless. Males were more likely to cite the following as their main reasons for homelessness: loss of a job,

  10. Homeless Children: Addressing the Challenge in Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissing, Yvonne M.

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, homelessness is as prevalent in rural as urban areas. This digest examines the implications of homelessness for rural children and youth and discusses possible actions by rural educators. An estimated half of the rural homeless are families with children. Compared to urban counterparts, rural homeless families…

  11. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Homeless Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony C. Lee; John G. Hanlon; Jessica Ben-David; Gillian L. Booth; Warren J. Cantor; Philip W. Connelly; Stephen W. Hwang

    2010-01-01

    Background—Homeless people represent an extremely disadvantaged group in North America. Among older homeless men, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The objective of this study was to examine cardiovascular risk factors in a representative sample of homeless adults and identify opportunities for improved risk factor modification. Methods and Results—Homeless persons were randomly selected at shelters for single

  12. The Impact of Homelessness on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Yvonne; Shinn, Marybeth

    1991-01-01

    Reviews community-based research on the effects of homelessness on children. Homeless children face threats to their future well-being resulting from health problems, hunger, poor nutrition, developmental delays, anxiety, depression, behavioral problems, and educational underachievement. Contributing factors may include inadequate shelter,…

  13. Homeless patients' experience of satisfaction with care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan McCabe; Carol L. Macnee; Mary Kay Anderson

    2001-01-01

    This article explores homeless individuals' experiences of satisfaction with health care, and explores the interrelationship among experiences of being homeless, health perceptions of participants, and experiences of satisfaction with health care. It presents the findings of a phenomenological study that was conducted using participants selected from five sites in one southeastern state. Participant interviews were conducted at a nurse-managed primary

  14. Assessing the Nutritional Needs of Homeless Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Grover; AC Hergenroeder; SR Morrow; BL Haefner

    1998-01-01

    A survey instrument was developed to describe the nutritional habits and needs of homeless adolescents. It incorporated the Block Food Frequency (BFFQ) questionnaire with 37 questions regarding: current practices of obtaining food; nutritional education needs; and demographic information. The survey was reviewed, pilot-tested, and revised Subjects were 18-20 year old residents at a homeless shelter for less than 72 hours

  15. Measuring pain in the context of homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Rebecca; Kline, Susan; Cook, Karon F.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to inform the development of measures of pain impact appropriate for all respondents, including homeless individuals, so that they can be used in clinical research and practice. The secondary objective was to increase understanding about the unique experience of homeless people with pain. Methods Seventeen homeless individuals with chronic health conditions (often associated with pain) participated in cognitive interviews to test the functioning of 56 pain measurement items and provided information about their experience living with and accessing treatment for pain. Results The most common problems identified with items were that they lacked clarity or were irrelevant in the context of homelessness. Items that were unclear, irrelevant and/or had other identified problems made it difficult for participants to respond. Participants also described multiple ways in which their pain was exacerbated by conditions of homelessness and identified barriers to accessing appropriate treatment. Conclusions Results suggested that the majority of items were problematic for the homeless and require substantial modifications to make the pain impact bank relevant to this population. Additional recommendations include involving homeless in future item bank development, conducting research on the topic of pain and homelessness, and using cognitive interviewing in other types of health disparities research. PMID:19582592

  16. Working to End Family Homelessness. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Center on Family Homelessness is determined to end family homelessness. Sheltering families provides a temporary safe haven. Connecting families to permanent housing, essential services, and critical supports can change their lives forever. Through research the Center learns what families need to rebound from the housing, economic,…

  17. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  18. Homeless persons' decisions to accept or reject public health disease-detection services.

    PubMed

    Swigart, Valerie; Kolb, Randall

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the factors that homeless persons report as influencing their decisions to utilize or reject a public health disease-detection program. Although there is copious literature on homelessness, few studies report the real-life perspectives of homeless persons toward health or health promotion. A convenience sample of 55 sheltered and street-dwelling homeless persons, who either resided in or were visiting seven shelters in a large northeastern U.S. city, were interviewed. The interview questions focused on the bases for decisions to accept or reject tuberculosis screening. The in-depth semistructured audio-taped interviews were transcribed, coded, and categorized using Ethnograph software. Interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative content analysis methods. The findings describe homeless persons' reasons for accepting or rejecting a tuberculosis-detection service, the prominent role of shelter personnel in recruitment for health-related interventions, and the confidentiality needs of women with children. This information can assist community health practitioners in designing and advertising health-promotion and disease-detection programming. PMID:14987216

  19. Histologically confirmed isolated IgG4-related hypophysitis: two case reports in young women

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Gabriela Alejandra; Bell, Soledad; Christiansen, Silvia Beatriz; Pietrani, Marcelo; Glerean, Mariela; Loto, Monica; Lovazzano, Soledad; Carrizo, Antonio; Ajler, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Summary IgG4-related hypophysitis is a recently described entity belonging to the group of IgG4-related diseases. Many other organs can also be affected, and it is more common in older men. To date, 32 cases of IgG4-related hypophysitis have been reported in the literature, 11 of which included confirmatory tissue biopsy and the majority affecting multiple organs. The aim of this report is to present two cases of biopsy-proven IgG4-related hypophysitis occurring in two young female patients with no evidence of involvement of other organs at the time of diagnosis. Learning points IgG4-related hypophysitis belongs to the group of IgG4-related diseases, and is a fibro-inflammatory condition characterized by dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis.It is more common in older men, but young women may also present this type of hypophysitis.Although involvement of other organs is frequent, isolated pituitary disease is possible.Frequent clinical manifestations include anterior hypopituitarism and/or diabetes insipidus.The diagnosis may be confirmed with any of the following criteria: a pituitary biopsy with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, with more than ten IgG4-positive cells; a sellar mass and/or thickened pituitary stalk and a biopsy-proven involvement of another organ; a sellar mass and/or thickened pituitary stalk and IgG4 serum levels >140?mg/dl and sellar mass reduction and symptom improvement after corticosteroid treatment.Glucocorticoids are recommended as first-line therapy. PMID:25298883

  20. Health interventions for people who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Stephen W; Burns, Tom

    2014-10-25

    Homelessness has serious implications for the health of individuals and populations. Primary health-care programmes specifically tailored to homeless individuals might be more effective than standard primary health care. Standard case management, assertive community treatment, and critical time intervention are effective models of mental health-care delivery. Housing First, with immediate provision of housing in independent units with support, improves outcomes for individuals with serious mental illnesses. Many different types of interventions, including case management, are effective in the reduction of substance misuse. Interventions that provide case management and supportive housing have the greatest effect when they target individuals who are the most intensive users of services. Medical respite programmes are an effective intervention for homeless patients leaving the hospital. Although the scientific literature provides guidance on interventions to improve the health of homeless individuals, health-care providers should also seek to address social policies and structural factors that result in homelessness. PMID:25390579

  1. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Kalasuramath, Suneeta; Kurpad, Anura V.; Thankachan, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe) status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR). The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of 57Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption. PMID:23563376

  2. Maximal strength training improves bone mineral density and neuromuscular performance in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Mats P; Carlsen, Trude; Aas, Elisabeth; Hoff, Jan; Stunes, Astrid K; Syversen, Unni

    2014-10-01

    -Exercise guidelines highlight maximizing bone mass early in life as a strategy to prevent osteoporosis. Which intervention is most effective for this purpose remains unclear. This study investigated the musculoskeletal effects of high acceleration, maximal strength training (MST), in young adult women. Thirty healthy women (22 ± 2 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) and a control group (CG). The TG completed 12 weeks of squat MST, executed at 85-90% of maximal strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), emphasizing progressive loading and high acceleration in the concentric phase. The CG was encouraged to follow the American College of Sports Medicine's exercise guidelines for skeletal health. Measurements included bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, dynamic and isometric rate of force development (RFD), and squat 1RM. Serum levels of type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX), and sclerostin were analyzed by immunoassays. In the TG, lumbar spine and total hip BMD increased by 2.2 and 1.0%, whereas serum P1NP increased by 26.2%. Dynamic RFD and 1RM improved by 81.7 and 97.7%, and isometric RFD improved by 38% at 100 milliseconds. These improvements were significantly greater than those observed in the CG. Within the CG, dynamic RFD and 1RM increased by 27.2 and 12.9% while no other significant changes occurred. These findings suggest that squat MST may serve as a simple, time-efficient strategy to optimize peak bone mass in early adulthood. PMID:24736773

  3. Advocating for safe abortion in Rwanda: how young people and the personal stories of young women in prison brought about change.

