Sample records for youth gun violence

  1. Children, Youth, and Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of articles summarizes knowledge and research about how gun violence affects children and youth and discusses which policies hold promise for reducing youth gun violence. The papers are: (1) "Statement of Purpose" (Richard E. Behrman); "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations" (Kathleen Reich, Patti L.…

  2. Policing guns and youth violence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    To combat the epidemic of youth gun violence in the 1980s and 1990s, law enforcement agencies across the United States adopted a variety of innovative strategies. This article presents case studies of eight cities' efforts to police gun crime. Some cities emphasized police-citizen partnerships to address youth violence, whereas others focused on aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of even minor criminal activity. Still others attempted to change youth behavior through "soft" strategies built on alternatives to arrest. Finally, some cities used a combination of approaches. Key findings discussed in this article include: Law enforcement agencies that emphasized police-citizen cooperation benefited from a more positive image and sense of legitimacy in the community, which may have enhanced their efforts to fight crime. Aggressive law enforcement strategies may have contributed to a decline in youth gun violence, but they also may have cost police legitimacy in minority communities where residents felt that the tactics were unfair or racially motivated. Approaches that emphasize nonarrest alternatives and problem-solving strategies offer an intriguing but unproven vision for addressing youth gun violence. None of the initiatives presented in the case studies has been shown conclusively to reduce youth gun crime over the long term. The author suggests that policing alone cannot contain youth gun violence, but by carefully balancing enforcement with community collaboration, police departments can help shift social norms that contribute to youth gun violence. PMID:12194607

  3. Mitigating the effects of gun violence on children and youth.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, James; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Vorrasi, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    Countless children and youth are exposed to gun violence each year--at home, at school, in their communities, or through the media. Gun violence can leave lasting emotional scars on these children. This article reviews research regarding the psychological effects of gun violence on children and youth, and offers suggestions for how parents, school administrators, and mental health workers can mitigate these negative effects. Children exposed to gun violence may experience negative short- and long-term psychological effects, including anger, withdrawal, posttraumatic stress, and desensitization to violence. All of these outcomes can feed into a continuing cycle of violence. Certain children may be at higher risk for negative outcomes if they are exposed to gun violence. Groups at risk include children injured in gun violence, those who witness violent acts at close proximity, those exposed to high levels of violence in their communities or schools, and those exposed to violent media. Parents, school administrators, and mental health workers all can play key roles in protecting children from gun violence and helping them overcome the effects of gun-related trauma. The authors recommend a number of strategies that adults can adopt to help children cope with gun violence, such as increasing parental monitoring, targeting services to youth at risk of violent activity, and developing therapeutic interventions to help traumatized young people. PMID:12194614

  4. Gun violence among youth and the pediatrician's role in primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Webster, D W; Wilson, M E

    1994-10-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage characterized by high rates of violent behavior. Increasingly, violent injury is involving preadolescent children. Evidence suggests that the availability of guns increases the lethality of violent acts. Because guns are ubiquitous in the United States and integral to the current epidemic of youth violence, pediatricians should participate in primary prevention of firearm injuries. Efforts should begin long before children reach adolescence. Pediatricians should: (1) Encourage parents to remove guns from the home, or at a minimum to keep guns unloaded and locked up; (2) Advise parents to limit viewing of gun violence in the media, and playing with toy guns and video games that involve shooting; (3) Be alert for early indicators of aggressive behavior; and (4) Become outspoken advocates for laws that restrict gun availability. PMID:7936887

  5. Serious Youth Gun Offenders and the Epidemic of Youth Violence in Boston

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony A. Braga

    2003-01-01

    Boston, like many other major cities, experienced a sudden increase in youth homicides during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Research evidence suggests that the recent epidemic of urban youth violence was intensely concentrated among criminally active young black males residing in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods rather than all young black males residing in disadvantaged black neighborhoods. Other researchers, however, suggest

  6. Youth, guns, and violent crime.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Young people are overrepresented as both victims and perpetrators of violence. Indeed, some commentators have suggested that recent cohorts of youth have been composed of "superpredators" who have little regard for human life. The evidence, however, suggests that other factors are responsible for recent increases in youth gun violence. This article analyzes the extent and causes of youth violence in the United States, paying particular attention to the late 1980s and early 1990s, when rates of homicide and robbery committed by youth rose to extremely high levels. Examination of trends for these crimes shows that: The increase in violence in the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s was due primarily to an increase in violent acts committed by people under age 20. Similarly, dramatic declines in homicide and robbery in recent years are attributable primarily to a decline in youth violence. The increase in youth homicide was predominantly due to a significant increase in the use of handguns, which converted ordinary teenage fights and other violent encounters into homicides. Several other interrelated factors also fueled the rise in youth violence, including the rise of illegal drug markets, particularly for crack cocaine, the recruitment of youth into those markets, and an increase in gun carrying among young people. The author points out that youth violence diminished as the crack markets shrank, law enforcement increased efforts to control youth access to guns, youth gun carrying declined, and the robust economy provided legitimate jobs for young people. PMID:12194611

  7. Guns, Gangs, and Gossip: An Analysis of Student Essays on Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Wong, Naima; Tarver, Darian; Rabiah, Deana; White, Sharrice

    2004-01-01

    Youth violence is an important public health problem, but few researchers have studied violence from youth's perspectives. Middle school students' essays about the causes of youth violence were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. The causes of violence identified by students were categorized into individual, peer, family, and…

  8. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  9. Youth Violence: Lessons from the Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, P. Mann; Borowsky, I.; Stolz, A.; Latts, E.; Cart, C. U.; Brindis, C. D.

    This monograph summarizes what is known about youth and violence, identifying 10 myths that confound people's understanding of the real causes of youth violence. It focuses on: what contributes to youth violence (e.g., children exposed to domestic violence are at risk of using violence, children and adolescents use guns when they are easily…

  10. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence

  11. Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of Programs and Initiatives. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    This report discusses a wide array of violence prevention strategies used across the United States, ranging from school-based prevention to gun market interception. Relevant research, evaluation, and legislation are included to ground these programs and provide a context for their successful implementation. The first section of the report is an…

  12. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  13. Youth Violence, Guns, and Illicit Drug Markets. National Institute of Justice Research Preview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumstein, Alfred

    The perception that violence is on the rise is supported by data showing a sharp increase in violent crime among juveniles since the mid-1980s. Although the overall national homicide rate has not increased, homicides by youth under the age of 24 have grown significantly in recent years. The rate of arrest of nonwhite juveniles for drug offenses…

  14. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  15. Understanding Youth Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent youth violence, we need to know how big the problem is, where it is, and who it affects. CDC learns about a problem by gathering and studying data. These data are critical because they help us ...

  16. Stopping the Violence: Creating Safe Passages for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wanda; DeLapp, Lynn

    Youth violence has reached explosive levels in California. California youth have become both victim and aggressor. Between 1988 and 1991, youth homicide rates almost doubled. During the 1988-1989 school year, schools officials reported 69,191 student-to-student assaults and confiscated 5,107 knives and guns. State and federal legislation has…

  17. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and coordinating…

  18. Framing Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, John; Dorfman, Lori

    Have quality newspapers incorporated what scholars have learned over the last quarter century about making news more useful as a resource for civic participation? A year-long analysis of reporting about youth violence in three California newspapers provides a schizophrenic conclusion: After the Columbine massacre, newspapers provided rich context,…

  19. Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

  20. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy. PMID:25745735

  1. Implementation and Evaluation of a Youth Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Mary Elana

    2009-01-01

    Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…

  2. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth

  3. Youth Homicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Young Americans are killed with guns at rates far higher than young people in other countries and than older Americans, with young, urban African-American males being most at risk. This fact sheet presents data on gun-related homicides among teenagers in the United States. The high rate of youth homicide in the United States is unique in the…

  4. FCCLA Program Tackles Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Beth

    2006-01-01

    This article features "STOP (Students Taking on Prevention) the Violence," a peer-to-peer outreach initiative that empowers young people to recognize, report, and reduce the potential for youth violence. It is a national Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) program that provides young people with the attitudes, skills, and…

  5. Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

    Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

  6. Health and Gun Violence. Guns as a Public-Health Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Victoria

    1994-01-01

    Violence in all settings has reached epidemic proportions. Most shootings are committed by friends or relatives following an argument or when playing with guns. The public needs education about nonviolent ways of coping with anger and about the high cost of gun violence. Suggestions for avoiding gun violence and the PTA position on firearms are…

  7. The United States and Gun Violence Americans owned between 220 and 280 million guns in

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    1 Gun Shows in Context The United States and Gun Violence Americans owned between 220 and 280 million guns in 2004, including at least 86 million handguns.1 Millions of guns are added to that total each year. Just ten years earlier, Americas gun stockpile was estimated to hold 192 million weapons.2

  8. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among african american youth.

    PubMed

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. PMID:25287413

  9. Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

  10. 77 FR 2731 - Request for Information on Youth Violence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ...CDC-2012-0001] Request for Information on Youth Violence AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control...to the public health problem of youth violence. DATES: Individuals and organizations...INFORMATION: Scope of Problem: Youth violence is a significant public health...

  11. Taking Aim at Gun Violence: Rebuilding Community Education & Employment Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, President Obama released a plan for protecting children and communities by reducing gun violence. This plan has generated serious debate from both sides of the issue. The ensuing conversations about how to solve the issue of gun violence have been volatile. The President's plan includes reforms to close loopholes on background…

  12. Violence, Guns, and Drugs: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    Violence rates differ dramatically across countries. A widely held view is that these differences reflect differences in gun control and\\/or gun availability, and certain pieces of evidence appear consistent with this hypothesis. A more detailed examination of this evidence suggests that the role of gun control\\/availability is not compelling. This more detailed examination, however, does not provide an alternative explanation

  13. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  14. CDC grand rounds: preventing youth violence.

    PubMed

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R; Spivak, Howard; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Savannah, Sheila B; Listenbee, Robert L; Iskander, John

    2015-02-27

    Youth violence occurs when persons aged 10-24 years, as victims, offenders, or witnesses, are involved in the intentional use of physical force or power to threaten or harm others. Youth violence typically involves young persons hurting other young persons and can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. Different forms of youth violence can also vary in the harm that results and can include physical harm, such as injuries or death, as well as psychological harm. Youth violence is a significant public health problem with serious and lasting effects on the physical, mental, and social health of youth. In 2013, 4,481 youths aged 10-24 years (6.9 per 100,000) were homicide victims. Homicide is the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years (after unintentional injuries and suicide) and is responsible for more deaths in this age group than the next seven leading causes of death combined. Males and racial/ethnic minorities experience the greatest burden of youth violence. Rates of homicide deaths are approximately six times higher among males aged 10-24 years (11.7 per 100,000) than among females (2.0). Rates among non-Hispanic black youths (27.6 per 100,000) and Hispanic youths (6.3) are 13 and three times higher, respectively, than among non-Hispanic white youths (2.1). The number of young persons who are physically harmed by violence is more than 100 times higher than the number killed. In 2013, an estimated 547,260 youths aged 10-24 years (847 per 100,000) were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal physical assault-related injuries. PMID:25719677

  15. Poverty and Youth Violence Exposure: Experiences in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    2006-01-01

    Violence exposure among rural youths is a significant public health problem, yet little research has been conducted on violence in this setting. This study explored rural youths' direct and indirect experience of violence in the neighborhood, school, and home. The author used hierarchical regression analyses to explore youth violence exposure,…

  16. Youth Violence as Adaptation? Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Latzman, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue of the journal on the topic of youth violence as adaptation to community violence. Contrary to the predominant perspective that youth violence is a sign of dysfunction or maladaptation, the articles collected here consider whether some youth violence may have positively adaptive consequences in the face of…

  17. The impact of gun control and gun ownership levels on violence rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Kleck; E. Britt Patterson

    1993-01-01

    What effects do gun control restrictions and gun prevalence have on rates of violence and crime? Data were gathered for all 170 U.S. cities with a 1980 population of at least 100,000. The cities were coded for the presence of 19 major categories of firearms restriction, including both state- and city-level restrictions. Multiple indirect indicators of gun prevalence levels were

  18. GUN VIOLENCE & SMALL ARMS PROLIFERATION "Whenever arms flow, violence follows", UN Messenger of Peace, actor Michael Douglas

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    GUN VIOLENCE & SMALL ARMS PROLIFERATION "Whenever arms flow, violence follows", UN Messenger. Guns are the primary tools used to kill, threaten and intimidate civilian populations. They are easy revolvers, self-loading pistols, rifles, carbines, sub-machine guns, assault rifles and light machine guns

  19. Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

  20. The illicit acquisition of firearms by youth and juveniles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony A. Braga; David M. Kennedy

    2001-01-01

    Youth and juvenile gun violence has been linked to the availability of firearms. Scholars have suggested that, in order to reduce youth and juvenile gun violence, the illicit gun markets serving youth and juveniles must be disrupted. The question of whether illegal firearms markets serving youth and juveniles can be disrupted has been vigorously debated in the academic literature on

  1. 78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of...addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a serious public health...strides can be made by assessing the causes of gun violence and the successful efforts in...

  2. 3 CFR - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Presidential Documents Other...Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary...addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a serious public...

  3. Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Ferguson

    2011-01-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers\\u000a and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have\\u000a employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences\\u000a on youth violence such as family

  4. Children and Guns. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    Law enforcement officials, experts in public health, criminologists, educators, and youth offered testimony intended to help Congress understand the scope of the threat of guns and firearm violence to young people and the strains of the firearm problem on public and community services. A fact sheet points out that: (1) increasing numbers of youth

  5. American Youth Violence: Implications for National Juvenile Justice Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimring, Franklin E.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the perception of increasing youth violence is based on fiction rather than fact. Provides the facts involved in the juvenile justice policy focusing on the differences between juvenile and adult violence, youth violence trends, population trends, and three legal policy issues toward adolescent violence. Offers juvenile crime…

  6. In the wake of the Newtown tragedy, Washington is preparing for what may be a major legislative battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence.

    E-print Network

    battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence. Research into the causes and correlates of gun violence will undoubtedly play a major role in legislative debates. To contribute to this discussion and showcase the work of Yale scholars and national innovators on issues relating to gun violence

  7. Youth violence. Developmental pathways and prevention challenges.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, L L; Potter, L B

    2001-01-01

    Youth violence is an important public health problem. During the latter half of the 1980s and early 1990s, the United States witnessed unprecedented levels of violence among the nation's youths. Homicide remains one of the leading causes of death for young people aged 10 to 24 years. This paper reviews the major trends in homicide victimization and perpetration among youths during the past decade, the developmental pathways of delinquent and violent behavior and the context in which these behaviors occur, and some of the challenges associated with disrupting these pathways and preventing violence. Previous research reveals that multiple pathways lead toward violence and delinquency. Predicting which pathway a youth will follow, or if one will be followed at all, depends to some extent on a host of other biological, psychosocial, and environmental factors present as young people transition from early childhood to adolescence to early adulthood. Preventing violence requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account developmental needs, tasks, and supports. PMID:11146255

  8. Youth Violence and Suggestions for Schools To Reduce the Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra L.; Harris, Jamey E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of schools working to reduce youth violence and creating safe environments for students. Examines the causes of juvenile crime and looks at the juvenile justice system, parental responsibility, and five areas of public school responsibility (parent participation programs, school security procedures, safe school programs,…

  9. Youth and Violence: Phenomena and International Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legge, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The topic of youth, violence, and disintegration needs addressing because young women and men are the world's greatest capital. They have the energy, talent, and creativity for building a future. But this group also suffers grave vulnerabilities. The time of adolescence includes important and difficult periods of life (for example, becoming more…

  10. Youth Violence in Harrison County, Mississippi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley Rushing

    2012-01-01

    Youth violence plagues school communities and has traumatic effects on students, families, and communities (Affonso, Mayberry, Shibuya, Archambeau, Correa, Deliramich, & Frueh, 2010). Even though the rate of crime has declined, children have continued to increase the rates of violent acts (Funk, Elliot, Bechtoldt, Pasold, & Tsavoussis, 2003). Today, violent behaviors are being exhibited at an earlier age than ever

  11. Gun Culture in Kumasi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. McCaskie

    2008-01-01

    This article is about gun culture in Kumasi today. Gun use in Asante, and elsewhere in Ghana, has increased significantly in the last decade. In practice and in the public imagination this is associated with the rise of youth gangs and the criminalization of urban space. Much has been written about youths and violence elsewhere in Africa, but this article

  12. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  13. Warning Signs of Youth Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... occurs as a response to prolonged hurt, trauma, bullying or victimization. People may use violence to get ... first violent incident Having been a victim of bullying History of discipline problems or frequent conflicts with ...

  14. "You get caught up": youth decision-making and violence.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Luke O; Tinney, Barbara; Asomugha, Chisara N; Barron, Jill L; Rao, Mitesh; Curry, Leslie A; Lucas, Georgina; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

    2014-02-01

    Violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. We conducted serial focus groups with 30 youth from a violence prevention program to discuss violence in their community. We identified four recurrent themes characterizing participant experiences regarding peer decision-making related to violence: (1) youth pursue respect, among other typical tasks of adolescence; (2) youth pursue respect as a means to achieve personal safety; (3) youth recognize pervasive risks to their safety, frequently focusing on the prevalence of firearms; and (4) as youth balance achieving respect in an unsafe setting with limited opportunities, they express conflict and frustration. Participants recognize that peers achieve peer-group respect through involvement in unsafe or unhealthy behavior including violence; however they perceive limited alternative opportunities to gain respect. These findings suggest that even very high risk youth may elect safe and healthy alternatives to violence if these opportunities are associated with respect and other adolescent tasks of development. PMID:24141641

  15. Bring a gun to a gunfight: armed adversaries and violence across nations.

    PubMed

    Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

    2014-09-01

    We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms. PMID:24913946

  16. The Concentration and Stability of Gun Violence at Micro Places in Boston, 1980–2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony A. Braga; Andrew V. Papachristos; David M. Hureau

    2010-01-01

    Boston, like many other major U.S. cities, experienced an epidemic of gun violence during the late 1980s and early 1990s that\\u000a was followed by a sudden large downturn in gun violence in the mid 1990s. The gun violence drop continued until the early\\u000a part of the new millennium. Recent advances in criminological research suggest that there is significant clustering of

  17. Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-occurrence, and Context

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

    2009-01-01

    With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This paper examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth aggression, father-to-youth aggression, and community violence. A community-based sample of 103 parents and youth provided three waves of data at annual intervals beginning when the youth were aged 9–10. We explored stability of exposure, co-occurrence across different types of violence exposure, and associations with co-occurring risk factors. Approximately 30–45% of youth reported intermittent exposure over the 3 years. In addition to overlap among types of violence exposure within the family, we found overlap between parent-to-youth aggression and community violence, an association that was exacerbated in families where fathers reported high levels of global distress symptoms. Mother-to-youth, father-to-youth, and community violence related to youth behavior problems beyond the contextual risk factors of low income, stressful life events, and parents’ global distress symptoms. These results highlight the importance of examining violence longitudinally, across multiple types, and with attention to contextual factors. PMID:19238543

  18. Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth. PMID:21161351

  19. Understanding and Informing Policy Implementation: A Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we…

  20. Cost Analysis of Youth Violence Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Lisa A.; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. METHODS: Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71?784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation. PMID:24515518

  1. Effects of gun seizures on gun violence: “Hot spots” patrol in Kansas city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence W. Sherman; Dennis P. Rogan

    1995-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that greater enforcement of existing laws against carrying concealed weapons could reduce firearms violence with a quasi-experimental, target beat\\/comparison beat design. Over a six-month period in a ten-by-eight-block area with a homicide rate 20 times higher than the national average, intensive patrol near gun crime hot spots produced a 65 percent increase in firearms seized by

  2. Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

  3. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  4. Youth Violence Prevention in Virginia: A Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey G.; Loper, Ann Booker; Atkinson, Anne J.; Sheras, Peter L.

    This report provides an overview of youth violence in Virginia and a look at what some communities are doing about it. Although there is no way to measure all acts of youth violence in Virginia, the extent of the problem can be described through juvenile arrest statistics and school discipline reports. In 1997, Virginia law enforcement officials…

  5. Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-Occurrence, and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

    2009-01-01

    With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This article examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth

  6. Accountability Issues in School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bataineh, Adel T.

    This paper examines various reasons that would account for school violence and considers ways educators can help eliminate violence from schools. The negative impact of violence in the media and easy access to guns are mentioned as probable causes of violence in youth. Students who do not feel part of the school community often resort to violence

  7. States Take a Public Health Approach to Curb Gun Violence Bridget M. Kuehn, MSJ

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    States Take a Public Health Approach to Curb Gun Violence Bridget M. Kuehn, MSJ P ublic outcry over of weapons by prohibited individuals at gun shows and elsewhere (Cole TB. JAMA. 2008; 300[6]:640-641). JAMA: After the Senate's failed attempt, whatdoyouthinkaretheprospectsforfed- eral gun regulations? DR

  8. Using public health information to inform, build support and implement policies for gun violence prevention: A case study from the gun ban referendum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Galeria; Luciano Phebo

    2006-01-01

    Gun violence is one of the most serious health problems in Brazil. Information on gun deaths and injuries is collected by the Ministry of Health. This data has been used very successfully to inform and design public policies for preventing gun violence. This article analyses the use of public health information by researchers and activists, as well as government officials

  9. Youth and violence on local television news in California.

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, L; Woodruff, K; Chavez, V; Wallack, L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explores how local television news structures the public and policy debate on youth violence. METHODS: A content analysis was performed on 214 hours of local television news from California. Each of the 1791 stories concerning youth, violence, or both was coded and analyzed for whether it included a public health perspective. RESULTS: There were five key findings. First, violence dominated local television news coverage. Second, the specifics of particular crimes dominated coverage of violence. Third, over half of the stories on youth involved violence, while more than two thirds of the violence stories concerned youth. Fourth, episodic coverage of violence was more than five times more frequent than thematic coverage, which included links to broader social factors. Finally, only one story had an explicit public health frame. CONCLUSIONS: Local television news provides extremely limited coverage of contributing etiological factors in stories on violence. If our nation's most popular source of news continues to report on violence primarily through crime stories isolated from their social context, the chance for widespread support for public health solutions to violence will be diminished. PMID:9279266

  10. Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

  11. The health and human rights of survivors of gun violence: charting a research and policy agenda.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Cate

    2011-01-01

    The health and human rights implications of violently acquired impairments (VAI), specifically gun-related injuries and trauma resulting in disability, represent an overlooked public policy concern. For several decades, detailed attention has been committed to better understanding of the international arms trade and its consequences. A discursive shift in the last decade from "small arms control" as the core objective (a "hardware" focus on the weapons themselves) to "armed violence prevention" (a focus on impacts, wider drivers, and solutions) still requires a rigorous set of objectives that respond to the rights and needs of survivors of such violence. This article seeks to chart some of the challenges of responding to gun violence survivors and identify entry points for contributions from health, social science and human rights researchers and practitioners. Efforts to address armed violence typically pivot around two goals: reduction and prevention. But what of those already injured? This article argues that a third goal is overdue for attention: response to those injured, impaired, and disabled from gun violence. This would allow a clear pathway for progress (conceptual, political, policy, and practice) to be defined related to gun violence under the ambit of three overarching goals: reducing existing gun violence; responding to those already injured, traumatized, and impaired by such violence; and preventing future violence from occurring. PMID:22773032

  12. The supply and demand for guns to juveniles: Oakland’s gun tracing project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deane Calhoun; Andrea Craig Dodge; Coraline S. Journel; Elaine Zahnd

    2005-01-01

    In response to Oakland, California’s high level of gun violence affecting young people, the East Oakland Partnership to Reduce\\u000a Juvenile Gun Violence, a citywide collaboration, was formed in 1997. In 1999, the Partnership established the Oakland Gun\\u000a Tracing Project to develop evidence-based policy recommendations aimed at reducing the supply of and demand for gun acquisition\\u000a among urban youth. The advocacy

  13. Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Originally commissioned in response to the Columbine High shootings, the Surgeon General's report on youth violence "examines the factors that lead young people to gravitate toward violence, reviews the factors that protect youth from perpetrating violence and identifies effective research-based preventive strategies." While acknowledging that there has been a downward trend in youth violence since 1993, the report concludes that the "epidemic of youth violence is not over." The report identifies 27 specific intervention programs that have shown themselves to be statistically successful as well as debunking several common myths about youth violence. These last include assumptions about early childhood behavior as predictive of later violence, about the racial make-up of violent offenders, and the myth of the young "super-predator." From the above URL, visitors can access the full report, an executive summary, the January 17th press release (all in .pdf format), an archived Webcast of the surgeon general discussing the report (requires Windows Media Player), and some relevant links.

  14. Caught in the Crossfire: A Report on Gun Violence in Our Nation's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center To Prevent Handgun Violence, Washington, DC.

