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1

Policing Guns and Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY To combat the epidemic of youth gun violence in the 1980s and 1990s, law enforcement agencies across the United States adopted a variety of innovative strategies. This article presents case studies of eight cities' efforts to police gun crime. Some cities emphasized police-citizen partnerships to address youth violence, whereas others focused on aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of even

Jeffrey Fagan

2

Gun violence exposure and trauma among rural youth.  

PubMed

This study compared rural youth exposed to gun violence and rural youth not exposed to gun violence on a number of variables: anger, anxiety, dissociation, depression, posttraumatic stress, total trauma, violent behavior, parental monitoring, and levels of violence in the home, school, and community. One-fourth (25%) of the rural youth in this study reported having been exposed to gun violence at least once. Youth exposed to gun violence reported significantly more anger, dissociation, posttraumatic stress, and total trauma. In addition, youth exposed to the violence of guns reported significantly higher levels of violent behaviors and exposure to violence in other settings and also reported lower levels of parental monitoring. The present study contributes to the growing body of literature addressing the stereotype that rural communities are not immune to the violence of firearms. This stereotype acts as a barrier to mental health practice, research, and policy issues in rural communities. PMID:11506448

Slovak, K; Singer, M

2001-08-01

3

Mitigating the effects of gun violence on children and youth.  

PubMed

Countless children and youth are exposed to gun violence each year--at home, at school, in their communities, or through the media. Gun violence can leave lasting emotional scars on these children. This article reviews research regarding the psychological effects of gun violence on children and youth, and offers suggestions for how parents, school administrators, and mental health workers can mitigate these negative effects. Children exposed to gun violence may experience negative short- and long-term psychological effects, including anger, withdrawal, posttraumatic stress, and desensitization to violence. All of these outcomes can feed into a continuing cycle of violence. Certain children may be at higher risk for negative outcomes if they are exposed to gun violence. Groups at risk include children injured in gun violence, those who witness violent acts at close proximity, those exposed to high levels of violence in their communities or schools, and those exposed to violent media. Parents, school administrators, and mental health workers all can play key roles in protecting children from gun violence and helping them overcome the effects of gun-related trauma. The authors recommend a number of strategies that adults can adopt to help children cope with gun violence, such as increasing parental monitoring, targeting services to youth at risk of violent activity, and developing therapeutic interventions to help traumatized young people. PMID:12194614

Garbarino, James; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Vorrasi, Joseph A

4

Behavior-oriented approaches to reducing youth gun violence.  

PubMed

Advocacy groups on both sides of the guns issue frequently point to changing personal behavior--of both parents and children--as a key element in reducing gun violence among youth. Efforts to bring about these changes range from community-based campaigns, to laws and programs that encourage parents to store their guns safely, to educational initiatives that focus on keeping young children away from guns and encouraging youth to resolve disputes without violence. Unfortunately, these behavior-oriented programs have not shown great success in reducing youth gun violence. This article reviews the research surrounding behavioral approaches to gun violence prevention and highlights obstacles that hamper the effectiveness of these programs. Supportive communities can play a key role in protecting youth from violence in general, but the few community-based violence prevention programs that focus on youth have not been shown to decrease youth access to or use of guns. By and large, behavioral programs and legal interventions aimed at parents have not been proven to reduce youth gun violence. This may be due in part to parental misperceptions about children's risk of injury and ability to protect themselves. Children and youth are particularly difficult targets for behavioral change programs. Cognitive immaturity among younger children and perceptions of invulnerability among adolescents may be part of the reason. Most programs that seek to persuade youth to stay away from guns have not been proven effective. The author concludes that, although behavioral programs could be improved, overall they hold only limited promise for reducing youth gun violence. PMID:12194605

Hardy, Marjorie S

5

Product-oriented approaches to reducing youth gun violence.  

PubMed

Injury prevention experts have suggested that gun manufacturers could reduce youth violence by changing the design of guns. Product safety features could make guns more difficult for children to fire unintentionally and more difficult to use if stolen or obtained illegally. This article gives a brief history of efforts to make safer, smarter guns and assesses the potential of the product safety approach for reducing youth gun violence. Among the article's key findings: Research from the injury prevention field suggests that changing product design may be more effective in preventing injuries than trying to change personal behaviors; Existing product safety technologies for guns could reduce unintentional gun injuries, especially to young children. In addition, emerging technologies will enable gun manufacturers to "personalize" guns, which could prevent unauthorized users of any age from firing the weapons. Personalization could decrease access to guns by adolescents; Gun manufacturers have been slow to incorporate safety features into their products; but legislative, regulatory, and litigation efforts are under way to mandate safer guns. The authors envision a future when the law requires product safety features--including personalization--on all new firearms. These product safety features have the potential to reduce both intentional and unintentional firearm injury and death. PMID:12194606

Teret, Stephen P; Culross, Patti L

6

Gun violence among youth and the pediatrician's role in primary prevention.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a developmental stage characterized by high rates of violent behavior. Increasingly, violent injury is involving preadolescent children. Evidence suggests that the availability of guns increases the lethality of violent acts. Because guns are ubiquitous in the United States and integral to the current epidemic of youth violence, pediatricians should participate in primary prevention of firearm injuries. Efforts should begin long before children reach adolescence. Pediatricians should: (1) Encourage parents to remove guns from the home, or at a minimum to keep guns unloaded and locked up; (2) Advise parents to limit viewing of gun violence in the media, and playing with toy guns and video games that involve shooting; (3) Be alert for early indicators of aggressive behavior; and (4) Become outspoken advocates for laws that restrict gun availability. PMID:7936887

Webster, D W; Wilson, M E

1994-10-01

7

Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

1996-01-01

8

The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: a model application of local public health authority in preventing gun violence.  

PubMed

In 2002, the Baltimore City Health Department, in collaboration with the Baltimore Police Department and the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research, launched the Youth Ammunition Initiative. The initiative addressed Baltimore's problem of youth gun violence by targeting illegal firearm ammunition sales to the city's young people. The initiative included undercover "sting" investigations of local businesses and issuance of health department violation and abatement notices. Intermediate results included the passage of 2 Baltimore city council ordinances regulating ammunition sales and reducing the number of outlets eligible to sell ammunition. Although it is too early to assess effects on violent crime, the intervention could theoretically reduce youth violence by interrupting one source of ammunition to youths. More important, the initiative can serve as a policy model for health commissioners seeking to become more active in gun violence prevention efforts. PMID:15855448

Lewin, Nancy L; Vernick, Jon S; Beilenson, Peter L; Mair, Julie S; Lindamood, Melisa M; Teret, Stephen P; Webster, Daniel W

2005-05-01

9

The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: A Model Application of Local Public Health Authority in Preventing Gun Violence  

PubMed Central

In 2002, the Baltimore City Health Department, in collaboration with the Baltimore Police Department and the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research, launched the Youth Ammunition Initiative. The initiative addressed Baltimore’s problem of youth gun violence by targeting illegal firearm ammunition sales to the city’s young people. The initiative included undercover “sting” investigations of local businesses and issuance of health department violation and abatement notices. Intermediate results included the passage of 2 Baltimore city council ordinances regulating ammunition sales and reducing the number of outlets eligible to sell ammunition. Although it is too early to assess effects on violent crime, the intervention could theoretically reduce youth violence by interrupting one source of ammunition to youths. More important, the initiative can serve as a policy model for health commissioners seeking to become more active in gun violence prevention efforts.

Lewin, Nancy L.; Vernick, Jon S.; Beilenson, Peter L.; Mair, Julie S.; Lindamood, Melisa M.; Teret, Stephen P.; Webster, Daniel W.

2005-01-01

10

Guns, Gangs, and Gossip: An Analysis of Student Essays on Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth violence is an important public health problem, but few researchers have studied violence from youth's perspectives. Middle school students' essays about the causes of youth violence were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. The causes of violence identified by students were categorized into individual, peer, family, and…

Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Wong, Naima; Tarver, Darian; Rabiah, Deana; White, Sharrice

2004-01-01

11

Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

2012-01-01

12

Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

2012-01-01

13

Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence

Kim, Henny H., Ed.

14

Youth Violence: Lessons from the Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph summarizes what is known about youth and violence, identifying 10 myths that confound people's understanding of the real causes of youth violence. It focuses on: what contributes to youth violence (e.g., children exposed to domestic violence are at risk of using violence, children and adolescents use guns when they are easily…

Rinehart, P. Mann; Borowsky, I.; Stolz, A.; Latts, E.; Cart, C. U.; Brindis, C. D.

15

Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for…

Slovak, Karen

2002-01-01

16

Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of Programs and Initiatives. Program Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report discusses a wide array of violence prevention strategies used across the United States, ranging from school-based prevention to gun market interception. Relevant research, evaluation, and legislation are included to ground these programs and provide a context for their successful implementation. The first section of the report is an…

Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

17

Youth Violence, Guns, and Illicit Drug Markets. National Institute of Justice Research Preview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The perception that violence is on the rise is supported by data showing a sharp increase in violent crime among juveniles since the mid-1980s. Although the overall national homicide rate has not increased, homicides by youth under the age of 24 have grown significantly in recent years. The rate of arrest of nonwhite juveniles for drug offenses…

Blumstein, Alfred

18

Youth Violence Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is one of a series of technical notes that describe the nature and magnitude of violence in the region, its causes and effects, and how it can be prevented and controlled. The notes provide useful information on designing programs and policies to prevent and deal with violence. This technical note discusses youth violence prevention issues. Increasing violence among

María Loreto Biehl

1999-01-01

19

Youth Dating Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines responses to the Youth Dating Violence Survey of 37 adolescents enrolled in an alternative high school program. Many reported psychological victimization in a dating relationship and over half reported perpetrating psychological abuse in a dating relationship. Many participants had also been victims of physical violence while some had…

James, William H.; West, Carolyn; Deters, Karla Ezrre; Armijo, Eduardo

2000-01-01

20

Stopping the Violence: Creating Safe Passages for Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth violence has reached explosive levels in California. California youth have become both victim and aggressor. Between 1988 and 1991, youth homicide rates almost doubled. During the 1988-1989 school year, schools officials reported 69,191 student-to-student assaults and confiscated 5,107 knives and guns. State and federal legislation has…

Brown, Wanda; DeLapp, Lynn

21

The Real Costs of Gun Violence  

SciTech Connect

I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the form of higher taxes and waiting to go through the airport security checks. But that's just the beginning. The extraordinary reductions in lethal violence that occurred during the 1990s help account for rising property values and urban renewal; further reductions are possible and would do still more to enhance the average standard of living. This talk will explain why the economic perspective provides a fresh, useful point of view on violence, and will discuss the technique used to arrive at an estimate of the magnitude of the burden.

Cook, Philip J. (Duke University)

2001-03-14

22

Implementation and Evaluation of a Youth Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…

Regan, Mary Elana

2009-01-01

23

Youth dating violence.  

PubMed

Adolescents' responses to the Youth Dating Violence Survey have previously been documented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1996). The present study on dating violence examined the responses of thirty-seven adolescents enrolled in an alternative high school program. Many reported psychological victimization in a dating relationship: their partners did something to make them feel jealous, damaged their possessions, said things to hurt their feelings, insulted them in front of others, tried to control them, threatened them, blamed them for bad things the dating partners did, and brought up something from the past to hurt them. In terms of perpetrating psychological abuse in a dating relationship, over half of the adolescents reported that they hurt their dating partners' feelings, insulted them in front of others, did something just to make them jealous, tried to control them, and damaged their possessions. Many of the adolescents had also been victims of physical violence in their dating relationships; they reported being scratched, slapped, slammed or held against a wall, kicked, bitten, forced to have sex, choked, and pushed, grabbed, or shoved, as well as having their arms twisted and fingers bent. Some perpetrated physical violence in dating situations, such as scratching their dating partners, hitting them with a fist or something hard, throwing something that hit their dating partners, kicking them, slapping them, physically twisting their arms, slamming or holding them against a wall, bending their fingers, biting them, choking them, and pushing, grabbing, or shoving them. The findings confirm that dating violence among adolescents is a serious health problem that needs to be addressed. PMID:11130591

James, W H; West, C; Deters, K E; Armijo, E

2000-01-01

24

Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results  

PubMed Central

A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

2010-01-01

25

Warning Signs of Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... organizing video viewing and discussion programs and giving media interviews and presentations. In January 2013, the Warni ng Signs of Youth Violence guide was updated with assistance from the ...