    PubMed

    Umuhoza, Chantal; Oosters, Barbara; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2013-05-01

    In June 2012, a new abortion law came into effect in Rwanda as part of a larger review of Rwanda's penal code. This was a significant step in a country where it was previously taboo even to discuss abortion. This article describes some of the crucial elements in how this success was achieved in Rwanda, which began through a project launched by Rutgers WPF on "sensitive issues in young people's sexuality" in several countries. This paper describes how the Rwandan Youth Action Movement decided to work on unsafe abortion as part of this project. They gathered data on the extent of unsafe abortion and testimonies of young Rwandan women in prison for abortions; organized debates, values clarification exercises, interviews and a survey in four universities; launched a petition for law reform; produced awareness-raising materials; worked with the media; and met with representatives from government ministries, the national women's and youth councils, and parliamentarians - all of which played a significant role in the advocacy process for amendment of the law, which was revised when the penal code came up for review in June 2012. This history shows how important the role of young people can be in producing change and exposes, through personal stories, the need for a better abortion law, not only in Rwanda but also elsewhere. PMID:23684187

  4. Health disparities in the Native Hawaiian homeless.

    PubMed

    Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

    2010-06-01

    While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawaii Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid organizations like the H.O.M.E. project to better address the health needs of the Native Hawaiian homeless population. PMID:20540000

  5. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle architecture in untrained young vs. old women.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Winwood, K; Morse, C I; Onambélé, G L

    2014-12-01

    It is unknown whether loading of the lower limbs through additional storage of fat mass as evident in obesity would promote muscular adaptations similar to those seen with resistance exercise. It is also unclear whether ageing modulates any such adjustments. This study aimed to examine the relationships between adiposity, ageing and skeletal muscle size and architecture. A total of 100 untrained healthy women were categorised by age into young (Y) (mean ± SD: 26.7 ± 9.4 years) vs. old (O) (65.1 ± 7.2 years) and body mass index (BMI) classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese). Participants were assessed for body fat using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and for gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle architecture (skeletal muscle fascicle pennation angle and length) and size [GM muscle volume and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA)] using B-mode ultrasonography. GM fascicle pennation angle (FPA) in the obese Y females was 25% greater than underweight (P = 0.001) and 25% greater than normal weight (P = 0.001) individuals, while O females had 32 and 22% greater FPA than their underweight (P = 0.008) and normal weight (P = 0.003) counterparts. Furthermore, FPA correlated with body mass in both Y and O females (Y r = 0.303; P < 0.001; O r = 0.223; P = 0.001), yet no age-related differences in the slope or r-values were observed (P > 0.05). Both GM muscle volume (P = 0.003) and PCSA (P = 0.004) exhibited significant age × BMI interactions. In addition, muscle volume and PCSA correlated with BMI, body mass and fat mass. Interestingly, ageing reduced both the degree of association in these correlations (P < 0.05) and the slope of the regressions (P < 0.05). Our findings partly support our hypotheses in that obesity-associated changes in GM PCSA and volume differed between the young and old. The younger GM muscle adapted to the loading induced by high levels of body mass, adiposity and BMI by increasing its volume and increasing its pennation angle, ultimately enabling it to produce higher maximum torque. Such an adaptation to increased loading did not occur in the older GM muscle. Nonetheless, the older GM muscle FPA increased to a similar extent to that seen in young GM muscle, an effect which partly explains the relatively enhanced absolute maximum torque observed in obese older females. PMID:25315680

  6. The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

  7. Food handling behaviors of special importance for pregnant women, infants and young children, the elderly, and immune-compromised people.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia C; Hillers, Virginia; Chen, Gang; DiMascola, Steve

    2003-12-01

    This study used a Web-based Delphi process with a group of nationally recognized food safety experts to identify food-handling behaviors of special importance in reducing the risk of foodborne illness among pregnant women, infants and young children, elderly people, and people with compromised immune systems because of disease or pharmacologic therapy. Behaviors were related to 13 pathogens. Top-rated behaviors for pregnant women were associated with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii, and Salmonella species. Top-rated behaviors for infants and young children, elderly people, and immune-compromised people were associated with a number of different pathogens. The results should help dietetics professionals and community health educators focus their efforts on those behaviors of special importance to the population being targeted. PMID:14647094

  8. Iterative development of MobileMums: a physical activity intervention for women with young children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To describe the iterative development process and final version of ‘MobileMums’: a physical activity intervention for women with young children (<5?years) delivered primarily via mobile telephone (mHealth) short messaging service (SMS). Methods MobileMums development followed the five steps outlined in the mHealth development and evaluation framework: 1) conceptualization (critique of literature and theory); 2) formative research (focus groups, n= 48); 3) pre-testing (qualitative pilot of intervention components, n= 12); 4) pilot testing (pilot RCT, n= 88); and, 5) qualitative evaluation of the refined intervention (n= 6). Results Key findings identified throughout the development process that shaped the MobileMums program were the need for: behaviour change techniques to be grounded in Social Cognitive Theory; tailored SMS content; two-way SMS interaction; rapport between SMS sender and recipient; an automated software platform to generate and send SMS; and, flexibility in location of a face-to-face delivered component. Conclusions The final version of MobileMums is flexible and adaptive to individual participant’s physical activity goals, expectations and environment. MobileMums is being evaluated in a community-based randomised controlled efficacy trial (ACTRN12611000481976). PMID:23256730

  9. Pregnancies in perinatally HIV-infected young women and implications for care and service programs.

    PubMed

    Millery, Mari; Vazquez, Seydi; Walther, Virginia; Humphrey, Natalie; Schlecht, Jennifer; Van Devanter, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    A cohort of individuals with perinatally acquired HIV is maturing into reproductive age. This study describes pregnancy incidence and outcomes among females ages 15-25 with perinatally acquired HIV infection receiving comprehensive family-centered services in New York City. Chart reviews from 1998-2006 indicated 33 pregnancies among 96 young women. Twenty-six percent of the cohort experienced a pregnancy during the study period, with a rate of 125 per 1,000 person years in 2006. The age of first pregnancy ranged from 15-25; 24% were younger than 18. Fourteen pregnancies (42%) were terminated. Nineteen pregnancies resulted in live births, and all infants tested negative for HIV. The success of preventing vertical HIV transmission is attributed to interdisciplinary family-centered services, including reproductive health education, family planning, obstetric-gynecologic services and psychosocial support. Such approach is most likely to be effective at promoting healthy reproductive decisions and reducing morbidity in perinatally infected mothers and their children. PMID:21820325

  10. The relationship between cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase, and cognitive bias in young women.

    PubMed

    Kreher, Donna A; Powers, Sally I; Granger, Douglas A

    2012-02-01

    Both animal and human studies suggest that cognitive bias toward negative information, such as that observed in major depression, may arise through the interaction of cortisol (CORT) and norepinephrine (NE) within the amygdala. To date, there is no published account of the relationship between endogenous NE and CORT levels and cognitive bias. The present study examined salivary CORT and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), an indirect measure of NE, in relation to masked affective priming of words in young female participants. Women with higher salivary CORT showed increased priming to negative word pairs only when sAA was also high; when sAA was low, no effect of CORT on priming was observed. These results are in line with previous research indicating that increased CORT is linked to enhanced processing of negative information. However, our findings extend this literature in providing evidence that CORT predicts enhanced processing of negatively valenced information only in the presence of higher sAA. PMID:22289045

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms, haematological and hormonal parameters in young women.