    Based on news stories from U.S. newspapers, this report examines the prevalence of gun violence in American schools. During the past 4 years, beginning with September 1986, at least 71 people (65 students and 6 employees) have been killed with guns at school. Another 201 were severely wounded, and 242 individuals were held hostage at gunpoint.…

  15. Does the declining lethality of gunshot injuries mask a rising epidemic of gun violence in the United States?

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Sun, Eric C; Prasad, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    Recent mass shootings in the U.S. have reignited the important public health debate concerning measures to decrease the epidemic of gun violence. Editorialists and gun lobbyists have criticized the recent focus on gun violence, arguing that gun-related homicide rates have been stable in the last decade. While true, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also demonstrate that although gun-related homicide rates were stable between 2002 and 2011, rates of violent gunshot injuries increased. These seemingly paradoxical trends may reflect the declining lethality of gunshot injuries brought about by surgical advances in the care of the patient with penetrating trauma. Focusing on gun-related homicide rates as a summary statistic of gun violence, rather than total violent gunshot injuries, can therefore misrepresent the rising epidemic of gun violence in the U.S. PMID:24452421

  16. African American Youth Encounters with Violence: Results from the Community Mental Health Council Violence Screening Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uehara, Edwina S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines African American youth's encounters with three forms of violence--eyewitnessing, victimization, and participation--to determine its spread in urban schools, the types of violence encountered, the sociodemographic factors associated with the encounter types, and whether there is any overlap among those who witness, are victims of, and…

  17. The Challenge. Preventing Youth Violence. A Report from the Black Community Crusade for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payton, Brenda

    A wave of youth violence in America is hitting African American communities hard. This report highlights some efforts across the country to prevent and stop youth violence. People in Oakland (California), Pine Bluff (Arkansas), and Washington, D.C. were asked about youth violence in their communities. Of the adults surveyed, 77% were afraid that…

  18. Cultural-Societal Roots of Violence: The Examples of Genocidal Violence and of Contemporary Youth Violence in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Ervin

    1996-01-01

    Presents a conception of the origins of genocide and mass killing, as illustrated by the Holocaust and violence in the former Yugoslavia, and relates these experiences to youth violence in the face of difficult living experiences in the United States, stressing the role of unfulfilled or frustrated human needs. (SLD)

  19. ADOLESCENTS’ EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized community-based activities, which, in turn, protects against community violence exposure. Second, at the neighborhood level, we tested the hypothesis that lower violent crime rates explain the inverse relation between neighborhood youth organization variety and community violence exposure. Our findings supported the latter of these two mechanisms. PMID:21666761

  20. Gun Violence Restraining Orders: Alternative or Adjunct to Mental Health-Based Restrictions on Firearms?

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; McGinty, Emma E; Barnhorst, Amy; Greenberg, Sheldon

    2015-06-01

    The gun violence restraining order (GVRO) is a new tool for preventing gun violence. Unlike traditional approaches to prohibiting gun purchase and possession, which rely on a high threshold (adjudication by criminal justice or mental health systems) before intervening, the GVRO allows family members and intimate partners who observe a relative's dangerous behavior and believe it may be a precursor to violence to request a GVRO through the civil justice system. Once issued by the court, a GVRO authorizes law enforcement to remove any guns in the respondent's possession and prohibits the respondent from purchasing new guns. In September 2014, California's governor signed AB1014 into law, making California the first U.S. state to enact a GVRO law. This article describes the GVRO and the rationale behind the concept, considers case examples to assess the potential impact of the GVRO as a strategy for preventing gun violence, and reviews the content of the California law. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25990840

  1. Violence Against Lesbian and Gay Male Youths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOYCE HUNTER

    1990-01-01

    This article documents the incidence of violent assaults toward lesbian and gay male youths and those youths' suicidal behavior. Data were obtained by reviewing charts for the first 500 youths seeking services in 1988 at the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a community-based agency serving lesbian and gay male adolescents in New York City. The adolescents, who ranged in age from 14 to

  2. Advancing prevention research on child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence: emerging strategies and issues.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Neil B

    2004-03-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent methodological issues in these areas and points out emerging research strategies that are forging advances in garnering valid, rigorous, and useful knowledge to prevent interpersonal violence. Research issues and emerging strategies in three key domains of prevention research are considered, including complexities in validly conceptualizing and measuring varying forms of violence as specific targets for preventive intervention, research issues and strategies designed to reliably predict and identify future violence risk to be targeted by preventive intervention, and research issues and emerging strategies in the application of empirical methods to forge specific advances in preventive intervention strategies themselves. PMID:15005994

  3. National Evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunworth, Terence

    Between 1985 and 1994 the rate of violent criminal acts committed by juveniles rose sharply. Juvenile homicides committed with a handgun more than doubled. This bulletin discusses the national evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative (YFVI), a program initiated by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) to fund…

  4. Optimistic Bias among Potential Perpetrators and Victims of Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John; de las Alas, Stacy; Coleman, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This study furthers the current understanding of optimistic bias regarding youth violence among high school students. Results from a survey of 387 urban high school students indicate a wide range of predictors of optimistic bias, including experience, demographics, and attitudes. Linkages to other developmental frameworks (personal fable and…

  5. Core Competencies and the Prevention of Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Farrell, Albert D.; Bettencourt, Amie F.; Helms, Sarah W.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss how the five core competencies for healthy adjustment in adolescence (a positive sense of self, self-control, decision-making skills, a moral system of belief, and prosocial connectedness) are represented in theories of aggression and youth violence. We then discuss research supporting the relation between these core competencies and…

  6. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  7. The Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994: Public Health and Child Safety. Hearing on S. 1882, A Bill To Amend Title 18, United States Code, To Promote the Safe Use of Guns and To Reduce Gun Violence before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session (March 23, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution.

    The first of several hearings on the Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994 introduced and discussed the Act as comprehensive legislation to address gun violence through six discrete initiatives: (1) handgun licensing; (2) prohibition of firearms possession by persons convicted of violent misdemeanors; (3) regulation of gun dealers; (4) limitation of…

  8. What We Know About Gun Use Among Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deanna L. Wilkinson; Jeffrey Fagan

    2001-01-01

    The current generation of American teenagers has grown up surrounded by gun violence. Guns have played a significant role in shaping the developmental trajectories and behaviors of many inner-city youths. In this essay, we examine the role of guns in the lives of young people, and especially in the social and symbolic construction of violent events among adolescents, primarily focusing

  9. Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

  10. DISASTER AND YOUTH VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL ATTENDING YOUTH IN NEW ORLEANS

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. PMID:21783056

  11. Social Stress, Legitimate Violence, and Gun Availability: Links to Weapon-Specific Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

    In comparative studies of homicide, many theories compete. This study examined two established theories, stress theory and culture of violence theory, in terms of their ability to explain state-to-state differences in the rate of highly specific types of homicides. The separate and joint effects on homicide committed by handguns, shoulder guns,…

  12. Before Jonesboro and Littleton, Upper Perkiomen Middle School Dealt with Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Celine Marie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of a safe school initiative at an East Greenville, Pennsylvania middle school, following gun violence at the school in 1993. Considers the role of teachers, students, parents, and community in the initiative, changes to curriculum and student activities, special safety measures, and alternative programs for conflict…

  13. School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

  14. Youth and Violence. Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health: Connecting the Dots To Prevent Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Health Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Proposes solutions to youth violence which encompass action across seven priorities. Within each priority, strategic recommendations and action steps for change are included. Priorities include: support the development of healthy families; promote healthy communities; increase access to health and mental health care services; reduce access to and…

  15. Violence Prevention and Students with Disabilities: Perspectives from the Field of Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Much of the work in youth violence prevention has been based in a public health model and guided by a developmental-ecological perspective on risk and prevention (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1988). A central tenet of developmental-ecological theory is that individual development is influenced by the ongoing qualities of the social settings in which the…

  16. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Beginning with statistics pertaining to children and gun violence in a single year in the United States, this report details trends in child and youth gun deaths. Tables present information on the following: (1) number of firearms deaths by manner and by race from 1979 to 2000; (2) number of firearms deaths by manner for each state and nationwide,…

  17. Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

  18. Event-Level Analysis of Antecedents for Youth Violence: Comparison of Dating Violence with Non-Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dating violence (DV) has emerged as a major concern among youth with links to substance use, injuries, and death. The Emergency Department (ED) provides an opportunity for violence screening and prevention interventions. Additional data are needed regarding antecedents of DV versus non-dating violence (NDV; e.g., acquaintance, stranger) to develop ED-based violence interventions for youth. Methods Participants were 575 patients screening positive for past 6-month drug use in an urban ED who completed timeline follow-back aggression modules at Baseline, 6-, and 12-months, indicating event-specific antecedents of violence. Multi-level logistic regressions using event-level data, nested by individual and time (i.e. Baseline, 6- and 12-month assessment intervals) to examine antecedents of DV vs. NDV. Post-hoc analyses examined substance use × reasons and gender interactions. Results Prescription sedative/opioid misuse was more likely to be reported prior to DV whereas alcohol only, and co-ingested alcohol and marijuana only, were more likely to be reported prior to NDV. Reasons for DV included: “personal belongings, “angry/bad mood,” “jealousy,” “drunk/high on drugs” and “arguing about sex”. Reasons for NDV included: “rumors,” “retaliation,” “personal space” and “aid (someone) due to physical attack”. Substance use before/during conflicts and reasons for conflicts were both uniquely associated with DV versus NDV. Two gender interactions were found. Conclusions ED based interventions for urban youth need to be tailored by gender, substance use (alcohol, cocaine, sedatives), reasons for violence, and type of violence (DV vs. NDV). PMID:24182751

  19. News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-03-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and "dangerous people" with SMI were more likely than "dangerous weapons" to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence. PMID:24432874

  20. Firearm violence and the effects of gun control legislation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy S. Jung; Leonard A. Jason

    1988-01-01

    Two gun control laws designed to reduce different types of violent crimes were evaluated. In 1981, East St. Louis, IL, imposed stricter penalties for individuals who carry firearms outside their homes for protection (individuals could keep firearms in their homes). This law had only a temporary impact in reducing firearm use in assaults and robberies. In Evanston, IL, a slightly

  1. Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

  2. Youth Violence: An Overview of Predictors, Counselling Interventions, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leschied, Alan W.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2002-01-01

    This special issue of the Canadian Journal of Counseling focuses on one of society's greatest challenges: youth violence. This article provides counselors with a general overview of the major advances in understanding the etiology of youth violence, the highlights of promising counseling interventions, and the role of gender in addressing…

  3. Preventing Youth Violence. A Summary of Program Evaluations. Urban Health Initiative Monograph Series, Monograph 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Arthur L.; Fuqua-Whitley, Dawna S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    This summary explaining the results of evaluations of programs to prevent youth violence is an attempt to fill the gap in information about what works and what does not. An effort is made to place the problem of youth violence in perspective, using information largely taken from Bureau of Justice statistics. The existing programs are divided into…

  4. Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2011-01-01

    Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and after migration, immigrant youth might be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental…

  5. Cultural Context of School Communities in Rural Hawaii to Inform Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…

  6. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.

    PubMed

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

  7. Beyond the Academic Journal: Unfreezing Misconceptions About Mental Illness and Gun Violence Through Knowledge Translation to Decision-Makers.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Joshua; Grilley, Anna; Kennedy, Orla

    2015-06-01

    In a policy arena characterized by polarized debate, such as the consideration of legal interventions to prevent gun violence, research evidence is an important tool to inform decision-making processes. However, unless the evidence is communicated to stakeholders who can influence policy decisions, the research will often remain an academic exercise with little practical impact. The Educational Fund to Stop Violence's process of "unfreezing" individual perceptions and conventional interpretations of the relationship between mental illness and gun violence, forming a consensus, and translating this knowledge to stakeholders through state discussion forums is one way to inform policy change. The recent passage of gun violence prevention legislation in California provides an example of successfully closing the knowledge translation gap between research and decision-making processes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25827824

  8. Alive at 25: Reducing Youth Violence through Monitoring and Support. Field Report Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClanahan, Wendy S.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, seeking to reduce Philadelphia's homicide rate and put youthful offenders on the path to a productive adulthood, various Philadelphia agencies and organizations, including Public/Private Ventures, partnered to form the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership (YVRP). The project's goal is to steer youth, ages 14 to 24 and at greatest risk of…

  9. Community monitoring for youth violence surveillance: testing a prediction model.

    PubMed

    Henry, David B; Dymnicki, Allison; Kane, Candice; Quintana, Elena; Cartland, Jenifer; Bromann, Kimberly; Bhatia, Shaun; Wisnieski, Elise

    2014-08-01

    Predictive epidemiology is an embryonic field that involves developing informative signatures for disorder and tracking them using surveillance methods. Through such efforts assistance can be provided to the planning and implementation of preventive interventions. Believing that certain minor crimes indicative of gang activity are informative signatures for the emergence of serious youth violence in communities, in this study we aim to predict outbreaks of violence in neighborhoods from pre-existing levels and changes in reports of minor offenses. We develop a prediction equation that uses publicly available neighborhood-level data on disorderly conduct, vandalism, and weapons violations to predict neighborhoods likely to have increases in serious violent crime. Data for this study were taken from the Chicago Police Department ClearMap reporting system, which provided data on index and non-index crimes for each of the 844 Chicago census tracts. Data were available in three month segments for a single year (fall 2009, winter, spring, and summer 2010). Predicted change in aggravated battery and overall violent crime correlated significantly with actual change. The model was evaluated by comparing alternative models using randomly selected training and test samples, producing favorable results with reference to overfitting, seasonal variation, and spatial autocorrelation. A prediction equation based on winter and spring levels of the predictors had area under the curve ranging from .65 to .71 for aggravated battery, and .58 to .69 for overall violent crime. We discuss future development of such a model and its potential usefulness in violence prevention and community policing. PMID:23494404

  10. Youth violence in South Africa: exposure, attitudes, and resilience in Zulu adolescents.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A; Devnarain, Bashi

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to violence is common in South Africa. Yet, few studies examine how violence exposure contributes to South African adolescents' participation in youth violence. The aims of this study were to examine effects of different violence exposures on violent attitudes and behavior, to test whether attitudes mediated effects of violence exposures on violent behavior, and to test whether adult involvement had protective or promotive effects. Questionnaires were administered to 424 Zulu adolescents in township high schools around Durban, South Africa. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test associations among violence exposures and both violent attitudes and behavior. Victimization, witnessing violence, and friends' violent behavior contributed directly to violent behavior. Only family conflict and friends' violence influenced violent attitudes. Attitudes mediated effects of friends' violence on violent behavior. Multiple-group SEM indicated that adult involvement fit a protective model of resilience. These findings are discussed regarding their implications for prevention. PMID:22594214

  11. LX-04 Violence Measurments: Steven Tests Impacted By Projectiles Shot From A Howitzer Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidester, Steven K.

    2005-07-01

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 150-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. A systematic review of the effects of poverty deconcentration and urban upgrading on youth violence.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Tali; Inglis, Gabrielle; Wiysonge, Charles; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors have been shown to be associated with youth violence and predictors of youth violence. This systematic review examined the existing evidence for youth violence interventions involving the deconcentration of poverty and urban upgrading. Search strategies combined related terms for youth, violence and a broad combination of terms for the intervention from a range of academic databases and websites. Abstracts were screened by two authors and appraised using a quantitative study assessment tool. Nine studies were included. No strong evidence was available to support diversification as an intervention, some evidence was identified in support of a variety of urban upgrading interventions, while the strongest study designs and demonstrated positive effects were shown for resettlement interventions. The small number of studies meeting the inclusion criteria was ascribed to the methodological complexity of inferring a causal association with 'upstream' interventions. No studies from low and middle income countries satisfied the inclusion criteria. PMID:24412655

  13. Youth Action Strategies in the Primary Prevention of Teen Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kervin, Denise; Obinna, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a school-based youth-driven teen dating violence prevention project. The project objectives are to provide opportunities for students to plan presentations and activities; develop knowledge and awareness about unhealthy gender norms, seen as an important root cause of relationship violence, particularly for teenagers; and…

  14. Violence Exposure and PTSD: The Role of English Language Fluency in Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kataoka, Sheryl; Langley, Audra; Stein, Bradley; Jaycox, Lisa; Zhang, Lily; Sanchez, Norma; Wong, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    Although Latinos have been a rapidly growing population in the US, little is known about how mental health symptoms may present in Latino children especially in the context of those living in poverty and exposed to violence. We explored the level of violence exposure and trauma symptoms in Latino youth and the relationship of these factors with…

  15. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  16. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Henrich, Christopher C.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban…

  17. Linking Law-Related Education to Reducing Violence by and against Youth. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Carolyn

    This digest addresses the topic of increasing violence among and against youth in society. The opening section "What Personal Qualities Are Associated with Reduction of Violence," identifies: (1) problem-solving and reasoning skills; (2) social capacities; and (3) a productive sense of purpose, independence, and power. The section "What Can…

  18. Youth Perspectives on the Intersections of Violence, Gender, and Hip-Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Diana; Weinstein, Hannah; Munoz-Laboy, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Youth's perceptions of violence within their social environments can provide relevant insights into the gender-based interpersonal violence epidemic in inner-city communities. To explore this issue, we examined two sets of narratives with young men and women, aged 15 to 21, involved in hip-hop culture in New York City. In the analysis, we reveal…

  19. A Meditational Model Linking Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence and Bullying Behaviors and Victimization among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Hong, Jun Sung

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research documents that various forms of violence exposures are interrelated. This paper presents a conceptual model, which accounts for the relationship between youth witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) at home and their subsequent engagement in bullying behaviors and victimization by peers. A comprehensive search of…

  20. Exposure to Violence and Socioemotional Adjustment in Low-Income Youth: An Examination of Protective Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecily R. HardawayVonnie; Vonnie C. McLoyd; Dana Wood

    Using a sample of 391 low-income youth ages 13–17, this study investigated the potential moderating effects of school climate,\\u000a participation in extracurricular activities, and positive parent–child relations on associations between exposure to violence\\u000a (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and adolescent socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing\\u000a problems). Exposure to violence was related to both internalizing and externalizing problems. High

  1. Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCD's Research-Based Programs Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

  2. Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCDs Research-Based Programs Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

  3. Standing Up to Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sautter, R. Craig

    1995-01-01

    More U.S. young people have been gunned down during the past 13 years than died in the Vietnamese War. Crimes against juveniles are increasing; also, the intensity of today's youth violence is increasing. Over 3 million crimes (11% of all crimes) occur each year in America's 85,000 public schools. Sources, predictors, and solutions are discussed.…

  4. Promising Strategies: Results of the Fourth National Survey on Community Efforts To Reduce Substance Abuse and Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Dretler, Astrid K.; Rosenbloom, David L.; Paine, Kay H.; Levinson, Suzette; Hingson, Ralph; Bell, Nicole

    More than 4,000 people responded to a survey about community efforts to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. Six major findings were identified from the responses of 1,608 people who identified themselves as leaders of community efforts in these areas. Community leaders want significant changes in long-standing public policies and a change in…

  5. An Ecological Approach to Understanding Youth Violence: The Mediating Role of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Seek; Patton, Joy; Rao, Uma

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested an ecological model that posits mediating variables (substance use and mental health) in the association between ecological factors (family closeness, school closeness, and peer closeness) and youth violence in a sample of 4,783 adolescents. Model including substance use present significantly less total effect between ecological factors and youth violence than do models without substance use. Additional probing of significant mediation effect using the Sobel test was performed and suggested that substance use did function as a mediator in the hypothesized path. Considerations of adolescent violence should recognize the possible role of ecological factors and how their influence may vary by substance use. PMID:21423847

  6. Youth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2016 Budget is designed to bring middle class economics into the 21st Century.... The National Center on ... Criminalization Banks: Investing to End Homelessness Domestic Violence Economic Value of Ending Homelessness HIV/AIDS LGBT Youth ...

  7. Does Parenting Shield Youth from Exposure to Violence during Adolescence? A 5-Year Longitudinal Test in a High-Poverty Sample of Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group-based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results…

  8. Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Swahn, Monica H; Gressard, Lindsay; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Lynch, Catherine; Yao, Huang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences. Methods We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N=457) of urban youth, 14–24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration. Results The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls) reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR=2.28;95%CI: 1.12—4.62) and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81—10.53) were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reporting hunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30—6.33), any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12—4.92) and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16—7.82) were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization. Conclusion The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In particular, reporting hunger, drunkenness and drug use were specifically associated with victimization and perpetration. These are all modifiable risk factors that can be prevented. It is clear that these vulnerable youth are in need of additional services and guidance to ameliorate their adverse childhood experiences, current health risk behaviors and disadvantaged living context. PMID:22900123

  9. Connections between online harassment and offline violence among youth in Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Timo Tapani; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas Ebanan

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that face-to-face (offline) youth violence and online harassment are closely interlinked, but evidence from Asian countries remains limited. This study was conducted to quantitatively assess the associations between offline violence and online harassment among youth in Central Thailand. Students and out-of-school youth (n=1,234, age: 15-24 years) residing, studying, and/or working in a district in Central Thailand were surveyed. Participants were asked about their involvement in online harassment and in verbal, physical, sexual, and domestic types of offline violence, as perpetrators, victims, and witnesses within a 1-year period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between different kinds of involvement in offline violence and online harassment. Perpetration and victimization within the past year were both reported by roughly half of the youth both online and offline. Over three quarters had witnessed violence or harassment. Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with being a victim online (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=10.1; 95% CI [7.5, 13.6]), and perpetrating offline violence was independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR=11.1; 95% CI [8.1, 15.0]). Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with perpetrating offline violence (AOR=2.7; 95% CI [1.9, 3.8]), and being a victim online was likewise independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR=2.6; 95% CI [1.9, 3.6]). Online harassment and offline violence are interlinked among Thai youth, as in other countries studied so far. Interventions to reduce either might best address both together. PMID:25913812

  10. What Works (and What Does Not) in Youth Violence Prevention: Rethinking the Questions and Finding New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Nancy G.; Boxer, Paul; Cook, Clayton R.

    2006-01-01

    Dramatic rises in youth violence in the United States beginning in the 1980s coupled with high visibility acts such as school shootings have resulted in a corresponding proliferation of programs designed to prevent aggression and violence in children and youth. Parallel with this increasing programmatic expansion, there have been repeated calls…

  11. Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress and Related Symptoms among Inner-City Minority Youth Exposed to Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Jennifer D.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Price, Ann W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in levels of violence exposure, and in levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and related symptomatology in a sample of inner-city predominantly African American youth. Because such youth are at risk for exposure to chronic community violence, they are likely to experience considerable distress and clinical or…

  12. Exposure to violence and socioemotional adjustment in low-income youth: an examination of protective factors.

    PubMed

    Hardaway, Cecily R; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Wood, Dana

    2012-03-01

    Using a sample of 391 low-income youth ages 13-17, this study investigated the potential moderating effects of school climate, participation in extracurricular activities, and positive parent-child relations on associations between exposure to violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and adolescent socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). Exposure to violence was related to both internalizing and externalizing problems. High levels of participation in extracurricular activities and positive parent-child relations appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the positive association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, school climate did not moderate associations between exposure to violence and socioemotional adjustment. Further, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. PMID:21607826

  13. Exposure to Violence and Socioemotional Adjustment in Low-Income Youth: An Examination of Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Wood, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 391 low-income youth ages 13 to 17, this study investigated the potential moderating effects of school climate, participation in extracurricular activities, and positive parent-child relations on associations between exposure to violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and adolescent socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). Exposure to violence was related to both internalizing and externalizing problems. High levels of participation in extracurricular activities and positive parent-child relations appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the positive association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, school climate did not moderate associations between exposure to violence and socioemotional adjustment. Further, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. PMID:21607826

  14. Wraparound care for youth injured by violence: study protocol for a pilot randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Carolyn; Jiang, Depeng; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Strome, Trevor; Klassen, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Injury by violence is the fourth cause of death and the leading reason for a youth to visit an emergency department (ED) in Canada. In Winnipeg, 20% of youth who visit an ED with an injury due to violence have a second visit for a subsequent violent injury within 1?year. Youth injured by violence are in a reflective and receptive state of mind, rendering the ED setting appropriate for intervention. Methods and analysis This protocol describes a wraparound care model delivered by a support worker with lived experience with violence, supported by social workers and links to multiple community partners. Support workers will be on call 24?h a day, 7?days a week in order to start the intervention in the ED and take advantage of the ‘teachable moment’. The protocol is of a pilot randomised control trial to assess the feasibility of a randomised control trial designed to assess efficacy. For the pilot trial, we will assess recruitment, treatment fidelity, participant adherence and safety. The intervention arm will receive wraparound care initiated at the time of their visit for injury due to violence. The control arm will receive standard care. We will use an adapted preconsent randomisation methodology. This intervention has been developed using an integrated knowledge translation approach. Discussion Interventions delivered in the ED for youth injured by violence require an approach that is appropriate for the unique situation the youth are in. Ethics The University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board (HS 16445 (Cohort study) and HS 16444 (WrapAround Care study) granted ethical approval. Trial registration number NCT01895738. PMID:25991461

  15. World Health Organization's TEACH-VIP: contributing to capacity building for youth violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Meddings, David R; Knox, Lyndee M; Maddaleno, Matilde; Concha-Eastman, Alberto; Hoffman, Joan Serra

    2005-12-01

    Youth violence is a major public health problem in every region of the world, yet it is especially prevalent in specific settings. Youth homicide rates exceeding 10.0/100,000 occur most often in countries that are low or middle income, or which are experiencing rapid economic or social change. Particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the capacity to develop and implement the comprehensive, multisectoral strategies to prevent youth violence is only just emerging. The prevention of youth violence requires multidisciplinary approaches and a variety of trained professionals. A public health approach to training in the area of injury prevention focuses on providing professionals and paraprofessionals a common understanding of essential skills and knowledge. One important benefit of this is that it addresses a major gap in current public health training that until recently has devoted relatively little attention to injury prevention. Another benefit is that it allows professionals from a variety of backgrounds to work together more effectively to reduce injury. This article will provide a broad overview of youth violence in low- and middle-income countries and will discuss the existing level of capacity within healthcare and public health sectors for responding to these problems. It concludes with a discussion of next steps for increasing capacity and a profile of the World Health Organization (WHO) training curriculum on injury and violence prevention called TEACH-VIP, an acronym for Training, Education, and Advancing Collaboration in Health on Violence and Injury Prevention, as one important effort undertaken by WHO and global injury partners to build capacity. PMID:16376728

  16. Individual, Family Background, and Contextual Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Youths’ Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic–White gap (33%) and the Black–White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences. PMID:23327266

  17. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gudiño, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2013-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. To current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths’ reinforcement sensitivity–behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)–is associated with specific clinical outcomes and increases risk for the development of such problems following exposure to violence. Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, Latino youth (N=168) provided reports of BIS/BAS and emotional/behavioral problems at Time 1, exposure to violence between Time 1 and Time 2, and clinical symptoms at Time 2. Results suggested that reinforcement sensitivity moderated the relation between violence exposure and psychopathology, such that increasing levels of BIS were associated with elevated risk for internalizing and posttraumatic stress symptoms following exposure to violence whereas BAS increased risk for externalizing problems. The importance of building on existing knowledge to understand minority youth psychopathology is discussed. PMID:22080366

  18. Enabling Prosecutors To Address Drug, Gang, and Youth Violence. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramckow, Heike P.; Tompkins, Elena

    This bulletin offers data on recent trends in juvenile violence, juvenile drug offenses, and gang-related juvenile offending, and describes prosecutorial responses to such offenses. Examples of promising prosecutor-led programs combating the illicit use of guns, violence, drugs, and gangs are also provided. These examples provide a range of ideas…

  19. Learning from youth exposed to domestic violence: decentering DV and the primacy of gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Beth; Phillips, Debby A

    2010-03-01

    Up to 8 million American children witness domestic violence (DV) every year. Since this discovery in the mid-1980s, psychologists and social service professionals have conducted research with children exposed to DV. This ethnographic study expands on existing research by examining how youth exposed to DV perceive their experiences and staff interventions. Findings show they draw on gender stereotypes for behaviors, and these frequently resist DV education and the advocates' suggestions for coping. Findings also showed the staff's formal interventions with the youth contradict gender norms and their casual interactions with the youth often inadvertently reinforce stereotypical gender identities and behaviors. PMID:20093434

  20. Reaching through the Cracks. A Guide to Implementing the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda; McClanahan, Wendy S.