26

Youth Violence: Prediction and Prevention. Facts You Can Use. Seeds of Help.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The escalation of youth violence is one of the major public health concerns of the United States. Many factors today make juveniles more likely to commit, or to become victims of, violent acts. Drugs, the availability of guns, and the emergence of gang problems in all regions of the country are among the causes of youth violence. Prevention of…

Facts You Can Use--Seeds of Help, 1997

1997-01-01

27

FCCLA Program Tackles Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features "STOP (Students Taking on Prevention) the Violence," a peer-to-peer outreach initiative that empowers young people to recognize, report, and reduce the potential for youth violence. It is a national Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) program that provides young people with the attitudes, skills, and…

Carpenter, Beth

2006-01-01

28

Aggression and Violence in Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

29

Aggression and Violence in Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

30

FCCLA Program Tackles Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features "STOP (Students Taking on Prevention) the Violence," a peer-to-peer outreach initiative that empowers young people to recognize, report, and reduce the potential for youth violence. It is a national Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) program that provides young people with the attitudes, skills, and…

Carpenter, Beth

2006-01-01

31

Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

32

Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective experiences with guns. Common temptations for gun carrying are protection during drug dealing, protection

Sally Black; Alice Hausman

2008-01-01

33

Violence, Guns, and Drugs: A Cross-Country Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence rates differ dramatically across countries. A widely held view is that these differences reflect differences in gun control and\\/or gun availability, and certain pieces of evidence appear consistent with this hypothesis. A more detailed examination of this evidence suggests that the role of gun control\\/availability is not compelling. This more detailed examination, however, does not provide an alternative explanation

2001-01-01

34

Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

2005-01-01

35

Congressional Testimony on School Violence: Early Childhood, Youth and Families Subcommittee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School violence has been linked to youth not recognizing the finality of death, extreme violence portrayed in the media, availability of guns, student reluctance to "tell," and lack of curriculum that teaches children anger management and problem-solving skills. Recommendations include making prevention programs a priority and establishing…

Poland, Scott

1998-01-01

36

Youth Violence: Facts at a Glance  

MedlinePLUS

Youth Violence • Among 10 to 24 year-olds, homicide is the leading cause of death for African ... Injury Prevention and Control Division of Violence Prevention • Homicide rates in 2010 among non-Hispanic, African- American ...

37

Understanding Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... people aged 10 to 24 were victims of homicide—an average of 13 each day—in 2010. ... reported being bullied electronically. 2 • Each year, youth homicides and assault-related injuries result in an estimated $ ...

38

Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... terms-such as cyberbullying, Internet harassment, and Internet bullying-have been used to describe this type of ... 12:32] Safe Youth, Safe Schools STRYVE Understanding Bullying—Fact Sheet Youth Violence Prevention Top of Page ...

39

Code Red: A Public Health Approach to School Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this case study (Code Red) is to demonstrate why school gun violence is a public health issue and to draw attention to the need for policy to address it. Traditionally, the concept of \\

Gerard Castro; Suzet M. McKinney; Anne Sobocinski; Sherry E. Weingart

40

Gun Violence and Control in Germany 1880–1911: Scandalizing Gun Violence and Changing Perceptions as Preconditions for Firearm Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a At the end of the nineteenth century, Germany faced a new form of violence based on new gun technologies. Almost uncontrolled\\u000a by social or legal norms, gun violence emerged from the juncture of technological advances in weaponry with historically rooted\\u000a patterns of behavior. It was socially and geographically widespread, but especially strong among young men in urban areas.\\u000a A control

Dagmar Ellerbrock

41

Developmental risk factors for youth violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To replicate earlier research findings on risk factors for youth violence and to explore the effects on violent behavior of constructs shown to increase risk for other problem behaviors, within a developmental frame.Methods: Data were from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a prospective study involving a panel of youths followed since 1985. Potential risk factors for violence at

Todd I Herrenkohl; Eugene Maguin; Karl G Hill; J. David Hawkins; Robert D Abbott; Richard F Catalano

2000-01-01

42

Gun Violence in Toronto: Perspectives from the Police  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This article discusses the ways in which the Toronto Police Service has constructed the problem of gun violence in the city. This violence is commonly associated in the media with young black males. The data for the study derived from semi-structured interviews with police officers and secondary sources, including police public statements, press releases, and official documents. The most

IFEANYI EZEONU

2010-01-01

43

Cartoon violence and aggression in youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript reviews the literature concerning the effects of animated violence on aggressive behavior in youth. It begins with an overview of the research on children's and adolescents' perceptions of violence in cartoons. Next, the effects of cartoon violence on aggressive behavior across development are reviewed. In each section, the importance of the presence (or absence) of comedic elements in

Steven J. Kirsh

2006-01-01

44

Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention.  

PubMed

The limited success of youth violence prevention interventions suggests that effective prevention needs to address causes at multiple levels of analysis and empower youth in developing and implementing prevention programs. In this article, we review published studies of youth violence prevention efforts that engage youth in developing or implementing violence prevention activities. The reviewed studies suggest the promise of youth empowerment strategies and the need for systematic outcome studies of empowerment programs. After reviewing empowerment theory applied to youth violence prevention programs, we present a case study of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) for Peaceful Communities program. YES engages middle-school youth in an after-school and summer program that includes a culturally tailored character development curriculum and empowers the youth to plan and implement community improvement projects with assistance from adult neighborhood advocates. The case study focuses on outcome evaluation results and presents evidence of the YES program effects on community-level outcomes (eg, property improvements, violent crime incidents) and on individual-level outcomes (eg, conflict avoidance, victimization). The literature review and the case study suggest the promise of engaging and empowering youth to plan and implement youth violence prevention programs. PMID:22423465

Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B; Roberts, Everett

2011-12-01

45

Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

2008-01-01

46

78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...improve our understanding of the gun violence epidemic and will aid in the continued development of gun violence prevention strategies...Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other scientific...sponsor research into the causes of gun violence and the ways to...

2013-01-22

47

Children and Guns. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Law enforcement officials, experts in public health, criminologists, educators, and youth offered testimony intended to help Congress understand the scope of the threat of guns and firearm violence to young people and the strains of the firearm problem on public and community services. A fact sheet points out that: (1) increasing numbers of youth

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

48

Children and Guns. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Law enforcement officials, experts in public health, criminologists, educators, and youth offered testimony intended to help Congress understand the scope of the threat of guns and firearm violence to young people and the strains of the firearm problem on public and community services. A fact sheet points out that: (1) increasing numbers of youth

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

49

Assessing Exposure to Violence in Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the development of a structured interview, My Exposure to Violence (My ETV), that was designed to assess child and youth exposure to violence. Eighty participants between the ages of 9 and 24 were assessed. Data from My ETV were fit to a Rasch model for rating scales, a technique that generates interval level measures and allows

Mary Beth Selner-O'Hagan; Daniel J. Kindlon; Stephen L. Buka; Stephen W. Raudenbush; Felton J. Earls

1998-01-01

50

Relationship of factors pertaining to youth attitudes toward school, self-esteem, and violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the relationships among attitudes toward school, self-esteem, and violence, as measured by the Denver Youth Survey, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Attitudes toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire (AGVQ), and a demographics form. One hundred seventy-one male and female adolescent and young adult high school and junior college students from rural high school settings in Tennessee and

James Olen Harris

2009-01-01

51

Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence. OJJDP Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, communities across the country have struggled to develop effective solutions to the problem of gun violence. Many have approached the United States Department of Justice for help in identifying solutions. This publication was developed in response to these requests. It is designed to provide state and local elected officials,…

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

52

Gun Culture in Kumasi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about gun culture in Kumasi today. Gun use in Asante, and elsewhere in Ghana, has increased significantly in the last decade. In practice and in the public imagination this is associated with the rise of youth gangs and the criminalization of urban space. Much has been written about youths and violence elsewhere in Africa, but this article

T. C. McCaskie

2008-01-01

53

Preventing hospital gun violence: best practices for security professionals to review and adopt.  

PubMed

Maintaining a safe, violence-free and therapeutic work place will become the greatest challenge for hospital security professionals, the author predicts, thanks to the surge in gun sales and the increase in gun violence. By recognizing this fact and adhering to best practices, we can greatly reduce the likelihood of gun violence in hospitals, he says. In this article, he presents 18 best practices that should be reviewed for offsetting and preventing such violence. PMID:19711798

Sawyer, James R

2009-01-01

54

Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers\\u000a and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have\\u000a employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences\\u000a on youth violence such as family

Christopher J. Ferguson

2011-01-01

55

African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence.  

PubMed Central

This study examined African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence. Through a mall intercept type study, 347 adults, ages 20 to 75, responded to a 54-item questionnaire. One third of the respondents claimed they owned one or more types of guns, three fourths had personally known someone who had been shot, more than one third had actually seen someone shot, and one third had a gun pulled on them. While the vast majority (84%) believed guns are too easy to obtain, the majority (62%) also believed that having a gun at home would help protect them. There were no significant differences in perceptions of guns based on age, gender, level of education, or socioeconomic status. The results of this study tend to substantiate the concern and fear of personal harm that African Americans have to contend with on a regular basis. The results also suggest the need for some form of educational intervention and gun safety training in order to help reduce the risk of death and injury among African Americans.

Price, J. H.; Kandakai, T. L.; Casler, S.; Everett, S.; Smith, D.

1994-01-01

56

Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

2009-01-01

57

Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…

Ferguson, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

58

Community Violence Exposure and Positive Youth Development in Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

Youth in urban environments are exposed to community violence, yet some do well and continue on a positive developmental trajectory. This study investigated the relationships between lifetime community violence exposure (including total, hearing about, witnessing, and victimization), family functioning, and positive youth development (PYD) among 110 urban youth ages 10–16 years (54% female) using a paper and pen self-report survey. This cross-sectional study was part of an interdisciplinary community-based participatory research effort in West/Southwest Philadelphia. Almost 97% of the sample reported some type of community violence exposure. Controlling for presence of mother in the home and presence of father in the home, separate linear regression models for PYD by each type of community violence exposure indicated that gender and family functioning were significantly associated with PYD. None of the types of community violence exposure were significant in the models. Significant interactions between gender and presence of mother in the home and gender and family functioning helped better explain these relationships for some of the types of community violence exposure. Presence of mother was associated with higher PYD for girls, but not for boys. Boys with poor family functioning had lower PYD than girls with poor family functioning. This study helps to better delineate relationships between CVE and PYD by adding new knowledge to the literature on the role of family functioning. Points of intervention should focus on families, with attention to parental figures in the home and overall family functioning.

Deatrick, Janet A.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

2011-01-01

59

Community violence exposure and positive youth development in urban youth.  

PubMed

Youth in urban environments are exposed to community violence, yet some do well and continue on a positive developmental trajectory. This study investigated the relationships between lifetime community violence exposure (including total, hearing about, witnessing, and victimization), family functioning, and positive youth development (PYD) among 110 urban youth ages 10-16 years (54% female) using a paper and pen self-report survey. This cross-sectional study was part of an interdisciplinary community-based participatory research effort in West/Southwest Philadelphia. Almost 97% of the sample reported some type of community violence exposure. Controlling for presence of mother in the home and presence of father in the home, separate linear regression models for PYD by each type of community violence exposure indicated that gender and family functioning were significantly associated with PYD. None of the types of community violence exposure were significant in the models. Significant interactions between gender and presence of mother in the home and gender and family functioning helped better explain these relationships for some of the types of community violence exposure. Presence of mother was associated with higher PYD for girls, but not for boys. Boys with poor family functioning had lower PYD than girls with poor family functioning. This study helps to better delineate relationships between CVE and PYD by adding new knowledge to the literature on the role of family functioning. Points of intervention should focus on families, with attention to parental figures in the home and overall family functioning. PMID:21461763

McDonald, Catherine C; Deatrick, Janet A; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S

2011-12-01

60

Developing a center for Hispanic youth violence prevention.  