    PubMed

    El-Lithy, A; El-Mazny, A; Sabbour, A; El-Deeb, A

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms, haematological and hormonal parameters in young women. A total of 30 participants aged 16-20 years and complaining of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) were randomly assigned into two groups: a control group received vitamin B6 and Ca supplements once daily and a study group received the same medical treatment and participated in treadmill training three times per week for 3 months. A premenstrual syndrome questionnaire (MSQ), complete blood picture and hormone assays were performed for the assessment of all participants at the start and after the end of the treatment course. The study group showed a significant decrease in all post-treatment subscale symptoms, scores and total score. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, red cell count and platelet count were significantly increased, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and white blood cell count showed no significant differences. There was also a significant decrease in prolactin, oestradiol and progesterone levels. In conclusion, aerobic exercise increases haemoglobin, haematocrit, red cell count and platelet count, and decreases levels of prolactin, oestradiol and progesterone, resulting in improvement of fatigue, impaired concentration, confusion and most premenstrual symptoms. PMID:25279689

  12. Facets of impulsivity interactively predict body fat and binge eating in young women.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Platte, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Impulsivity has been positively linked to overeating and obesity, but findings are inconsistent. Studies using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) show that measures of overeating appear to be most consistently associated with scores on the subscale attentional impulsivity in both non-clinical and clinical samples. Additionally, individuals with binge-eating behaviors may have elevated scores on the subscale motor impulsivity. In the current study, young women (N?=?133) completed the short form of the BIS (BIS-15), the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire, and height, weight and body composition were measured. Regression analyses showed that attentional and motor impulsivity positively predicted binge eating and general eating pathology, while non-planning impulsivity negatively predicted these variables. Moreover, attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predicted percent body fat, and the number of subjective and objective binge episodes. Results show that only specific aspects of trait impulsivity (attentional and motor impulsivity) are positively associated with body mass and binge eating. Non-planning impulsivity appears to be unrelated or even inversely related to those variables, at least in female students. Elevated levels of attentional impulsivity in conjunction with high motor impulsivity may be a risk factor for overweight and clinically relevant binge eating. PMID:25582417

  13. Links between perceived parent characteristics and attachment variables for young women from intact families.

    PubMed

    Carranza, L V; Kilmann, P R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined links between perceived parent characteristics and attachment variables for young women from intact families (biological parents still married to each other). One hundred fifty-four female college students served as subjects. They rated both parents using items derived from Secunda's (1992) descriptions of father characteristics, and also were assessed on measures of adult attachment, self-esteem, and interpersonal trust. Positive correlations were found between secure attachment and self-concept, good father characteristics, and doting mother characteristics. An insecure attachment pattern was associated with lower self-worth, less interpersonal trust, distant and demanding father characteristics, and absent mother characteristics. A fearful attachment pattern was associated with distant father and absent mother characteristics. A preoccupied attachment pattern was linked to absent, seductive, and demanding father characteristics and demanding mother characteristics. A dismissive attachment pattern was associated with distant father characteristics. Collectively, father characteristics related more strongly to an insecure attachment pattern, while mother characteristics related more strongly to a secure attachment pattern. PMID:11019773

  14. Victimization and Sexual Risk Behavior in Young, HIV Positive Women: Exploration of Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Shang-En; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Perez, Lori V.; Murphy, Debra A.; Harper, Gary W.; Hamvas, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    In this study we explore associations between child and adult victimization and sexual risk behavior in 118 young, HIV positive women. Prior research has demonstrated associations between victimization and engagement in sexual risk behavior. Victimization sequelae can include disrupted assertiveness and communication, as well as increased association with risky partners, both of which are also linked with engagement in sexual risk behavior. Thus, we propose a model wherein victimization is linked to sexual risk behavior through two mediating pathways, sexual communication and affiliation with risky partners. We also examine the moderating effects of the presence of an anxiety or depressive disorder on the path from child to adult victimization. Results suggested that adult victimization was associated with unprotected sex with a main partner; however, this association was mediated by less sexual communication and having a risky partner. Trends toward significance were found for depression and anxiety as a moderator of the relationship between child and adult victimization. Child victimization did not have direct effects on unprotected sex. Implications for secondary prevention of HIV and healthy intimate relationships are discussed. PMID:21452050

  15. [Severe mitral regurgitation as the first symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus in a young women required mitral valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Anna; Pi?tkowska, Anna; Biegalski, Wojciech; Dankowski, Rafa?; Michalski, Marek; Szymanowska, Katarzyna; Szyszka, Andrzej; Jemielity, Marek; Seniuk, Wojciech; Sosnowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder resulting in multiorgan inflammatory damage. The heart is frequently involved in SLE. The best known cardiac manifestations are pericarditis and Libman-Saks endocarditis. Severe valvular impairment is rather rare and occurs in few years and in advanced stage of the disease. In this study we report a case of a young women with SLE and heart failure due to mitral regurgitation as the first manifestation of the disease. PMID:22528724

  16. Comparison of power and EMG during 6-s all-out cycling between young and older women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Duffy; David Stewart; Fabrizio Pecoraro; Philip E. Riches; Dario Farina; Andrea Macaluso

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ageing on the neural control strategies governing sprint cycling on a friction-loaded cycle-ergometer, 10 older (aged 70–83yr) and 8 young (aged 19–35yr) healthy women completed seven 6-s all-out cycling trials against varying loads. Root mean square (RMS), median frequency and muscle fibre conduction velocity were determined from the vastus lateralis of the dominant limb during

  17. Homeless in Dhaka: Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Drug-abuse

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug-users shared needles. The study determined that the homeless are not highly mobile but tend to congregate in clusters night after night. Income-generating activities, targeted education, gender-friendly community police programmes, shelters and crises centres, and greater community involvement are suggested as policy and programmatic interventions to raise the quality of life of this population. In addition, there is a need to reduce high rates of urban migration, a priority for Bangladesh. PMID:19761080

  18. Homeless in Dhaka: violence, sexual harassment, and drug-abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Uddin, Md Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-08-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug-users shared needles. The study determined that the homeless are not highly mobile but tend to congregate in clusters night after night. Income-generating activities, targeted education, gender-friendly community police programmes, shelters and crises centres, and greater community involvement are suggested as policy and programmatic interventions to raise the quality of life of this population. In addition, there is a need to reduce high rates of urban migration, a priority for Bangladesh. PMID:19761080

  19. HIV risk behaviors among young drug using women who have sex with women (WSWs) in New York City.

    PubMed

    Ompad, Danielle C; Friedman, Samuel R; Hwahng, Sel J; Nandi, Vijay; Fuller, Crystal M; Vlahov, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that multiple stressors may work in tandem to affect the health of women who have sex with women (WSWs). WSWs have been a part of the HIV epidemic in New York City since the beginning, making it an ideal setting to further explore these women's risk. Among a sample of 375 heroin, crack and/or cocaine using women recruited from economically disadvantaged communities in New York City, we examined HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors among WSWs as compared to women who have sex with men only (WSMOs). We also explore differences between WSWs and WSMOs with respect to potential stressors (i.e., decreased access to resources and health care utilization and violence victimization) that might contribute overall HIV risk. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:21303247

  20. Breaking the Geek Myth: Addressing Young Women's Misperceptions about Technology Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siek, Katie A.; Connelly, Kay; Stephano, Amanda; Menzel, Suzanne; Bauer, Jacki; Plale, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Some women have various misconceptions about technology careers. Some of them think that one has to be a geek in order to become a computer scientist. When the Women in Computing Group at Indiana University (WIC@IU) was looking for ideas on how to increase the number of women in computing majors at IU, the authors realized that women were turning…