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership (YVRP) was launched by a group of key stakeholders in Philadelphia--including the district attorney's office, adult and juvenile parole, other city agencies and community organizations. Its goal is to steer young people, ages 14 to 24 and at greatest risk of killing or being killed, away from…

  1. Exposure to Community Violence among Arab Youth in Israel: Rates and Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The research explored the rates and characteristics of exposure to community violence (CV) and its relevance to several sociodemographic factors among a sample of 833 Arab youth aged 14-18 years residing in diverse residential areas in Israel. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The frequency of exposure to CV during the past 12…

  2. The Rise and Fall of American Youth Violence: 1980 to 2000. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey; Travis, Jeremy

    This report examines trends in violent crime from 1980-2000, analyzing what portion of the recent crime drop can be attributed to juveniles (under age 18 years) and young adults (ages 18-24 years). Data come from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Results indicate that the decline in youth violence, as…

  3. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  4. Adapting the Concept of Explanatory Models of Illness to the Study of Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biering, Pall

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of adapting Kleinman's concept of explanatory models of illness to the study of youth violence and is conducted within the hermeneutic tradition. Data were collected by interviewing 11 violent adolescents, their parents, and their caregivers. Four types of explanatory models representing the adolescent girls',…

  5. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  6. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

  7. A Challenging Job: Physical and Sexual Violence towards Group Workers in Youth Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…

  8. Resilience Moderates the Relationship between Exposure to Violence and Posttraumatic Reexperiencing in Mi'kmaq Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H.; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Stevens, Doreen; Ungar, Michael; Wekerle, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This study is part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Nova Scotian Mi'kmaq community that hopes to shed light on the relationship between exposure to violence and mental health in First Nations youth. This particular study sought to examine how the multifaceted construct of resilience might act as a protective factor,…

  9. Cultural Causes of Rage and Violence in Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Carla J.; Bantz, Jeanmarie; Kauffman, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines differences between rage and violence. States that attitudes towards violence are influenced by: family, peer group, the media, weapons, school structure, and community. Strategies for preventing rage and aggression include: (1) communicating clear behavioral expectations; (2) giving frequent praise and other forms of recognition; and (3)…

  10. Combat experience and youth: Influences on reported violence against women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman D. Petrik; Angela M. Rosenberg; Charles G. Watson

    1983-01-01

    A study of 101 VA psychiatric and chemically dependent inpatients (mean age 44.8 yrs) was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that combat veterans (n?=?54) would report a higher frequency of physical violence against female partners than noncombat veterans (n?=?47). Veterans were interviewed by staff psychologists seeking information about the frequency and severity of violence toward their female partners and about

  11. Disentangling the Effects of Violent Victimization, Violent Behavior, and Gun Carrying for Minority Inner-City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Bolland, John

    2013-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data were used to examine the sequencing between violent victimization, violent behavior, and gun carrying in a high-poverty sample of African American youth. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that violent victimization T1 and violent behavior T1 increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying T2…

  12. Position Statement on Youth Violence Prevention and Recommended Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kathleen J.

    This position paper was prepared by the New Futures Collaborative, a group of community leaders concerned with improving outcomes for at-risk youth and families in the Dayton (Ohio) community. It is evident that for some individuals, there has been a value shift and devaluation of human life. A small but growing number of youth are committing…

  13. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted.

  14. School violence, adjustment, and the influence of hope on low-income, African American youth.

    PubMed

    Cedeno, Linda A; Elias, Maurice J; Kelly, Shalonda; Chu, Brian C

    2010-04-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and impact of exposure to school violence using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 132 low-income, African American fifth graders (mean age = 10.20). Additionally, hope was examined in relation to adjustment and as a potential resilience factor in the context of school violence. Students completed self-report measures for exposure to school violence frequencies, self-concept, and hope. Teachers completed a teacher-rated survey assessing levels of problem behaviors, social skills, and academic competence. Results indicated that the majority of youth had been personally victimized or witnessed violence during a 3-month period. Exposure to school violence was positively associated with problem behaviors, and negatively associated with social skills, self-concept, and academic competence; hope was inversely related to externalizing behaviors and positively related to self-concept. Hope buffered the effects of personal victimization and witnessing violence on self-concept. Gender differences were observed for a number of the analyses. The implications of both the prevalence and impact of exposure to school violence, as well as the moderating effects of hope, are discussed. PMID:20553515

  15. Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

    2011-01-01

    Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female) African American youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods who participated in the Mobile Youth Survey from 1998 through 2006. Using general growth mixture modeling, we found two hopelessness trajectory classes for both boys and girls during middle adolescence: a consistently low hopelessness class and an increasingly hopeless class with quadratic change. In all classes, youth who reported stronger early adolescent connections to their mothers were less hopeless at age 13. The probability of later adolescent violence with a weapon was higher for boys and was associated with the increasingly hopeless class for both boys and girls. Implications for new avenues of research and design of hope-based prevention interventions will be discussed. PMID:20690037

  16. Gender Patterns in the Contribution of Different Types of Violence to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among South African Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Debra; Hardy, Anneli; Heath, Katherine; Mosdell, Jill; Bawa, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identifying the comparative contributions of different forms of violence exposure to trauma sequelae can help to prioritize interventions for polyvictimized youth living in contexts of limited mental health resources. This study aimed to establish gender patterns in the independent and comparative contributions of five types of violence

  17. Associations Between Youth Risk Behavior and Exposure to Violence: Implications for the Provision of Mental Health Services in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Kathleen E.; Weist, Mark D.; Perez-Smith, Alina M.

    2004-01-01

    This article assesses the relation between health risk behaviors and varying levels of exposure to violence in an effort to inform assessment and intervention efforts of a school-based mental health program serving inner-city youth. Health risk behaviors such as involvement in violence, risky sexual behavior, and substance use are clearly…

  18. The Overlap of Witnessing Partner Violence with Child Maltreatment and Other Victimizations in a Nationally Representative Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the co-occurrence of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other forms of victimization. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 4,549 youth aged 0-17. Results: Witnessing partner…

  19. Solving Youth Violence: Partnerships That Work: National Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., August 15-17, 1994). Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Over a period of several months, seven Federal agencies met to study and discuss the national problem of violence, especially youth violence, and to determine how best to assist states and communities in dealing with this volatile subject. One result of these discussions was a national conference to focus attention on the many programs being tried…

  20. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M?=?15?years; range?=?13–16?years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

  1. Making a Difference: The Impact of Traditional Male Role Models on Drug Sale Activity and Violence Involving Black Urban Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen F. Parker; Scott R. Maggard

    2009-01-01

    Elijah Anderson's Code of the Street provides an ethnographic account of a disadvantaged urban environment where residents face poverty and racial residential isolation. For Anderson, joblessness among African-American men deprive youth of positive male role models, creating a context for the “street code” to govern behavior, leading youth to violence. Similarly, a disadvantaged urban setting in which opportunities in legitimate

  2. Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors. PMID:18855489

  3. Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. PMID:21491577

  4. Youth Exposed to Violence: The Role of Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Budge, Stephanie L.; McKay, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 174 inner-city urban high school students, this study examined the degree to which family and peer support would moderate the negative impact of exposure to violence on academic performance, symptoms of distress, and persistence intentions. Over 94% of the students reported having been exposed to at least one form of community…

  5. Patterns and correlates of gun ownership among nonmetropolitan and rural middle school students.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, P B; Henggeler, S W; Limber, S P; Melton, G B; Nation, M A

    2000-09-01

    Examined prevalence of gun ownership and the links among gun ownership, reasons for gun ownership, and antisocial behavior in a sample of nonmetropolitan and rural middle school students. Participants completed the Questionnaire for Students (Olweus, 1995) and included 6,263 students from 36 elementary and middle schools, of whom most were African American (range = 46%-95% per school). Reasons for gun ownership were strongly associated with rates of antisocial behavior. Youths who owned guns for sporting reasons reported rates of antisocial behavior that were only slightly higher than those reported by youths who did not own guns. Youths who owned guns to gain respect or to frighten others reported extremely high rates of antisocial behavior. These high-risk adolescent gun owners were likely to come from families of high-risk gun owners, associate with friends who were high-risk gun owners, and engage in high rates of bullying behavior. Findings suggest that effective violence prevention programs must target high-risk youths, address risk factors that go beyond individual settings, and address a comprehensive array of risk factors. PMID:10969427

  6. Adolescent Violence: The Protective Effects of Youth Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; McLeroy, Kenneth; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

    2004-01-01

    The authors explored adolescent physical fighting and weapon carrying, using in-home interviews with 1,098 middle-high school students and their parents. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between youth assets and the risk behaviors while controlling for demographic information. Both demographic factors and assets were…

  7. African Indigenous Proverbs and the Question of Youth Violence: Making the Case for the Use of the Teachings of Igbo of Nigeria and Kiembu of Kenya Proverbs for Youth Character and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, George Sefa

    2013-01-01

    The historic and contemporary global concern over youth violence and indiscipline/subordination in schools has educators, school administrators and policy makers working hard to ensure that schools are welcoming and safe spaces for learners. Social harmony can only be achieved by understanding and addressing the causes of youth violence and…

  8. Aggressive and prosocial behavior: community violence, cognitive, and behavioral predictors among urban African American youth.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema

    2013-06-01

    We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention. PMID:23229395

  9. Evaluating Agency and Responsibility in Gendered Violence: African American Youth Talk About Violence and Hip Hop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine R. Squires; Laura P. Kohn-Wood; Tabbye Chavous; Prudence L. Carter

    2006-01-01

    The results of this study provide insights into the ways that African American adolescents think about gendered interpersonal\\u000a violence. African American high school students were invited to discuss images and incidents from contemporary urban music\\u000a culture (events based on incidents with famous hip hop figures and lyrics from rap music) in a focus group format. We explored\\u000a how African American

  10. The supply and demand for guns to juveniles: Oakland's gun tracing project.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Deane; Dodge, Andrea Craig; Journel, Coraline S; Zahnd, Elaine

    2005-12-01

    In response to Oakland, California's high level of gun violence affecting young people, the East Oakland Partnership to Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence, a citywide collaboration, was formed in 1997. In 1999, the Partnership established the Oakland Gun Tracing Project to develop evidence-based policy recommendations aimed at reducing the supply of and demand for gun acquisition among urban youth. The advocacy project involved gathering, analyzing, and using police record and gun sale/registration data to inform policy and practice. Such data were collected for all gun crimes committed in Oakland, California between 1998 and 1999 in which a juvenile was either the suspect or the victim. The 213 cases involved 263 juveniles of which 170 were suspects/perpetrators and 93 were victims. Suspects as well as victims were predominantly male and African American. The 213 cases involved 132 recovered guns. Only 55% of the cases were traced to a federally licensed dealer. Three-quarters of the guns were purchased near Oakland, California. Successful traces, defined as the ability to identify federally licensed dealers and initial purchasers, were completed on only 52 of the 132 guns, demonstrating systemic tracing difficulties. Data gathered for the project was used to advocate for numerous policy changes. Recommended policy strategies include initiating a comprehensive gun tracing program so police can track all secondary sales, new laws requiring federal handgun registration which would track ownership changes, required reporting of stolen firearms, and providing effective intervention services to all juveniles the first time they enter the criminal justice system. PMID:16269532

  11. Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating victim status in boys. All violence-affected youth exhibited significantly higher rates of cumulative mental health problems. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of violence for the mental health of youth. They reveal a particular vulnerability as a function of gender. Implications for policy making, clinical practice and research are discussed. PMID:23819775

  12. Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  13. "You Can Try, But You Won't Stop It. It'll Always Be There": Youth Perspectives on Violence and Prevention in Schools.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2014-12-01

    The role of schools in preventing violence among teenagers has been highlighted, as has the development of youth-led prevention initiatives. This article explores how young people's views on violence influence their perceptions of its preventability, drawing on focus group discussions with 14- to 16-year-olds from six schools across the north of England. Young people view violence as a highly individualized phenomenon, and gender norms play an important role in shaping young people's perceptions of the preventability of violence. The findings presented here suggest that school-based violence prevention must fundamentally address gender norms and expectations to challenge young people's acceptance and tolerance of violence. PMID:25480304

  14. Assessing the Impact of Violence and War on Youth in Low-and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Suzan; Shaheen, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to understand the effects of violence and armed conflict in low-and middle-income countries, though there are logistical and ethical concerns that should be taken prior to study design. Objective: This paper provides commentary on some of the challenges inherent in conducting research with youth affected by war in…

  15. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

  16. Keeping Colorado's Kids Safe. Special Report from the Summit on School Safety and the Prevention of Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Bill; Salazar, Ken

    This report offers highlights of a special summit in Colorado during which policymakers and citizens discussed the many causes and possible solutions to youth violence. It opens with the statement that solutions start with family, community, faith, and a culture that reinforces the lessons of right and wrong. It advocates connecting every child…

  17. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Develop the PARTNERS Youth Violence Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Thomas, Nicole A.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Freedman, Melanie A.; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Woodlock, Joseph; Guerra, Terry; Bradshaw, Ayana S.; Woodburn, Elizabeth M.; Myers, Rachel K.; Fein, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background School-based violence prevention programs have shown promise for reducing aggression and increasing children’s prosocial behaviors. Prevention interventions within the context of urban after-school programs provide a unique opportunity for academic researchers and community stakeholders to collaborate in the creation of meaningful and sustainable violence prevention initiatives. Objectives This paper describes the development of a collaborative between academic researchers and community leaders to design a youth violence prevention/leadership promotion program (PARTNERS Program) for urban adolescents. Employing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) model, this project addresses the needs of urban youth, their families, and their community. Methods Multiple strategies were used to engage community members in the development and implementation of the PARTNERS Program. These included focus groups, pilot testing the program in an after-school venue, and conducting organizational assessments of after-school sites as potential locations for the intervention. Results Community members and academic researchers successfully worked together in all stages of the project development. Community feedback helped the PARTNERS team redesign the proposed implementation and evaluation of the PARTNERS Program such that the revised study design allows for all sites to obtain the intervention over time and increases the possibility of building community capacity and sustainability of programs. Conclusion Despite several challenges inherent to CBPR, the current study provides a number of lessons learned for the continued development of relationships and trust among researchers and community members, with particular attention to balancing the demand for systematic implementation of community-based interventions while being responsive to the immediate needs of the community. PMID:20729611

  18. “I Live by Shooting Hill” – A Qualitative Exploration of Conflict and Violence among Urban Youth in New Haven, Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Shuval, Kerem; Massey, Zohar; O Caughy, Margaret; Cavanaugh, Brenda; Pillsbury, Charles A; Groce, Nora

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate urban youths’ perceptions of conflict and violence we conducted a qualitative study among minority urban youths in New Haven, Connecticut. We utilized the ecological framework to explore the multilevel nature of the findings, and triangulated results with a parallel quantitative study. We found risk factors for violence at multiple levels including lack of interpersonal anger management skills (individual level); parents not physically present in the household (relationship level); residence in crime and gang-ridden neighborhoods (community level); and socioeconomic inequalities between neighborhoods, as reflected by participants’ perception of the inadequacy of neighborhood resources to provide safety (societal level). Neighborhood resources were perceived as sparse, and police were not regarded as a protective factor (sometimes rather as racially discriminatory). Participants’ statements pertaining to feelings of isolation, racism, and violence without strong parental, neighborhood, and school support may impede prosocial attitudes and behaviors throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22643467

  19. Education policy implications from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence.

    PubMed

    Worthen, Maria R

    2007-12-01

    The research from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence makes a compelling case for why educators and education policymakers should care about the effects of media on youth behavior, and the growing phenomenon of Internet bullying and harassment. The ability of the U.S. education system to respond is limited not only by competing instructional priorities but also by the governance structure of the education system itself. The federal role is limited to a proportionally small amount of funding for states and schools, to raising public awareness, and to providing research and data. States can set priorities, make requirements, and direct funding. Districts and schools ultimately have the most control over prevention program selection and setting social and behavioral norms. Key implications of the panel's research for educators and education policymakers include: Internet bullying is correlated with school behavior problems; Internet bullying behavior may peak in middle school; Internet bullying shares common predictors with verbal and, to some extent, physical bullying; Media literacy programs may mitigate the negative effects of electronic media on youth. Specific recommendations based on these conclusions are discussed, and research priorities for the prevention and education fields are identified. PMID:18047948

  20. Violence risk appraisal of male and female youth, adults, and individuals.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Robert John; Grove, William M

    2010-12-01

    Data from youth (n = 1,127), adults (n = 1,595), and individuals (N = 2,722, combined youth and adults) were followed 3 to 12 years in records to develop items to predict abuse, violence, and homicide in these 3 relevant groups for risk appraisal or safety scales. Shao's bootstrapped logistic regression yielded 14 predictors for youth (AUC = .91), 11 for adults (AUC = .99), and 13 for individuals (AUC = .96). Three regression equations were cross-validated with in-bag and out-of-bag techniques. Pearson coefficients were computed with intelligence, achievement, adaptive behavior, and perception tests. Test-retest reliability was acceptable. Using case-control quasi-experimental design, this study extends probation-parole decision-making tests to infants and children as young as 3 years, with convergent and divergent validity and reliability with other tests. Sensitivity and specificity were high and minimized over- or under-identification challenges in identifying potentially violent persons in the general population. PMID:21323157

  1. Identification, treatment, and prevention of homicide: fallacies in research, treatment, and policy--a postscript on youth violence.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Robert John

    2009-02-01

    This postscript conveys lessons learned from the 5 studies by Zagar and colleagues which examined risks for later commission of violence and homicide among abused, violent, and homicidal youth and adults. This set of studies is the first longitudinal data on risks for extreme violence from infancy to adulthood. The 5 articles following these studies consist of a developmental context for risks, historical comparisons of risks for delinquency, analyses of the costs and benefits of actuarial testing and treatment, and a general discussion of the legal issues related to application of testing and treatments. A review of the state of research on homicide acknowledges the many contributors to the literature and ideas underlying this overall work. Then, a set of 12 "fallacies" about violence that prevent or inhibit adoption of realistic, empirically sound approaches to the reduction of violence in society are addressed. PMID:19480220

  2. Modifiable determinants of youth violence in Australia and the United States: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Smith, Rachel; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Romaniuk, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Youth violence is a global problem. The major research into youth violence has been conducted in the United States (U.S.) and there has been little research to investigate whether the prevalence or predictors are similar in comparable Western countries like Australia. In the current paper, analyses are conducted using two waves of data collected as part of a cross-national longitudinal study of adolescent development in approximately 4000 students aged 12 to 16 years in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, U.S.. Students completed a self-report survey of problem behaviours including violent behaviour, as well as risk and protective factors across five domains (individual, family, peer, school, community). Compared to Washington State, rates of attacking or beating another over the past 12-months were lower in Victoria for females in the first survey and higher for Victorian males in the follow-up survey. Preliminary analyses did not show state-specific predictors of violent behaviour. Therefore, the final multivariate model included the combined Washington State and Victorian samples. In the multivariate model, protective factors were being female and student emotion control. Risk factors were prior violent behaviour, family conflict, association with violent peers, community disorganisation, community norms favourable to drug use, school suspensions, and arrests. A major implication of these findings is that the range of factors that influence violent behaviour in North America may also apply in Australia. Hence, the application of U.S. early intervention and prevention programs may be warranted, with some tailoring to the Australian context. PMID:20204170

  3. Screening and assessing violence and mental health disorders in a cohort of inner city HIV-positive youth between 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jaime; Hosek, Sybil G; Carleton, Russell A

    2009-06-01

    The focus of the primary care appointments for HIV-positive youth is often solely on medical concerns. However, these youth also present with mental health issues and histories of exposure to violence. To screen and assess for mental health disorders, HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 to 24 consecutively enrolled in an adolescent and young adult HIV clinic between 1998-2006 (n = 174), were screened for mental health disorders and violence, using the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ). All youth subsequently had diagnostic interviews conducted by psychologists. Findings of the CDQ and the psychological interviews revealed the following. Violence reported by youth occurred in several forms: physical assault/abuse (24% in childhood; 19% as adolescents), sexual abuse/assault (28% in childhood; 15% as adolescents), dating violence (i.e., physical abuse by sexual partner) (18%), and family violence (44%). Females had higher sexual abuse (p < .001). Psychological disorders included: major depressive disorders (15%), generalized anxiety disorder (17%); posttraumatic stress disorder (28%); alcohol abuse disorder (19%); and substance abuse disorder (31%). Physically abused youth had higher symptoms of anxiety (p < 0.05, and PTSD (p < 0.01). Sexually abused youth had higher symptoms of PTSD (p < 0.05). Youth with family violence had higher symptoms of Anxiety Disorder (p < 0.05) and PTSD (p < 0.01). CDQ findings closely correlated with diagnostic assessments of the psychological interview. We conclude that inner city HIV-positive youth present with high prevalence of violence and with psychological disorders. Failure to screen for and treat these psychological disorders may impact successful treatment of their HIV infection. PMID:19519231

  4. Where the guns come from: the gun industry and gun commerce.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2002-01-01

    Under federal law, it is illegal for youth under age 18 to purchase rifles or shotguns, and for those under age 21 to purchase handguns. However, fatality and injury statistics clearly show that guns are finding their way into young people's hands. Many of these youth obtain guns through illegal gun markets. This article focuses on how guns in the United States are manufactured, marketed, and sold. The article shows how the legal and illegal gun markets are intimately connected and make guns easily accessible to youth. Although the domestic gun manufacturing industry is relatively small and has experienced declining sales in recent years, it has significant political clout and a large market for its products, and has engaged in aggressive marketing to youth. Lax oversight of licensed firearms dealers, combined with little or no regulation of private sales between gun owners, mean that guns can quickly moved from the legal gun market into the illegal market, where they can be acquired by young people. Certain guns, especially inexpensive, poorly made small handguns, are particularly attractive to criminals and youth. The author observes that several policy innovations--including increased regulation of licensed firearms dealers, intensified screening of prospective buyers, regulation of private sales, gun licensing and registration, and bans on some types of weapons--hold promise for decreasing the flow of guns into the hands of youth. PMID:12194613

  5. Effectiveness of school-based violence prevention for children and youth: a research report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robert G; Chartier, Mariette J; Whalen, Jeanne C; Chateau, Dan; Boyd, Leanne

    2011-04-01

    Aggression, bullying and violence in children and youth are prevalent in Canada (18%) and internationally. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Roots of Empathy (ROE), a school-based mental health promotion and violence prevention program for children that has been widely implemented but rarely evaluated. Eight school divisions were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received ROE in 2002-2003 (445 students) or a wait-list control group (315 students). These were compared on three child mental health outcomes (physical aggression, indirect aggression and pro-social behaviour), rated by teachers and students (self-rated). The three wait-list school divisions received ROE in 2003-2004 (new cohort of 265 students) and were compared with the control group from 2002-2003 on the three outcomes, for replication purposes. For both comparisons, the authors report multi-level modelling analyses regarding (1) immediate effects after ROE completion at the end of the school year (pretest to post-test) and (2) long-term ROE effects up to three years after post-test. ROE had replicated, beneficial effects on all teacher-rated outcomes, which were generally maintained or further improved across follow-up. However, ROE had almost no statistically significant or replicated effects on student-rated outcomes. This is the first evaluation to suggest that ROE appears effective when implemented on a large scale under real-world delivery conditions. PMID:24956430

  6. The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew's general strain theory (GST) give…

  7. Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City's Youth: A Matter of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…

  8. Community perceptions of safety in relation to perceived youth violence-delinquency in a primarily native Hawaiian and Asian American community in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Chang, Janice Y; Soli, Faapisa M

    2012-02-01

    Perception of safety is an important component to the well-being of community members in their own neighborhood. The present study was the first of its kind to model community perception of safety utilizing a primarily Native Hawaiian and Asian American community sample (N = 101) and with perceived youth violence and delinquency as prominent potential influences. The study found that the majority of participants felt that several types of youth violence and delinquency were problems in the community. The overall social-ecological model evidenced a strong fit and indicated that community perception of safety was adversely impacted by perceived youth violence and delinquency and increased through positive relations with neighbors. The implications included the need for a more comprehensive approach to positive youth development and community capacity-building, including incorporation of cultural components, and to determine whether the model is applicable to other minority communities. PMID:21667344

  9. Safe Youth. Safe Schools.

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dedicated to protecting the online experiences of youth everywhere. i-SAFE combines classroom curriculum with community outreach ... prevent or stop bullying. Striving to Reduce Violence Everywhere (STRYVE) STRYVE, or Striving To Reduce Youth Violence ...