PubMed

Youth violence is a serious public health problem, described by the Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence (2001). Homicide is the second cause of death for the 15-24 age population in the USA and Puerto Rico; intentional injuries also result in significant morbidity. Youth are at greater risk of being victims than perpetrators of violence. African American and Hispanic youth are at particular risk. Effective, community-based initiatives to prevent youth violence are necessary to interrupt the cycle of violence. In 2000, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Department of Health and Human Services awarded grants to establish ten Academic Centers of Excellence for Youth Violence Prevention. This article describes the development of the Center for Hispanic Youth Violence Prevention, of the FILIUS Institute of the University of Puerto Rico. PMID:12733449

Mirabal-Colón, Brenda

2003-03-01

61

Youth Violence and Suggestions for Schools To Reduce the Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the importance of schools working to reduce youth violence and creating safe environments for students. Examines the causes of juvenile crime and looks at the juvenile justice system, parental responsibility, and five areas of public school responsibility (parent participation programs, school security procedures, safe school programs,…

Harris, Sandra L.; Harris, Jamey E.

2001-01-01

62

Violence in youth sports: hazing, brawling and foul play  

Microsoft Academic Search

By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognise that their connection to sport binds them together into a cohesive subset of sport injury and youth violence, past research has failed to show how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. The acceptance of violence within the sporting culture may, in part, explain why sports-related violence

S K Fields; C L Collins; R D Comstock

2010-01-01

63

Reducing Gun Violence: Results from an Intervention in East Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one solve violent crime in big cities? It's a vexing problem, and one that attracted the attention of a group of scholars at the RAND Corporation. This 82-page eBook released in 2010 takes a close look at how the Boston Gun Project might work if applied in East Los Angeles. In Boston, a coalition of researchers, community leaders, clergy, and others, worked together and designed, implemented, and monitored a project to reduce youth violence by reducing gang and gun violence. The program was quite successful, so this led the National Institute of Justice to work with RAND to see if this might work in Los Angeles. Specifically, the intervention included increased police presences, more stringent enforcement of housing codes for properties used by gang members, more stringent enforcement of parole and probation conditions, and referral of gun violations to federal prosecutors. While the program was somewhat successful when applied to this section of Los Angeles, the report recommends, "city leaders should establish processes to support agencies in such collaborations." Both a summary of the report and the eBook in its entirety are available for free download.

Tita, George

64

Understanding and Informing Policy Implementation: A Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we…

Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P.

2006-01-01

65

Fugitive Cultures: Race, Violence, and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book examines the racist and sexist assault on today's youth which is being played out in the realms of popular and children's culture. The book interrogates the aesthetic of violence in a number of public arenas--talk radio, Disney animation, and in such films as "Pulp Fiction,""Kids,""Slackers," and "Juice,"--and challenges cultural…

Giroux, Henry A.

66

School Safety & Youth Violence: A Legal Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This legal primer on violence in schools addresses the responsibility of school officials to respond to undisciplined youths whose behavior threatens the welfare and safety of other children in attendance. It is broken down into sections that provide a brief overview of the key rules and guidelines for school officials and teachers in each topic…

Bailey, Kirk A.; Ross, Catherine J.

67

School Safety & Youth Violence: A Legal Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This legal primer on violence in schools addresses the responsibility of school officials to respond to undisciplined youths whose behavior threatens the welfare and safety of other children in attendance. It is broken down into sections that provide a brief overview of the key rules and guidelines for school officials and teachers in each topic…

Bailey, Kirk A.; Ross, Catherine J.

68

Youth and Violence: Phenomena and International Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The topic of youth, violence, and disintegration needs addressing because young women and men are the world's greatest capital. They have the energy, talent, and creativity for building a future. But this group also suffers grave vulnerabilities. The time of adolescence includes important and difficult periods of life (for example, becoming more…

Legge, Sandra

2008-01-01

69

Collective Violence: Comparisons between Youths and Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of collective violence found among humans include similarities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predominantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that include surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be larger, composed of

Richard W. Wrangham; Michael L. Wilson

2004-01-01

70

Collective Violence: Comparisons between Youths and Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of collective violence found among humans include similarities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predominantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that include surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be larger, composed of

Richard W. Wrangham; Michael L. Wilson

2005-01-01

71

Collective Violence: Comparisons between Youths and Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Patterns of collective violence found among humans include simi- larities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predom- inantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that in- clude surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to

RICHARD W. WRANGHAM; MICHAEL L. WILSON

2006-01-01

72

Collective violence: comparisons between youths and chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Patterns of collective violence found among humans include similarities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predominantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that include surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be larger, composed of younger individuals, occupying smaller territories and having a more complex organization. Youth gangs also differ from chimpanzee communities as a result of numerous cultural and environmental influences including complex relations with non-gang society. These relations are governed in important ways by such factors as perceived economic and personal constraints, policing, family structure, and levels of poverty, crime, and racism. Nevertheless, the concepts that sociologists use to account for collective violence in youth gangs are somewhat similar to those applied by anthropologists and biologists to chimpanzees. Thus in both cases collective violence is considered to emerge partly because males are highly motivated to gain personal status, which they do by physical violence. In the case of youth gangs, the reasons for the prevalence of physical violence in status competition compared to non-gang society are clearly context-specific, both culturally and historically. By contrast, among chimpanzees the use of physical violence to settle status competition is universal (in the wild and captivity). The use of physical violence in individual status competition therefore has different sources in youth gangs and chimpanzees. Regardless of its origin, however, its combination with an intense concern for status can explain: (1) why individual males form alliances among each other; and hence (2) how such alliances generate social power, closed groups, and a capacity for defense of territory or pre-emptive attacks on rivals. This comparison suggests that the use of physical violence to resolve individual status competition is an important predictor of collective violence at the gang level. We therefore view the similarities in aggression between humans and chimpanzees that we review here as being adaptive responses to local conditions, predicated on an inherent male concern for social status. PMID:15817741

Wrangham, Richard W; Wilson, Michael L

2004-12-01

73

Youth Violence in Middle America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although most of the national concern about violence has focused on major cities, no community is free from violence. Violent acts in suburbs, small towns, and rural areas may not be as severe as in urban areas, yet they exist. The Profiles of Student Life survey of 47,000 students in grades 6-12 included questions about violent behavior. The…

Benson, Peter L.; Roehlkepartain, Eugene

1992-01-01

74

Training Healthcare Professionals in Youth Violence Prevention An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence prevention (YVP) is a top priority for all healthcare providers. Violence ranks among the leading causes of death for children and adolescents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Academic Centers of Excellence on Youth Violence Prevention (ACE YVP) to address this important national problem. One of the tasks of each ACE YVP is to develop

Dean E. Sidelinger; Anthony P. S. Guerrero; María Rodríguez-Frau; Brenda Mirabal-Colón

75

Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

76

Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

77

Educating the Community About Violence Through a Gun Turn-In Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ceasefire Oregon gun turn in program was initiated to educate the community regarding violence through a gun turn-in program with voluntary surrender of firearms, educational efforts about violence, and institution of public safety policies. The community board of directors was composed of multiple community leadership organizations. A multi-intervention education, outreach and media program consisting of distribution of brochures, presentations,

Robin Yurk; Linda Jaramillo; Linda L. Erwin; Neal J. Rendleman

2001-01-01

78

In the Crossfire: The Impact of Gun Violence on Public Housing Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a comprehensive analysis of gun-related violence in public housing communities. Using newly available data from both HUD and the Bureau of Justice Statistics, this report examines the scope and magnitude of gun-related violence in and aroun...

2000-01-01

79

Using public health information to inform, build support and implement policies for gun violence prevention: A case study from the gun ban referendum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gun violence is one of the most serious health problems in Brazil. Information on gun deaths and injuries is collected by the Ministry of Health. This data has been used very successfully to inform and design public policies for preventing gun violence. This article analyses the use of public health information by researchers and activists, as well as government officials

Jessica Galeria; Luciano Phebo

2006-01-01

80

Segregation and Youth Criminal Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is widely known that youth, as both offenders and victims, are disproportionately involved in serious and violent crime\\u000a in the United States. Youth offenders, aged 10 to 19, accounted for 28% of all arrests for violent crime but composed only\\u000a 14% of the total US population in 1995 (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1996; US Bureau of the Census, 1995).

Ruth D. Peterson; Lauren J. Krivo; Maria B. Vélez

81

Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.  

PubMed

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth. PMID:21161351

Ferguson, Christopher J

2010-12-14

82

77 FR 2731 - Request for Information on Youth Violence  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10 and 24 years fall victim to homicide and another 1,700 are treated...nonfatal injuries from physical assaults. Youth violence also is associated...social services. Each year, youth homicides and assault-related injuries result in...

2012-01-19

83

Accountability Issues in School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines various reasons that would account for school violence and considers ways educators can help eliminate violence from schools. The negative impact of violence in the media and easy access to guns are mentioned as probable causes of violence in youth. Students who do not feel part of the school community often resort to violence

Al-Bataineh, Adel T.

84

Interrupting Violence: How the CeaseFire Program Prevents Imminent Gun Violence through Conflict Mediation.  

PubMed

Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation. PMID:23440488

Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

2013-02-26

85

Mapping the use of guns in violence against women: Findings from three studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the role of firearms in acts of violence against women in South Africa, drawing on three datasets: one investigating the implementation of the Domestic Violence Act (DVA), the second exploring gang rapes, and the third documenting intimate femicide. In relation to domestic violence, it was found that while guns were referred to in one in four applications

Lisa Vetten

2006-01-01

86

Gun violence in Nigeria: a focus on ethno-religious conflict in Kano.  

PubMed

We investigated small arms and light weapons (SALW) in Africa by reviewing the situation in Nigeria and conducting a small study in one hospital in the country's north. Published reports about SALW in Nigeria suggest that several social, economic, and political factors have caused a marked increase in gun-related violence, including ethno-religious tensions, the response of security forces to criminal activity, and growing economic disparity. In Kano, a northern city that has been the focal point of communal riots between Christians and Muslims, we found that firearm injuries were linked to these riots. We recommend increased outreach to disenfranchised youth, addressing the use of firearms by security forces, and addressing the political and economic disparity between ethnic and religious groups. PMID:17955007

John, Ime A; Mohammed, Aminu Z; Pinto, Andrew D; Nkanta, Celestine A

2007-12-01

87

Youth Collectivities and Adolescent Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several problems confront anyone who has the audacity to tackle the topic of this chapter. The most daunting of these is the\\u000a lack of a theoretically viable typology that situates gangs, or types of gangs, in a larger set of youth collectivities. If\\u000a the variety of terms used by police to describe “gang groups and members” is “bewildering” and “dismaying”

88

Animal Abuse and Exposure to Interparental Violence in Italian Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals, with boys more often involved than girls. Almost half of the whole sample has been

Anna C. Baldry

2003-01-01

89

Reason To Hope. A Psychosocial Perspective on Violence & Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contributions to this collection come from the work of the Commission on Violence and Youth established by the American Psychological Association (APA). The research reviews, discussions of implications, and recommendations presented here were summarized in a summary report, "Violence and Youth: Psychology's Response," issued by the APA in 1993.…

Eron, Leonard D., Ed.; And Others

90

Youth Violence in Central America: Discourses and Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article analyzes the social construction of youth violence in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and El Salvador on the one hand, and the related security policies of the three states, on the other. In each country, there is an idiosyncratic way of constructing youth violence and juvenile delinquency. Also, each country has its own manner of reaction to…

Peetz, Peter

2011-01-01

91

Iraqi American refugee youths' exposure to violence: relationship to attitudes and peers' perpetration of dating violence.  

PubMed

This exploratory study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, home and dating relationships among Iraqi American youth. As Iraqi American youth are traditionally not allowed to date, dating violence measures focused on attitudes about and perceptions of abuse occurring in the relationships of friends. The number of friends known who were secretly dating was the most significant predictor of acceptability of dating violence and perceived prevalence of abuse. Youth who experienced child abuse perceived higher rates of dating violence among their peers. Findings highlight the complexities of prevention and intervention of teen dating violence within secretive relationships. PMID:23423847

Black, Beverly M; Chiodo, Lisa M; Weisz, Arlene N; Elias-Lambert, Nada; Kernsmith, Poco D; Yoon, Jina S; Lewandowski, Linda A

2013-02-18

92

Broadening the approach to youth violence prevention through public health.  