  1. Exploring the potential of a conditional cash transfer intervention to reduce HIV risk among young women in Iringa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah W; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs seek to alter structural determinants of HIV risk such as poverty and gender inequality. We sought to explore the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a cash transfer intervention for young women as part of combination HIV prevention in Iringa, Tanzania. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 116 stakeholders and residents from the region, including key informants, service delivery users, and members of key populations. Most respondents felt a cash transfer program would assist young women in Iringa to have more control over sexual decision-making and reduce poverty-driven transactional sex. Respondents were divided on who should receive funds: young women themselves, their parents/guardians, or community leaders. Cash amounts and suggested target groups varied, and several respondents suggested providing microcredit or small business capital instead of cash. Potential concerns included jealousy, dependency, and corruption. However, most respondents felt that some intervention was needed to address underlying poverty driving some sexual risk behavior. A cash transfer program could fill this role, ultimately reducing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. As increased attention is given to economic and structural interventions for HIV prevention, local input and knowledge should be considered in a program design. PMID:23926908

  2. Vitamin B6 requirement and status assessment: young women fed a depletion diet followed by a plant- or animal- protein diet with graded amounts of vitamin B613

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary J Kretsch; Howerde E Sauberlich; James H Skala; Herman L Johnson

    The vitamin B-6 requirement of young women consuming a high-protein diet (1.55 g\\/kg body wt) and the effect of protein quality on this requirement was studied. In addition, the response of clinical, functional, and biochemical measures of vitamin B-6 nutriture to short-term depletion and step-wise repletion of vitamin B-6 were evaluated. Eight healthy young women resided in a metabolic unit

  3. Experience of BRCA1/2 mutation-negative young women from families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the experience of young women who become aware of their parent’s BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) mutation status as adolescents or young adults. There is also currently a gap in the literature pertaining to those who are found to be negative for their familial mutation. We aimed to investigate the experience of these mutation-negative young women from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. Methods Using a semi-structured questionnaire we interviewed 8 women. All of the women were non-carriers of their familial mutation and had learned of the mutation in their family as adolescents or young adults at least 6 months prior to undergoing genetic testing. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and independently analyzed by the investigators. This was followed by an in-depth cross-case analysis, enabling the formulation of emergent themes. Results The women’s age ranged from 22 to 37 years old and all were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Prominent emergent themes from the interviews included the impact of how and when the familial mutation status was disclosed, the factors influencing when a young woman chooses to undergo predictive genetic testing, the predictors of post-test adjustment and risk perception, as well as the impact of familial cancer experience versus the familial mutation. Conclusions By eliciting detailed patient narratives we have begun to show that this generation of BRCA mutation-negative young women is likely still affected by the degree of cancer history in their family, even with their understanding of the genetic contribution to disease. Larger studies with tightened participant characteristics, as well as studies involving women from different cultural backgrounds, are needed to further define the experience and needs of true negative young women from HBOC families. PMID:24131499

  4. Associations between Handgrip Strength and Ultrasound-Measured Muscle Thickness of the Hand and Forearm in Young Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Counts, Brittany R; Barnett, Brian E; Dankel, Scott J; Lee, Kofan; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2015-08-01

    It is unknown whether muscle size of intrinsic hand muscles is associated with handgrip strength. To investigate the relationships between handgrip strength and flexor muscle size of the hand and forearm, muscle thickness (MT) of 86 young adults (43 men and 43 women) between the ages of 18 and 34 y was measured by ultrasound. Two MTs (forearm radius and forearm ulna MT) in the anterior forearm, two MTs (lumbrical and dorsal interosseous MT) in the anterior hand and handgrip strength were measured on the right side. Linear regression with part (also referred to as semipartial) correlation coefficients revealed that forearm ulna MT positively correlated with handgrip strength in both men (part = 0.379, p = 0.001) and women (part = 0.268, p = 0.002). Dorsal interosseous MT correlated with handgrip strength in women only (part = 0.289, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that the forearm ulna and dorsal interosseous MTs for women and forearm ulna MTs for men are factors contributing to prediction of handgrip strength in young adults. PMID:25959055

  5. Intervention for Homeless, Substance Abusing Mothers: Findings from a Non-Randomized Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem

    2015-01-01

    Little empirically-based information is available regarding how best to intervene with substance-abusing homeless mothers. This study pilot-tested a comprehensive intervention with 15 homeless women and their 2- to 6-year-old children, recruited from a local family shelter. All participants were offered integrated intervention with three major components. The first component was housing which included 3 months of rental and utility assistance, and these services were not contingent upon women’s abstinence from drugs or alcohol. The second and third components included 6 months of case management services and an evidence-based substance abuse treatment (Community Reinforcement Approach; CRA). Analysis revealed that women showed reductions in substance use (F2,22 = 3.63; p < .05), homelessness (F2,24 = 25.31; p < .001), and mental health problems (F2,20 = 8.5; p < .01). Further, women reported reduced internalizing (F2,22 = 4.08; p < .05) and externalizing problems (F2,24 = 7.7; p = .01) among their children. The findings suggest that the intervention is a promising approach to meet the multiple needs of this vulnerable population. These positive outcomes support the need for future research to replicate the findings with a larger sample using a randomized design. PMID:22676629

  6. The effects of TV commercials using less thin models on young women's mood, body image and actual food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2009-09-01

    This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to television commercials using less thin models on mood, body focused anxiety and food intake, as compared to the effects of commercials using thin models. In a naturalistic setting, 110 young women were exposed to a neutral movie, interrupted by two commercial breaks. The commercial breaks contained real commercials using either less thin (n=32) or thin models (n=39), or neutral commercials (n=39). During watching television, participants could freely eat snack food. Further, their mood and body focused anxiety was assessed. ANOVAs revealed no effects on body focused anxiety, but women reported a more negative mood and ate less after exposure to commercials using less thin models than after exposure to commercials using thin models. These results imply that using less thin models in commercials explicitly referring to the thin ideal does not make women feel better. PMID:19699160

  7. A cross-sectional survey of calcium intake in relation to knowledge of osteoporosis and beliefs in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Fang

    2006-02-01

    This investigation found that young adult women (n = 265) were very likely (80.6%) to have accurate knowledge about osteoporosis but also typically had a low calcium intake (454 mg/day). The women in this study believed that they were at risk of osteoporosis but felt that prevention was difficult. Meanwhile, they held the opinion that osteoporosis is not serious and that taking preventative measures would not be worthwhile. The factors that most strongly affected the intake of calcium by women were, in order, knowledge, number of children, self-rated health score, Body Mass Index, graduation from high school, experience of bone density examination and family history. These seven items accounted for 31.8% of the variation in calcium intake. PMID:16403193

  8. "Who am I? Where am I?" Experiences of married young women in a slum in Islamabad, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Saima; Johansson, Eva; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, 16% of the women aged 15–19 years are married. Many get married shortly after they attain menarche. This study explores the preparedness for and actual experiences of married life (inter-spousal relationship, sexual activity and pregnancy) among adolescent women. Methods Among married adolescent women residing in a slum of Islamabad ten were selected with the help of a community health worker and interviewed qualitatively till saturation was reached. They were interviewed three times at different occasions. Narrative structuring was used to explore how the participants represented their background, social situation, decision making and spousal communication and how they explained, understood and managed married life and bore children. Results Two categories identifying the respondents as either submissive-accepting or submissive-victims emerged. The married young women who belonged to the accepting group lived under compromised conditions but described themselves as satisfied with their situation. They were older than the other group identifying themselves as victims. However, none of the respondents felt prepared for marriage. Women belonging to the victimized group experienced physical and verbal abuse for their inability to cope with the duties of a wife, caretaker of the home and bearer of children. Their situation was compounded by the power dynamics within the household. Conclusion Knowledge about sexuality could prepare them better for the future life and give them more control of their fertility. Adolescent development and life skills education need to be addressed at a national level. There is need for innovative interventions to reach out and provide support to young women in disadvantaged homes. PMID:19638190

  9. Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Lisa M; Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Petticrew, Mark; Hart, Graham J