  10. What's happening to our kids? Almost all of us have read about or experienced an incident of bullying or violence directed toward youth in our communities or neighborhood schools.

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    What's happening to our kids? Almost all of us have read about or experienced an incident Zimmerman Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids and the Arts Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids

  11. Inside Gun Shows What Goes On

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Preface Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching #12;#12;Inside Gun-Violence Effort. She put gun shows on my radar and is an ace straw-purchase spotter. Thanks also to Barbara Claire a great public institution. He was right. #12;Contents Preface Executive Summary Gun Shows in Context How

  12. Examining Space–Time Interaction in City-Level Homicide Data: Crack Markets and the Diffusion of Guns Among Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Cork

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the linkage between crack market activity and gunhomicide suggested by Blumstein (1995), who argues that the arrival ofcrack stimulated an increased availability of guns among juveniles. Thisgreater availability of guns, the argument continues, is responsible for thesharp upswing in juvenile homicide experienced in the United States in themid-1980s. Using city-level data on crack arrests and gun-related juvenilehomicide,

  13. What Works in Youth Violence Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Given the high rates at which adolescents engage in violence, the strong link between adolescent and adult violence, and the financial and social costs of violence, the prevention of violent behavior is a national priority. Methods: The authors conducted a comprehensive review of evaluations utilizing quasi-experimental or experimental…

  14. Dealing with Youth Violence. What Schools and Communities Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhon-Sells, Rose, Ed.

    This publication addresses many of the complexities of violence, and provides information to prepare educators and parents to combat violence in schools and communities. The chapters are: (1) "How Educators, Students, Parents, and Law Enforcement Officials See School Violence" (Rose M. Duhon-Sells and Halloway C. Sells); (2) "Addressing School…

  15. Perpetrator and victim gender patterns for 21 forms of youth victimization in the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Most interest in violence and gender has focused on certain types of victimization such as sex offenses and relational aggression. This study examined gender patterns across numerous forms of youth victimization. The data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative U.S. sample of 4,549 children ages 1 month to 17 years obtained through a telephone survey of caregivers and youth. For 18 of 21 victimization types, male perpetration was significantly more common than female perpetration. Perpetrator-victim patterns revealed that most forms of physical assault and bullying showed a predominantly male-on-male pattern. All forms of sexual assault, plus kidnapping, showed a predominantly male-on-female pattern. Nonphysical maltreatment showed a mixed pattern, with fairly similar rates across all four gender configurations. Many violence types were more severe when perpetrated by males versus females as indicated by higher injury rates and greater victim fear. Higher order analyses by victimization type indicated, among other findings, that victimization types with more stranger perpetrators had more male perpetrators, victimizations with higher percentages of male-on-female and female-on-male incidents were more likely to be sexual offenses, and higher percentages of female-on-female incidents were associated with verbal victimizations. Results also suggest that males are more likely to aggress in more impersonal contexts compared to females. Gender socialization, physical power, and social power appear to intersect in ways that create gendered patterns of violence. These factors, versus a focus on skills deficits, need more attention in prevention and intervention. PMID:24547672

  16. A public health approach to address the mental health burden of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Kohrt, Brandon A; Song, Suzan J; Tol, Wietse A; Reis, Ria

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates, individual and family needs, and available human and material resources. We propose four strategies to develop a participatory public health approach for these youth, based on principles of equity, feasibility, and a balance between prevention and treatment. The first strategy uses ecological and transgenerational resilience as a theoretical framework to facilitate a systems approach to the plight of youth and families. This theoretical base helps to engage health care professionals in a multisectoral analysis and a collaborative public health strategy. The second strategy is to translate pre-program assessment into mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) priorities. Defining priorities helps to develop programs and policies that align with preventive and curative interventions in multiple tiers of the public health system. The third is a realistic budgetary framework as a condition for the development of sustainable institutional capacity including a monitoring system. The fourth strategy is to direct research to address the knowledge gap about effective practices for youth mental health in humanitarian settings. PMID:26021862

  17. Dating Violence among Youth Couples: Dyadic Analysis of the Prevalence and Agreement.

    PubMed

    Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; Fuertes Martín, Antonio; González Ortega, Eva; Martínez Álvarez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Although dating violence takes place within the context of a couple, there are few studies exploring how the prevalence data change when violence is reported by one partner or both, and to what extent partners agree about the existence of violence. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze and compare the reports about the prevalence of violence obtained from participants and their partners, together with interpartner agreement concerning victimization and perpetration of threats, physical, verbal-emotional and sexual violence. A total of 105 young heterosexual couples answered a questionnaire about victimization and the perpetration of violence in their relationship during the previous year. The results indicated that prevalence rates varied, depending on who reported the violence -the man, the woman or the couple- perhaps because interpartner agreement was low, except for the occurrence of verbal-emotional violence and the absence of physical violence. These findings suggest the need to develop more systematic research, especially through the use of reports from both members of the couple. PMID:26073572

  18. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  19. Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.

    2007-01-01

    Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which were…

  20. Are movies with tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sex, and violence rated for youth?: A comparison of rating systems in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Vargas, Rosa; Braun, Sandra; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Sevigny, Eric L.; Billings, Deborah L.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Navarro, Ashley; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine between-country differences and changes over time in the portrayal of youth risk behaviors in films rated for youth in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the United States. Methods Content and ratings were analyzed for 362 films that were popular across all four countries from 2002–2009. Country-specific ratings were classified as either youth or adult, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to determine between-country differences in the presence of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sexual content, and violence in youth-rated films. Within-country differences in this content over time were also assessed, comparing films released from 2002–2005 with those released from 2006–2009. Results In the US, films rated for youth were less likely to contain all five risk behaviors than in youth-rated films in Argentina, Brazil, and, when the “15 and older” rating was considered a youth rating, in Mexico. All three Latin American countries “downrated” films that received an adult rating in the US. Nevertheless, tobacco and drug use in youth-rated films declined over time in all countries, whereas moderate to extreme alcohol use and violence involving children or youth increased in all countries. Conclusions Tobacco and drug use have declined in popular US films, but these behaviors are still prevalent in films rated for youth across the Americas. The apparent success of advocacy efforts to reduce tobacco and other drugs in films suggests that similar efforts be directed to reduce alcohol portrayals. PMID:24316001

  1. Dating Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual Assault Robbery and Property Crime Stalking When a Youth ... Victim Bar Association Coping with Trauma and Grief Sexual Assault Awareness Month Our Programs Membership Member Login Become ...

  2. Risk Factors for Severe Inter-Sibling Violence: A Preliminary Study of a Youth Forensic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Roxanne; Cooke, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The perpetration of severe inter-sibling violence (SISV) remains a largely unexplored area of family violence. This article describes an investigation of risk factors for intentional SISV perpetration. A sample of 111 young people under the care of the Scottish criminal justice or welfare systems was studied. A SISV perpetration interview schedule…

  3. The Consequences of Parental Underestimation and Overestimation of Youth Exposure to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Pogarsky, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in parent and child estimates of the child's exposure to violence. Using data (N = 1,517) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, analyses related differences between parent and child reports of the child's exposure to violence to the child's psychosocial functioning. Most parents (66%)…

  4. Refining the Measurement of Exposure to Violence (ETV) in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert T.; Molnar, Beth E.; Earls, Felton

    2007-01-01

    Correlational analysis, classical test theory, confirmatory factor analysis, and multilevel Rasch modeling were used to refine a measure of adolescents' exposure to violence (ETV). Interpersonal violence could be distinguished from other potentially traumatic events; it was also possible to distinguish three routes of exposure (victimization,…

  5. Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization. PMID:24364129

  6. Dating Violence Among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence, sexual, and substance use behaviors. METHODS Logistic regression models for clustered data from 7th grade students attending 10 Texas urban middle schools were used to examine cross-sectional associations between dating violence victimization and risk behaviors. RESULTS The sample (N = 950) was 48.5% African American, 36.0% Hispanic, 55.7% female, mean age 13.1 years (SD 0.64). About 1 in 5 reported physical dating violence victimization, 48.1% reported nonphysical victimization, and 52.6% reported any victimization. Adjusted logistic regression analyses indicated that physical, nonphysical, and any victimization was associated with ever having sex, ever using alcohol, and ever using drugs. CONCLUSIONS Over 50% of sampled middle school students had experienced dating violence, which may be associated with early sexual initiation and substance use. Middle school interventions that prevent dating violence are needed. PMID:23586886

  7. Peace and Non-Violence: A Community Collaborates for Inner City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Vrondelia

    In response to the escalation of violent crime among youth in Knoxville, Tennessee, two partnerships have been developed by Pellissippi State Technical Community College (PSTCC), a university and the K-12 system in the Greater Knoxville area, and community leaders to provide non-violent alternatives for youth. The first effort, the annual Greater…

  8. Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

  9. Association between early marriage and intimate partner violence in India: a focus on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Pearson, Erin

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women aged 20 to 24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India's girls who are married under the legal age of marriage. PMID:20587462

  10. Youth, violence and non-injection drug use: nexus of vulnerabilities among lesbian and bisexual sex workers.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Tara; Kerr, Thomas; Duff, Putu; Feng, Cindy; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence of enhanced HIV risk among sexual minority populations, and sex workers (SWs) in particular, there remains a paucity of epidemiological data on the risk environments of SWs who identify as lesbian or bisexual. Therefore, this short report describes a study that examined the individual, interpersonal and structural associations with lesbian or bisexual identity among SWs in Vancouver, Canada. Analysis drew on data from an open prospective cohort of street and hidden off-street SWs in Vancouver. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the independent relationships between individual, interpersonal, work environment and structural factors and lesbian or bisexual identity. Of the 510 individuals in our sample, 95 (18.6%) identified as lesbian or bisexual. In multivariable analysis, reporting non-injection drug use in the last six months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.89; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.42, 5.75), youth ?24 years of age (AOR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.24, 4.73) and experiencing client-perpetrated verbal, physical and/or sexual violence in the last six months (AOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.98) remained independently associated with lesbian/bisexual identity, after adjusting for potential confounders. The findings demonstrate an urgent need for evidence-based social and structural HIV prevention interventions. In particular, policies and programmes tailored to lesbian and bisexual youth and women working in sex work, including those that prevent violence and address issues of non-injection stimulant use are required. PMID:24382155

  11. A game theoretic model of gun control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Taylor

    1995-01-01

    With the passage of the Brady Bill in 1993 and the approval of the Feinstein Amend- ment the following year, gun control has once again become a subject of heated public debate in the United States. Procontrol forces point to high levels of gun ownership as the cause of much, if not most, violence in America, and argue that gun

  12. Inside Gun Shows What Goes On

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Danh

    Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Executive Summary #12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence;Executive Summary Gun shows are surrounded by controversy. On the one hand, they are important economic

  13. Investigating the Role of Gender and Delinquency in Exposure to Violence Among Puerto Rican Youth.

    PubMed

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Jennings, Wesley G; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Piquero, Alex R; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-08-01

    Using a longitudinal sample of Puerto Rican adolescents living in the Bronx, New York, this study examines the predictors of exposure to violence within gender. Results from a series of negative binomial regressions suggested (a) sensation seeking, peer delinquency, coercive discipline, and initial delinquency increased the likelihood of exposure to violence for both males and females at multiple time points and (b) initial delinquency was the only consistent predictor of exposure to violence at all time points. Regarding the role of gender, the results indicated that some risk factors were similar across genders (e.g., sensation seeking, coercive discipline, peer delinquency, and delinquent behavior), whereas other risk factors differed across gender (e.g., age and welfare among males and school environment for females). Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23914125

  14. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  15. Are Risky Youth Less Protectable As They Age? The Dynamics of Protection During Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Krohn, Marvin D.; Lizotte, Alan J.; Phillips, Matthew D.; Schmidt, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on recidivism in criminal justice and desistance in criminology are not integrated. Yet, both fields seem to be moving towards models that look at how positive elements in a person's environment can impact a person's behavior, conditional on different levels of risk. This study builds on this observation by applying interactional theory and the concept of Risk-Needs-Responsivity to theorize that both Needs and Responsivity will change over time in predictable ways. We then use a novel empirical approach with the Rochester Youth Development Study to show that even in late adolescence, individuals who are at risk for violence can be protected from future violence and risky behavior like gun carrying with positive events in their environment and personal life. In young adulthood, fewer people are still at risk for violence, and those who are at risk are harder to protect from future violence and gun carrying. PMID:24363492

  16. Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

    2006-01-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

  17. An ecological developmental community initiative to reduce youth violence: safe schools/healthy students.

    PubMed

    Telleen, Sharon; Kim, Young O; Pesce, Rosario

    2009-01-01

    A social ecological framework integrated the six elements of the U.S. Department of Education Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative in High School District 201, Cook County, Illinois. Program components were organized across ecological levels (community-wide strategies, school-wide strategies, classrooms, and targeted individual students) along the developmental continuum from preschool to Grade 12. The goal of the community initiative was to promote positive youth development and social and emotional learning in all youth settings in the community, including the schools. There were demonstrated program effects for each of the components of the Initiative. The coalition and the program's activities have been sustained and have brought new interagency collaboration to more effectively serve Latino immigrant youth and their families. PMID:19830627

  18. Religiosity Profiles of American Youth in Relation to Substance Use, Violence, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Hodge, David R.; Perron, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known in terms of the relationship between religiosity profiles and adolescents' involvement in substance use, violence, and delinquency. Using a diverse sample of 17,705 (49 % female) adolescents from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, latent profile analysis and multinomial regression are employed to examine…

  19. Attitudes toward Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youth in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the attitudes toward dating violence among Jewish and Arab male and female adolescents in Israel. The random sample consisted of 1,357 participants from among 9th to 12th grade pupils enrolled in eight Arab and eight Jewish junior and senior high schools. The study assessed attitudes toward…

  20. Preventing Dating Violence in Public Schools: An Evaluation of an Interagency Collaborative Program for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Laura A.; Jones, Chris D.; Banks, Leon

    2007-01-01

    Many communities offer programs aimed at improving teen dating skills and knowledge about violence and sexual behavior. This research study evaluates one such program, operated by an interagency collaborative. Each of four participating community agencies provided one hour of curriculum during one week of health class. Lecture, group activities,…

  1. Role Model Behavior and Youth Violence: A Study of Positive and Negative Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated how role models' behavior may positively or negatively influence African American early adolescents' attitudes toward violence and violent behavior. Participants in this study included 331 African American seventh and eighth graders from low-income neighborhoods in an urban, Midwestern city. The study used a model developed…

  2. Preventing Dating Violence in Public Schools: An Evaluation of an Interagency Collaborative Program for Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. Lowe; Chris D. Jones; Leon Banks

    Many communities offer programs aimed at improving teen dating skills and knowledge about violence and sexual behavior. This research study evaluates one such program, operated by an inter- agency collaborative. Each of four participating community agencies provided one hour of curriculum during one week of health class. Lec- ture, group activities, and films were used in the intervention. A 0

  3. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  4. Community Perceptions of Safety in Relation to Perceived Youth Violence-Delinquency in a Primarily Native Hawaiian and Asian American Community in Hawai‘i

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl S. HishinumaJanice; Janice Y. Chang; Faapisa M. Soli

    Perception of safety is an important component to the well-being of community members in their own neighborhood. The present\\u000a study was the first of its kind to model community perception of safety utilizing a primarily Native Hawaiian and Asian American\\u000a community sample (N = 101) and with perceived youth violence and delinquency as prominent potential influences. The study found that the majority

  5. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup. PMID:21188487

  6. Media violence.

    PubMed

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects. PMID:10904203

  7. Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

  8. Exposure to Violence o Youths' beliefs about the justifiability or acceptability of

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Matthew

    emotional cohesion, structure, and effective parenting practices, have been found to buffer the effects of youths' experiences with multiple forms of aggression (interparental, parent-child, and community factor in understanding how these behaviors develop. oInterparental, parent-child, and community

  9. Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

    2011-01-01

    Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female)…

  10. The Relationship Between Gun and Gun Buyer Characteristics and Firearm Time-to-Crime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven G. Brandl; Meghan S. Stroshine

    2011-01-01

    Gun violence continues to be a major crime control problem in many metropolitan cities in America. To comprehend this problem more completely, this study seeks to develop an understanding of the dynamics of illegal firearm markets in one particular city: Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In particular, the characteristics of guns and gun buyers that are related to fast firearm time-to-crime are identified.

  11. Middle School Youth: Satisfaction With and Responses to a Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nada Elias-Lambert; Beverly Black; Yasoda Sharma

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how group composition influences students' level of satisfaction with a dating violence and sexual assault prevention program. A 10- to 12-session program was presented to 396 urban African American middle school students in mixed- and same-gender groups. Both males and females were significantly more satisfied with the mixed-gender program than the same-gender program; females in both programs

  12. Adolescent Violence towards Parents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Routt; Lily Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Although adolescent-to-parent violence is often overlooked by family violence researchers and practitioners, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests it is widespread. Knowledge about this type of violence is limited and few established interventions exist. This article describes an intervention—called the Step-Up program—for youth who assault their parents in King County, Washington, and identifies risk factors for youth

  13. School Violence: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper

    2002-01-01

    Examines the school nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and development of violence prevention strategies in the school and community, offering an overview of school violence; risk factors for youth violence (gender, age, race, ethnicity, behavior, family, school, and community); risk factors for school shootings; and implications for…

  14. "Like a family but better because you can actually trust each other": the Expect Respect dating violence prevention program for at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Ball, Barbara; Kerig, Patricia K; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2009-01-01

    Expect Respect, a teen dating violence prevention program, was among four programs selected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to participate in an empowerment evaluation project. As one aspect of this project, a qualitative study was designed to investigate the effects of Expect Respect support groups for at-risk youth. The goal was to understand the "how and why" of the program's impact on participants. Group interviews were conducted with five boys' and five girls' support groups after completion of the program. Settings included public middle and high schools and alternative schools in juvenile detention. Participants were asked to describe significant learning experiences in support groups as well as changes in their relationships resulting from program participation. Youths across all groups reported learning new skills including improved communication, anger control, and alternatives to violence. They reported increased knowledge about healthy relationships and warning signs of dating violence and expanded awareness of their own and others' abusive behaviors. Changed relationship norms were uniquely expressed by a boys' group in juvenile detention. Findings indicate that the experience of emotional safety in groups and positive relationships among group members were instrumental in the learning process. PMID:19136445

  15. Preventing School Violence: What Schools Can Do. Hot Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris, Ed.

    This collection of papers provide a range of data on dealing with violence in the schools and communities, focusing on risk factors and correlates of youth violence, how violence affects young people, and how schools can help students avoid violence. The papers include: "Youth Violence in the United States: Major Trends, Risk Factors, and…

  16. Guns, Southernness, and gun control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline Gasdow Brennan; Alan J. Lizotte; David McDowall

    1993-01-01

    Southerners have been found to have higher levels of gun ownership than persons who reside elsewhere. This may be due to cultural factors peculiar to the Southern region. If so, this would have interesting implications for gun control initiatives. Although the differential in gun ownership has been linked to varying support or opposition to gun control, the relationship between this

  17. Psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence victimization among Latino early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang A; Howard, Donna E; Beck, Kenneth H; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was physical dating violence; the independent variables included violence, substance use, emotional well-being, prosocial behaviors, and parenting practices. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed and adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were examined. Overall, 13.5% (n = 43) of Latino early adolescents reported being a victim of physical dating violence within the past year. The prevalence was 14.4% for girls and 12.9% for boys. Among the girls, binge drinking was the sole risk behavior associated with dating violence. Gun carrying, alcohol consumption, and having considered suicide were associated with dating violence among the boys. Physical dating violence appears to affect a small but significant proportion of Latino early adolescents and is associated with other risk behaviors. Healthy dating relationship programs are warranted for middle school youth with some tailoring to reflect gender differences in risk profiles. PMID:19584406

  18. A British perspective on guns, crime and social order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIMON HALLSWORTH; DANIEL SILVERSTONE

    Recent years have witnessed an escalation in the number of young men involved in lethal gun-related violence in the UK. Within the last two years these have resulted in over 80 deaths. Lacking any overarching explanation some have attributed such violence to a burgeoning 'gun culture', others to the (alleged) arrival of American style gangs onto the streets of the

  19. Child and adolescent violence.

    PubMed

    Daane, Diane M

    2003-01-01

    Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important. PMID:12640949

  20. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  1. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308

  2. Family and Youth Services Bureau

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnancy Prevention Grants Resources FAQs New Trainings on Domestic Violence and Disaster Response Access the Facilitator and Participant ... an end to youth homelessness , adolescent pregnancy and domestic violence . Latest from FYSB 2015 Amendment to Opening Doors ...

  3. Gun Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

  4. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  5. Youth, violence, and courtship in late-Victorian Birmingham: The case of James Harper and Emily Pimm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Davies

    2006-01-01

    Late-Victorian England witnessed a decline in the recorded level of violence. Recent historical scholarship ascribes this fall to the 19th-century “civilising offensive” and suggests that male violence was effectively targeted by legislators and subject to increasingly stringent punishment by the courts. Yet concern with violence persisted. During the 1890s, it was expressed both in the enduring debate on the problem

  6. Fear of the Loss of Honor: Implications of Honor-Based Violence for the Development of Youth and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedem, Mina; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence committed against young women, and in some cases young men, who are considered to have violated honor-based norms are reported in several countries, making honor-based violence (HBV) a global concern. This article is an overview of research in this area and summarizes key findings from a Swedish program of research dedicated…

  7. A Community's Answer to Teen Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourdan, Jeanne

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of the "This Is My Neighborhood: No Shooting Allowed" teenage violence prevention program in South Bend, Indiana. The program is designed to increase community awareness of gun violence, increase neighborhood pride, deglamourize guns, and educate children about the criminal justice system. (MDM)

  8. Mediation by Peer Violence Victimization of Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI?=?6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI?=?1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI?=?3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

  9. 76 FR 67194 - Administration on Children, Youth and Families Announces the Award of a Single-Source Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence in Harrisburg, PA AGENCY: Family and Youth...to Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence, National Resource Center on Domestic Violence to Support a Family Violence Prevention...

  10. Stolen Gun Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Helsley; Arthur O'Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Guns stolen from law-abiding households provide an important source of guns for criminals. Crime rates increase with the availability of stolen guns, so the gun market is subject to externalities that generate excessive ownership and inadequate spending on protective measures to deter gun theft. We show that a simple refundable deposit for guns can internalize the externalities in the gun

  11. Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

  12. The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Guang; Roettger, Michael E.; Cai, Tianji

    2008-01-01

    This study, drawing on approximately 1,100 males from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, demonstrates the importance of genetics, and genetic-environmental interactions, for understanding adolescent delinquency and violence. Our analyses show that three genetic polymorphisms--specifically, the 30-bp promoter-region variable…

  13. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use,…

  14. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible - and largely unrestricted - for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25874748

  15. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  16. Holocaust Youth and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Joanna

    As Holocaust study for youth becomes integrated into the U.S. educational structure, educators throughout the country are going to need resources that combine history and humanity to convey to young people the impact of tragedy and violence that World War II and the Holocaust had on the youth of a particular time in the 20th century. This paper…

  17. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed

    Laraque, D; Barlow, B; Durkin, M

    1999-10-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  18. Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level…

  19. Reconnection gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cowan; E. C. Cnare; B. W. Duggin; R. J. Kaye; T. J. Tucker

    1986-01-01

    An electromagnetic launcher called the reconnection gun is introduced. Its potential performance is shown to be superior to that of a modern railgun for projectiles with mass greater than a few hundred grams. It has a ''characteristic velocity'' which is an order of magnitude lower for much lower energy loss to ohmic heating. Also, it has several advantages for producing

  20. Trends in BB/pellet gun injuries in children and teenagers in the United States, 1985–99

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M; Annest, J; Mercy, J; Ryan, G; Fingerhut, L

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To characterize national trends in non-fatal BB/pellet gun related injury rates for persons aged 19 years or younger in relation to trends in non-fatal and fatal firearm related injury rates and discuss these trends in light of injury prevention and violence prevention efforts. Setting: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) includes approximately 100 hospitals with at least six beds that provide emergency services. These hospitals comprise a stratified probability sample of all US hospitals with emergency departments. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) is a complete census of all death certificates filed by states and is compiled annually. Methods: National data on BB/pellet gun related injuries and injury rates were examined along with fatal and non-fatal firearm related injuries and injury rates. Non-fatal injury data for all BB/pellet gun related injury cases from 1985 through 1999, and firearm related injury cases from 1993 through 1999 were obtained from hospital emergency department records using the NEISS. Firearm related deaths from 1985 through 1999 were obtained from the NVSS. Results: BB/pellet gun related injury rates increased from age 3 years to a peak at age 13 years and declined thereafter. In contrast, firearm related injury and death rates increased gradually until age 13 and then increased sharply until age 18 years. For persons aged 19 years and younger, BB/pellet gun related injury rates increased from the late 1980s until the early 1990s and then declined until 1999; these injury rates per 100 000 population were 24.0 in 1988, 32.8 in 1992, and 18.3 in 1999. This trend was similar to those for fatal and non-fatal firearm related injury rates per 100 000 which were 4.5 in 1985, 7.8 in 1993, and 4.3 in 1999 (fatal) and 38.6 in 1993 and 16.3 in 1999 (non-fatal). In 1999, an estimated 14 313 (95% confidence interval (CI) 12 025 to 16 601) cases with non-fatal BB/pellet gun injuries and an estimated 12 748 (95% CI 7881–17 615) cases with non-fatal firearm related injuries among persons aged 19 years and younger were treated in US hospital emergency departments. Conclusions: BB/pellet gun related and firearm related injury rates show similar declines since the early 1990s. These declines coincide with a growing number of prevention efforts aimed at reducing injuries to children from unsupervised access to guns and from youth violence. Evaluations at the state and local level are needed to determine true associations. PMID:12226113

  1. Youth's Strategies for Staying Safe and Coping with the Stress of Living in Violent Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne; McDonald, Catherine C.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

    2010-01-01

    Youth living in urban environments of pervasive violence are exposed to a variety of violence-related stressors. This qualitative descriptive study sought to ascertain how community-dwelling youth perceived exposure to violence and how these youth identified and used available resources. The intent of this community-based participatory research…

  2. Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, John

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on forty years of distinguished service in delinquency prevention, John Calhoun, founder of the National Crime Prevention Council, lays out the essential ingredients for preventing violence. These include strategies for connecting with alienated youth, building community norms of caring, reducing access of weapons of violence, and claiming…

  3. Violence in the Media

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Irwin Slesnick

    2004-01-01

    Many think that television and other media are primarily responsible for the aggressiveness of American youth and the youth of Western nations. Several experimental and longitudinal studies have provided considerable support to this claim. However, there are those who outright deny that the media has any influence on aggressive behavior. The debate over media violence and its impact on society is addressed in this chapter.