PubMed

Violence is a critical cause of death and nonfatal injuries among youth, and even those who witness violence can suffer serious health and mental health consequences. This highlights the need for prevention programs and policies aimed at reducing risks, promoting prosocial behavior, strengthening families, and creating communities in which youth are safe from violence. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Injury Center is developing a National Public Health Strategy to Prevent Youth Violence. The strategy will establish a full application of the public health approach, ranging from research to practice. It also spotlights what is working, as a way to mobilize community leaders in supporting evidence-based initiatives. With the empirical guidance of articles such as those in this special issue, a shared strategy to prevent youth violence will help focus efforts and resources on solutions that show the most promise, and ensure that American communities undertake more comprehensive and coordinated prevention efforts to protect our nation's youth. PMID:21480033

Hammond, W Rodney; Arias, Ileana

2011-04-01

93

Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-Occurrence, and Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This article examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth

Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

2009-01-01

94

Gender and Violence Exposure in a Study of Rural Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of violence exposure are common in rural areas, but most attention and current research have focused on exposure to violence and the consequences of that exposure in urban settings. The current study explores the specific experiences of violence in a sample of rural youth, including exposure as a victim or witness, in three settings: home, school, and neighborhood.

Karen T. Carlson; Karen L. Slovak

2008-01-01

95

Crime, Violence, and Youth: The Challenge of Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that, in order to combat violence and crime by youth, children must be taught to separate reality from the world of television and other media. Parents must be educated to become their own television censorship board. Violence in media leads to violence in reality. (Author/BEF)|

Scott, Wayne S.

1979-01-01

96

A Clash of Generations? Youth Bulges and Political Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has frequently been suggested that exceptionally large youth cohorts, the so-called ''youth bulges,'' make countries more susceptible to polit- ical violence. Within two prominent theoretical frameworks in the study of civil war, youth bulges are argued to potentially increase both op- portunities and motives for political violence. This claim is empirically tested in a time-series cross-national statistical model for

HENRIK URDAL

2006-01-01

97

Urban youth violence: do definitions and reasons for violence vary by gender?  

PubMed

This study explored how young boys and girls living in low income urban neighborhoods defined and described reasons associated with youth violence. Five focus groups were conducted with 29 youth between the ages of 8 and 12 recruited from four selected study neighborhoods. Participants were asked to describe youth violence. Appropriate probes were used to explore similarities and differences by gender with regard to the reasons for violence. Definitions of youth violence were consistent across participants and included verbal threats, physical contact, and often the use of a weapon. Several common reasons for violence were found among both boys and girls; romantic relationships, respect, idle time, gangs/cliques, and witnessing violence. Reasons for violence unique to boys include fighting about issues related to money and illicit drugs. Gossip was identified as a reason specific to why girls engage in violence. Youth violence was perceived as a common problem impacting the lives of the boys and girls in this study. Although many of the reasons identified for violence are similar among boys and girls, select gender differences do exist. Future research and prevention efforts to address youth violence should engage young people in efforts to understand and address this important public health topic. PMID:15958786

Yonas, Michael A; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G; Peak, Geri; Gielen, Andrea C

2005-06-15

98

Gun Violence: Making Connections with Suicide, Domestic Violence, and Substance Abuse. Join Together Action Kit, Spring 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Frequently, firearm fatalities occur in the context of domestic violence, suicide, or acts committed under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs. Because gun violence is related to these other social problems, it must be considered more than just a criminal justice issue. It is also a public health issue that should be addressed by domestic…

Join Together, Boston, MA.

99

The Benefits of Reducing Gun Violence: Evidence from Contingent-Valuation Survey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first attempt to estimate the benefits of reducing crime using the contingent-valuation (CV) method. We focus on gun violence, a crime of growing policy concern in America. Our data come from a national survey in which we ask respondents referendum-type questions that elicit their willingness-to-pay (WTP) to reduce gun violence by 30 percent. We estimate that

Jens Ludwig; Philip J. Cook

1999-01-01

100

The Benefits of Reducing Gun Violence: Evidence from Contingent-Valuation Survey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an estimate of the benefits of reducing crime using the contingent-valuation (CV) method. We focus on gun violence, a crime of growing policy concern in America. Our data come from a national survey in which we ask respondents referendum-type questions that elicit their willingness-to-pay (WTP) to reduce gun violence by 30%. We estimate that the public's WTP

Jens Ludwig; Philip J. Cook

2001-01-01

101

Caught in the Crossfire: A Report on Gun Violence in Our Nation's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on news stories from U.S. newspapers, this report examines the prevalence of gun violence in American schools. During the past 4 years, beginning with September 1986, at least 71 people (65 students and 6 employees) have been killed with guns at school. Another 201 were severely wounded, and 242 individuals were held hostage at gunpoint.…

Center To Prevent Handgun Violence, Washington, DC.

102

Youth and violence on local television news in California.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study explores how local television news structures the public and policy debate on youth violence. METHODS: A content analysis was performed on 214 hours of local television news from California. Each of the 1791 stories concerning youth, violence, or both was coded and analyzed for whether it included a public health perspective. RESULTS: There were five key findings. First, violence dominated local television news coverage. Second, the specifics of particular crimes dominated coverage of violence. Third, over half of the stories on youth involved violence, while more than two thirds of the violence stories concerned youth. Fourth, episodic coverage of violence was more than five times more frequent than thematic coverage, which included links to broader social factors. Finally, only one story had an explicit public health frame. CONCLUSIONS: Local television news provides extremely limited coverage of contributing etiological factors in stories on violence. If our nation's most popular source of news continues to report on violence primarily through crime stories isolated from their social context, the chance for widespread support for public health solutions to violence will be diminished.

Dorfman, L; Woodruff, K; Chavez, V; Wallack, L

1997-01-01

103

Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

Guterman, Neil B.

2004-01-01

104

Urban youth violence: Do definitions and reasons for violence vary by gender?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored how young boys and girls living in low income urban neighborhoods defined and described reasons associated\\u000a with youth violence. Five focus groups were conducted with 29 youth between the ages of 8 and 12 recruited from four selected\\u000a study neighborhoods. Participants were asked to describe youth violence. Appropriate probes were used to explore similarities\\u000a and differences by

Michael A. Yonas; Patricia O’Campo; Jessica G. Burke; Geri Peak; Andrea C. Gielen

2005-01-01

105

A Community-Based Systems Learning Approach to Understanding Youth Violence in Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background: Youth violence in general and gang violence in particular continues to be a pernicious problem facing the majority of large U.S. cities. Attempts to reduce youth violence are hindered by the absence of a shared framework that crosses multiple disciplines.Objective: The goal of the Youth Violence Systems Project (YVSP) is to help communities strategize for and achieve sustained reductions

John McDevitt; Khary Bridgewater; Paul Bothwell; Steve Peterson; David Hemenway; Ros Everdell; Jeffrey Bass

2011-01-01

106

A Community-Based Systems Learning Approach to Understanding Youth Violence in Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Youth violence in general and gang violence in particular continues to be a pernicious problem facing the majority of large U.S. cities. Attempts to reduce youth violence are hindered by the absence of a shared framework that crosses multiple disciplines. Objective: The goal of the Youth Violence Systems Project (YVSP) is to help communities strategize for and achieve sustained

John McDevitt; Khary Bridgewater; Paul Bothwell; Steve Peterson; David Hemenway; Ros Everdell; Jeffrey Bass

2011-01-01

107

Urban Youth Violence: Do Definitions and Reasons for Violence Vary by Gender?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored how young boys and girls living in low income urban neighborhoods defined and described reasons associated with youth violence. Five focus groups were conducted with 29 youth between the ages of 8 and 12 recruited from four selected study neighborhoods. Participants were asked to describe youth vio- lence. Appropriate probes were used to explore similarities and differences

Michael A. Yonas; Patricia O'Campo; Jessica G. Burke; Geri Peak; Andrea C. Gielen

108

Grassroots advocacy for gun violence prevention: a status report on mobilizing a movement.  

PubMed

The recent experience of gun violence prevention advocates with building an active, engaged grassroots holds important lessons for the future of gun violence prevention. However, formal research methods are rarely used to examine the role of grassroots advocacy efforts within public health. In order to assess the state of the grassroots gun violence prevention movement, learn from their experiences, and understand the challenges they face, the author conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with eighteen leaders in the gun violence prevention community. The author then assessed the findings from the analysis of interview data within a social health movement framework, and developed recommendations for addressing the identified challenges. Results from this study provide insight into the state of U.S. grassroots gun violence prevention efforts prior to 2001. Grassroots advocacy efforts represent an important, influential component of injury prevention and public health. Understanding the perspective of the grassroots, their contribution to the field, and the challenges to such efforts is critical to ensuring a connection among the research, practice, policy and education efforts aimed at reducing injuries and violence. PMID:15015868

Frattaroli, Shannon

2003-01-01

109

Violence in youth sports: hazing, brawling and foul play.  

PubMed

By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognise that their connection to sport binds them together into a cohesive subset of sport injury and youth violence, past research has failed to show how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. The acceptance of violence within the sporting culture may, in part, explain why sports-related violence has not yet been widely recognised as a public health concern. This review shows that sports-related violence, including hazing, brawling and foul play, occurs among youth athletes of all ages and in a variety of different sports. The few studies to address this issue have all acknowledged the dangers of sports-related violence; however, no incident tracking method has been developed. Future research must provide accurate national estimates of the incidence of sports-related violence among youth, identify associated risk factors, evaluate preventive interventions and identify effective methods of distributing and implementing evidence-based interventions. Monitoring the magnitude and distribution of the burden of sports-related violence and building the scientific infrastructure necessary to support the development and widespread application of effective sports-related prevention interventions are essential first steps toward a reduction in the incidence of sports-related violence. PMID:19858113

Fields, S K; Collins, C L; Comstock, R D

2009-10-25

110

Violence among Street-Involved Youth: The Role of Methamphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study investigated a possible association between violence and the use of drugs, particularly methamphetamine and alcohol. Methods: Cross-sectional, baseline data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Subjects were asked whether they had suffered or perpetrated violence in the 6 months prior to the interview. Results: In total, 478

Ian Martin; Anita Palepu; Evan Wood; Kathy Li; Julio Montaner; Thomas Kerr

2009-01-01

111

Parent-Adolescent Violence and Later Behavioral Health Problems Among Homeless and Housed Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent-adolescent violence (i.e., violence between parents and adolescents) is an important pathway to homelessness and predicts poor behavioral health outcomes among youth. However, few studies have examined links between parent violence and outcomes among youth who are homeless. Existing research has also tended to ignore adolescent violence toward parents, despite evidence that mutual violence is common. The current study examines

Mason G. Haber

2009-01-01

112

Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally commissioned in response to the Columbine High shootings, the Surgeon General's report on youth violence "examines the factors that lead young people to gravitate toward violence, reviews the factors that protect youth from perpetrating violence and identifies effective research-based preventive strategies." While acknowledging that there has been a downward trend in youth violence since 1993, the report concludes that the "epidemic of youth violence is not over." The report identifies 27 specific intervention programs that have shown themselves to be statistically successful as well as debunking several common myths about youth violence. These last include assumptions about early childhood behavior as predictive of later violence, about the racial make-up of violent offenders, and the myth of the young "super-predator." From the above URL, visitors can access the full report, an executive summary, the January 17th press release (all in .pdf format), an archived Webcast of the surgeon general discussing the report (requires Windows Media Player), and some relevant links.

2001-01-01

113

Youth Violence: Gangs on Main Street, USA. Issues in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report profiles the issue of youth violence: the history of its appearance in U.S. culture, the recent escalation of gang activity in U.S. communities, and the strategies put forth in smaller cities to meet this challenge. The report notes that there has been an explosion of gang violence in the United States that has been fostered by a…

Hamner, Carole J.

114

Violence exposure and cortisol responses in urban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined the physiological costs associated with exposure to violence in 101 African American youth (55% male; M age = 11.14\\u000a years) living in high-violence areas of a midsized southern city in the United States. Salivary cortisol was measured before\\u000a and after a laboratory task (viewing and discussing a video depicting community violence) and on waking 1 morning in the

Wendy Kliewer

2006-01-01

115

The Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994: Public Health and Child Safety. Hearing on S. 1882, A Bill To Amend Title 18, United States Code, To Promote the Safe Use of Guns and To Reduce Gun Violence before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session (March 23, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first of several hearings on the Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994 introduced and discussed the Act as comprehensive legislation to address gun violence through six discrete initiatives: (1) handgun licensing; (2) prohibition of firearms possession by persons convicted of violent misdemeanors; (3) regulation of gun dealers; (4) limitation…

Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution.