    2009-01-01

    Background Improving the reproductive health of young women in developing countries requires access to safe and effective methods of fertility control, but most rely on traditional rather than modern contraceptives such as condoms or oral/injectable hormonal methods. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to examine the limits to modern contraceptive use identified by young women in developing countries. Focusing on qualitative research allows the assessment of complex processes often missed in quantitative analyses. Methods Literature searches of 23 databases, including Medline, Embase and POPLINE®, were conducted. Literature from 1970–2006 concerning the 11–24 years age group was included. Studies were critically appraised and meta-ethnography was used to synthesise the data. Results Of the 12 studies which met the inclusion criteria, seven met the quality criteria and are included in the synthesis (six from sub-Saharan Africa; one from South-East Asia). Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 149 young women (age range 13–19 years). Four of the studies were urban based, one was rural, one semi-rural, and one mixed (predominantly rural). Use of hormonal methods was limited by lack of knowledge, obstacles to access and concern over side effects, especially fear of infertility. Although often more accessible, and sometimes more attractive than hormonal methods, condom use was limited by association with disease and promiscuity, together with greater male control. As a result young women often relied on traditional methods or abortion. Although the review was limited to five countries and conditions are not homogenous for all young women in all developing countries, the overarching themes were common across different settings and contexts, supporting the potential transferability of interventions to improve reproductive health. Conclusion Increasing modern contraceptive method use requires community-wide, multifaceted interventions and the combined provision of information, life skills, support and access to youth-friendly services. Interventions should aim to counter negative perceptions of modern contraceptive methods and the dual role of condoms for contraception and STI prevention should be exploited, despite the challenges involved. PMID:19228420

  10. Ensuring Quality School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women. A Working Paper Released in Cooperation with the American Youth Policy Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Donna; Watkins, Kristin

    Research conducted by Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW) in 1993 confirmed the following: young women are still concentrated in traditionally female training areas and are still virtually absent from technical and high-wage training areas; discrepancies between males' and females' wage and unemployment levels are greatest among individuals who do…

  11. Pathways to self-harmful behaviors in young women with and without ADHD: A longitudinal examination of mediating factors

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Erika N.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury ([NSSI]; e.g., cutting, burning) peak in adolescence and early adulthood; females and individuals with psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses appear to be at particular risk. Hinshaw and colleagues (2012) reported that young women with histories of childhood ADHD diagnoses reported higher rates of suicide attempts and NSSI than non-diagnosed, comparison women. Methods Via analyses of an ongoing longitudinal investigation, our aims are to examine, with respect to both aspects of self-harmful behavior, (a) ADHD subtype differences and effects of diagnostic persistence (versus transient and non-diagnosed classifications) and (b) potential mediating effects of impulsivity and comorbid psychopathology, ascertained during adolescence. Results Young adult women with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD-Combined type were at highest risk for suicide attempts as well as the most varied and severe forms of NSSI compared to those with ADHD-Inattentive type and those in the comparison group; participants with a persistent ADHD diagnosis were at higher risk than those with a transient diagnosis or those never meeting criteria for ADHD. Mediator analyses revealed that, during adolescence, an objective measure of impulsivity plus comorbid externalizing symptoms were simultaneous, partial mediators of the childhood ADHD-young adult NSSI linkage. Adolescent internalizing symptoms emerged as a partial mediator of the childhood ADHD-young adult suicide attempt linkage. Conclusions ADHD in females, especially when featuring childhood impulsivity and especially with persistent symptomatology, carries high risk for self-harm. Psychiatric comorbidity and response inhibition are important mediators of this clinically important longitudinal association. We discuss limitations and implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:25436256

  12. Genetic risk communication: experiences of adolescent girls and young women from families with fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Melvin, Elizabeth C.; Spiridigliozzi, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how and what genetic risk information parents communicate to their children and even less is known about what children hear and remember. To address this void, we explored how genetic risk information was learned, what information was given and who was primarily provided information to adolescent girls and young adult women in families with fragile X syndrome. We explored three levels of risk knowledge, learning that fragile X syndrome was an inherited disorder, that they could be a carrier, and for those who had been tested, actual carrier status. These data were collected as part of a study that also explored adolescent self concept and age preferences about when to inform about genetic risk. Those findings have been presented separately. The purpose of this paper is to present the communication data. Using a multi-group cross-sectional design this study focused on girls ages 14–25 years from families previously diagnosed with fragile X syndrome, who knew they were carriers (n = 20), noncarriers (n = 18), or 3) at-risk to be carriers (n = 15). For all three stages of information the majority of the study participants were informed by a family member. We identified three different communication styles, open, sought information, and indirect. The content of the remembered conversations varied based on the stage of genetic risk information being disclosed as well as the girls’ knowledge of her own carrier status. Girls who had been tested and knew their actual carrier status were more likely to report an open communication pattern than girls who knew only that they were at-risk. PMID:19277853

  13. Young Women's Experience with Using Videoconferencing for the Assessment of Sexual Behavior and Microbicide Use

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Giguere, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Videoconferencing (VC) systems are increasingly recognized as a viable means of enhancing communication across different geographic regions and have been used within multiple settings. Until now, despite increased use and diverse applications, VC has received relatively little attention as a data collection tool in qualitative research. The literature on preferred data collection methods for sensitive topics offers different perspectives, with no clear consensus on the best approach for collecting sensitive data. We sought to determine if VC is a feasible tool for eliciting sexual history from participants in a vaginal microbicide study. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-nine young women who participated in a Phase 1 microbicide safety and acceptability study at three sites (Tampa, FL; Pittsburgh, PA; and San Juan, Puerto Rico) were interviewed through VC from New York City. During the third VC session, participants gave feedback on their experience using the method. Results: Most of the participants reported that they preferred VC to phone-only interviews. Participants noted that because of the sensitive nature of the interviews, geographical distance from the interviewer facilitated disclosure. Despite some technical problems, such as the time delay in video transmission and occasional loss of connection, participants expressed a high degree of satisfaction with using VC. Conclusions: VC seems to be a feasible alternative form of conducting in-depth interviews on sensitive topics. VC enables data collection from geographically dispersed research participants without the cost and time burden of traveling to sites or developing local interviewer capabilities when the number of interviews is small. PMID:24050616

  14. Declining lung cancer mortality of young Australian women despite increased smoking is linked to reduced cigarette ‘tar’ yields

    PubMed Central

    Blizzard, L; Dwyer, T

    2001-01-01

    Lung cancer data were examined to determine whether the mortality rates of young Australian women have continued to increase in line with the proportions of them who have smoked tobacco. Trends in annual age-specific lung cancer mortality were estimated for 1965–1998. Age-specific mortality rates and age-adjusted ratios of mortality rates were calculated for birth cohorts. Proportions of smokers in those cohorts were estimated from results of eight national surveys of smoking, and their mean ages of commencement and years of smoking were assessed from surveys of smokers in two states. Lung cancer mortality rates of 20–44-year-old Australian women peaked in 1986. Age-adjusted mortality rates are lower for women born in the 1950s and 1960s than for women born in the 1940s, despite higher proportions of smokers, younger age of commencement and longer duration of smoking by age 30 years in the more recent cohorts. Increased smoking has not resulted in higher lung cancer mortality for Australian women born in the 1950s and 1960s. Reductions in tar yields of Australian-made cigarettes, which would have affected primarily those born after the 1940s, may be responsible. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161405

  15. Poverty, sexual behaviour, gender and HIV infection among young black men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nattrass, Nicoli; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Seekings, Jeremy; Whiteside, Alan

    2012-12-01

    This article contributes methodologically and substantively to the debate over the importance of poverty, sexual behaviour and circumcision in relation to HIV infection, using panel data on young black men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Methodological challenges included problems of endogeneity and blunt indicator variables, especially for the measurement of sexual behaviour. Noting these difficulties, we found that the importance of socioeconomic and sexual-behavioural factors differed between men and women. While we found a clear association between the number of years of sexual activity and HIV status among both men and women, we found that past participation in a concurrent sexual partnership increased the odds of HIV infection for men but not women. Women, but not men, who made the transition from school to tertiary education (our key indicator of socioeconomic status) were less likely to be HIV-positive than those who made the transition from school to unemployment. Both poverty and sexual behaviour matter to individuals' HIV risk, but in gendered ways. PMID:25860189