  4. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  5. Dating Violence among High School Students in Southeastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; McCuiston, Ashley M.; Fox, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are a high-risk group for dating violence. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, this study examined the associations among dating violence (including physical dating violence [PDV] and sexual dating violence [SDV]) and selected health risk behaviors among 375 and 372 high school students, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, in…

  6. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths from 1994 and 1999 and comparisons of U.S. data to those of other industrialized countries. A table delineates 1996-1998…

  7. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths and finds the statistics alarming, despite recent decline. The first of three tables in the report delineates 1979-1999…

  8. 1998 National Gun Policy Survey of the National Opinion Research Center: Research Findings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smith, Tom W.

    The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research in 1999 released a final report based on the research findings of a national survey on gun policies. The 64-page study reports on topics such as the regulation of firearms, gun ownership and use, knowledge and attitudes toward guns, gun violence, and safety issues. The report includes thirteen statistical tables and concludes that the American public strongly supports "legislation to regulate firearms, make guns safer, and reduce the accessibility of firearms to criminals and children."

  9. Understanding violence: a school initiative for violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Nikitopoulos, Christina E; Waters, Jessica S; Collins, Erin; Watts, Caroline L

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluates Understanding Violence, a violence prevention initiative implemented in a Boston-area elementary school whose students experience high rates of community violence. Understanding Violence draws on the educational and personal skills of youths and allows them to practice positive alternatives to violence. Participating 5th graders (n = 123) completed a survey that included rating scale items and open-ended questions to assess the program. Results indicate high levels of satisfaction with and learning from the program. Participants responded positively to the program's use of diverse components and community engagement. Developed as part of a larger community mental health outreach program, Understanding Violence offers an example of a school-based initiative to mitigate the effects of community violence. PMID:19830623

  10. Reconnection gun

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, M.; Cnare, E.C.; Duggin, B.W.; Kaye, R.J.; Tucker, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    An electromagnetic launcher called the reconnection gun is introduced. Its potential performance is shown to be superior to that of a modern railgun for projectiles with mass greater than a few hundred grams. It has a ''characteristic velocity'' which is an order of magnitude lower for much lower energy loss to ohmic heating. Also, it has several advantages for producing higher acceleration including: no barrel, no drop in acceleration with increase in projectile mass, higher peak pressure on the projectile and smaller differences between average and peak pressure. Experimental results and plans for high-performance, multi-stage designs are briefly discussed.

  11. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways. PMID:22669643

  12. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  13. Gun Control vs. Gun Rights

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Website from opensecrets.org (see the July 30, 1999 Scout Report) summarizes the current state of the debate including the positions of the interest groups on both sides and, most revealingly, offers statistics on campaign contributions from both sides of the debate to Congress. In addition, links are provided to a congressperson-by-congressperson breakdown of voting records vis-a-vis contributions received. Such a site may not resolve the constitutional (and sometimes metaphysical) issues involved in the gun debate, but it gives us a more realistic picture of how the politics of influence impact this issue.

  14. What is the effect of 4-H involvement on levels of empathy, self-esteem, community involvement and positive view of the future on urban youth?

    E-print Network

    Bonnett, Erika Dawn

    2007-04-25

    with youth, amount of time youth spend alone, and the amount of structured time youth face. Youth in an urban setting have increased exposure to violence (Albus, Perez-Smith, & Weist, 2001). This is particularly significant for male youth. Urban youth... within the ecological model. In reference to the microsystem of the youth, Albus...

  15. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  16. The Gun Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)

  17. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence

    PubMed Central

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists. PMID:25641992

  18. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley D. Stein; Lisa H. Jaycox; Sheryl Kataoka; Hilary J. Rhodes; Katherine D. Vestal

    2003-01-01

    Emerging as one of the most significant health issues facing American youth today, child and adolescent exposure to community violence has generated much interest across multiple disciplines. Most research to date has focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and the emotional and behavioral ramifications. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding prevalence of youth exposure

  19. The Violence of Adolescent Life: Experiencing and Managing Everyday Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of 43 adolescents living in Denver, Colorado, from 1994 to 1996--the 2-year period following the peak of the youth violence epidemic. Where the dominant theories explaining inner-city violence tend to focus on disadvantaged communities, this study sampled youths from 5 neighborhoods with varying crime,…

  20. Aggression and Violence on the Move in Russian Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervova, Irina

    1999-01-01

    Examination of trends in aggression and violence in Russian youth identifies risk factors including political factors, economic factors, ecological factors, the crash of ideals and decrease of morality, cultural factors, family problems, educational aspects, mass media influences, and delinquent groups. Incidents of youth violence and aggression…

  1. HUMAN CAPITAL Summer jobs reduce violence among

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    HUMAN CAPITAL Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth Sara B. Heller1,2 * Every day to reducing the perceived cost of punishment (7­10). Policy discussions often conclude that public employ

  2. 78 FR 27240 - Announcing the Award of a New Single-Source Award to the National Council on Family Violence in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...Single-Source Award to the National Council on Family Violence in Austin, TX AGENCY: Family and Youth Services...agreement to the National Council on Family Violence to support the National Domestic Violence Hotline...

  3. Gender and the impact of gun control on suicide and homicide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoon A. Leenaars; David Lester

    1996-01-01

    An avenue to controlling lethal violence—suicide and homicide—may be to restrict the availability of the method. Guns are a preferred method for violence in many countries. An opportunity to study the effects of gun control laws on the use of firearms for suicide and homicide is provided by Canada's Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1977 (Bill C-51), enforced from 1978

  4. Pew Interactive Tools: Gun Rights versus Gun Control

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pew Research Center

    The Pew Research Center has tracked shifting public opinion on gun rights and gun control over the past 20 years. Explore our polling data below to discover how demographics influence public opinion on gun rights and gun control. 

  5. Characteristics of a gun exchange program, and an assessment of potential benefits

    PubMed Central

    Romero, M.; Wintemute, G.; Vernick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To describe a gun exchange program and assess potential benefits for participants and host communities. Methods—Mail survey of participants in a Sacramento, California gun exchange program, August 1993; the response rate was 79%. Comparative data were obtained from nationwide polls of gun owners. Results—Most (62%) respondents were men; 40% were more than 55 years old; none was less than 25. Concern that children might find and use the gun was the most frequently cited reason for participating (46% of respondents). Of 141 firearms exchanged, 72% were handguns; 23% of respondents indicated that the guns they turned in were not in working order. Of respondents who owned a gun at the time of the program (rather than those who owned no guns and turned in a gun owned by someone else), 41% owned no guns after participating; the prevalence of handgun ownership declined from 79% to 32%. Those who continued to own guns were as likely as gun owners nationwide to keep a gun loaded in the house (odds ratio (OR) 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4 to 1.7) or to carry a gun with them (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.6 to 3.8). Conclusions—Gun exchange programs may reduce risk for firearm violence among some participants, but a number of factors limit their overall benefits to host communities. PMID:9788092

  6. The prevalence of risky behaviors related to violence in high school students in a southern city, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Sevgi; Ergin, Ahmet; Saatci, Esra; Bozdemir, Nafiz; Kurdak, Hatice; Akpinar, Ersin

    2008-12-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents and can be grouped as unintentional (such as motor vehicle crashes and fires) and intentional (violence and suicide). The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of high risk behaviors related to violence in high school students. The population comprised 2,480 randomly selected students from 10 schools among 46,271 students from 72 high schools in 1999-2000 in Adana and 2,352 (94.8%) were reached. They completed a Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire (YRBSQ). The mean age was 16.5 +/- 1 (14-21) years. 275 (11.7%) students stated that they carried a knife or a sharp weapon during the last 30 days, 151 (6.4%) carried a gun, 710 (30.2%) participated in a physical fight, 68 (2.9%) were threatened or injured by a weapon, 73 (3.1%) could not attend school because of threats from other students, 96 (4.1%) were forced into sexual intercourse. Male students were significantly more likely than female students to report all types of high risk behaviors except forced sexual intercourse. The rate of risky behaviors increased with higher grade. Violence towards and by adolescents is a severe problem. Families, teachers, and health care professionals should be aware of risk factors and be active in prevention of high risk behaviors in youth. PMID:19149208

  7. Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

  8. No Safe Place: KIDS COUNT Report on Children and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Melissa; And Others

    Recognizing increasing concerns about rising youth-related crime in Missouri, this Kids Count report on children and violence examines the impact of community and family violence on young perpetrators and victims, and explores characteristics of successful programs to prevent or reduce family and community violence in Missouri. Data suggest that…

  9. Violence at School: Recent Evidence from Four National Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark B.; Alford, Aaron A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews data from four surveys using national samples that include questions about violence that were administered to school-aged youth. Assesses risk factors for weapon-carrying and the level of the school violence program. Results show that students' involvement with violence in the community, both as perpetrator and victim, is the most…

  10. Public health and violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Foege, W H; Rosenberg, M L; Mercy, J A

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the rationale for public health involvement in solving the problem of violence. It explains the public health approach and describes the problem of violence in the US. In the US, violence among young people is currently an epidemic out of control, and in most parts of the country. It is probably youth-related violence that accounts for increased public concern with and fear of violence. It is in this concern that public health has considered violence because public health complements criminal justice approach to the problem. Where criminal justice emphasizes punishment, deterrence, incapacitation, public health focuses on primary prevention. Public health also balances law enforcement, judicial, and penal personnel with the people resources, and organization of the physical and mental health care systems. It is important to note that violence is not based in biologic or medical conditions but is due to social and economic factors. The search for solution to this problem should focus on these factors rather than purely medical and physiologic factors. Furthermore, violence is also a global problem, with interpersonal violence, ethnic violence, and national conflict being interrelated. The solutions are all interrelated, not only from the standpoint of the issues, but also from the standpoint of public health approach. PMID:12349322

  11. The Overlap of Youth Violence Among Aggressive Adolescents with Past-Year Alcohol Use—A Latent Class Analysis: Aggression and Victimization in Peer and Dating Violence in an Inner City Emergency Department Sample

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Lauren K.; Ranney, Megan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Walton, Maureen A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify overlap and violence types between peer and dating aggression and victimization using latent class analysis (LCA) among a sample of aggressive adolescents with a history of alcohol use and to identify risk and protective factors associated with each violence class. Method: From September 2006 to September 2009, a systematic sample of patients (14–18 years old) seeking care in an urban emergency department were approached. Adolescents reporting any past-year alcohol use and aggression completed a survey using validated measures including types of violence (severe and moderate aggression, severe and moderate victimization with both peers and dating partners). Using LCA, violence classes were identified; correlates of membership in each LCA class were determined. Results: Among this sample (n = 694), LCA identified three classes described as (a) peer aggression (PA) (52.2%), (b) peer aggression + peer victimization (PAPV) (18.6%), and (c) multiple domains of violence (MDV) (29.3%). Compared with those in the PA class, those in the PAPV class were more likely to be male, report injury in a fight, and have delinquent peers. Compared with the PA class, those in the MDV class were more likely to be female, African American, report injury in a fight, carry a weapon, experience negative consequences from alcohol use, and have delinquent peers and more family conflict. Compared with the PAPV class, those in the MDV class were likely to be female, African American, receive public assistance, carry a weapon, experience negative consequences from alcohol use, and use marijuana. Conclusions: There is extensive overlap of victimization and aggression in both peer and dating relationships. Also, those with high rates of violence across relationships have increased alcohol misuse and marijuana use. Thus, violence-prevention efforts should consider addressing concomitant substance use. PMID:23200158

  12. The Effect of Attachment on Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    Violence among American youth is a significant societal problem. The past decade witnessed juvenile arrests for violence, weapons, drugs, and curfew violations peak in the mid 90's. Analogous to the arrest trends for older juveniles, the arrest rate for young offenders rose 63% from 1987 until 1994 when it declined slightly. Since that time,…

  13. Teen Suicide and Guns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Teen Suicide and Guns Article Body Protect Your Teenager Many teens attempt ... American teenagers commit suicide every day. Does a gun in the home increase the chance of suicide? ...

  14. Multiculturalism as a Policy for Disarming Gang Violence in Communities at Large and in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine; Jenkins, Morris

    Those who try to deal with violence in U.S. communities and schools have tended to concentrate on suppression of violence, rather than real prevention, particularly as violence is associated with youth gangs. This discussion focuses on multiculturalism as a policy for reducing gang violence, rather than strategies that have been used to deal with…

  15. Underground Gun Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets, drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teenagers in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities, plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

  16. The Market for Guns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Robson

    Guns and other weapons are sold on markets, just like other eco- nomic goods. But what makes the market for guns dierent from these other markets? This paper develops a simple model of a per- fectly competitive market for guns, and analyses the welfare properties of such markets. We also employ the model to analyse the welfare eects of various

  17. Underground Gun Markets &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets, drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teenagers in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities, plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

  18. Underground Gun Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir A. Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teens in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

  19. Surveillance of School Violence, Injury, and Disciplinary Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark B.

    2001-01-01

    Examines how data from student self-report surveys and other sources can be used to assess the weaknesses in current school iincidentreporting systems and improve the validity of surveillance data on school violence. Assesses the validity of data from Gun-Free Schools Act reports on the number of guns in school in light of nationally…

  20. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Violence, Intimate Partner Violence, Violence Against Women, and Sexual Assault National Clearinghouse on Abuse in Later Life Through ... more than 170 languages through interpreter services. National Sexual Assault Hotline 1-800-656-HOPE (4673) When a ...

  1. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  2. "Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun": Getting Real in Upward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Barbara G.; Adkins, Theresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a teacher found literature for Upward Bound students. Presents Geoffrey Canada's "Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America" as a nonfiction work to provide clarity and connections that might not have been available in a fictional work, yet it had elements of literary fiction that made the text engaging. (SG)

  3. The effects of parenting styles on student’s disposition to violence in Osun State, Nigeria (English version)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawani Ajibike OMOLOLA

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of violence among youth gives concern not only in our immediate society but universally. The tendency of youth to become violent may have to do with child upbringing, which is embedded in style of parenting. Thus, this study examined the effects of parenting styles on student’s disposition to violence. It also investigated the nature and prevalence of violence

  4. Pathways to Aggression in Urban Elementary School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkol, Hivren; Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the pathways from violence exposure to aggressive behaviors in urban, elementary school youth. We utilized structural equation modeling to examine putative causal pathways between children's exposure to violence, development of posttraumatic stress symptoms, permissive attitudes towards violence, and engagement in aggressive…

  5. Characteristics of Violence among High Risk Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann; Sieving, Renee; Seppelt, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent evidence demonstrates increasing rates of violence involvement among adolescent girls. The objective of this study was to describe the types and sources of violence experienced within social contexts of adolescent girls at high risk for pregnancy. Method Qualitative data for this analysis are drawn from intervention summary reports of 116 girls participating in Prime Time, a youth development intervention for adolescent girls. Descriptive content analysis techniques were used to identify types and sources of violence experienced by girls within their daily contexts. Results Types of violence included physical fighting, witnessing violence, physical abuse, gang-related violence, verbal fighting, verbal abuse and sexual abuse. Sources of violence included family, peers and friends, romantic partners, community violence, and self-perpetrated. Many girls in this study experienced violence in multiple contexts. Discussion It is imperative that efforts to assess and prevent violence among adolescent girls pay attention to the social contexts in which these adolescents live. PMID:23623540

  6. Before Dreams Disappear: Preventing Youth Violence. Hearing on Examining Certain Provisions Establishing Programs To Prevent Youth Violence as Contained in the Proposed Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act before the Subcommittee on Children, Feamily, Drugs and Alcoholism, of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred and Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This report presents verbatim, a hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism. The hearing featured a series of testimonies and stories on violence among young people in the United States. It opened with remarks by Subcommittee Chairman, Christopher Dodd. He was followed by numerous statements on the nature of violence

  7. Sex Role and Attitudes Toward Institutional Violence Among College Youth: The Impact of Sex-Role Identification, Parental Socialization, and Socio-Cultural Milieu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M.; Cutler, Neal E.

    Attitudinal differences between males and females on certain issues have been repeatedly documented through commercial public polls and academic studies. One of these differences is the greater reluctance on the part of females to support the use of institutional violence as an instrument of public policy. This paper empirically explores the…

  8. Child and Youth Victimization Known to Police, School, and Medical Authorities. National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the last generation to encourage children and their families to report victimization to authorities. Nonetheless, concern persists that most childhood victimization remains hidden. The 2008 inventory of childhood victimization--the National Study of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV)--allowed an…

  9. Survey of SRF guns

    SciTech Connect

    Belomestnykh, S.

    2011-07-25

    Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

  10. Putting Accelerator Technology to Work Fully Superconducting GunFully Superconducting Gun

    E-print Network

    Putting Accelerator Technology to Work Fully Superconducting GunFully Superconducting Gun BNL PS Gun LANL/AES NC or AES FS gun e- 1.5-2.5 MeV 500-300 mA CW * e- 1.6-2.8 MeV 500-300 mA CW Beam cavity with low current beam * NC gun with derated gradient FS gun permits 25% higher current Ilan Ben

  11. Inhalant Use by Canadian Aboriginal Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Heather; Charles, Grant; Collins, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Study followed youth who received treatment for inhalant abuse. Many came from backgrounds marked by isolation, poverty, family violence, and substance abuse. Average age the youths first used inhalants was 9.72 years. Model predicted those who abused inhalants immediately before admission, were described as unmotivated in treatment, and were…

  12. Women and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Many gun manufacturers market guns to women claiming a gun can provide protection. Statistics provided in this fact sheet indicate gun ownership may provide a false sense of security that can be fatal, since the greatest threat to a woman comes from the people and guns within her own home. Contrary to "typical" scenarios created by advertisers,…

  13. Carbon nanotube electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  15. Adolescents and media violence: six crucial issues for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Marjorie J

    2005-06-01

    The mass media are rife with violent images and messages and youth spend a great deal of time with media. A rich tradition of research shows that exposure to media violence leads to aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior, and also to fear and desensitization. Certain youth are more vulnerable to violent media messages and images; the impact of media violence is modified by its nature and context. Parents, teachers, and the media industry should work toward mitigating the effects of media violence on youth; pediatricians and other health care providers play a key role in fostering healthy family media habits. PMID:16111617

  16. Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), showing gun mounting pad, wall rings, small niche, and opening to outside - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Battery Adair, Princeton Place, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Padilla, Mark B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-01-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of…

  18. Lack of Co-occurring Interpersonal Violence Emotionally-Related Difficulties, or Alcohol and Other-Drug Problems among African American Youth with Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Edward G.; Dale, Grady A., Jr.

    Case studies of African American youth with conduct disorder were examined in the context of a descriptive evaluation of co-occurring substance-related problems and mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to extend the findings of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study of the National Institute of Mental Health into the area of…

  19. The Impact of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Later Violence and Psychological Distress: A Study of Resilience among a Scottish Youth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVie, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of bullying between age 13 and 16 years on negative outcomes at age 17 years, taking into account various resilience factors at the individual, family, and community level. Using longitudinal data from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, a prospective cohort study of around 4,300 young people in…

  20. Electrothermal light gas gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek A. Tidman; Dennis W. Massey

    1993-01-01

    An electrothermal light gas gun (ELGG) has been developed that has launched 2.0 grams to about 7 km\\/sec, 10 grams to 4.6 km\\/sec, and 17 grams to 3.5 km\\/sec with an efficiency of 32 percent, from a 16 mm reusable steel gun tube. These initial experiments were with a single chamber breech fed launcher. The gun is scalable to large

  1. Electrothermal light gas gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Tidman; D. W. Massey

    1993-01-01

    An electrothermal light gas gun (ELGG) has been developed that has launched 2.0 g to about 7 km\\/s, 10 g to 4.6 km\\/s, and 17 g to 3.5 km\\/s with an efficiency of 32% from a 16-mm reusable steel gun tube. These initial experiments were with a single-chamber breech fed launcher. The gun is scalable to large bore sizes and

  2. Respect, Reflect, Resolve. Ten Anti-Violence Lessons for Use in Middle and High School. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Jack C.; Maddalena, Gracemarie.

    This teacher's guide provides 10 interactive lesson plans to educate youth about the consequences of violence. The lessons explore the different kinds of violence in society, conflict resolution through mediation, the behaviors that constitute sexual harassment, statistics on violence, ways to avoid domestic violence and the use of deadly force,…

  3. Kids and Guns: From Playgrounds to Battlegrounds. Also, The National Juvenile Justice Action Plan: A Comprehensive Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvenile Justice, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This issue offers various articles about encouraging progress in the problem areas of juvenile violence and delinquency. The first feature article, "Kids and Guns: From Playgrounds to Battlegrounds" by Stuart Greenbaum, cites statistics showing significant increases in the past two decades in gun ownership and use by juveniles. Some promising…

  4. Official Crime Statistics and Survey Data: Comparing Trends of Youth Violence between 2000 and 2006 in Cities of the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Russia, and Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Enzmann; Zuzana Podana

    2010-01-01

    Based on official crime statistics, violent crimes of youths in Germany and Central and Eastern Europe had appeared to have\\u000a increased considerably between 1990 and 2000. Survey data that can overcome limitations of police data and allow to compare\\u000a crime trends across countries are rare. Based on self-report delinquency studies of 15 year old juveniles in 1998–2001 (SRD)\\u000a and 2006 (ISRD-2)

  5. Youth Voices Thrive in Facilitating Leadership in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detzler, Mindy Larson; Van Liew, Charise; Dorward, Lisa Granquist; Jenkins, Roneka; Teslicko, David

    2007-01-01

    In the inner-city of Washington, D.C., lives a generation of young people for whom violence, discrimination, and poverty are a daily reality. This article describes one youth organization that encourages these young people to voice their hopes and concerns for their community and work to create solutions. The out-of-school-time programming of…

  6. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  7. BB Guns Can Kill

    MedlinePLUS

    U.S. CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION • (800) 638-2772 • www.cpsc.gov • www.SaferProducts.gov BB Guns Can Kill BB guns can kill ... second, can increase this risk. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has reports of about 4 deaths per ...

  8. Evidence-based practice in group work with incarcerated youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley Quinn; Wes Shera

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the Youth Criminal Justice Act's increased focus on restorative justice, treatment, rehabilitation, and reintegration of youth, many more juvenile offenders require mental health services while resident in youth detention facilities [Youth Criminal Justice Act (2002, c.1). Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved September 19, 2008 from http:\\/\\/laws.justice.gc.ca\\/en\\/Y-1.5]. Several common characteristics such as violence, aggression, and other

  9. Gender violence among teenagers: socialization and prevention.

    PubMed

    Valls, Rosa; Puigvert, Lídia; Duque, Elena

    2008-07-01

    This Spanish-based study found that some adolescents link attractiveness with violence. Previous research showed that a socialization process within teenagers' contexts promotes this association. The results suggest that this link is one of the possible causes of the high rates of gender violence among youth. Debates regarding this research already have had political repercussions. Although the 2004 Spanish Act Against Gender Violence--the first of its kind in Europe--acknowledged violence with romantic partners or ex-partners, the 2008 Catalan Act on the Right of Women to Eradicate Chauvinist Violence also recognizes gender violence in dating, and considers preventive socialization as a main measure. This study provides key knowledge to support this purpose. PMID:18559866

  10. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meet OVW Leadership Areas of Focus Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Dating Violence Stalking Grant Programs Training and Technical ... includes, but is certainly not limited to, marital rape, attacks on sexual parts of the body, forcing ...

  11. [Psychological violences].