116

In The Crossfire: The Impact of Gun Violence on Public Housing Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on February 18, this 50-page report from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the first-ever comprehensive analysis of gun-related violence in public housing communities. Based on new data from HUD and the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the report reveals that, while crime in public housing developments is falling, residents of public housing are more than twice as likely to become victims of gun violence as the rest of the population, regardless of city size. The full text of the report is offered in .pdf format with five appendixes.

117

The Challenge. Preventing Youth Violence. A Report from the Black Community Crusade for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A wave of youth violence in America is hitting African American communities hard. This report highlights some efforts across the country to prevent and stop youth violence. People in Oakland (California), Pine Bluff (Arkansas), and Washington, D.C. were asked about youth violence in their communities. Of the adults surveyed, 77% were afraid that…

Payton, Brenda

118

Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Youth Gang Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980 has fueled the public's fear and magnified possible misconceptions about youth gangs. To address the mounting concern about youth gangs, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP's) Yout...

J. C. Howell S. H. Decker

1999-01-01

119

The discrete character of high-lethality youth violence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to derive lessons about high-lethality adolescent violence from study of the extraordinary increase, and then decrease, in youth homicide arrests over the period 1985-2001 in the United States. This effort continues a long tradition of exploring the possible causes of shifts in homicide rates by examining patterns of violence to see whether there are important changes in types of violence. The first section of the paper discusses two dimensions of criminal youth violence over the whole range of reported offenses. The second section shows that one subset of attacks--firearms cases--accounts for the major changes in youth homicide when it increased from 1985-1993 and during the years of decrease, 1994-2001. A third section explores the linkage between rates of adolescent homicide in various cultures and the relative rate of homicide among all ages. My central conclusion is that high-lethality violence among youth is not representative of the fighting and group assaults that are relatively frequent among adolescents. Instead, the attacks that often lead to death differ with respect to the use of weapons and, to some extent, geography. But there is usually a strong relationship between homicide rates for all ages and youth homicide rates in a particular location. PMID:15817745

Zimring, Franklin E

2004-12-01

120

Educating the community about violence through a gun turn-in program.  

PubMed

The Ceasefire Oregon gun turn in program was initiated to educate the community regarding violence through a gun turn-in program with voluntary surrender of firearms, educational efforts about violence, and institution of public safety policies. The community board of directors was composed of multiple community leadership organizations. A multi-intervention education, outreach and media program consisting of distribution of brochures, presentations, school education programs, and workshops was implemented throughout the year in addition to the gun turn-in program held in May for two days. A survey was administered to participants in the program at the turn-in sites. The cumulative total for guns turned in years 1994 to 1999 was 4,345. Half of the respondents reported possession of a gun at home. The most common reasons for participating in the gun turn in were obtaining gift certificates and not wanting the gun any more. A successful community grassroots program, Ceasefire Oregon has shown sustainability over six years with increased participation secondary to education, advertising and incentives. Community and statewide efforts can assist with building the infrastructure for programs, however more tools for quantitative performance program evaluation would facilitate measuring the impact on the community. PMID:11554497

Yurk, R; Jaramillo, L; Erwin, L L; Rendleman, N J

2001-10-01

121

High School Youths, Weapons, and Violence: A National Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent shootings by students of peers and teachers in school settings, where such events were markedly unexpected, have provoked fear and outrage in America. For many, the youth-gun problem seems to be spreading beyond inner cities to suburbs and small to...

1998-01-01

122

Media Violence and Children's Emotions: Beyond the "Smoking Gun."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the reasons why media violence research is often misunderstood. First, it explains the methodological limitations of studying media violence and argues that these limitations are similar to those accepted in medical research. Second, it explores the role of emotional response that media violence can produce and possible…

Cantor, Joanne

123

Working Against Youth Violence Everywhere: Evaluating a Peer-Led Approach to Bullying Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the 2001 murder of a locai Black youth at the hands of more than 50 White youth, community organizations in the Kitchener-Waterloo area came together to develop the Working against Youth Violence Everywhere (WAYVE) program—a program created by and for local youth that would work towards eliminating bullying and violence in area high schools. WAYVE combines interactive workshops and

Rebecca L. Pister

2010-01-01

124

ADOLESCENTS' EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?  

PubMed

Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents' participation in organized community-based activities, which, in turn, protects against community violence exposure. Second, at the neighborhood level, we tested the hypothesis that lower violent crime rates explain the inverse relation between neighborhood youth organization variety and community violence exposure. Our findings supported the latter of these two mechanisms. PMID:21666761

Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2009-05-01

125

ADOLESCENTS' EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized community-based activities, which, in turn, protects against community violence exposure. Second, at the neighborhood level, we tested the hypothesis that lower violent crime rates explain the inverse relation between neighborhood youth organization variety and community violence exposure. Our findings supported the latter of these two mechanisms.

Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2011-01-01

126

Epidemiology of Serious Violence. Youth Development Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past decade, juvenile violence has spread like an epidemic among a small, but nonetheless significant, segment of Americas young people. The Causes and Correlates studies are designed to improve understanding of serious delinquency, violence, and...

B. T. Kelley D. Huizinga T. P. Thornberry R. Loeber

1997-01-01

127

Reducing Gun Violence: The St. Louis Consent-to-Search Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Research Report is part of the National Institute of Justice's (NIJ's) Reducing Gun Violence publication series. Each report in the series describes the implementation and effects of an individual, NIJ-funded, local-level program designed to reduce f...

2004-01-01

128

Social Stress, Legitimate Violence, and Gun Availability: Links to Weapon-Specific Homicides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In comparative studies of homicide, many theories compete. This study examined two established theories, stress theory and culture of violence theory, in terms of their ability to explain state-to-state differences in the rate of highly specific types of homicides. The separate and joint effects on homicide committed by handguns, shoulder guns,…

Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

129

Reducing Gun Violence:What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to review what research we do have, what research we do not have, and how we can use what research we do have to reduce gun violence. It is also suggested how we can use new legislation to do more of the research we desperately need. For while we can conduct many experiments in

LAWRENCE W. SHERMAN

2001-01-01

130

Violence Against Lesbian and Gay Male Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article documents the incidence of violent assaults toward lesbian and gay male youths and those youths' suicidal behavior. Data were obtained by reviewing charts for the first 500 youths seeking services in 1988 at the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a community-based agency serving lesbian and gay male adolescents in New York City. The adolescents, who ranged in age from 14 to

JOYCE HUNTER

1990-01-01

131

Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The immediate impetus for this Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence was the Columbine High School tragedy that occurred in Colorado in April 1999, resulting in the deaths of 14 students, including 2 perpetrators, and a teacher. In the aftermath of t...

2001-01-01

132

Training Emergency Medicine Nurses and Physicians in Youth Violence Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents seen in an urban Emergency Department (ED) are more likely to die from violence than from any other illness or condition for which they seek care in the ED. Most injured patients presenting to our nation’s EDs are treated and released, even after a firearm-related injury. These youth who are discharged from the ED will not interface with resources

Rebecca M. Cunningham; Robert S. Vaidya; Maureen Walton; Ronald F. Maio

2005-01-01

133

Youth Violence: Do Parents and Families Make a Difference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author first corrects a common misperception, i.e., that youth violence is increasing. Data show that the juvenile homicide arrest rate has declined steadily and dramatically since 1993, along with violent crime among all age groups. He also notes the...

L. Steinberg

2000-01-01

134

Psychosocial Correlates of Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the association between physical dating violence victimization and risk and protective factors, an anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to Latino youth (n = 446) residing in suburban Washington, DC. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed, and adjusted OR and 95% CI were examined.…

Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth; Kerr, Melissa Hallmark; Shattuck, Teresa

2005-01-01

135

Political Violence, Family Relations, and Palestinian Youth Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the associations among involvement in political violence, family relations, and several measures of adolescent social and psychological functioning in a sample of 7,000 Palestinian families from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Structural equation analysis of youth self-reported survey data revealed that experience in the intifada (as children) predicted increases in antisocial behavior (males and females)

Brian K. Barber

1999-01-01

136

National Evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Between 1985 and 1994 the rate of violent criminal acts committed by juveniles rose sharply. Juvenile homicides committed with a handgun more than doubled. This bulletin discusses the national evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative (YFVI), a program initiated by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) to fund…

Dunworth, Terence

137

Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2009-01-01

138

Optimistic Bias among Potential Perpetrators and Victims of Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study furthers the current understanding of optimistic bias regarding youth violence among high school students. Results from a survey of 387 urban high school students indicate a wide range of predictors of optimistic bias, including experience, demographics, and attitudes. Linkages to other developmental frameworks (personal fable and…

Chapin, John; de las Alas, Stacy; Coleman, Grace

2005-01-01

139

Prevalence of youth access to alcohol or a gun in the home  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the national prevalence of youth access to alcohol, a gun, or both alcohol and a gun, in their home and to describe the demographic characteristics associated with access to either alcohol or a gun. Methods: Cross sectional data from the 1995 in-home survey of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which used a nationally representative randomly selected school based sample (n=18 924) of adolescents in grades 7–12, were analyzed. The current analyses were restricted to those adolescents 12–18 years of age (n=18 454). Crude logistic regression analyses was used to determine the demographic characteristics associated with access to alcohol or a gun in the home. Results: Overall, 28.7% of US adolescents reported having easy access to alcohol in the home. Availability of alcohol was associated with race/ethnicity, mother's education, family structure, and welfare status. Similarly, 24.3% of US adolescents reported easy access to a gun in the home. Availability of a gun in the home was associated with gender, race/ethnicity, mother's education, family structure, and welfare status. Among those that reported that a gun was available in their home, most reported availability of a shotgun (63.0%) followed by a rifle (61.3%), handgun (57.3%), and other gun (16.4%). Ten per cent of adolescents reported availability of both alcohol and a gun in their home. Conclusions: One quarter of US adolescents reported easy access to either alcohol or a gun in their home. Given the risks associated with the misuse of alcohol and guns among adolescents, efforts to increase public awareness of the availability of alcohol and guns in the home are needed.

Swahn, M; Hammig, B; Ikeda, R

2002-01-01

140

Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

2012-01-01

141

Role of collective self?esteem on youth violence in a collective culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence involvement has always been the focus of significant research attention. However, as most of the studies on youth violence have been conducted in Western cultures, little is known about the antecedents of violence in the Asian context. Researchers have suggested that collectivism might be the reason for the lower violent crime rates in Asia. Nevertheless, the present study

Lena L. Lim; Weining C. Chang

2009-01-01

142

Firearm violence and the effects of gun control legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two gun control laws designed to reduce different types of violent crimes were evaluated. In 1981, East St. Louis, IL, imposed stricter penalties for individuals who carry firearms outside their homes for protection (individuals could keep firearms in their homes). This law had only a temporary impact in reducing firearm use in assaults and robberies. In Evanston, IL, a slightly

Roy S. Jung; Leonard A. Jason

1988-01-01

143

Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

2012-01-01

144

Empowering Peers To Prevent Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of peer-on-peer abuse (e.g., bullying, harassment) and peer-on-self abuse (e.g., suicide, self-mutilation) prevention programs identified more effective ways to involve youth in similar programs. Stronger programs emphasized youth empowerment through active roles in program development and reaching out with understanding and support…

Hazler, Richard J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

2002-01-01

145

A Multivariate Analysis of Youth Violence and Aggression: The Influence of Family, Peers, Depression, and Media Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the multivariate nature of risk factors for youth violence including delinquent peer associ- ations, exposure to domestic violence in the home, family conflict, neighborhood stress, antisocial personality traits, depression level, and exposure to television and video game violence. Study design A population of 603 predominantly Hispanic children (ages 10-14 years) and their parents or guard- ians responded

Christopher J. Ferguson; Claudia San Miguel; Richard D. Hartley

2009-01-01

146

Dangerous and endangered youth: social structures and determinants of violence.  