  16. In Their Own Words: Treating Very Young BRCA1/2 Mutation-Positive Women with Care and Caution

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Lindsey M.; Werner-Lin, Allison; Greene, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Young women who have been identified as carrying a deleterious mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 face a unique set of challenges related to managing cancer risk during a demographically-dense stage of life. They may struggle with decision-making in the absence of clear age-specific guidelines for medical management and because they have not yet fully developed the capacity to make life-altering decisions confidently. This study sought a patient-centered perspective on the dilemmas faced by 18–24 year olds who completed BRCA1/2 gene mutation testing prior to their 25th birthdays. Patients and Method This study integrated qualitative data from three independent investigations of BRCA1/2-positive women recruited through cancer risk clinics, hospital-based research centers, and online organizations. All 32 participants were women aged 21–25 who tested positive for a BRCA1/2 gene mutation between 2 and 60 months prior to data collection. Investigators used techniques of grounded theory and interpretive description to conduct both within and cross-study analysis. Results Participants expressed needs for (1) greater clarity in recommendations for screening and prevention before age 25, especially with consideration of early and regular exposure to radiation associated with mammography or to hormones used in birth control, and (2) ongoing contact with providers to discuss risk management protocols as they become available. Conclusions Health care needs during the young adult years evolve with the cognitive capacity to address abrupt and pressing change. Specific needs of women in this population include a desire to balance autonomous decision-making with supportive guidance, a need for clear, accurate and consistent medical recommendations. Optimally, these women are best cared for by a team of genetically-oriented providers as part of a sustained program of ongoing support, rather than seen in an episodic, crisis-driven fashion. A discussion of insurance issues and provider-patient cultural differences is presented. PMID:24586286

  17. Cigarette smoking is associated with dose-dependent adverse effects on paraoxonase activity and fibrinogen in young women

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Gajalakshmi; Araujo, Jesus A.; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Yin, Fen

    2014-01-01

    Context Smoking is associated with increased fibrinogen and decreased paraoxonase (PON) activity, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, in patients with coronary artery disease. Objective We tested the hypothesis that the adverse effect of smoking on these biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress would be detectable in otherwise healthy young female habitual smokers. Materials and methods Thirty-eight young women participated in the study (n?=?20 habitual smokers, n?=?18 non-smokers). Fibrinogen, PON-1 activity and HDL oxidant index (HOI) were measured. Results Mean values of fibrinogen, PON-1 activity and log HOI were not different between the groups. Importantly, however, decreased PON-1 activity (r s?=??0.51, p?=?0.03) and increased fibrinogen (rs?=?0.49, p?=?0.04) were significantly correlated with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day in habitual smokers. Discussion and conclusion Cigarette smoking is associated with a dose-dependent adverse effect on PON-1 activity and fibrinogen in young women, which may have implications for future cardiovascular risk. PMID:25472476

  18. Adolescent predictors of young adult and adult alcohol involvement and dysphoria in a prospective community sample of women.

    PubMed

    Locke, Thomas F; Newcomb, Michael D

    2004-09-01

    The adolescent predictors of later alcohol involvement (AI), dysphoria (D), and their shared association (AD) among women have not been adequately established. Three waves of data from an ethnically diverse community sample of women, assessed over 16 years are used to study how various psychosocial factors in adolescence influenced later drinking, depression, and their shared association. Structural equation models revealed that several adolescent ecodevelopmental and social development model variables influenced their later outcome in young adulthood and adulthood. The strongest relation was between adolescent Social Conformity and adult AD (beta = -.46) over a 16-year period, emphasizing the impact of this construct. Numerous other relations were revealed. For instance, less satisfaction with school during adolescence predicted adult AI. Having a good bond to the family in adolescence predicted a lower quantity of alcohol consumed during adulthood. Lower satisfaction with "what you want to be" during adolescence predicted young adult D. Higher levels of adolescent relationship satisfaction and school satisfaction predicted less suicidal ideation as an adult. Prevention interventions focusing on increasing socially conforming attitudes and on strengthening relationships both in and out of the home during adolescence are likely to be effective in reducing aspects of AI, D, and AD for women in the general community. PMID:15470936

  19. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  20. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O; Kouraogo, Salam F; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B; Mueller, Judith E

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000) and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006). The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine health services and schools, to ensure sustainability of health literacy efforts. PMID:24392032

  1. Housing and Transitional Phases Out of ‘Disordered’ Lives: The Case of Leaving Homelessness and Street Sex Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Corinne Mcnaughton; Teela Sanders

    2007-01-01

    This paper combines the findings from two empirical qualitative studies that examine transitions out of lifestyles and identities considered ‘disordered’. Focusing on women's experiences of homelessness and street sex work the paper explores these transitions and the barriers the participants encounter in establishing ‘ordered’ lives. Four key points will be made. First, the mechanisms that can lead to successful transitions

  2. Barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries: a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. Methods We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Results Forty-one studies were included. Whether young women receive the HPV vaccine is strongly governed by the decisions of policy makers, healthcare professionals, and parents. These decisions are shaped by: financial considerations; social norms and values relating to sexual activity, and; trust in vaccination programmes and healthcare providers. Financial constraints may be overcome through universal healthcare systems offering the HPV vaccine free at the point of delivery. In the healthcare setting, judgements by healthcare professionals about whether to recommend the vaccine may restrict a young woman’s access to the vaccine irrespective of her own beliefs and preferences. Parents may decide not to allow their daughters to be vaccinated, based on cultural or religious perceptions about sexual activity. Conclusions Barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine have implications for young women’s future sexual, physical and reproductive health. Interventions to address barriers to uptake of the vaccine should target appropriate, and multiple, levels of the socio-ecological model. Issues of trust require clear, accessible, and sometimes culturally appropriate, information about the HPV vaccination programme. Although young women are central to the HPV vaccination programme, their views are underrepresented in the qualitative literature. Future research should consider young women’s perceptions of, and involvement in, consent and decision-making. PMID:25004868

  3. Experiences of Being Homeless or at Risk of Being Homeless among Canadian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pamela; Donahue, Peter; Este, Dave; Hofer, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken with four groups -- immigrants, youths, Aboriginal people, and landlords -- in order to explore, compare, and contrast diversity issues among the homeless population and those at risk of homelessness in a larger Canadian city (Calgary, Alberta) with a smaller city (Lethbridge, Alberta), to better understand their…

  4. A simple and feasible questionnaire to estimate menstrual blood loss: relationship with hematological and gynecological parameters in young women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Menstrual blood loss (MBL) has been shown to be an important determinant in iron status, work performance and well-being. Several methods have been developed to estimate MBL, the standard quantitative method however has limited application in clinical practice as it is expensive and requires women to collect, store and submit their sanitary products for analysis. We therefore aimed to develop a MBL-score based on a questionnaire, and to validate it by several hematological and biochemical parameters in women of childbearing age. Methods A total of 165 healthy young women were recruited. Hematological (hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet counts) and iron status (serum iron, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, and total iron binding capacity) parameters were analyzed at baseline. Women were asked to fulfill two gynecological questionnaires: a general questionnaire, to inform about the volunteer’s general menstrual characteristics; and a MBL questionnaire, to provide details of the duration of menstruation, number of heavy blood loss days, and number and type of pads and/or tampons used during the heaviest bleeding day, for all consecutive menstrual periods during 16 weeks. A MBL-score was calculated for each period and women, and its reliability determined by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Pearson’s linear correlation tests were performed between blood parameters and the MBL-score. Two clusters were formed according the MBL-score (cluster 1: low MBL and cluster 2: high MBL). Results Significant higher MBL-score was observed in women who reported having a history of anemia (p?=?0.015), staining the bed at night during menstruation (p?Women who used hormonal contraceptives presented lower MBL-scores than the others (p?=?0.004). The MBL-score was negatively associated with log-ferritin (p?=?0.006) and platelet count (p?=?0.011). Women in cluster 1 presented higher ferritin (p?=?0.043) than women in cluster 2. Conclusions We developed an easy and practical method for estimating menstrual blood loss based on a score calculated from a questionnaire in healthy women at childbearing age. The MBL-score is highly reliable and reflects menstrual blood loss validated by hematological and biochemical parameters. PMID:24886470