    PubMed

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  12. An economic analysis of guns, crime, and gun control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    A model is posited in which guns are demanded for recreation, self-protection, or criminal purposes, and in which crime is supplied. Crime rates influence guns demanded for self-protection, and guns demanded by criminals depend upon guns held by law-abiding citizens. Comparative static analysis was used to investigate the effects of crime and gun control policies, including laws that permit citizens

  13. Interventions to prevent violence among African American adolescents from low-income communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen M Black; Donna E Howard; Nina Kim; Izabel B Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    Violence is a public health crisis that has reached endemic proportions. African American adolescents growing up in low-income, urban communities are exposed to high rates of violence and, consequently, are at increased risk of becoming victims and perpetrators of violence. In addition to universal, population-based programs, selective interventions are needed for at risk youth, and indicated interventions are needed for

  14. Mental Health Service Use among High School Students Exposed to Interpersonal Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Johnson, Renee M.; Dunn, Erin C.; Lindsey, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence-exposed youth rarely receive mental health services, even though exposure increases risk for academic and psychosocial problems. This study examines the association between violence exposure and mental health service contact. The 4 forms of violence exposure were peer, family, sexual, and witnessing. Methods: Data are from…

  15. Perfilando a los estudiantes en relacion con la violencia (Profiling Students for Violence). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    This digest in Spanish discusses student profiling and describes strategies for reducing the risk of violence in schools. "Student profiling" refers to a process in which checklists of behaviors and personal characteristics associated with youth who have perpetrated violence are used to determine a student's potential for future violence. A…

  16. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Reports of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among U.S. Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yah, Fang

    2008-01-01

    The present study, based upon the national 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of U.S. high school students, provides the most current and representative data on physical dating violence among adolescent males (N = 6,528) The dependent variable was physical dating violence. The independent variables included four dimensions: violence, suicide,…

  17. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Reports of Physical Dating Violence among U.S. Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yan, Fang

    2007-01-01

    The present study, based upon the national 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of U.S. high school students, provides the most current and representative data on dating violence among adolescent females (N = 7,179). The dependent variable was physical dating violence. The independent variables included four dimensions: violence, suicide, substance…

  18. Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration Within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica H. Swahn; Thomas R. Simon; Ileana Arias; Robert M. Bossarte

    2008-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all public school students enrolled in grades 7, 9, 11 and 12 (N =

  19. Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…

  20. Violence, Kids, Crisis. What You Can Do. 10 Things Parents Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes 10 things parents can do to prevent youth violence locally, including: (1) talk to your children; (2) set clear rules and limits; (30 know the warning signs; (4) know when to intervene; (5) stay involved with the school; (6) join the PTA; (7) organize a community violence prevention forum; (8) develop a school violence prevention/crisis…

  1. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  2. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    A. S. Hofler; P. Evtushenko; M. Krasilnikov

    2007-08-01

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. RF and SRF gun design is further complicated because the bunches are space charge dominated and require additional emittance compensation. A genetic algorithm has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs for Cornell* and Jefferson Lab**, and we propose studying how the genetic algorithm techniques can be applied to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize gun designs that have been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  3. Electrothermal light gas gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidman, Derek A.; Massey, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrothermal light gas gun (ELGG) has been developed that has launched 2.0 grams to about 7 km/sec, 10 grams to 4.6 km/sec, and 17 grams to 3.5 km/sec with an efficiency of 32 percent, from a 16 mm reusable steel gun tube. These initial experiments were with a single chamber breech fed launcher. The gun is scalable to large bore sizes and to date has close to the performance of a conventional light gas gun but removes the need for a heavy pump tube structure. It also has the potential to exceed conventional LGG performance when configured as a launcher with distributed H2 injectors, and a facility to explore this has been constructed.

  4. Treating Violence in the School through Traditional Martial Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Israel

    2004-01-01

    In a comprehensive survey of the literature title "Coping With Violence in the School System," Benbenisti, Astor, and Marachi (2003) map out the programs being deployed throughout the school system today. Those programs listed are "peace builders," "second step," "Richmond's youth against violence," "student's project for peace," "community…

  5. Impact of violence exposure on urban middle school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carie Hand McGauley

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to violence has reached epidemic proportions among youth in the United States in recent years (Fingerhut & Klemman, 1990; Finkelhor & Dzuiba-Leatherman, 1994). Recently, efforts to quantify violence exposure, both direct victimization and victimization through witnessing, have been initiated. Additionally, researchers have begun to explore the effect such exposure exerts on its victims. The present study was designed to

  6. "STOP the Violence": FCCLA Program Tackles School Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "STOP the Violence--Students Taking on Prevention" is a program designed to involve students and address school violence at its core from the peer-to- peer perspective. Developed by members of the Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA), the program empowers young persons to recognize, report, and reduce the potential for youth

  7. Challenging the political assumption that "Guns don't kill people, crazy people kill people!".

    PubMed

    Hodges, Heath J; Scalora, Mario J

    2015-05-01

    Presumptions that mental illness is causally tied to firearm violence and that guns are too easily acquired by such persons have given rise to laws that categorically restrict people with mental health concerns from exercising a Constitutional right. Underlying these reforms appears to be a revised idiom, "Guns don't kill people-crazy people kill people." The purpose of this commentary is to address these assumptions and provide suggestions for managing this critical threat. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25985106

  8. Metaphors about violence by preservice teachers.

    PubMed

    Özabaci, Nilüfer; Erkan, Zülal

    2015-03-01

    Violence consists of a pattern of coercive behaviors used by a competent adult or adolescent to establish and maintain power and control over another competent adult or adolescent. These behaviors, which can occur alone or in combination, sporadically or continually, include physical violence, psychological abuse, talking, and nonconsensual sexual behavior. Research indicates that different types of violence are used as a means of enforcing discipline in the family and the school context. Children and adolescents who grow up in an environment where violence has a natural place tend to resort to violence at every stage of their lives without question. The aim of this research was therefore to preservice teachers' perception of the concept of violence through the use of metaphors. Accordingly, answers to the following questions were sought: What metaphors do the youth use to describe the concept of violence? Under which conceptual categories can these metaphors be grouped in terms of their common features? How do the conceptual categories vary in relation to the students' gender and the subjects they study at university? The study was conducted in 2009 with the help of 303 students at Mersin University and Eski?ehir Osmangazi University (Faculty of Education). Incomplete statements such as "Violence is like..., because..." were used in an attempt to understand the students' perception of violence. The students were given questionnaire to complete the statements. Demographic questions were also asked on the students'age, gender and departments. The data were analyzed through qualitative analysis, and processes such as frequency distribution and quantitative correlation data were evaluated through SPSS data analysis. It emerged that the students used 74 metaphors of violence that could be divided into seven categories: (1) Violence as a way of controlling others; 2) Violence as part of social and affective life; (3) Violence as devastation; (4) Violence as learned helplessness; (5) Violence as a consequence of poor communication; (6) Violence as a phenomenon with psychological and physical effects; (7) Violence as a state of mind with long-term ongoing effects. The findings on these categories are presented and recommendations made. The analysis of the research results according to the students' departments indicated that the metaphors describing violence were grouped mainly under the theme (category) of "Violence as a way of controlling others". As the students in these fields of study received an education focused more on concrete and precise facts, they tended to perceive violence in a more conceptual way. PMID:26040089

  9. Does Parenting Mediate the Effects of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior? An Ecological-Transactional Model of Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Bolland, John

    2009-01-01

    Three waves of longitudinal data from a high poverty sample of 1544 African American youth were used to test an ecological-transactional model of violence. SEM analyses were conducted to determine whether parenting (Time 2) mediated the effects of exposure to violence (Time 1) on violent behaviors (Time 3). Findings supported the specified model.…

  10. Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Ulla, Ed.; von Feilitzen, Cecilia, Ed.

    This yearbook compiles information on research findings on children and youth and media violence, as seen from the perspective of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child. The thematic focus of the yearbook is on the influence of children's exposure to media violence. Section 1 of the yearbook, "Children and Media on the UN…

  11. Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence on Adolescent Violence and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the…

  12. Street Soldiers: Violence Prevention over the Airwaves, a Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joseph E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a three-tiered approach that the Omega Boys Club of San Francisco uses to help stop violence among inner-city youth. Essential steps of the plan are to provide appropriate information through effective communication channels, to show youth alternative ways of living that allow them to release their negative behavior, and to teach them…

  13. Reducing Intergang Violence: Norms from the Interstate System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Errol Henderson; Russell J. Leng

    1999-01-01

    We maintain that the norms guiding interstate behavior offer a point of departure for the reduction of violence among territorial urban youth gangs. Gangs have been a part of the American urban landscape far too long to assume that they can be eradicated simply by arresting and incarcerating more youths (although this function remains important) without addressing the larger issues

  14. The challenge of gun control for mental health advocates.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Anand

    2013-09-01

    Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence. PMID:24042247

  15. Prevention of Youth and Gang Violence. Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (June 13, 2005) S. Hrg. 109-77

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate, 2005

    2005-01-01

    During this hearing, the Committee heard testimony on the issue of juvenile violence. Juvenile violence is a problem nationally of epidemic proportion, a very, very serious problem in the city of Philadelphia and in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. In the first five months of this year there has been an enormous increase in juvenile violence with…

  16. Witnessing violence among high school students in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Penchan; Sherer, Moshe

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the levels of witnessing violence among Thai youths and to examine whether a Western model of witnessing violence that relates to personal and family characteristics, peer relationships, own violence, violence in the family, violence in the school, and in the community, is appropriate for the Thai reality. The random sample consisted of 2,897 youths: 1,107 (38.2%) males and 1,722 (59.4%) females. Results indicated that witnessing violence rates among the Thai youths are high, but in general, quite similar to those reported in the west. The most frequently witnessed violent act was hitting and punching in school. Peer characteristics and their advice were the most related factor to witnessing violence followed by own violence activities, violence in the family, and the surrounding subsystems, supporting the similarities of the Thai reality to the Western one. No significant differences were indicated between the rural and inner-city settings. The results were interpreted in light of the cultural characteristics of Thailand. PMID:23486753

  17. Injury risk of nonpowder guns.

    PubMed

    Laraque, Danielle

    2004-11-01

    Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys. PMID:15520121

  18. What Canadian Youth Tell Us about Disclosing Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael; Tutty, Leslie M.; McConnell, Sheri; Barter, Ken; Fairholm, Judi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To report findings from a study of anonymous disclosures of abuse experiences among a national sample of youth in Canada who participated in violence prevention programming. Methods: A qualitative analysis was done of a purposeful sample of 1,099 evaluation forms completed following Red Cross RespectED violence prevention programming…

  19. Electromagnetic targeting of guns

    SciTech Connect

    Pogue, E.W.; Boat, R.M.; Holden, D.N.; Lopez, J.R. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) signals produced from explosives being fired have been reported in the literature for fifty years. When a gun is fired it produces an EMP muzzle blast signal. The strength and nature of these signals was first analyzed in the early 1970s, while the results were interesting, no follow-up studies were conducted. With modern detection and signal processing technology, we believe that these signals could be used to instantaneously locate guns of virtually all calibers as they fire. The objective of our one-year project was to establish the basic nature of these signals and their utility in the concept of electromagnetic targeting of guns.

  20. The Effectiveness of Policies and Programs that Attempt to Reduce Firearm Violence: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarios, Matthew D.; Pratt, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    In response to rising rates of firearms violence that peaked in the mid-1990s, a wide range of policy interventions have been developed in an attempt to reduce violent crimes committed with firearms. Although some of these approaches appear to be effective at reducing gun violence, methodological variations make comparing effects across program…

  1. Aggression and Violence in the United States: Reflections on the Virginia Tech Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    Aggression and violence in the United States remain vexing problems that require several key responses. First, universal prevention programs and targeted treatment strategies for people at risk of aggressive behavior are needed to address the established link between mental illness and the potential for violence. Sadly, many perpetrators of gun

  2. Spinal Cord Injury as a Permanent Consequence of Victimization in Random Violence: A Public Health Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James F.; Dyson, Laronistine; Grandison, Terry

    1998-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injuries resulting from criminal violence is a growing public health concern. Citing the criminal justice system's failure to reduce violence and the costs of treating injuries, a public health-education approach is advocated. Approaches to prevention, gun control, and a comprehensive family policy are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  3. Infantry Machine Gun 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    OPTIMIZATION OF A THO STAGE LIGHT-GAS GUN A Thesis by RICHARD JAMES RYNEARSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major... Subject: Aerospace Engineering OPTIMIZATION OF A TWO STAGE LIGHT-GAS GUN A Thesis by RICHARD JAMES RYNEARSON Approved as to style and content by: ( irman of Comni ttee) J. L. Rand (Head of Department) A. E. Cronk (Member) D. J. Norton (Member) C...

  4. YA Radar: Youth Experts Screen the Teen Climate at the Dawn of 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, Cathi Dunn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses results of a survey of youth experts who work with or for teens in libraries, schools, and other areas to determine the most important issues affecting youth. Highlights include intellectual freedom; information access; reading; literacy; social issues, including youth violence; teen culture, including Internet chat; education issues;…

  5. Assessing and Managing Violence Risk in Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borum, Randy; Verhaagen, David

    2006-01-01

    Highly practical and accessible, this is an indispensable resource for any mental health practitioner working with adolescents at risk for violent behavior. Presented is a comprehensive framework for evaluating justice-involved youth or those whose behavior in school, therapy sessions, or other contexts raises concern about violence. Detailed case…

  6. Framing Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Risley

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes civil societal discourses on violence in contemporary Argentina and identifies a gender ‘gap’ therein. I argue that class-based interpretations of violence have frequently eclipsed gendered understandings, even though the two perspectives are not mutually exclusive. Through an examination of the collective action frames that human rights advocates use, I demonstrate that activists often politicize two forms of

  7. The Victimization of Children and Youth: A Comprehensive, National Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Finkelhor; Richard Ormrod; Heather Turner; Sherry L. Hamby

    2005-01-01

    This study examined a large spectrum of violence, crime, and victimization experiences in a nationally representative sample of children and youth ages 2 to 17 years. More than one half (530 per 1,000) of the children and youth had experienced a physical assault in the study year, more than 1 in 4 (273 per 1,000) a property offense, more than

  8. Hip Hop Is Now: An Evolving Youth Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl; Taylor, Virgil

    2007-01-01

    Emerging from Rap music, Hip Hop has become a lifestyle to many modern youth around the world. Embodying both creativity and controversy, Hip Hop mirrors the values, violence, and hypocrisy of modern culture. The authors dispel some of the simplistic views that surround this evolving youth movement embraced by millions of young people who are…

  9. Weapon Carrying by Youth: Risk Factors and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark B.; Alford, Aaron A.

    1999-01-01

    Uses data from three national samples of youth to study weapon carrying in school. Analysis of odds ratios finds the following factors associated with increased likelihood of weapons carrying in school: (1) youth engaged in violence in the community; (2) drug abuse; and (3) community-related factors. (SLD)

  10. OVERVIEW: A Gender War on America's Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riki Wilchins; Taneika Taylor; Kim Mills; Tamar Nordenberg; Mark Bromley; Debora Rogo; Stefan Romberg; Mariann Donnelly; Michael Meenan

    50 Under 30: Masculinity and the War on America's Youth documents a murderous tide of under-reported violence that is claiming the lives of gender non-con- forming youth and young adults ages 30 and under, and the dangerous indifference of law enforcement authorities, policy-makers and mainstream media. Few of us realize just how many young people are dying violently each year

  11. Glue Guns: Aiming for Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    While glue guns are very useful, there are safety issues. Regardless of the temperature setting, glue guns can burn skin. The teacher should demonstrate and supervise the use of glue guns and have a plan should a student get burned. There should be an initial first aid protocol in place, followed by a visit to the school nurse. An accident report…

  12. Contiguous gridded gun development program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Huffman

    1980-01-01

    A gridded gun, suitable for operating megawatt level linear beam tubes, has been designed and tested at lower levels in a beam analyzer. The new gun features a shadow grid in contact with the cathode surface. A major goal was to achieve low control grid interception. Guns with contiguous grid systems are in common use in low and medium power

  13. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  14. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  15. Keeping Every Child Safe: Curbing the Epidemic of Violence. Joint Hearing Examining the Impact of Violence on Children before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate, and the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families of the House of Representatives. One Hundred Third Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document presents testimony regarding the impact of violence on children. The opening statement of Senator Dodd discusses the exposure of American children to violence and notes the Senator's introduction of the "Child and Family Services and Law Enforcement Partnership Act," an act proposed to provide children exposed to violence with…

  16. Imaging's insights into human violence.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Following every well-publicized act of incomprehensible violence, the news media rush to interview neighbors, family members, and experts in an attempt to discover what could have led an individual to commit such a barbarous act. Certain stock answers are reiterated: video games, bullying, violent films, mental illness, the availability of guns, and a society that is increasingly both anonymous and callous. Might imaging be one of the more valuable keys to unlocking the mysteries of violent, aggressive people? This article explores these questions and their complex answers in the context of violent individuals. PMID:24614436

  17. Gun Dealers, USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie; And Others

    In the United States, more than 11,500 adolescents' and young adults' lives are taken each year by firearms. Although Federal law prohibits minors from purchasing handguns, they typically get them by asking someone of legal age (18 years or older) to purchase them from one of the 256,771 Federally licensed gun dealers. This pamphlet answers…

  18. Machine Gun

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    1919-06-16

    Within the collections of the Museu de Angra do Heroismo (Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal) are nine cast bronze guns from the 16th century. Most were raised from the seafloor between the 1960s and 1990s, but this study comprises the first in...

  19. Radar gun hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  20. Machine Gun

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    salvaged two of the sites by removing a number of cannons and swivel guns. This study examines the salvaged Saona artillery collection, and includes a history of the Mona Passage in the early sixteenth century, as well as an examination of wrought...

  1. School Violence, Substance Use, and Availability of Illegal Drugs on School Property among U.S. High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Richard; Cohen, Lisa R.; Modzeleski, William; Kann, Laura; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated whether school violence among high school students related to substance use and availability of illegal drugs at school, examining the associations of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana and availability of illegal drugs with five school violence indicators. Data from the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that school violence

  2. Reactions to Dating Violence among Latino Teenagers: An Experiment Utilizing the Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Jaycox, Lisa H.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Zander-Cotugno, Megan; Marshall, Grant N.; Shelley, Gene A.

    2007-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious problem among adolescents and young adults. Understanding teens' reactions to dating violence offers the potential to understand the factors that lead to perpetration of violent behavior and to elucidate prevention strategies. Knowledge concerning youth attitudes about dating violence is limited, and has largely come…

  3. Violent Media, Guns and Moral Panics: The Columbine High School Massacre, 20 April 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springhall, John

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in a historical perspective. Describes the shootings in Littleton and the high school shootings since 1996. Interprets the possible reasons for the Columbine shootings, such as the role of the high school, access to guns, and violence in the mass media. (CMK)

  4. Gun Cultures or Honor Cultures? Explaining Regional and Race Differences in Weapon Carrying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…

  5. Public Opinion and Gun Control: A Comparison of Results From Two Recent National Surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Wright

    1981-01-01

    This article compares results from two recent national surveys of public opinion on gun control and related weapons-policy issues. One survey was commissioned by the National Rifle Association, the other by the Center for the Study and Prevention of Handgun Violence. Despite the vastly different outlooks of the two sponsoring organizations, the results from both surveys are nearly identical everywhere

  6. Violent Media, Guns and Moral Panics: The Columbine High School Massacre, 20 April 1999

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Springhall

    1999-01-01

    This essay attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on 20 April 1999, and the initial media response, in some kind of historical perspective. In attempting to interpret what happened, a hierarchy of causation (presuppositions, preconditions, predpitants and triggers) is adopted. Moral panic assumptions that media violence or the availability of guns are the immediate

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom trajectories in Hurricane Katrina affected youth

    PubMed Central

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Lai, Betty S.; Thompson, Julia E.; McGill, Tia; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Hurricane Katrina affected youth. Method A total of 426 youth (51% female; 8–16 years old; mean age=11 years; 75% minorities) completed assessments at 4 time points post-disaster. Measures included Hurricane impact variables (initial loss/disruption and perceived life threat); history of family and community violence exposure, parent and peer social support, and post-disaster posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results Latent class growth analysis demonstrated that there were three distinct trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms identified for this sample of youth (resilient, recovering, and chronic, respectively). Youth trajectories were associated with Hurricane-related initial loss/disruption, community violence, and peer social support. Conclusions The results suggest that youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina have variable posttraumatic stress disorder symptom trajectories. Significant risk and protective factors were identified. Specifically, youth Hurricane and community violence exposure increased risk for a more problematic posttraumatic stress disorder symptom trajectory, while peer social support served as a protective factor for these youth. Identification of these factors suggests directions for future research as well as potential target areas for screening and intervention with disaster exposed youth. Limitations The convenience sample limits the external validity of the findings to other disaster exposed youth, and the self-report data is susceptible to response bias. PMID:23206321

  8. Developing a trauma-informed, emergency department-based intervention for victims of urban violence.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Theodore J; Rich, John A; Bloom, Sandra L; Delgado, Dionne; Rich, Linda J; Wilson, Ann S

    2011-01-01

    The Surgeon General's report on youth violence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other national organizations are calling for public health approaches to the issue of youth violence. Hospital-based violence intervention programs have shown promise in reducing recurrent violence and decreasing future involvement in the criminal justice system. These programs seldom address trauma-related symptoms. We describe a conceptual framework for emergency department-based and hospital-based violence intervention programs that intentionally addresses trauma. The intervention described--Healing Hurt People--is a trauma-informed program designed to intervene in the lives of injured patients at the life-changing moment of violent injury. This community-focused program seeks to reduce recurrent violence among 8- to 30-year-olds through opportunities for healing and connection. Healing Hurt People considers the adversity that patients have experienced during their lives and seeks to break the cycle of violence by addressing this trauma. PMID:21967178

  9. Beliefs about the risks of guns in the home: analysis of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Howard, K. A.; Webster, D.; Vernick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—While epidemiological evidence suggests homes with guns are more likely to be the site of a suicide or homicide than homes without guns, the public's perception of these risks remains unknown. This study assesses the prevalence of the belief that homes with guns are safer than homes without guns, and factors associated with this belief. Methods—Telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 4138 registered voters in urban areas in the US. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess correlates of beliefs about the safety of keeping a gun in the home. Results—Twenty nine per cent of respondents believed keeping a gun in the home makes the home more safe, 40% said less safe, 23% said it depends, and 9% were unsure. The belief that a home is more safe with a gun was associated with being male, young, completing 12 years or fewer of education, having no children living at home, Republican party affiliation, and low levels of trust in the police for protection. Prior exposure to violence and fear of victimization were not associated with the outcome. Conclusions—Findings may increase understanding about the public's perception of the risk in keeping guns in the home and assist educational efforts to decrease the risk of these injuries. PMID:10628918

  10. Workplace Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ways of preventing or diffusing volatile situations or aggressive behavior, conflict resolution. The dynamics of violence. How to recognize and deal with hostile aggressive persons, nonviolent responses. Managing anger. Techniques and skills ...

  11. Media violence.

    PubMed

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials. PMID:9568012

  12. America, guns, and freedom. Part I: A recapitulation of liberty

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of gun violence and street crime in the United States and the world is currently a subject of great debate among national and international organizations, including the United Nations. Because the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the individual right of American citizens to own private firearms, availability of firearms is greater in the U.S. than the rest of the world, except perhaps in Israel and Switzerland. Indeed, although the American people continue to purchase and possess more firearms, homicides and violent crimes have continued to diminish for several decades because guns in the hands of the law-abiding citizens does not translate into more crime. As neurosurgeons, we can be compassionate and still be honest and have the moral courage to pursue the truth and find viable solutions through the use of sound, scholarly research in the area of guns and violence. We have an obligation to reach our conclusions based on objective data and scientific information rather than on ideology, emotionalism or partisan politics. PMID:23227438

  13. The polarized SRF gun experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Grover, R.; Todd, R.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

    2007-09-10

    RF electron guns are capable of producing electron bunches with high brightness, which outperform DC electron guns and may even be able to provide electron beams for the ILC without the need for a damping ring. However, all successful existing guns for polarized electrons are DC guns because the environment inside an RF gun is hostile to the GaAs cathode material necessary for polarization. While the typical vacuum pressure in a DC gun is better than 10{sup -11} torr the vacuum in an RF gun is in the order of 10{sup -9} torr. Experiments at BINP Novosibirsk show that this leads to strong ion back-bombardment and generation of dark currents, which destroy the GaAs cathode in a short time. The situation might be much more favorable in a (super-conducting) SRF gun. The cryogenic pumping of the gun cavity walls may make it possible to maintain a vacuum close to 10{sup -12} torr, solving the problem of ion bombardment and dark currents. Of concern would be contamination of the gun cavity by evaporating cathode material. This report describes an experiment that Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in collaboration with Advanced Energy Systems (AES) is conducting to answer these questions.

  14. Contiguous gridded gun development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, G.

    1980-03-01

    A gridded gun, suitable for operating megawatt level linear beam tubes, has been designed and tested at lower levels in a beam analyzer. The new gun features a shadow grid in contact with the cathode surface. A major goal was to achieve low control grid interception. Guns with contiguous grid systems are in common use in low and medium power tubes. The purpose of this program was to extend existing lower power gridded gun technology to the megawatt level. The basic gun parameters including beam diameter, voltage, current, perveance and grid operating voltage are all quite conservative and readily achievable in an 83 kV gun. The most critical requirement was that the maximum outer diameter of the gun assembly not exceed 5.48 inches. This limit forced a compromise between cathode emission density and high voltage gradients and dictated the use of a tungsten matrix cathode. A scale model gun was built and tested in a beam analyzer. After modification to the design, a full-scale gun was built and also tested in the beam analyzer. Extrapolations from the beam analyzer test data show that the gun should meet all performance objectives at full power except for heater power and grid bias voltage. The intercepted control grid current cannot be accurately estimated for full power operation, but it is believed that it will be less than the 40 milliamps specified.

  15. Administrator's Memo: Youth Tutoring Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Resources for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    This manual, designed for the use of administrators in implementing a Youth Tutoring Youth Program (developed to encourage positive attitudes in tutors towards going to school, holding jobs, and helping others), outlines the employment of underachieving, disadvantaged 14- and 15-year-old Neighborhood Youth Corps enrollees as tutors for elementary…

  16. Guns, society, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Kassirer, Jerome P

    2015-02-26

    Given the 96 incidents of firearm violence on school campuses since Sandy Hook and the ongoing toll on lives and health, the lack of relevant data and a research pipeline in this area should be anathema to all physicians. PMID:25714166

  17. Friction in rail guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  18. Youth and Parental Attitudes toward Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…

  19. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: United States, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Williams, Barbara; Ross, James G.; Lowry, Richard; Kolbe, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    Examined national Youth Risk Behavior Survey data and state and local surveys of high school students to investigate behaviors contributing to unintentional injuries, violence, substance use, age at initiation of risk behaviors, substance abuse on school property, sexual behaviors contributing to pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases,…

  20. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  1. Children's Express: National Hearings on Violence in the Child's Life, at Home, at School & on the Streets (Washington, D.C., October 25-27, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwillie, Susan, Ed.