PubMed

Structural violence is violence that is permissible, even encouraged. It refers to the invisible social machinery of inequality that reproduces social relations of exclusion and marginalization via ideologies, stigmas, and dangerous discourses (such as "youth violence" itself) attendant to race, class, sex, and other invidious distinctions. Structural violence "naturalizes" poverty, sickness, hunger, and premature death, erasing their social and political origins so that they are taken for granted and no one is held accountable except the poor themselves. Structural violence also refers to the ease with which humans are capable of reducing the socially vulnerable (even those from their own class and community) into expendable non-persons, thus allowing the licence--even the duty--to kill them. I exemplify this through two ethnographic critical case studies: the operation of a virulent death squad in Northeast Brazil that mobilized the support of ordinary people in an almost genocidal attack against Afro-Brazilian street kids and young "marginals"; and the uneasy truce with, and incomplete integration of "dangerous and endangered" youth still living in squatter camps and shack communities of urban South Africa. PMID:15817729

Scheper-Hughes, Nancy

2004-12-01

147

LX04 Violence Measurements-Steven Tests Impacted by Projectiles Shot from a Howitzer Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170–300 m\\/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges,

Steven K. Chidester; Kevin S. Vandersall; Lori L. Switzer; Craig M. Tarver

2006-01-01

148

LX04 Violence Measurments: Steven Tests Impacted By Projectiles Shot From A Howitzer Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 150-300 m\\/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic

Steven K. Chidester

2005-01-01

149

LX04 Violence Measurements-Steven Tests Impacted by Projectiles Shot from a Howitzer Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m\\/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges,

Steven K. Chidester; Kevin S. Vandersall; Lori L. Switzer; Craig M. Tarver

2006-01-01

150

In Harm’s Way in America: The Burden of Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gun violence in the USA annually accounts for vast suffering and death, yet many of us have become so habituated to it that\\u000a we fail to grasp its scale or impact. It takes a heavy toll on American children, especially children in America’s inner cities.\\u000a While its direct carnage is quite massive, its indirect impacts are quite pervasive as well.

William French

151

Youth and Violence. Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health: Connecting the Dots To Prevent Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposes solutions to youth violence which encompass action across seven priorities. Within each priority, strategic recommendations and action steps for change are included. Priorities include: support the development of healthy families; promote healthy communities; increase access to health and mental health care services; reduce access to and…

American Journal of Health Education, 2001

2001-01-01

152

Connecting Youth Violence Prevention, Positive Youth Development, and Community Mobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several disconnects serve to weaken the use of evidence based programming in community settings. Communities face the need\\u000a to address the challenges of multiple risk behaviors faced by adolescents in their communities, but must also work to support\\u000a successful transitions to adulthood and the broader positive development of their youth. The stronger integration of positive\\u000a youth development and prevention of

Kevin W. Allison; Torey Edmonds; Karen Wilson; Michell Pope; Albert D. Farrell

153

North American transnational youth gangs: Breaking the chain of violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs are nothing new. They appeared in New York City and Philadelphia at the end of the American Revolution. Their\\u000a numbers and violence correspond to peak levels of immigration and population shifts that occurred in the early 1800s, 1920s,\\u000a 1960s, and late 1990s. Entrenched in American culture, gangs are romanticized in movies while rap artists copy their dress\\u000a and

Stephen Johnson; David B. Muhlhausen

2005-01-01

154

Engaging health professionals in advocacy against gun violence.  

PubMed

Health professionals have long been involved with advocacy around the social determinants of health, including protesting against war and mitigating the production, trade and use of specific weapon systems. Small arms and light weapons are a key area on which to focus, as they are responsible for the majority of injuries and deaths in war and their availability is related to increased levels of crime and suicide. Challenges for health professionals hoping to engage in such advocacy include a lack of adequate data, the need to confront political questions and the gun-lobby, and difficulty in measuring the effectiveness of campaigns. This article discusses some examples of successful advocacy and suggests future directions for health professionals in this area. PMID:19065869

Pinto, Andrew D

155

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite declines in youth violence nationally in the past decade, incidence of youth violence and victimization--from assaults to homicide--continue to be pressing concerns in public safety and public health. Youth violence is also a particular concern for low-income, minority communities, where poverty, family instability, and unemployment…

MacDonald, John; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kofner, Aaron; Stokes, Robert J.; Sehgal, Amber; Fain, Terry; Beletsky, Leo

2009-01-01

156

Saving Our Children: Can Youth Violence Be Prevented? An Interdisciplinary Conference (Wheaton, IL, May 20-22, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognizing that violence is demographically concentrated in the male minority in inner cities is a necessary starting point for discussions of how to combat this violence. A conference on the prevention of youth violence was held in May 1996 to throw light on the problem of youth violence directly and specifically. Participants in this…

Ethiel, Nancy, Ed.

157

Nonreciprocal and Reciprocal Dating Violence and Injury Occurrence among Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dating violence is a significant health problem among youth that leads to adverse health outcomes, including injuries. Reciprocal violence (perpetrated by both partners) is associated with increased injury in adults, but very little is known about the prevalence and context for reciprocal violence, as well as injury rates, among youth. We sought to determine the prevalence and scope of reciprocal dating violence and injury occurrence among urban youth in a high-risk community. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and administered to over 80% of public school students in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district. The current analyses were restricted to those who reported dating in the past year and who also reported any dating violence (n=1,158). Dating violence was categorized as reciprocal (the participant reported both violence perpetration and victimization) and non-reciprocal (the participant report either violence perpetration or victimization, but not both). Results: Dating violence reciprocity varied by sex. Girls who reported any dating violence were more likely to report reciprocal dating violence (50.4%) than were boys (38.9%). However, reciprocity did not vary by race/ethnicity or grade level. Reciprocal dating violence was more common among participants who reported more frequent violence experiences. Reciprocal violence was also associated with greater injury occurrences relative to non-reciprocal relationships (10.1% versus 1.2%). Conclusion: Reciprocal dating violence is common among adolescents and leads more often to injury outcomes. In particular, relationships in which boys report reciprocal violence against their partner appear to lead to more frequent injury occurrences. These findings underscore the importance of addressing dating violence and factors that increase risk for reciprocal violence and therefore exacerbate injury occurrence.

Swahn, Monica H.; Alemdar, Meltem; Whitaker, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

158

American Medical Association’s Youth Violence Prevention Training and Outreach Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development and contents of a training and outreach guide Connecting the Dots to Prevent Youth Violence: A Training and Outreach Guide for Physicians and Other Health Professionals (the Guide) on youth violence prevention for healthcare providers developed by the American Medical Association. The Guide, was developed to help translate recommendations made by the Commission for the

Lyndee M. Knox; Carmela Lomonaco; Arthur Elster

2005-01-01

159

Modifiable Determinants of Youth Violence in Australia and the United States: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence is a global problem. Few studies have examined whether the prevalence or predictors of youth violence are similar in comparable Western countries like Australia and the United States (US). In the current article, analyses are conducted using two waves of data collected as part of a longitudinal study of adolescent development in approximately 4,000 students aged 12 to

Sheryl A. Hemphill; Rachel Smith; John W. Toumbourou; Todd I. Herrenkohl; Richard F. Catalano; Barbara J. McMorris; Helena Romanuik

2009-01-01

160

An Ecological Approach to Understanding Youth Violence: The Mediating Role of Substance Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested an ecological model that posits mediating variables (substance use and mental health) in the association between ecological factors (family closeness, school closeness, and peer closeness) and youth violence in a sample of 4,783 adolescents. Models including substance use present significantly less total effect between ecological factors and youth violence than do models without substance use. Additional probing

Sung Seek Moon; Joy Patton; Uma Rao

2010-01-01

161

"If They Could Make Us Disappear, They Would!" Youth and Violence in Cite Soleil, Haiti  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores community-level risk and protective factors for youth violence in Cite Soleil, Port-au-Prince's most violent slum. The youth of Cite Soleil have often been mobilized to violence by powerful actors as tools for achieving political or financial gain. Drawing on a formal survey (N=1,575) and ethnographic data collected between…

Willman, Alys; Marcelin, Louis Herns

2010-01-01

162

The Role of Families and Care Givers as Risk and Protective Factors in Preventing Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research which discusses the risk and protective functions that families and other caregivers provide in influencing the development of aggressive behavior in youth. Currently, there is an emphasis on providing violence prevention programs in the school environment, typically with little parental or caregiver involvement. By enhancing the role of families and caregivers in youth violence prevention programs,

Le'Roy E. Reese; Elizabeth M. Vera; Thomas R. Simon; Robin M. Ikeda

2000-01-01

163

Cultural Context of School Communities in Rural Hawaii to Inform Youth Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…

Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher

2010-01-01

164

Youth Violence Prevention Comes of Age: Research, Training and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent be- havior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the in- dividual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work

Kara Williams; Lourdes Rivera; Robert Neighbours; Vivian Reznik

2007-01-01

165

Examining the Developmental Process of Risk for Exposure to Community Violence Among Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research has documented the effects of community violence exposure on adolescents' behavior and mental health functioning, yet there has been less research on the process by which early risks increase the likelihood that youth will be exposed to community violence. The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 623 urban youth followed from 1st grade

Sharon F. Lambert; Catherine P. Bradshaw; Nicole L. Cammack; Nicholas S. Ialongo

2011-01-01

166

A culturally sensitive approach to the prevention of interpersonal violence among urban black youth.  

PubMed Central

Black-on-black interpersonal violence is a major problem for black youth living in poor urban areas. Diverse lines of research converge to suggest that interpersonal violence among inner-city black youth may result from a combination of environmental stressors, racial identity problems, and health and mental health problems. A culturally sensitive approach to the prevention of interpersonal violence among black youth is described. It is concluded that insensitivity to the significant role of racial or cultural factors in black-on-black violence contributes to the relative inattention to the problem.

Whaley, A. L.

1992-01-01

167

The role of family, peers and school perceptions in predicting involvement in youth violence.  

PubMed

This study explored the relative importance of family, peers and school in predicting youth violence. The analysis was done on a nationally representative sample included 8,394 students from grade 6th-10th in Israel. Measures of youth violence included bullying, physical fights and weapon carrying. The findings suggested that all three social systems had significant relations with youth violence, respectively. Variables found to predict violence were: Family-lack of parental support regarding school; Peers-Lack of social integration or too many evenings out with friends; School-feeling of school alienation, low academic achievement and perceptions of frequent acts of violence in school. School perceptions had the strongest predicting power. Findings emphasized the importance of focusing on improving the daily school experience in reducing youth violence. PMID:12964445

Laufer, Avital; Harel, Yossi

168

Human Development and Violence Prevention: A Focus on Youth. Center Paper 011.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication outlines a theoretical framework to guide research, policy, and action plans to combat youth violence. Research findings suggest that analyzing violence in connection with human development will provide a greater understanding of the problem. Such an analysis should trace pathways to violence in order to infuse prevention…

Williams, Kirk R.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Elliott, Delbert S.

169

Human Development and Violence Prevention: A Focus on Youth. Center Paper 011.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication outlines a theoretical framework to guide research, policy, and action plans to combat youth violence. Research findings suggest that analyzing violence in connection with human development will provide a greater understanding of the problem. Such an analysis should trace pathways to violence in order to infuse prevention…

Williams, Kirk R.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Elliott, Delbert S.

170

The Nature and Correlates of Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youths in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to assess the prevalence and severity of dating violence among Jewish and Arab, male\\u000a and female Israeli youths, to examine the sociodemographic variables related to dating violence among Israeli adolescents,\\u000a and to assess whether the variables correlated with dating violence differ among Jewish and Arab, male and female youths.\\u000a The random sample consisted of

Moshe Sherer

2009-01-01

171

Examining youth hopelessness as an independent risk correlate for adolescent delinquency and violence.  

PubMed

Prior research has identified a relationship between youth hopelessness and violence perpetration within specific groups of young people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between youth hopelessness and violence perpetration in a population-based sample of adolescents. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 136,549 students in the 6th, 9th, and 12th grades responding to the 2007 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between hopelessness and youth violence perpetration, including comparison analyses for gender and race/ethnic subgroups as well as adjustment for a measure of poor-low affect. One in four youth (25.1%) reported levels of hopelessness at least enough to bother them in the previous month. Moderate-high levels of hopelessness exhibited a statistically significant independent relationship with a range of violence-related outcomes for youth subgroups: delinquent behavior, weapon carrying on school property, and all forms of self-directed violence. Relationships between hopelessness and interpersonal and intimate partner violence suggest a greater contribution by poor affective functioning for some groups. Interventions designed to reduce youth violence perpetration may benefit from increased strategies to address youth hopelessness as well as youth mental health in general. PMID:20012345

Duke, Naomi N; Borowsky, Iris W; Pettingell, Sandra L; McMorris, Barbara J

2011-01-01

172

Assessing the status of research on violence-related problems among youth.  