  5. "My greatest dream is to be normal": the impact of gender on the depression narratives of young Swedish men and women.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Ulla E; Bengs, Carita; Samuelsson, Eva; Johansson, Eva E

    2011-05-01

    Depression is common among young people. Gender differences in diagnosing depression appear during adolescence. The study aim was to explore the impact of gender on depression in young Swedish men and women. Grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 23 young people aged 17 to 25 years who had been diagnosed with depression. Their narratives were marked by a striving to be normal and disclosed strong gender stereotypes, constructed in interaction with parents, friends, and the media. Gender norms were upheld by feelings of shame, and restricted the acting space of our informants. However, we also found transgressions of these gender norms. Primary health care workers could encourage young men to open up emotionally and communicate their personal distress, and young women to be daring and assertive of their own strengths, so that both genders might gain access to the positive coping strategies practiced respectively by each. PMID:21149850

  6. At a Crossroads: Reentry Challenges and Healthcare Needs among Homeless Female Ex-Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Idemundia, Faith; Slaughter, Regina; Ames, Masha

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase in the number of women parolees and probationers in the last decade has made women the most rapidly growing group of offenders in the United States. The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study is to understand the unique gendered experiences of homeless female ex-offenders, in the context of healthcare needs, types of health services sought, and gaps in order to help them achieve a smooth transition post prison release. Focus group qualitative methodology was utilized to engage 14 female ex-offenders enrolled in a residential drug treatment program in Southern California. The findings suggested that for homeless female ex-offenders, there are a myriad of healthcare challenges, knowledge deficits, and barriers to moving forward in life, which necessitates strategies to prevent relapse. These findings support the development of gender-sensitive programs for preventing or reducing drug and alcohol use, recidivism, and sexually transmitted infections among this hard-to-reach population. PMID:24078800

  7. Trends of Modern Contraceptive Use among Young Married Women Based on the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys: A Multivariate Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Zeleke, Atinkut Alamirrew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accessing family planning can reduce a significant proportion of maternal, infant, and childhood deaths. In Ethiopia, use of modern contraceptive methods is low but it is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the trends and determinants of changes in modern contraceptive use over time among young married women in Ethiopia. Methods The study used data from the three Demographic Health Surveys conducted in Ethiopia, in 2000, 2005, and 2011. Young married women age 15–24 years with sample sizes of 2,157 in 2000, 1,904 in 2005, and 2,146 in 2011 were included. Logit-based decomposition analysis technique was used for analysis of factors contributing to the recent changes. STATA 12 was employed for data management and analyses. All calculations presented in this paper were weighted for the sampling probabilities and non-response. Complex sampling procedures were also considered during testing of statistical significance. Results Among young married women, modern contraceptive prevalence increased from 6% in 2000 to 16% in 2005 and to 36% in 2011. The decomposition analysis indicated that 34% of the overall change in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in women’s characteristics. Changes in the composition of young women’s characteristics according to age, educational status, religion, couple concordance on family size, and fertility preference were the major sources of this increase. Two-thirds of the increase in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in coefficients. Most importantly, the increase was due to change in contraceptive use behavior among the rural population (33%) and among Orthodox Christians (16%) and Protestants (4%). Conclusions Modern contraceptive use among young married women has showed a remarkable increase over the last decade in Ethiopia. Programmatic interventions targeting poor, younger (adolescent), illiterate, and Muslim women would help to maintain the increasing trend in modern contraceptive use. PMID:25635389

  8. Does living in a food insecure household impact on the diets and body composition of young children? Findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Anna; Barker, Mary; Jackson, Alan; Ntani, Georgia; Crozier, Sarah; Inskip, Hazel; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about food insecurity in the UK. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and factors associated with food insecurity in a UK cohort, and to examine whether the diets, reported health and anthropometry of young food insecure children differed from those of other children. Methods The Southampton Women’s Survey is a prospective cohort study in which detailed information about the diet, lifestyle and body composition of 3000 women was collected before and during pregnancy. Between 2002-2006, 1618 families were followed up when the child was 3 years old. Food insecurity was determined using the Household Food Security scale. The child’s height and weight were measured; diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Results 4.6% of the households were food insecure. Food insecurity was more common in families where the mothers were younger, smokers, of lower social class, in receipt of financial benefits, and who had a higher deprivation score (all p<0.05). In comparison with other 3-year-old children, those living in food insecure households were likely to have worse parent-reported health and to have a diet of poorer quality, characterised by greater consumption of white bread, processed meat and chips, and by a lower consumption of vegetables (all p<0.05). They did not differ in height or body mass index. Conclusions Our data suggest that there are significant numbers of food insecure families in the UK. The poorer reported health and diets of young food insecure children have important implications for their development and lifelong health. PMID:21652519

  9. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22?years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (? 1?mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P?=?0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P?=?0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P?=?0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P?=?0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638

  10. “Money talks, bullshit walks” interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa’s history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country. In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16–24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Methods Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Findings Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Conclusion Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the world also prioritize: fashionable clothing and opportunities for inclusion in popular youth culture. In the context of high HIV prevalence in South Africa, strategies are needed that present young women with safer economic gateways to create and consume alternative symbols of modernity and social inclusion. PMID:23866170

  11. “Taking another route”: Daily survival narratives from mothers who are homeless

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria L. Banyard

    1995-01-01

    Homelessness among families has become a growing social problem for communities, yet little is known about the types of daily\\u000a survival strategies such families employ. This paper presents results of a qualitative study of the coping narratives of 64\\u000a mothers living in temporary emergency shelters with their children. The women reported using a variety of coping responses\\u000a to daily stressful

  12. Be Here Now: Young Women's War Diaries and the Practice of Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ralph L.

    2012-01-01

    Here, the author looks at four diaries, more specifically three conventional diaries and a blog: "The Diary of a Young Girl," by Anne Frank; "Zlata's Diary," by Zlata Filipovic; and "Last Night I Dreamed of Peace" by Dang Thuy Tram. "Baghdad Burning" is the transcript of a web log, a blog, by a young Iraqi woman who went by the pseudonym…

  13. Cigarette smoking and myocardial infarction in young men and women: A case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos; Loukianos S. Rallidis; Christos Pitsavos; Christodoulos Stefanadis; Dimitrios Kremastinos

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundThe effect of cigarette smoking on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has long been investigated. However, its role on the likelihood of having MI at young age has not been well understood and appreciated. We investigated whether smoking habits can discriminate young individuals with MI from age- and sex-matched controls.