    This report provides testimony from children and adolescents who have experienced violence, along with testimony and comments from child advocates, legislators, government officials, educators, and youth leaders on violence and its effects on American youth. The report includes background information on the Children's Express Foundation (CE), a…

  2. Children and Media: Image, Education, Participation. Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Feilitzen, Cecilia, Ed.; Carlsson, Ulla, Ed.

    This yearbook compiles research findings on children and youth and media violence from the perspective of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The thematic focus of this yearbook is on what is being done to combat gratuitous media violence. It presents information on media education and children's media participation. Section…

  3. Teens' Experiences of Harsh Parenting and Exposure to Severe Intimate Partner Violence: Adding Insult to Injury in Predicting Teen Dating Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest N. Jouriles; Victoria Mueller; David Rosenfield; Renee McDonald; M. Catherine Dodson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study examines whether teens' experiences of harsh parenting and exposure to severe intimate partner violence (IPV) each contribute to the prediction of dating violence perpetration, and whether youth trauma symptoms mediate these hypothesized associations. Method: Participants were 88 teens (45 females) and their mothers; families were recruited from the juvenile justice system. At baseline, mothers reported on

  4. State Gun Policy and Cross-State Externalities: Evidence from Crime Gun Tracing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. Knight

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of cross-state externalities associated with gun regulations in the context of the gun trafficking market. Using gun tracing data, which identify the source state for crime guns recovered in destination states, we find that firearms in this market tend to flow from states with weak gun laws to states with strict gun

  5. Community violence prevention and intervention strategies for children and adolescents: the need for multilevel approaches.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick J; Braciszewski, Jordan M

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to community violence pervades the lives of many urban American youths. A growing body of research illustrates when and how exposure to neighborhood violence impacts the psychosocial functioning of youths. However, few empirically supported preventative efforts exist to mitigate these effects. The following briefly outlines the state of current intervention efforts, and then summarizes how articles presented in this special issue address the existing gaps in theory and practice of serving youth exposed to community violence. Programs demonstrate innovative and collaborative primary, secondary, and tertiary preventative efforts to meet the needs of youths. Directions for future research and program development call for expansion of current efforts to provide a public health response to support urban neighborhoods at risk for violence. PMID:19830621

  6. Defying the odds on gun regulation: The passage of bipartisan mental health laws across the States.

    PubMed

    Goss, Kristin A

    2015-05-01

    This article documents an important exception to the conventional wisdom that politicians just will not tighten gun laws. Over the past decade, and mostly under the radar, both state and federal legislators have enacted more than 80 laws designed to regulate access to guns by people with mental illness and to support programs to reduce gun violence within that population. This study begins with a brief overview and evaluation of the barriers to enacting firearms regulations (of all sorts) in America. The author next reviews lawmaking at the nexus of mental health and firearms over the past decade. The author provides an overview of the types of laws that have been enacted and the political circumstances that have facilitated their passage. The author concludes with some thoughts about whether these cases provide any generalizable lessons for consensus-based policymaking on guns. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25985105

  7. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  8. Depressive symptoms among Jordanian youth: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Hmoud, Olimat; Alkhasawneh, Esra; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-02-01

    This study examines level of depression and factors associated with depression among female and male youth in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey conducted among a national sample of 14-25 year old youth attending educational institutions in Jordan (N = 8,129). On average, respondents reported frequently experiencing feelings of sadness (66 %), loss of joy (49 %) and loss of hope in living (43 %). Regression models demonstrated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were observed among females and among youth exposed to violence. Better parent-child relationships were associated with lower depression score. Among males depressive symptoms were associated with poor economic status, low assertiveness and a higher likelihood of alcohol use and smoking. There is a need for mental health prevention programs for youth in Jordan that enhance youth's social and emotional skills, strengthen parent-child relationships, and reduce violence in school, home and in the community. PMID:22820930

  9. The ALS Gun Electronics system

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.C.

    1993-05-01

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters.

  10. Air gun with reciprocating shuttle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    In an improved air gun is described for use in underwater acoustic signalling, the air gun being of a type having an elongated housing for containing a volume of compressed air, and having at least one exhaust port, each end of the housing being closed by an end wall, a hollow shuttle type air-releasing means having opposite end faces and

  11. Ten-Year Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization?among?US?Adolescent?Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Wang, Min Q.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study provides 10-year trend data on the psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence (PDV) victimization among females who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of US high school students between 1999 and 2009. Methods: The dependent variable was PDV. Independent variables included 4 dimensions: violence,…

  12. The Longitudinal Association of Adolescent Dating Violence with Psychiatric Disorders and Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adrienne; Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Killackey, Eoin; Purcell, Rosemary; Buckby, Joe; Yung, Alison R.

    2009-01-01

    While the prevalence, correlates and mental health impacts of intimate partner violence are well documented in adolescents and young adults, fewer studies have considered physical dating violence among clinical samples of help-seeking young people. In a sample of 98 young people aged 15-24 years (54% females) referred to a specialist public youth

  13. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

  14. Teen Perceptions of Dating Violence, Help-Seeking, and the Role of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallopin, Colleen; Leigh, Laila

    2009-01-01

    From April 2007 to June 2008, focus groups with 41 Washington, DC youth, ages 11 to 19, were conducted by Break the Cycle. One group consisted of eight self-identified sexual minority teens. Participants were asked questions exploring their opinions on the prevalence of dating violence among teens, dating violence dynamics, seeking or providing…

  15. Exploring the Impact of a Wilderness-Based Positive Youth Development Program for Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Christine Lynn; Watt, Toni Terling

    2014-01-01

    Young people today face a multitude of challenges, especially when growing up in an urban environment. Risk factors such as poverty, exposure to gangs, drugs, and community and family violence threaten healthy development. The positive youth development (PYD) approach attempts to combat these personal and environmental challenges by providing…

  16. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured health risk behaviors at alternative high schools. Many alternative students engaged in behaviors that made them high-risk for serious problems (e.g., motor vehicle safety, violence, nutrition, sexuality, exercise, and substance abuse). Their prevalence of high risk…

  17. Renaming Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra Renee Kaufman

    2001-01-01

    A gender analysis forces us to measure and define our sociological inquiries in ways that broaden categories of human experiences. In so doing, we are often forced to rename those experiences. In this analysis of violence, gender, and the Holocaust, we will look to the extra burden, in addition to race, that gender forced on women: rape, abortion, sexual victimiza

  18. Domestic violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Cann; S Withnell; J Shakespeare; H Doll; J Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the knowledge, attitudes, responses and levels of detection of domestic violence among a variety of healthcare workers in different specialities.Self-administered questionnaires were sent to community and hospital based healthcare workers in Oxfordshire working in primary care, obstetrics and gynaecology, mental health and accident and emergency. These comprised all principal general practitioners and

  19. Sources of firearm acquisition among a sample of inner-city youths: Research results and policy implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dwayne Smith

    1996-01-01

    Results are presented from a survey of two samples of inner-city youths, male high school students and juveniles incarcerated for serious felony offenses, regarding their reported means of acquiring firearms. Both samples, especially the inmate group, report high levels of gun possession and gun carrying. The primary means of acquisition are reported as “street” sources from whom illegal purchases are

  20. Parenting Control in Contexts of Political Violence: Testing Bi-directional Relations between Violence Exposure and Control in Post-Accord Belfast

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The goal of the present study is to examine bi-directional relations between youth exposure to sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behavior and mothers’ efforts to control youth’s exposure to community violence in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Design Mother-child dyads (N=773) were interviewed in their homes twice over 2 years regarding youth’s exposure to sectarian (SAB) and nonsectarian (NAB) community antisocial behavior and mothers’ use of control strategies, including behavioral and psychological control. Results Youth’s exposure to NAB was related to increases in mothers’ use of both behavioral and psychological control strategies over time, controlling for earlier levels of these constructs. Reflecting bi-directional relations, mothers’ behavioral control strategies were associated with youth’s reduced exposure to both NAB and SAB over time, whereas psychological control was not related to reduced exposure. Conclusion Only nonsectarian community violence was associated longitudinally with mothers’ increased use of control strategies, and only behavioral control strategies were effective in reducing youth’s exposure to community antisocial behavior, including both sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. PMID:22523479

  1. Empowering Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jennifer; Elshof, Leo; Redden, Anna; Terry, John

    2004-01-01

    The Gulf of Maine Institute (GOMI) is striving to empower youth to take on stewardship roles in their communities. Through its Community Based Initiative (CBI) program, GOMI addresses environmental degradation by working with teams of students, teachers, and community members from around the Gulf of Maine to inspire youth to be stewards of the…

  2. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations. PMID:25211757

  3. Collective Efficacy and the Contingent Consequences of Exposure to Life-Threatening Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Christopher R.; Gardner, Margo; Maimon, David; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood research has increasingly emphasized the potential for contextual characteristics to moderate the effects of youths' experiences on their outcomes. Drawing on collective efficacy theory, we examine the variable consequences of youths' exposures to life-threatening violence across neighborhoods. We argue that strong community…

  4. Beyond Participation: The Association between School Extracurricular Activities and Involvement in Violence across Generations of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xin; Peterson, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is purported to protect the broad spectrum of youth from a host of behavioral risks. Yet, empirical research on the extent to which this assumption holds for involvement in violence by immigrant youth is limited. Thus, using data for 13,236 (51.8% female) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study…

  5. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  6. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect Against Internalizing Problems Among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-12-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and white youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during adolescence. We also examined the extent to which participation in organized activities protected youth against the internalizing consequences of domestic violence. We found that intensive participation in either afterschool programs or extracurricular activities was inversely associated with youth internalizing problems. Moreover, we found that intensive participation in afterschool programs weakened the association between parents' domestic violence and youths' internalizing problems. PMID:23162370

  7. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect Against Internalizing Problems Among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and white youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during adolescence. We also examined the extent to which participation in organized activities protected youth against the internalizing consequences of domestic violence. We found that intensive participation in either afterschool programs or extracurricular activities was inversely associated with youth internalizing problems. Moreover, we found that intensive participation in afterschool programs weakened the association between parents’ domestic violence and youths’ internalizing problems. PMID:23162370

  8. WORKPLACE VIOLENCE HUMAN RESOURCES

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    /or property. San José State University takes a "zero tolerance" stance regarding workplace violence. Workplace, education and by swiftly mitigating violations of this policy. Violence or the threat of violence against

  9. Calculating effective gun control policies

    E-print Network

    Wodarz, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Following recent shootings in the USA, a debate has erupted, one side favoring stricter gun control, the other promoting protection through more weapons. We provide a scientific foundation to inform this debate, based on population dynamic models that quantify the dependence of firearm-related death rates of people on gun policies. We assume a shooter attacking a single individual or a crowd. Two strategies can minimize deaths in the model, depending on parameters: either a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. In particular, the outcome depends on the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, on the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and on the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it with them when attacked, parameters that can be estimated from statistical data. With the measured parameters, the model suggests that if the gun law is enforced at a level similar to that in the United Kingdom, g...

  10. Paola CONCONI, ECARES Guns and votes

    E-print Network

    Nesterov, Yurii

    Paola CONCONI, ECARES Guns and votes Why are U.S. congressmen often reluctant to support gun-election motives can help explaining why politicians often take a pro-gun stance, against the interests - and examine senators' voting behavior on gun control. In line with the model's predictions, we obtain three

  11. Inside Gun Shows What Goes On

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Epilogue #12;Inside Gun Shows;Epilogue In February 2010, I attended a Crossroads of the West gun show at the Arizona State Fairgrounds here an update on each of the Phoenix obser- vations made in the photo-essay portion of Inside Gun

  12. Parental attitudes toward BB and pellet guns.

    PubMed

    Damore, D T; Ramundo, M L; Hanna, J P; Dayan, P S

    2000-05-01

    As well as describing our pediatric BB and pellet gun injuries and the circumstances surrounding these injuries, we also evaluated parental perceptions of the dangers of BB and pellet guns. A convenience sample of three groups of parents and their children presenting to a Midwest, urban, children's hospital emergency department was prospectively enrolled. The three groups of parents included the injured group, which consisted of the parents whose children had been injured by BB or pellet guns; the gun group, which consisted of the parents who allowed their children to possess BB or pellet guns but had not sustained injury from these guns; and the no gun group, which consisted of the parents who did not allow their children to have these guns. All parents completed a survey concerning their attitudes toward BB and pellet guns. Twenty-eight parents completed questionnaires in each of the three groups. Most BB and pellet gun injuries occurred in adolescent males at home without adult supervision and were inflicted by a friend or by themselves. The injured group and the no gun group viewed BB and pellet guns as significantly more dangerous than the gun group. Parents who allow their children to have BB or pellet guns appear to misperceive their potential for injury by allowing their children to use these guns in an unsafe manner. Clinicians must educate parents about the significant potential for injury of nonpowdered guns. PMID:10826075

  13. The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Duggan; Randi Hjalmarsson; Brian A. Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of gun shows take place in the U.S. each year. Gun control advocates argue that because sales at gun shows are much less regulated than other sales, such shows make it easier for potential criminals to obtain a gun. Similarly, one might be concerned that gun shows would exacerbate suicide rates by providing individuals considering suicide with a more

  14. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, Robert

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  15. The Jamaican adolescent's perspective on violence and its effects.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A

    2011-03-01

    The Caribbean and in particular Jamaica is experiencing an epidemic of violence which adversely affects its youth who are the main perpetrators and victims. Early and protracted exposure to violence is part of the socialization experience that results in violence-related behaviours. This paper examines the impact of the early and sustained exposure to violence on the attitudes and behaviours of Jamaican adolescents from their perspective. An analysis of qualitative data collected from three studies between 2005 and 2009 among adolescents across Jamaica was conducted using the recurrent theme approach. Exposure to violence was common and increased with age and lower socioeconomic status and was most marked among marginalized inner city youth. While attitudes and behaviours in response to the violence varied among adolescents, there was a "dose response effect" in relation to age and lower social status. It is necessary to alter the socialization process in order to break the cycle of violence through wide ranging interventions that touch on every aspect of the spheres of influence in the life of Jamaican adolescents. PMID:21942121

  16. Gun Violence Takes Toll on Kids' Mental Health, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... author Kimberly Mitchell, a research assistant professor of psychology at the University of New Hampshire's Crimes Against ... co-author Sherry Hamby, a research professor of psychology from Sewanee: University of the South. "After all, ...

  17. Reduction of Gun Erosion and Correlation of Gun Erosion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, Dave; Wercinski, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gun barrel erosion is serious problem with two-stage light gas guns. Excessive barrel erosion can lead to poor or failed launches and frequent barrel changes, with the corresponding down time. Also, excessive barrel erosion can limit the maximum velocity obtainable by loading down the hydrogen working gas with eroded barrel material. Guided by a CFD code, the operating conditions of the Ames 0.5-inch gun were modified to reduce barrel erosion. The changes implemented included: (1) reduction in the piston mass, powder mass and hydrogen fill pressure; and (2) reduction in pump tube volume, while maintaining hydrogen mass. The latter change was found, in particular, to greatly reduce barrel erosion. For muzzle velocity ranges of 6.1 - 6.9 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 10. Even for the higher muzzle velocity range of 7.0 - 8.2 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 4. Gun erosion data from the Ames 0.5-inch, 1.0-inch, and 1.5-inch guns operated over a wide variety of launch conditions was examined and it was found that this data could be correlated using four different parameters: normalized powder charge energy, normalized hydrogen energy density, normalized pump tube volume and barrel diameter. The development of the correlation and the steps used to collapse the experimental data are presented. Over a certain parameter range in the correlation developed, the barrel erosion per shot is found to increase very rapidly. The correlation should prove useful in the selection of gun operating conditions and the design of new guns. Representative shapes of eroded gun barrels are also presented.

  18. Political Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Angelo Corlett

    \\u000a Political violence in its various forms seems to have been with us throughout much of human history. In recent times, however,\\u000a it has become a primary mode of political address in an increasing number of global contexts. Whether it is the two World\\u000a Wars, the assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler, or numerous assassination attempts made on the life of Cuban

  19. The polarized SRF gun experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Shultheiss, T.

    2008-10-01

    An experiment is under way to prove the feasibility of a super-conducting RF gun for the production of polarized electrons. We report on the progress of the experiment and on simulations predicting the possibility of success.

  20. Ion bombardment in RF guns

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev, E.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V. N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2009-08-04

    We use the ponderomotive potential of the RF field to study the motion of ions in an RF gun. We apply this method to the BNL 1/2-cell SRF photogun and demonstrate that a significant portion of the ions produced in the gun can reach the cathode if no special precautions are taken. Also, we propose simple mitigation techniques that can reduce the rate of ion bombardment.

  1. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  2. Translating Research into Practice: Trans Youth Recommendations for Improving School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sausa, Lydia A.

    2005-01-01

    Trans youth are considered one of the most marginalized and oppressed populations. Many experience transphobia and violence based on their gender identity and expression. This qualitative study describes the school experiences of 24 trans youth in Philadelphia and presents their recommendations for school administrators and educators. To…

  3. Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry

    In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…

  4. Empowering Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: Lessons Learned From a Safe Schools Summit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelley L. Craig; Edmon W. Tucker; Eric F. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    The bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools is a significant problem in the United States. This study examined responses of youth participants at a statewide Safe Schools Summit to a survey of their experiences with school-based violence, harassment, and discrimination, and of the effects of their attendance at the Summit. Quantitative analyses found that 92%

  5. Concerns and Coping of African-American Mothers After Youth Assault Requiring Emergency Medical Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori F. Phelps; W. Hobart Davies; Michael R. McCart; Bonita P. Klein-Tasman; Marlene D. Melzer-Lange; Wendi Heuermann

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore maternal experience following youth assault occurring in the community. Methods A semistructured interview was used to elicit concerns and coping strategies among 35 African-American mothers whose children received emergency department (ED) treatment for assault-related injuries. Mothers also completed measures of violence expo- sure, trauma symptoms, social support, and youth functioning. Results The most common concerns involved family

  6. Community Disorder, Victimization Exposure, and Mental Health in a National Sample of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Heather A.; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David

    2013-01-01

    This study considers whether elevated distress among youth living in more disordered neighborhoods can be explained by personal exposure to violence and victimization, level of non-victimization adversity, and family support. Analyses were based on a sample of 2,039 youth ages 10 to 17 who participated in the National Survey of Children's Exposure…

  7. What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    2 How Gun Shows Work What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal. But other states have enacted more specific definitions as they acted to regulate gun shows themselves or gun sales at gun shows but not elsewhere (Table 2-1). In the parking lot of a gun show in Pharr, Texas

  8. Pathways to early violent death: the voices of serious violent youth offenders.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Joseph B; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Michelle

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative studies have uncovered factors associated with early violent death among youth offenders detained in the juvenile justice system, but little is known about the contextual factors associated with pathways to early violent death among youths detained in adult jails. We interviewed young Black male serious violent youth offenders detained in an adult jail to understand their experience of violence. Their narratives reveal how the code of the street, informal rules that govern interpersonal violence among poor inner-city Black male youths, increases the likelihood of violent victimization. Youth offenders detained in adult jails have the lowest rate of service provision among all jail populations. We have addressed how services for youth offenders can be improved to reduce the pathways to early violent death. PMID:23678923

  9. Pathways to Early Violent Death: The Voices of Serious Violent Youth Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joseph B.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies have uncovered factors associated with early violent death among youth offenders detained in the juvenile justice system, but little is known about the contextual factors associated with pathways to early violent death among youths detained in adult jails. We interviewed young Black male serious violent youth offenders detained in an adult jail to understand their experience of violence. Their narratives reveal how the code of the street, informal rules that govern interpersonal violence among poor inner-city Black male youths, increases the likelihood of violent victimization. Youth offenders detained in adult jails have the lowest rate of service provision among all jail populations. We have addressed how services for youth offenders can be improved to reduce the pathways to early violent death. PMID:23678923

  10. Mental health service use among high school students exposed to interpersonal violence

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Renee M.; Dunn, Erin C.; Lindsey, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Violence-exposed youth rarely receive mental health services, even though exposure increases risk for academic and psychosocial problems. This study examines the association between violence exposure and mental health service contact. The four forms of violence exposure were peer, family, sexual, and witnessing. METHODS Data are from 1,534 Boston public high school students who participated in a 2008 self-report survey of violence exposure and its correlates. Multivariate logistic regressions estimated associations between each form of violence with service contact, then examined whether associations persisted when controlling for suicidality and self-injurious behaviors. RESULTS In unadjusted models, violence-exposed students more often reported service contact than their peers. However, in multivariate models, only exposure to family (OR=1.69, CI=1.23–2.31) and sexual violence (OR=2.34, CI=1.29–4.20) were associated with service contact. Associations attenuated when controlling for suicidality and self-injurious behaviors, indicating they were largely explained by self-harm. Sexual violence alone remained associated with mental health service contact in fully adjusted models, but only for girls (OR=3.32, CI=1.30–8.45), suggesting gender-specific pathways. CONCLUSIONS Associations between adolescent violence exposure and mental health service contact vary by form of exposure. Outreach to a broader set of exposed youth may reduce the impact of violence and its consequences for vulnerable students. PMID:25099429

  11. A Study of a Violence Prevention Program in Prekindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Susan F.

    2009-01-01

    Prevention programs in schools are one response to youth, community, and family violence. Many of these programs target older children and adolescents. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the preschool curriculum of the Peacemakers program, which was developed by a consortium of social service agencies for implementation in schools. This…

  12. What the Resilient Child Can Teach Us about Reducing Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Jeannine R.

    2000-01-01

    Factors that contribute to resilience provide a framework for demonstrating how mental health professionals can build on strengths in adolescents in a violence reduction program. Article profiles the resilient youth as one who is optimistic, empathetic, has a caring temperament, and can attract friendships. (Author/JDM)

  13. Identifying and Intervening with Girls at Risk for Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    2003-01-01

    Youth violence has become a prominent national concern, largely focused on boys who have perpetrated highly publicized massacres. Less well-publicized is the rapid increase in arrests of girls for violent crimes and weapons violations. In just 2 decades, violent crime arrests for female juveniles increased by 108%. From research findings, a…

  14. Procedures for preventing juvenile violence in Switzerland: the Zurich model.

    PubMed

    Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Urbaniok, Frank; Laubacher, Arja; Pierce, Christine Schnyder; Moskvitin, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    The Swiss legal system places strong emphasis on risk assessment and treatment of potentially violent offenders. Especially after the 2001 Zug massacre, there is close cooperation between the judicial and mental health systems to prevent violence through early detection and intervention. A case study of a risk management program for a dangerous seventeen-year-old delinquent youth illustrates this approach. PMID:21491574

  15. Preventing Violence in School: What Can Principals Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wendy M.

    1998-01-01

    School violence is more likely in schools located in high-crime areas, in large schools with large classes, in schools containing a large percentage of male students, and in schools with weak administrators. The "Practical Intelligence" curriculum enables middle-school youths who are not classically successful students to make a contribution and…

  16. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1997 Update on Violence. Statistics Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickmund, Melissa; Snyder, Howard N.; Poe-Yamagata, Eileen

    This report is the second update to "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report" published in 1995. Drawing on new analysis of statistical series developed by various Federal agencies, it provides answers to the questions most often asked about trends in youth violence and victimization. This report provides information that the wave of…

  17. Gravity's smoking gun?

    E-print Network

    E. Gaztanaga; R. Juszkiewicz

    2001-08-21

    We present a new constraint on the biased galaxy formation picture. Gravitational instability theory predicts that the two-point mass density correlation function, \\xi(r), has an inflection point at the separation r=r_0, corresponding to the boundary between the linear and nonlinear regime of clustering, \\xi = 1. We show how this feature can be used to constrain the square of the biasing parameter, b^2 = \\xi_g / \\xi on scales r = r_0, where \\xi_g is the galaxy-galaxy correlation function, allowed to differ from \\xi. We apply our method to real data: the \\xi_g(r), estimated from the APM galaxy survey. Our results suggest that the APM galaxies trace the mass at separations r > 5 Mpc/h, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km/s Mpc. The present results agree with earlier studies, based on comparing higher order correlations in the APM with weakly non-linear perturbation theory. Both approaches constrain the "b" factor to be within 20% of unity. If the existence of the feature we identified in the APM \\xi_g(r) -- the inflection point near \\xi_g = 1 -- is confirmed by more accurate surveys, we may have discovered gravity's smoking gun: the long awaited ``shoulder'' in \\xi, predicted by Gott and Rees 25 years ago.

  18. Peer violence perpetration among urban adolescents: dispelling the myth of the violent immigrant.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M; McNamara, Mariah; Gupta, Jhumka

    2011-09-01

    Researchers have found an inverse relationship between immigrant status and violence perpetration. Most studies have examined Mexican immigrants, and few have assessed immigration factors other than nativity. Additionally, the majority have focused on the most serious forms of violence despite the fact that moderate violence is more common. Using data from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, we generated prevalence estimates of peer violence perpetration across immigration related factors, examined whether risk factors for peer violence differed by these variables, and explored the contribution of risk factors to peer violence perpetration. Recent immigrants had a significantly lower prevalence of peer violence compared to each other generations/time in U.S. group. Known risk factors for violence perpetration varied by generation/time in U.S.: compared to other groups, recent immigrants were less likely to have used substances, and were more likely earn A's and B's in school. Recent immigrants had a significantly lower risk of violence perpetration relative to U.S.-born (RR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.62). Adjusting for known risk factors did not attenuate differences in risk. While immigrant youth had a lower risk of peer violence, the protective effect was diminished among immigrants who had resided in the U.S. for >4 years. This pattern demonstrates that negative assimilation occurs within the first generation, not just across generations. Results suggest that perpetration of violence worsens with increased time in the U.S. Research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the acquisition of behaviors such as violence among recently arrived immigrant youth. PMID:21156691

  19. Physicians among many participants in midst of Canada's emotional gun-control debate.

    PubMed Central

    LeBourdais, E

    1995-01-01

    Because they are seen as advocates for public health and safety, physicians are also widely believed to be supporters of aggressive gun-control measures, but in reality there are strong feelings on both sides of the issue. "People assume that more gun control will mean less violence, but there are no hard data to support that," says Vancouver psychiatrist Joseph Noone, who argues that Canada already has highly restrictive firearms laws. Other physicians are puzzled by colleagues' opposition to the changes. "I don't understand why it's such a big deal," says Dr. Stephen Corber, medical officer of health for the Ottawa-Carleton region. He argues that registration would not be a deterrent to responsible gun use and ownership. Images p2025-a p2026-a PMID:7780910

  20. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Rabern, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdiviez, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  1. Adolescent Relationship Violence and Acculturation Among NYC Latinos.