PubMed

Presents results of a systematic review of abstracts on studies related to violence and youth in an effort to identify areas that have received little attention in the psychological literature and to present recommendations for future research. A total of 1,168 empirical articles on violence-related problems in youth were identified by a PsycINFO (American Psychological Association, 1980-1999) search. These articles were then classified in a multidimensional grid, allowing for comparisons among different types of articles. A review of abstracts from these articles indicated that most of the research activity has been descriptive (e.g., reviewing correlates or predictors of violence involvement) or assessment related (e.g., evaluating specific measures). Fewer articles examined the treatment or prevention of violence-related problems among youth. Further, the majority of studies pertained to direct exposure to violence (as a victim or perpetrator), with very few studies looking at the effects of witnessing violence, knowing individuals exposed to violence, or being exposed to violence through the media. Comparing treatment and prevention articles, we found that the least empirical attention was paid to the prevention of violence-related problems in youth, and not a single study was identified through this search that sought to examine the prevention of youth witnessing violence. Implications for future research agendas are discussed. PMID:11393916

Acosta, O M; Albus, K E; Reynolds, M W; Spriggs, D; Weist, M D

2001-06-01

173

Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.  

PubMed

Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals. PMID:17367286

Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

2007-01-01

174

Predictors of violence and delinquency among high risk youth and youth gang members in San Salvador, El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low future orientation, low empathy, educational difficulty, school expulsion, delinquent peers, gang membership, and low social support were found to be significant risk factors for violence and delinquency among a sample (N = 174) of high risk youth and youth gang members in San Salvador, El Salvador.

René Olate; Christopher Salas-Wright; Michael G. Vaughn

2012-01-01

175

Evaluation of a hospital-based youth violence intervention.  

PubMed

To decrease adolescent morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life, a violence-prevention consultation is offered to hospitalized victims of nondomestic violence. The context is a violence-prevention team approach to patient assessment, treatment, and follow-up. Psychoeducational counseling emphasizes the individual through a cognitive behavioral approach and also recognizes the individual in the proximal social setting through referrals to community resources. The in-hospital component draws on the health beliefs model, self-efficacy, the theory of reasoned action and their synergy with cognitive mediation theory as expressed in developmental psychology. The target group for the intervention is adolescents (12-17 years of age) who have been victims of violent assaults severe enough to warrant treatment at a Level One trauma center. The six steps in the intervention are to (1) review and assess the incident, (2) review the patient's conflict-resolution strategies and introduce nonviolent alternatives, (3) provide information on the prevalence of violence/homicide and determine the patient's risk status, (4) explore the patient's coping skills and support system, (5) develop a plan to stay safe, and (6) refer patient to services for follow-up activities. Approximately 15 study participants are identified each month, half of whom are randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Over the 12-month recruitment interval, approximately 180 adolescent patients will be identified. Baseline data are collected through hospital intake procedures and chart reviews. A battery of standardized measures supplemented by a brief structured, closed-ended interview is collected four months after the youths leave the hospital. Preliminary baseline data for 39 youths are reported. The "typical" youth is a 16-year-old African-American male. Even though nearly one third of victims had been shot, the typical patient was injured in a fight during which he was kicked, bitten, or beaten with or without a blunt instrument. The majority of incidents involved only one attacker who was known to the victim. Nearly half the injuries were precipitated by an argument or fight. No statistically significant differences between intervention subjects and nonintervention controls in terms of baseline variables have been observed. For inner-city adolescent victims of violent assaults, a hospital-based intervention offers a unique opportunity for reduction of the incidence of reinjury. We describe the elements of the intervention, including the theoretical basis and implementation; detail the overall evaluation design including modifications; and present preliminary analyses of baseline data. PMID:8909630

De Vos, E; Stone, D A; Goetz, M A; Dahlberg, L L

176

"There's so much at stake": sexual minority youth discuss dating violence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating violence among a sample of sexual minority youth. Focus groups were conducted as part of a larger study that surveyed 109 sexual minority youth between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Participants identified four main themes contributing to dating violence among same-sex couples: homophobia (societal and internalized); negotiating socially prescribed gender roles; assumed female connection; and other relationship issues. Such information is essential for determining the need for and content of dating violence services, including education, safety planning, and referrals for mental and physical health services for sexual minority youth. PMID:22831848

Gillum, Tameka L; DiFulvio, Gloria

2012-07-23

177

Promising Strategies: Results of the Fourth National Survey on Community Efforts To Reduce Substance Abuse and Gun Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|More than 4,000 people responded to a survey about community efforts to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. Six major findings were identified from the responses of 1,608 people who identified themselves as leaders of community efforts in these areas. Community leaders want significant changes in long-standing public policies and a change in…

Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Dretler, Astrid K.; Rosenbloom, David L.; Paine, Kay H.; Levinson, Suzette; Hingson, Ralph; Bell, Nicole

178

Should We Have Faith in the Churches? Ten-Point Coalition's Effect on Boston's Youth Violence. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the role of religious institutions in reducing youth violence in the inner city. The paper focuses on the Ten-Point Coalition, a group of ministers in Boston who have contributed in specific ways to reducing youth violence in that city. It analyzes the effectiveness of the police in reducing violence, pointing to the…

Berrien, Jenny; Winship, Christopher

179

African American and Latino Youth and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome: Effects on School Violence and Interventions for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…

Zyromski, Brett

2007-01-01

180

Striving for a culturally responsive process in training health professionals on Asian American and Pacific Islander youth violence prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of youth violence prevention practice is dependent on the quality of education and training of professionals who will care for disadvantaged and\\/or underserved youth. The authors propose that culturally responsive youth violence prevention curricula, focused on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, should: 1) target institutions that train health professionals likely to serve Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders; 2)

Anthony P. S. Guerrero; Deborah A. Goebert; Daniel A. Alicata; Cathy K. Bell

2009-01-01

181

Role of collective self-esteem on youth violence in a collective culture.  

PubMed

Youth violence involvement has always been the focus of significant research attention. However, as most of the studies on youth violence have been conducted in Western cultures, little is known about the antecedents of violence in the Asian context. Researchers have suggested that collectivism might be the reason for the lower violent crime rates in Asia. Nevertheless, the present study proposes an alternative approach to the collectivistic orientation and violence relationship: The possibility that allocentrism (collectivist tendency at the individual difference level) might shape the meaning of and the attitudes towards violence; thus not all aspects of a collectivist culture serve as deterrents for violence. Instead of viewing it as a random individual act, violence in a collective cultural context could be seen, under certain circumstances, as a social obligation to one's in-group (especially when one's in-group is supportive of violence) and as an internalization of the norms and values of the culture. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between allocentrism and its relation to violence in a highly collectivist Asian culture, Singapore. We further hypothesized that collective self-esteem might serve as the mediator between allocentrism and the values of violence. Using a sample of 149 incarcerated Singaporean male adolescents, results support the proposed theoretical model whereby collective self-esteem was found to mediate between allocentrism and the culture's norms and attitudes of violence, which eventually lead to physical violence behaviours. PMID:22029444

Lim, Lena L; Chang, Weining C

2009-02-01

182

Peers and Gun Use Among Urban Adolescent MalesAn Examination of Social Embeddedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gun violence is most often a group phenomenon yet most empirical examinations ignore this fact. Using interview data with 416 violent male offenders from two disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods, this paper examines the roles that the peer contexts play in explaining the nuanced patterns of respondent gun-related behaviors. We hypothesize that respondents who are comparatively more embedded in

Deanna L. Wilkinson; Marquette S. McBryde; Brice Williams; Shelly Bloom; Kerryn Bell

2009-01-01

183

Planning youth violence prevention efforts: decision-making across community sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To identify practical components of decision-making for youth violence prevention program planning and to identify differences in decision-making across various provider sectors of the community.Methods: Data were collected in seven focus groups (n = 82) representing seven key sectors of the community involved in youth violence prevention activities (e.g., educators, law enforcement officers, and healthcare providers). Discussion was guided

Melanie Lutenbacher; William O Cooper; Kathleen Faccia

2002-01-01

184

Examining Youth Hopelessness as an Independent Risk Correlate for Adolescent Delinquency and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has identified a relationship between youth hopelessness and violence perpetration within specific groups of\\u000a young people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between youth hopelessness and violence perpetration\\u000a in a population-based sample of adolescents. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 136,549 students in the\\u000a 6th, 9th, and 12th grades responding to

Naomi N. DukeIris; Iris W. Borowsky; Sandra L. Pettingell; Barbara J. McMorris

2011-01-01

185

Risk and Protective Profiles Among Never Exposed, Single Form, and Multiple Form Violence Exposed Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth,

Paula S. Nurius; Patricia L. Russell; Jerald R. Herting; Carole Hooven; Elaine A. Thompson

2009-01-01

186

Cumulative effects of exposure to violence on posttraumatic stress in Palestinian and Israeli youth.  

PubMed

We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their parents once a year for 3 consecutive years. Palestinian children, males, and older youth were generally at greatest risk for exposure to conflict/violence across contexts. Regression analysis found unique effects of exposure to ethnic-political (Palestinian sample), school (Palestinian and Israeli Jewish samples), and family conflict/violence (Israeli Arab sample) during the first 2 years on PTS symptoms in Year 3, controlling for prior PTS symptoms. Cumulative exposure to violence in more contexts during the first 2 years predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms than did exposure to violence in fewer contexts, and this was true regardless of the youth's level of prior PTS symptoms. These results highlight the risk that ongoing exposure to violence across multiple contexts in the social ecology poses for the mental health of children in contexts of ethnic-political violence. Researchers and mental health professionals working with war-exposed youth in a given cultural context must assess both war- and non-war-related stressors affecting youth. Based on this assessment, interventions may not be limited to individual-based, war-trauma-focused approaches but also may include school-based, community-based, and family-level interventions. PMID:22540411

Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-04-27

187

A Dynamical Systems Perspective on Mediating Violence in Schools: Emergent Roles of Child and Youth Care Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, violence has been a major concern for human service professionals and increasingly, to child and youth care workers particularly as they have served in schools where major violent events have occurred. Most often violence prevention and intervention efforts ignore the systemic aspects of violence and are too narrowly focused. This article proposes that a consideration of violence

Karen VanderVen; Carlos Antonio Torre

1999-01-01

188

History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multiethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV\\/AIDS infection. They participated in

Flavio Francisco Marsiglia; Tanya Nieri; Elizabeth Valdez; Maria Gurrola; Catherine Marrs

2009-01-01

189

Youth Perspectives on the Intersections of Violence, Gender, and Hip-Hop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth's perceptions of violence within their social environments can provide relevant insights into the gender-based interpersonal violence epidemic in inner-city communities. To explore this issue, we examined two sets of narratives with young men and women, aged 15 to 21, involved in hip-hop culture in New York City. In the analysis, we reveal…

Hernandez, Diana; Weinstein, Hannah; Munoz-Laboy, Miguel

2012-01-01

190

Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include "superpredator", "quarantining the contagious", "corrective surgery", "man as computer", "vaccine",…

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2008-01-01

191

Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed

Kenneth A. Dodge

2008-01-01

192

Aggression and Violence and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of aggression and violence among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which aggression and violence adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Methods: Literature review. Results: Recent national data…

Basch, Charles E.

2011-01-01

193

Youth Action Strategies in the Primary Prevention of Teen Dating Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a school-based youth-driven teen dating violence prevention project. The project objectives are to provide opportunities for students to plan presentations and activities; develop knowledge and awareness about unhealthy gender norms, seen as an important root cause of relationship violence, particularly for teenagers; and…

Kervin, Denise; Obinna, Jennifer

2010-01-01

194

Lack of dread in a dreadful world: Violence, myth and the spiritual poverty of youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to enhance the knowledge of those concerned with violence among youth by presenting an explanatory conceptual framework of spiritual poverty. This framework integrates transpersonal theory with psychodynamic theory to explain how modern myth has led to indifference toward violence and death. Traditional myths, presented in spoken and read word, have facilitated mythopoetic function that allows for translating

Barbara P. Early; Elizabeth D. Smith

1998-01-01

195

Player Violence in Sport: Consequences for Youth Cross-Nationally (Part 2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individual athletes are not primarily responsible for violence in sports. It is a product of the system. Sports leaders are responsible for allowing it and for curbing it. Contributing factors and consequences are outlined, together with recommendations for overcoming violence in youth sports. (IAH)|

Pooley, John C.