  14. From Object to Subject: Young women's experience of sexuality education within sex-negative taboos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin Noelle Chapman

    2009-01-01

    Young female sexuality continues to be portrayed as problematic within cultural expectations of acceptable sexual conduct among young people (Moran, 2000; Russell, 2005; Welles, 2005). Contributing to this negativity is the marginalization of positive conceptualizations of female sexuality and the silencing of female sexual desire and pleasure within sexual education practices (Fields & Tolman, 2006; Fine, 1988; Tolman, 2002; Tolman,

  15. Correlates of HPV knowledge in the era of HPV vaccination: a study of unvaccinated young adult women.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus-the virus that causes cervical cancer-was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with human papillomavirus knowledge now that human papillomavirus vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18-26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated human papillomavirus vaccination completed a survey between March-August 2009. The survey assessed human papillomavirus awareness, human papillomavirus knowledge, demographics, socio-political variables, sexual history, and health history variables. Over 97% of participants were aware of human papillomavirus prior to study enrollment; however, knowledge of human papillomavirus was only moderate. A multivariate regression analysis examining factors related to human papillomavirus knowledge revealed five independent correlates: Latina ethnicity, premarital sex values, number of lifetime sexual partners, history of cervical dysplasia, and HIV testing. These variables accounted for 14% of the variance in human papillomavirus knowledge. Less knowledge was observed for Latinas and women opposed to premarital sex. Greater knowledge was observed for women who had been tested for HIV and women with more sexual partners or a history of cervical dysplasia. These findings can inform future human papillomavirus vaccination campaigns and may be particularly useful in developing interventions for individuals with the largest deficits in human papillomavirus knowledge. PMID:21391159

  16. Drivers and barriers to acceptance of human-papillomavirus vaccination among young women: a qualitative and quantitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer, and of genital warts. Few studies have examined attitudes to HPV vaccination since the introduction of HPV vaccines. We aimed to investigate the reasons for young women's acceptance or rejection of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine after its general availability in Denmark. Method A literature review assessed attitudes towards HPV vaccination and the information was used to identify relevant questions for telephone and focus group interviews with women aged 16-26 who had decided to receive or reject HPV vaccination. 435 women across Denmark were interviewed by telephone. Qualitative interviews were undertaken in focus groups with 33 women living in Odense who had completed the telephone survey. Four focus groups were set up according to age (16-20 and 21-26 years of age) and acceptance/rejection of the vaccine. Results Of 839 women initially contacted by telephone, 794 were included, 411 (49%) said they accepted vaccination but only 201 (24%) had actually received the vaccine and these latter were interviewed. 242 women said they refused vaccination of which 234 were interviewed. Women who were undecided were excluded from the study. Prevention of cervical cancer was the main driver for acceptance of the vaccine, followed by parental encouragement and financial support, personal experience of someone with cancer and recommendation by health-care professionals. The greatest barrier to vaccination was its cost. A lack of information about the benefits of vaccination for sexually active women was also an important barrier and the older participants in particular considered that they were too old to be vaccinated. Knowledge about HPV and its role in the development of cervical cancer and genital warts was poor. Conclusions The difference between intention to be vaccinated and starting vaccination was considerable, and a large proportion of women aged 16-26 did not wish to be vaccinated. If the most important barriers to vaccination were addressed (cost and a lack of information about vaccination benefits), it is likely that the uptake of vaccination in Denmark would increase substantially. PMID:20152055

  17. A Study of the Effects of Latent Iron Deficiency on Measures of Cognition: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of Iron Supplementation in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alecia J.; Chalmers, Kerry A.; Collins, Clare E.; Patterson, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of iron deficiency are high amongst healthy young women. Cognitive impairment occurs secondary to iron deficiency in infants and children, but evaluation of the impact on cognition among young women is inconsistent. The aim was to determine the suitability of the IntegNeuro test battery for assessing cognitive function in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young women. A pilot double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted in iron-deficient (serum ferritin ? 20 ?g/L and haemoglobin > 120 g/L) and iron-sufficient young women (18–35 years). Cognitive function and haematological markers of iron status were measured at baseline and follow-up. Iron-deficient participants (n = 24) were randomised to receive placebo, 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron daily supplements for 16 weeks. A control group of iron-sufficient participants (n = 8) was allocated to placebo. Change scores for Impulsivity and Attention were significantly greater in plasma ferritin improvers than in non-improvers (p = 0.004, p = 0.026). IntegNeuro was easy to administer and acceptable to young women. Based on the differences in Memory and Attention scores between iron-deficient participants on iron treatment and those on placebo, it was decided that between 26 and 84 participants would be required in each iron treatment group for an adequately powered extension of this pilot RCT. PMID:24959952

  18. HIV TESTING AMONG SEXUALLY EXPERIENCED ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER YOUNG WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Song, In Han; Ozonoff, Al; Sassani, Jessica C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the proportion of HIV testing in the past 12 months among sexually experienced Asian and Pacific Islander (API) women and to investigate to what extent routine gynecologic care (RGC) increases HIV testing among API women. Methods Data were derived from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Analyses were limited to 7,576 sexually experienced women (White, n = 4,482 [68.5%]; Black, n = 1,693 [25.6%]; Hispanic, n = 923 [13.9%]; API, n = 478 [7.2%]) aged 18–27 years. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between RGC and HIV testing after controlling for predisposing, need, and enabling factors. Findings On average, 22.8% (n = 1,504) of sexually experienced women reported HIV testing in the past year. API women had the lowest proportion of testing (17.2%), and Black women had the highest (26.2%). Overall, 60.2% of API women reported receiving RGC; however, only 15.5% of API who received RGC reported HIV testing. After controlling for covariates, significantly positive associations were found for White, Black, and Hispanic women between RGC and HIV testing; however, there was no evidence that RGC was associated with HIV testing among API women. Conclusion Our data suggest that RGC does not increase HIV testing among API women. To eliminate disparities in HIV testing service utilization among API women, appropriate efforts should be directed to better understand the barriers and facilitators of HIV testing among this population. PMID:19589477

  19. Mobile Phone Technology: A New Paradigm for the Prevention, Treatment, and Research of the Non-sheltered “Street” Homeless?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Individuals experiencing homelessness have disproportionately high rates of health problems. Those who perceive themselves as having greater access to their social support networks have better physical and mental health outcomes as well as lower rates of victimization. Mobile phones offer a connection to others without the physical constraints of landlines and, therefore, may make communication (e.g., access to one’s social support networks) more feasible for homeless individuals. This, in turn, could lead toward better health outcomes. This exploratory study examined mobile phone possession and use among a sample of 100 homeless men and women who do not use the shelter system in Philadelphia, PA. Interviews were comprised of the Homeless Supplement to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, a technology module created for this investigation, and the substance use and psychiatric sections of the Addiction Severity Index. Almost half (44%) of the sample had a mobile phone. In the past 30 days, 100% of those with mobile phones placed or received a call, over half (61%) sent or received a text message, and one fifth (20%) accessed the Internet via their mobile phone. Participants possessed and used mobile phones to increase their sense of safety, responsibility (employment, stable housing, personal business, and sobriety or “clean time”), and social connectedness. Mobile phones could potentially be used by public health/health care providers to disseminate information to the street homeless, to enhance communication between the street homeless and providers, and to increase access for the street homeless to prevention, intervention, and aftercare services. Finally, this technology could also be used by researchers to collect data with this transient population. PMID:20397058

  20. Prescription Drug Misuse among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse (PDM) is highly prevalent among youth in the U.S., and can have serious health consequences. Homeless youth are a particularly vulnerable population with high rates of substance use. However, PDM has not been studied in a sample comprised exclusively of homeless youth. Methods A sample of 451 homeless youth recruited from drop-in centers in Los Angeles, CA provided information on substance use, mental health, service utilization, trauma, and sexual risk behavior. Multivariable logistic regression assessed correlates of past month PDM. Results Nearly 50% reported lifetime PDM and 21.6% reported PDM in the past month. The most frequently used prescriptions in the past month were: opioids only (24.5%), sedatives only (23.4%), and stimulants only (10.6%); 14.9% used some combination of these three types of prescription medications. Homeless youth reported that prescriptions were most commonly obtained for free from friends or relatives (24.5%). Foster care involvement was associated withdecreased PDM, while hard drug use, suicidal ideation, and unprotected sex were associated with increased PDM. Conclusions Homeless youth report high rates of PDM, and access these medications most frequently from friends and family. PDM among homeless youth clusters with other risk factors, including hard drug use, unprotected sex, and suicidal ideation. Surprisingly, foster care history was associated with decreased PDM. Programs aimed at preventing PDM among homeless youth should recognize the clustering of risk behaviors, assess prescription use/access when providing mental health services, and educate the general public about proper disposal of prescriptions. PMID:24613220