    PubMed

    DuPont-Reyes, Melissa; Fry, Deborah; Rickert, Vaughn; Davidson, Leslie L

    2015-07-01

    Acculturation has been shown to positively and negatively affect Latino health. Little research investigates the overlap between acculturation and the different types of relationship violence among Latino youth and most research in this area predominantly involves Mexican-American samples. The current study examined associations between indices of acculturation (language use at home, chosen survey language, and nativity) and relationship physical violence and sexual coercion, both received and delivered, among predominantly Dominican and Puerto Rican adolescents from New York City. From 2006 to 2007, 1,454 adolescents aged 13-21 years in New York City completed an anonymous survey that included the Conflict in Adolescent Relationships Inventory which estimates experiences of physical violence and sexual coercion, both received and delivered, in the previous year. This analysis includes bivariate and multivariate methods to test the associations between language use at home, chosen survey language, and nativity with the different types of relationship violence. Among females, there is a significant association between language use at home and overall level of acculturation with delivering and receiving relationship physical violence; however, we did not find this association in delivering and receiving relationship sexual coercion. We found no association between acculturation and any type of relationship violence among males. Among Latina females, language spoken at home is an indicator of other protective factors of physical relationship violence. Future research in this area should explore the potential protective factors surrounding relationship violence among Latina females of various subgroups using comprehensive measures of acculturation, household composition and family engagement. PMID:25452217

  2. The effects of media violence on anxiety in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Wright, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is related to anxiety in youth, but the causality of the effect has not been established. This experimental study examined the effects of media violence on anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate in late adolescents. We also examined whether these responses varied by previous exposure to media and real-life violence. College students (N = 209; M age = 18.74; 75 % female; 50 % Caucasian, 34 % African American, 9 % Asian, 3 % Hispanic, and 3 % other racial minorities) were randomized to view either violent or nonviolent high-action movie clips. Participants reported on their anxiety before and after watching the clips, as well as their previous exposure to violence. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and during movie viewing. Participants watching violent movie clips showed a greater anxiety increase than those watching nonviolent clips. Both groups experienced increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate during movie watching compared to baseline. Prior exposure to media violence was associated with diminished heart rate response. Additionally, students previously exposed to high levels of real-life violence showed lower blood pressure increases when watching violent clips compared to nonviolent clips. Thus, relatively brief exposure to violent movie clips increased anxiety among late adolescents. Prior exposure to media and real-life violence were associated with lower physiological reactivity to high-action and violent movies, respectively, possibly indicating desensitization. Future studies should investigate long-term anxiety and physiological consequences of regular exposure to media violence in adolescence. PMID:24014349

  3. Violence in Teen-Rated Video Games

    PubMed Central

    Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M. Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2004-01-01

    Context: Children's exposure to violence in the media remains a source of public health concern; however, violence in video games rated T (for “Teen”) by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) has not been quantified. Objective: To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence and blood in T-rated video games. According to the ESRB, T-rated video games may be suitable for persons aged 13 years and older and may contain violence, mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. Design: We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001 to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors for violence and blood assigned to these games. We randomly sampled 80 game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, and quantitatively assessed the content. Given the release of 2 new video game consoles, Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, and a significant number of T-rated video games released after we drew our random sample, we played and assessed 9 additional games for these consoles. Finally, we assessed the content of 2 R-rated films, The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, associated with the T-rated video game Enter the Matrix. Main Outcome Measures: Game genre; percentage of game play depicting violence; depiction of injury; depiction of blood; number of human and nonhuman fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters, killing characters, or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; and content that may raise concerns about marketing T-rated video games to children. Results: Based on analysis of the 396 T-rated video game titles, 93 game titles (23%) received content descriptors for both violence and blood, 280 game titles (71%) received only a content descriptor for violence, 9 game titles (2%) received only a content descriptor for blood, and 14 game titles (4%) received no content descriptors for violence or blood. In the random sample of 81 T-rated video games we played, 79 games (98%) involved intentional violence for an average of 36% of game play time, and 34 games (42%) contained blood. More than half of the games (51%) depicted 5 or more types of weapons, with players able to select weapons in 48 games (59%). We observed 37 games (46%) that rewarded or required the player to destroy objects, 73 games (90%) that rewarded or required the player to injure characters, and 56 games (69%) that rewarded or required the player to kill. We observed a total of 11,499 character deaths in the 81 games, occurring at an average rate of 122 deaths per hour of game play (range 0 to 1310). This included 5689 human deaths, occurring at an average rate of 61 human deaths per hour of game play (range 0 to 1291). Overall, we identified 44 games (54%) that depicted deaths to nonhuman characters and 51 games (63%) that depicted deaths to human characters, including the player. Conclusions: Content analysis suggests a significant amount of violence, injury, and death in T-rated video games. Given the large amount of violence involving guns and knives, the relative lack of blood suggests that many T-rated video games do not realistically portray the consequences of violence. Physicians and parents should appreciate that T-rated video games may be a source of exposure to violence and some unexpected content for children and adolescents, and that the majority of T-rated video games provide incentives to the players to commit simulated acts of violence. PMID:15208514

  4. International note: association between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours in homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours. PMID:25575268

  5. The Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Cortisol Reactivity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Peckins, Melissa K.; Dockray, Samantha; Eckenrode, Jacey L.; Heaton, Jodi; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this report is to examine the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol reactivity in children with no identified serious mental health problems or reports of maltreatment. Exposure to violence was hypothesized to influence development of the stress system in this sample of youth as has been demonstrated in maltreated youth. Methods The sample consisted of 124 adolescents, ages 8 to 13 years. Data were collected at two waves of measurement, 12 months apart. Exposure to violence was operationalized as the number of different violent events each child was exposed to as a witness or victim. Cortisol reactivity was evaluated in relation to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Results Exposure to violence occurring over the 12 months prior to the first assessment is predictive of cortisol reactivity 12 months later in males, even after controlling for age and Time 1 symptoms of psychopathology, cortisol reactivity, and lifetime exposure to violence. Lifetime exposure to violence at Time 1 is positively correlated with symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in both sexes. Conclusions The unique aspect of the current findings is that typically, research studying the effects of exposure to violence is conducted with a clinical or maltreated sample. The findings show that recent exposure to violence has an effect on reactions to a laboratory stressor and has longer-term negative mental health consequences. Further study is needed to determine whether these effects are enduring or a shorter-term adaptive response to exposure to violence. PMID:22999837

  6. THE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE IN CONTEXT: EXPLORING THE MODERATING ROLES OF NEIGHBORHOOD DISADVANTAGE AND CULTURAL NORMS*

    PubMed Central

    WRIGHT, EMILY M.; FAGAN, ABIGAIL A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the cycle of violence theory has received empirical support (Widom, 1989a, 1989b), in reality, not all victims of child physical abuse become involved in violence. Therefore, little is known regarding factors that may moderate the relationship between abuse and subsequent violence, particularly contextual circumstances. The current investigation used longitudinal data from 1,372 youth living in 79 neighborhoods who participated in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), and it employed a multivariate, multilevel Rasch model to explore the degree to which neighborhood disadvantage and cultural norms attenuate or strengthen the abuse–violence relationship. The results indicate that the effect of child physical abuse on violence was weaker in more disadvantaged communities. Neighborhood cultural norms regarding tolerance for youth delinquency and fighting among family and friends did not moderate the child abuse–violence relationship, but each had a direct effect on violence, such that residence in neighborhoods more tolerant of delinquency and fighting increased the propensity for violence. These results suggest that the cycle of violence may be contextualized by neighborhood structural and cultural conditions. PMID:25147403

  7. Action Alters Object Identification: Wielding a Gun Increases The Bias to See Guns

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    Action Alters Object Identification: Wielding a Gun Increases The Bias to See Guns Jessica K. Witt influence an observer's ability to detect and categorize objects as guns. In light of recent work in action to the perceiver. In five experiments, participants determined whether another person was holding a gun

  8. Behavioral Strategies for Constructing Nonviolent Cultures with Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattaini, Mark A.; McGuire, Melissa S.

    2006-01-01

    Youth violence is widely recognized as a critical social issue in the United States, and many approaches to prevention have been developed in recent years. Emerging research suggests that only approaches that are deeply embedded in cultural, community, and organizational contexts are likely to be powerful enough to have a meaningful collective…

  9. Profile of an Aggressor: Childhood Bullies Evolve into Violent Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Vicki

    2004-01-01

    Violence in schools and communities is no longer an urban school problem; it is every school's problem ( Garbarino, 1999 ). What factors cause children to interact with increasingly violent and anti-social behaviors? What strategies can teachers and schools use in order to help these childhood bullies who grow up to be violent youths? This paper…

  10. The Violent Practices of Youth Territorial Groups in Moscow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetlana Stephenson

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the violent practices of youth territorial groups in Moscow. These groups exist on the city periphery and mainly involve young people (most of them male), who are not well integrated into society through the schooling system. Rather than simply depending on violence as a survival tool within the dangerous and uncertain space of the streets, or as

  11. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Heath; Marie Mackay Murphy

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime was examined in three studies. In Study 1,73 items about guns were administered to subjects to determine if the construct “Gun Attitudes” contained sub-constructs, possibly causing the confusion in the literature on gun attitudes and fear of crime. Nine factors were revealed, which were grouped into Socio-cultural and Personal Indices.

  12. The behavioral economics of violence.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard

    2004-12-01

    From the viewpoint of teleological behaviorism the first question to ask in attempting to understand any behavior, including violent behavior, is: What are its contingencies of reward and punishment? Or, to put the question in economic terms: What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits that such behavior entails? Let us therefore consider the costs and benefits of youth violence. Among the short-term costs of violent behavior are the physical effort of the act, the possibility of immediate physical retaliation, immediate social disapproval, and the opportunity cost of other social acts that the violent behavior takes the place of (you can't be affectionate and violent at the same time, for instance). Among the immediate benefits of violent behavior are the intrinsic satisfaction of the violent act itself and any extrinsic benefit; if A violently appropriates B's new sneakers then obtaining the sneakers reinforces A's violence. These immediate benefits may well outweigh the costs in many contexts. Among the long-term costs of violent behavior are delayed retaliation, possible social disapproval and loss of social support, rejection from a social group, job loss, and health risks associated with a violent lifestyle. Among the long-term benefits are long-term intimidation of others (your neighbor is less likely to build a fence on your property if you have a reputation for violence), and a possibly exciting lifestyle. These long-term benefits may well be outweighed by the long-term costs. Opposition of long-term net costs to short-term net benefits, where it exists, creates a personal self-control trap: Overall satisfaction may decrease monotonically with rate of the target behavior but, regardless of its rate, the immediate satisfaction of doing it is always higher than that of not doing it. In the case of violent behavior, this trap is exacerbated by the fact that as a person's violence increases, net immediate reinforcement also increases (due to membership in violence-reinforcing subgroups). This contingency fits the "primrose path" addiction model of Prelec and Herrnstein. Violence is thus a paradigm case of behavioral addiction. I consider three ways of controlling such addictive behavior: by punishment, by extinction, and by substitution. The problem with punishment in the case of violence is that physical punishment tends to increase violent behavior while incarceration drives the punished person into the very social subgroup (the prison culture) where violence is maximally reinforced. The problem with extinction is that the immediate benefits of violent behavior are largely intrinsic and some costs (immediate retaliation by unidentified others) are difficult to control. The best way to control violent behavior, as well as other addictive behaviors, is by decreasing the price of economic substitutes. There is much evidence that addictions, such as to cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and tobacco, may be reduced by decreasing the price of social support. The same is predicted for violent behavior--either by providing social support directly or by training in social skills. In addition, in considering control of violent behavior, we need to examine the immediate benefits and long-term costs to society of having violent individuals and violence-reinforcing subcultures among us. And we need to act to reduce our own dependence on those benefits. PMID:15817747

  13. Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II

    2013-01-01

    Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…

  14. Unintentional Gun Deaths among Children. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Children are at risk of being killed or injured by a gun if their parents own a gun because many guns obtained for self-defense are kept loaded and within reach of children. This brief fact sheet presents statistical information relating to accidental deaths involving young people and firearms. Safety measures are suggested for preventing…

  15. Guns, Privacy, and Crime Alessandro Acquisti

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Guns, Privacy, and Crime Alessandro Acquisti and Catherine Tucker January 2, 2011 Abstract of crime. We find that crimes more likely to be affected by knowledge of gun ownership - such as burglaries - increased more significantly, after the database was publicized, in zip codes with fewer gun per- mits

  16. The Rail Gun Muad Al Khaldi

    E-print Network

    Masoudi, Husain M.

    The Rail Gun Muad Al Khaldi Department of Electrical Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Abstract- The rail gun is one of promising ways of launching projectiles. Recently, many. In this project, I am going to investigate the construction of electromagnetic rail guns, the way the function

  17. Dispenser cathode high power gridded klystron gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. True; M. F. Kirshner; L. Turek; G. R. Good; R. J. Hansen; T. M. Bemis; R. J. Bartkowski

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a new shadow gridded gun useful for high power radar klystrons. The gun features an M-type dispenser cathode having heater power identical to a larger diameter cathode oxide cathode gun used in one application. It is known that dispenser cathodes are more tolerant of arcs, poisoning, and other effects that can ruin

  18. Theoretical investigation of the microwave electron gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gao

    1990-01-01

    In this article the microwave electron gun (rf gun) is investigated theoretically in a general way. After a brief review of the sources of emittance growth in a cavity, the optimization criteria are given and optimized electric field distributions on the axes of the cavities are found, from which cavities for a rf gun can be designed.

  19. The social costs of gun ownership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides new estimates of the effect of household gun prevalence on homicide rates, and infers the marginal external cost of handgun ownership. The estimates utilize a superior proxy for gun prevalence, the percentage of suicides committed with a gun, which we validate. Using county- and state-level panels for 20 years, we estimate the elasticity of homicide with respect

  20. The Social Costs of Gun Ownership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides new estimates of the effect of household gun prevalence on homicide rates, and infers the marginal external cost of handgun ownership. The estimates utilize a superior proxy for gun prevalence, the percentage of suicides committed with a gun, which we validate. Using county- and state-level panels for 20 years, we estimate the elasticity of homicide with respect

  1. WITNESS GUN FOR THE ARGONNE WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Simpson; E Chojnacki; R Konecny

    1992-01-01

    This paper will primarily discuss the recent progressin the construction of the witness gun, while also brieflysummarizing the central design issues of the gun. A briefstatus report on the dielectric witness gun option is alsoincluded. We conclude with a short statement on our near termfuture plans.

  2. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Aggression and Weapons Carrying in Urban African American Early Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Cheng, Tina L.; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the…

  3. Intervening in gun markets: an experiment to assess the impact of targeted gun-law messaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Ridgeway; Anthony A. Braga; George Tita; Glenn L. Pierce

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether targeting new gun buyers with a public safety message aimed at improving\\u000a gun law awareness can modify gun purchasers’ behaviors. Between May 2007 and September 2008, 2,120 guns were purchased in\\u000a two target neighborhoods of the City of Los Angeles. Starting in August 2007, gun buyers initiating transactions on odd-numbered\\u000a days

  4. Living in partner-violent families: developmental links to antisocial behavior and relationship violence.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Timothy O; Smith, Carolyn A

    2009-03-01

    Links between living in a partner-violent home and subsequent aggressive and antisocial behavior are suggested by the "cycle of violence" hypothesis derived from social learning theory. Although there is some empirical support, to date, findings have been generally limited to cross-sectional studies predominantly of young children, or retrospective studies of adults. We address this issue with prospective data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS), an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the development of antisocial behavior in a community sample of 1,000 urban youth followed from age 14 to adulthood. The original panel included 68% African American, 17% Hispanic, and 15% White participants, and was 72.9% male, and 27.1% female. Measures come from a combination of sources including interviews with parents, interviews with youth, and official records. We test the general hypothesis that there is a relationship between living in partner-violent homes during adolescence, and later antisocial behavior and relationship violence. Employing logistic regression and controlling for related covariates, including child physical abuse, we find a significant relationship between exposure to parental violence and adolescent conduct problems. The relationship between exposure to parental violence and measures of antisocial behavior and relationship aggression dissipates in early adulthood, however, exposure to severe parental violence is significantly related to early adulthood violent crime, and intimate partner violence. Our results suggest that exposure to severe parental violence during adolescence is indeed consequential for violent interactions in adulthood. PMID:19636748

  5. Teen Dating Violence: Co-Occurrence With Other Victimizations in the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherry Hamby; David Finkelhor; Heather Turner

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the co-occurrence of physical teen dating violence (TDV) with other forms of victimization. Method: The sample includes 1,680 youth aged 12 to 17 from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative telephone survey of victimization experiences. Results: Every victim of physical TDV (100%) reported at least one other type of victimization. Physical

  6. Guns in Schools. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Common reasons that young people choose to carry firearms outside of school--protection, intimidation of others, or to be like their peers--are the same reasons they carry guns into the school. This fact sheet presents statistics regarding the prevalence of firearms amongst students in American schools, including: shooting fatalities and woundings…

  7. Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is abuse by ...

  8. "It's the Worst Place to Live": Urban Youth and the Challenge of School-Based Civic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Beth C.; Hayes, Brian; Benson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    One of the primary aims of education in the United States is to prepare youth to contribute to civic life in a democracy. Urban youth have daily school and community experiences with poverty, violence, and injustice that complicate their relationship with civic life. In this article the authors explore the ramifications of these experiences for…

  9. Strengths-Based Programming for First Nations Youth in Schools: Building Engagement through Healthy Relationships and Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Claire V.; Chiodo, Debbie; Thomas, Darren; Hughes, Ray

    2010-01-01

    First Nations youth in Canada demonstrate disproportionately high rates of negative behaviors such as violence, substance abuse, and leaving school early. An understanding of historical context and current environment helps explain these patterns. Providing culturally relevant opportunities for youth to build healthy relationships and leadership…

  10. RF Design of the LCLS Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey, C

    2010-12-13

    Final dimensions for the LCLS RF gun are described. This gun, referred to as the LCLS gun, is a modified version of the UCLA/BNL/SLAC 1.6 cell S-Band RF gun [1], referred to as the prototype gun. The changes include a larger mode separation (15 MHz for the LCLS gun vs. 3.5 MHz for the prototype gun), a larger radius at the iris between the 2 cells, a reduced surface field on the curvature of the iris between the two cells, Z power coupling, increased cooling channels for operation at 120 Hz, dual rf feed, deformation tuning of the full cell, and field probes in both cells. Temporal shaping of the klystron pulse, to reduce the average power dissipated in the gun, has also been adopted. By increasing the mode separation, the amplitude of the 0-mode electric field on the cathode decreases from 10% of the peak on axis field for the prototype gun to less than 3% for the LCLS gun for the steady state fields. Beam performance is improved as shown by the PARMELA simulations. The gun should be designed to accept a future load lock system. Modifications follow the recommendations of our RF review committee [2]. Files and reference documents are compiled in Section IV.

  11. Bullying and LGBT Youth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Support the Kids Involved Be More Than a Bystander GET HELP NOW Home > Who is at Risk > Considerations for Specific Groups > LGBT Youth WHO IS AT RISK Risk Factors Warning Signs Effects Considerations for Specific Groups LGBT Youth Youth With ...

  12. A Potential for Violent Injury: Guns and Knives in the Schools. Oregon Health Trends, Series No. 56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David

    This report focuses on the causative factors of violence in school children. It summarizes information about the demographic and mental health characteristics of students who carry weapons to school and includes comments from students on the reasons why they carry them, as well as what the research says. Results of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior…

  13. Diagnosing and Managing Violence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Available categorization systems for violence encountered in medical practice do not constitute optimal tools to guide management. In this article, 4 common patterns of violence across psychiatric diagnoses are described (defensive, dominance-defining, impulsive, and calculated) and management implications are considered. The phenomenologic and neurobiological rationale for a clinical classification system of violence is also presented. PMID:22295257

  14. Children and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, David, Ed.; And Others

    This volume documents the rise in violence in our communities and explores its impact on children's physical, psychological, and social development. Focal themes are: the necessity for better information about the kinds of violence to which children are exposed, the necessity of beginning to build intervention strategies aimed at violence, and the…

  15. Schools, Violence, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.

    The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…

  16. Dating Violence in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysova, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of violence in interpersonal relationships has been little studied in Russia, and the phenomenon of violence between dating partners has not been the object of scientific interest at all. The study on which the present article is based was designed to obtain information about the violence in dating among students enrolled in…

  17. Drug Offers as a Context for Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Susana; Okamoto, Scott; Kaliades, Alexis; Giroux, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Objective Drug use has been linked empirically with aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai`i samples. However, the nature of this link and its implications for prevention are unclear. Therefore, this paper explores the intersection of drugs with aggression and violence by using the drug offer context as the unit of analysis. Method Native Hawaiian youth are sampled because substance use rates tend to be higher and onset tends to be earlier than their non-Hawaiian peers. Fourteen sex-specific focus group discussions were held with rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N=64). Students discussed what they thought they would do in terms of drug refusal strategies in a variety of drug offer contexts. Results While aggression and violence were perceived to be socially inappropriate, students nonetheless felt drug use would be less socially competent. Narrative analyses indicated aggression and violence were perceived to function as potential drug refusal strategies. As proximal drug resistance, aggression and violence perpetration served as an immediate deterrent to the drug offerer, and thus drug use. As distal drug resistance, victimization served as a rationale for avoiding drug using contexts. Conclusions Implications are discussed in terms of prevention policy and practice, specifically in terms of a school-based prevention curriculum. Future research in Hawaiian epistemology and gendered approaches are warranted. PMID:24564559

  18. Adolescent conflict as a developmental process in the prospective pathway from exposure to interparental violence to dating violence.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Angela J; Englund, Michelle M; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Egeland, Byron

    2014-02-01

    Within a developmental psychopathology framework, the current study examined adolescent conflict (age 16) with families, best friends, and dating partners as mediators in the prospective pathway from exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early childhood (0-64 months) to dating violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood (age 23). Adolescent conflict was predicted to partially mediate EIPV and dating violence with significant direct paths from EIPV to dating violence, given the extant literature on the salience of early childhood EIPV for later maladjustment. Participants (N?=?182; 99 males, 83 females; 67 % Caucasian, 11 % African-American, 18 % other, 4 % unreported) were drawn from a larger prospective study of high-risk mothers (aged 12-34 years) that followed their children from birth through adulthood. EIPV and adolescent conflict were rated from interviews with mothers and participants, and dating violence (physical perpetration and victimization) was assessed with the Conflict Tactics Scale. Path analyses showed that EIPV in early childhood (a) directly predicted dating violence perpetration in early adulthood and (b) predicted conflict with best friends, which in turn predicted dating violence perpetration. Although mediation of best friend conflict was not evident, indirect effects of EIPV to dating violence were found through externalizing behaviors in adolescence and life stress in early adulthood. Findings highlight that conflict with best friends is affected by EIPV and predicts dating violence, suggesting that it may be a promising target for relationship-based interventions for youth with EIPV histories. Furthermore, deleterious early experiences and contemporaneous risk factors are salient predictors of dating violence. PMID:23979004

  19. Adolescent Conflict as a Developmental Process in the Prospective Pathway from Exposure to Interparental Violence to Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Angela J.; Englund, Michelle M.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Within a developmental psychopathology framework, the current study examined adolescent conflict (age 16) with families, best friends, and dating partners as mediators in the prospective pathway from exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early childhood (0–64 months) to dating violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood (age 23). Adolescent conflict was predicted to partially mediate EIPV and dating violence with significant direct paths from EIPV to dating violence, given the extant literature on the salience of early childhood EIPV for later maladjustment. Participants (N = 182; 99 males, 83 females; 67% Caucasian, 11% African-American, 18% other, 4% unreported) were drawn from a larger prospective study of high-risk mothers (aged 12–34 years) that followed their children from birth through adulthood. EIPV and adolescent conflict were rated from interviews with mothers and participants, and dating violence (physical perpetration and victimization) was assessed with the Conflict Tactics Scale. Path analyses showed that EIPV in early childhood (a) directly predicted dating violence perpetration in early adulthood and (b) predicted conflict with best friends, which in turn predicted dating violence perpetration. Although mediation of best friend conflict was not evident, indirect effects of EIPV to dating violence were found through externalizing behaviors in adolescence and life stress in early adulthood. Findings highlight that conflict with best friends is affected by EIPV and predicts dating violence, suggesting that it may be a promising target for relationship-based interventions for youth with EIPV histories. Furthermore, deleterious early experiences and contemporaneous risk factors are salient predictors of dating violence. PMID:23979004

  20. Violence and the Prevention of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Leonore Loeb, Ed.; Denmark, Florence L., Ed.

    Contributors to this collection put forth many contemporary theoretical ideas about violence in society. All agree that finding ways to prevent violence is critical and that living in peace means acceptance of diversity. The following chapters are included: (1) "Motivational Approach to Violent Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Perspective: (Sergei V.…