1989-01-01

196

A Meditational Model Linking Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence and Bullying Behaviors and Victimization among Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A growing body of research documents that various forms of violence exposures are interrelated. This paper presents a conceptual model, which accounts for the relationship between youth witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) at home and their subsequent engagement in bullying behaviors and victimization by peers. A comprehensive search of…

Voisin, Dexter R.; Hong, Jun Sung

2012-01-01

197

Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

2011-01-01

198

Early Adolescent Predictors of Youth Violence as Mediators of Childhood Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses were conducted to assess whether risk factors for youth violence measured at 10 years of age influenced later violence directly or indirectly through predictors measured in early adolescence (14 years of age). Analyses revealed that many childhood risks—which included teacher-rated hyperactivity\\/low attention, teacher-rated antisocial behavior, parental attitudes favorable to violence, involvement with antisocial peers, low family income, and availability

Todd I. Herrenkohl; Jie Guo; Rick Kosterman; J. David Hawkins; Richard F. Catalano; Brian H. Smith

2001-01-01

199

Exposure to Violence and Socioemotional Adjustment in Low-Income Youth: An Examination of Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 391 low-income youth ages 13–17, this study investigated the potential moderating effects of school climate,\\u000a participation in extracurricular activities, and positive parent–child relations on associations between exposure to violence\\u000a (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and adolescent socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing\\u000a problems). Exposure to violence was related to both internalizing and externalizing problems. High

Cecily R. HardawayVonnie; Vonnie C. McLoyd; Dana Wood

200

Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

Lai, Mary H.

2005-01-01

201

Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCD's Research-Based Programs Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

2007-01-01

202

Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This compendium provides researchers and prevention specialists with a set of tools to evaluate programs to prevent youth violence. Most of the measures in this compendium are intended for use with youths between the ages of 11 and 20 years, to assess fac...

C. B. Behrens C. L. Dahlberg S. B. Toal

1998-01-01

203

Evaluation of a Theater-Based Youth Violence Prevention Program for Elementary School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the impact of Urban Improv (UI), a theater-based youth violence prevention (YVP) program developed for inner-city youth, on three behavioral and psychological outcome domains: aggressive behaviors, prosocial behaviors, and scholastic attention and engagement. This study compared outcomes for 77 elementary school students in classrooms designated to receive UI with those of 63 students from matched control

Cassandra Kisiel; Margaret Blaustein; Joseph Spinazzola; Caren Swift Schmidt; Marla Zucker; Bessel van der Kolk

2006-01-01

204

Acculturative Stress, Violence, and Resilience in the lives of Mexican-American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how Mexican-American youth experience stress and trauma in a variety of arenas. Such youth utilize their energy, creativity, and resilience in order to cope with cultural tensions that arise from acculturative processes, role conflicts with family and peers, school challenges, and identity formation processes. Violence, in the form of internalized colonialism, external oppression, and actual violent acts

Lori K. Holleran; Soyon Jung

2005-01-01

205

Contrasting portraits of war: Youths' varied experiences with political violence in Bosnia and Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates some of the complexity of youths' experience with political violence as a means of cautioning researchers, applied professionals and policy makers against overly-simplistic conclusions and interventions when attempting to understand and serve the large populations of the world's youth who endure conflict. A variety of forms of data and their analyses from one research program are utilized

Brian K. Barber

2008-01-01

206

A COMMUNITY STUDY OF TAXI VIOLENCE AND DISTRESS SYMPTOMS AMONG YOUTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of distress symptoms among youth exposed to taxi violence in Khayelitsha, a South African peri-urban settlement. Design: A cross-sectional community study of a stratified sample of youth. Setting & Subjects: Five hundred and four Xhosa speaking youth aged 9–20 years, from 5 primary schools in Khayelitsha; 396 attending 4 schools in close proximity to a

Chris Zissis; Karin Ensink; Brian Robertson

2000-01-01

207

Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Introduction Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences. Methods We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N=457) of urban youth, 14–24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration. Results The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls) reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR=2.28;95%CI: 1.12—4.62) and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81—10.53) were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reporting hunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30—6.33), any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12—4.92) and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16—7.82) were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization. Conclusion The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In particular, reporting hunger, drunkenness and drug use were specifically associated with victimization and perpetration. These are all modifiable risk factors that can be prevented. It is clear that these vulnerable youth are in need of additional services and guidance to ameliorate their adverse childhood experiences, current health risk behaviors and disadvantaged living context.

Swahn, Monica H; Gressard, Lindsay; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Lynch, Catherine; Yao, Huang

2012-01-01

208

Risk and Protective Profiles Among Never Exposed, Single Form, and Multiple Form Violence Exposed Youth  

PubMed Central

This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth, and that multiple-form victimization held the greatest jeopardy to development. Youth with multiple-form victimization reported significantly elevated risk factors (emotional distress, life stress, suicide risk, risky behaviors) and lower protective factors (social support, school engagement, family structure) than both single-form and never-exposed youth. Implications are discussed for preventive and early intervention programming and for examining the transition of at-risk youth into young adulthood.

Nurius, Paula S.; Russell, Patricia L.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A.

2010-01-01

209

The Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence among LGBTQ College Youth: The Role of Minority Stress.  

PubMed

Preliminary research suggests that partner violence is a problem among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) college youth. However, there is no study to date with college youth on the factors associated with perpetration of same-sex partner violence, which is needed to inform prevention efforts specific to this population. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to assess how facets of minority stress (i.e., sexual-orientation-related victimization, sexual minority stigma, internalized homonegativity, sexual identity concealment) relate to physical, sexual, and psychological partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ college youth (N = 391; 49 % identified as men; 72 % Caucasian; M age: 20.77 years). At the bivariate level, physical perpetration was related to identity concealment and internalized homonegativity; sexual perpetration was related to internalized homonegativity; and psychological perpetration was related to sexual-orientation-related victimization. However, at the multivariate level (after controlling for concurrent victimization), psychological perpetration was unrelated to minority stress variables, whereas physical and sexual perpetration were both related to internalized homonegativity; physical perpetration was also related to identity concealment. These results underscore the utility of understanding partner violence among LGBTQ youth through a minority stress framework. Moreover, the current study highlights the need for a better understanding of factors that mediate and moderate the relationship between minority stress and partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ youth in order to inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23233160

Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

2012-12-12

210

Exposure to political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress in Middle East youth: protective factors.  

PubMed

We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic achievement moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first 2 waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child's initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth's self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms. PMID:22594697

Dubow, Eric F; Huesmann, L Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-05-17

211

Meeting the needs of a community: teaching evidence-based youth violence prevention initiatives to members of strategic communities.  

PubMed

Youth violence is among the most serious health threats in the nation today. Violence disproportionately affects young people and people of color. Although the national rates of violent injury and homicide have shown a decline in most regions of the United States over the past 15 years, the rates of violence and related injuries among youth remain unacceptably high. The prevention of youth violence has been a priority of health departments nationwide, including the Cook County Department of Public Health. The goal of this project was to provide key community leaders, social service workers, and nurses within suburban Cook County with educational sessions on Blueprints for Violence Prevention, an initiative to promote evidence-based youth violence prevention programs. PMID:23459428

Ruffolo, Daria C; Andresen, Pamela A; Winn, Keith L

212

Dangerous and Endangered Youth: Social Structures and Determinants of Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural violence is violence that is permissible, even encouraged. It refers to the invisible social machinery of inequality that reproduces social relations of exclusion and marginalization via ideologies, stigmas, and dangerous discourses (such as \\

Nancy Scheper-Hughes

2004-01-01

213

Dangerous and Endangered Youth: Social Structures and Determinants of Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural violence is violence that is permissible, even encouraged. It refers to the invisible social machinery of inequality that reproduces social relations of exclusion and marginalization via ideologies, stigmas, and dangerous discourses (such as \\

Nancy Scheper-Hughes

2005-01-01

214

The Development of Youth Violence: An Old Story with New Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence is a major public concern in all modern societies. To prevent this violence, we need to understand how innocent\\u000a young children grow into violent adolescents. Longitudinal studies of large samples of children from infancy to adulthood\\u000a indicate that the peak age for physical aggression is between the end of the second and the end of the fourth year

Richard E. Tremblay

2007-01-01

215

Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic achievement moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict\\/violence and subsequent posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. We

Eric F. Dubow; L. Rowell Huesmann; Paul Boxer; Simha Landau; Shira Dvir; Khalil Shikaki; Jeremy Ginges

2012-01-01

216

Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective\\u000a treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship\\u000a between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban adolescents (n=1,358) were surveyed using the Social and Health Assessment. The proposed relationships were examined

Vladislav Ruchkin; Christopher C. Henrich; Stephanie M. Jones; Robert Vermeiren; Mary Schwab-Stone

2007-01-01

217

Community Violence and Adolescent DevelopmentAn Examination of Risk and Protective Factors among African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measures the degree of exposure to violence through actual attack, witnessing violent events, and delinquent peer associations among500 African American high school students in the state of Virginia. In seeking to account for problem behavior, attention is given to sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to guns and violence as risk factors, and the moderating effects of coping strategies utilized by

Zina T. McGee

2003-01-01

218

The Changing Nature of Youth Violence. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Current State of Youth Violence, Focusing on Its Changing Nature and Juvenile Intervention Programs Designed To Prevent Increased Violence (February 28, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This hearing examined the current state of youth violence, focusing on its changing nature and juvenile intervention programs designed to prevent increased violence. Opening statements by Senators Fred Thompson, Herbert Kohl, and Joseph R. Biden addressed the seriousness of the problem. Two panels contributed prepared statements. The first panel…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

219

World Health Organization's TEACH-VIP Contributing to Capacity Building for Youth Violence Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence is a major public health problem in every region of the world, yet it is especially prevalent in specific settings. Youth homicide rates exceeding 10.0\\/100,000 occur most often in countries that are low or middle income, or which are experiencing rapid economic or social change. Particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the capacity to develop and implement the

David R. Meddings; Lyndee M. Knox; Matilde Maddaleno; Alberto Concha-Eastman; Joan Serra Hoffman

220

The Relationship Between Life Satisfaction, Risk-Taking Behaviors, and Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study builds on existing criminological theories and examines the role of life satisfaction and self-control in explaining youth violence. Using data from a stratified cluster sample of 5,414 public high school students who responded to the South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the study examines the relationship between adolescents'perceptions of life satisfaction, behavioral risky acts, and self-reported acts of

John M. MacDonald; Alex R. Piquero; Robert F. Valois; Keith J. Zullig

2005-01-01

221

Linkages Between Internet and Other Media Violence With Seriously Violent Behavior by Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.The goal was to examine the association between violence in the media and the expression of seriously violent behavior among older children and teenagers in a national sample. METHODS.The Growing up with Media survey was a national, online survey of 1588 youths that was conducted in August and September 2006. Participants were 10- to 15-year-old youths who had used the

Michele L. Ybarra; Marie Diener-West; Dana Markow; Philip J. Leaf; Merle Hamburger; Paul Boxer

2010-01-01

222

Exposure to violence and victimization and the use of violence by adolescents in the United States.  

PubMed

Violence by adolescents in the United States is of growing concern. Despite a decrease in the rate of violence and death by firearms, firearm injuries are the second leading cause of death among Americans age 15 to 24 and the third leading cause of death among 10- to 14-year-old children. Although there are many factors associated with the use of violence by youths, exposure to violence and victimization has consistently been a predictor of the use of violence, as well as intentions to use violence, carrying a gun, and having attitudes accepting of the use of violence and aggressive behavior to resolve conflict. Adolescents' families, friends, neighborhoods, schools, and the media provide sources of exposure and victimization related to the use of violence. The cultural transmission of deviant behavior theory establishes a framework for understanding the influence of exposure to violence and victimization from these sources on adolescents' use of violence. PMID:11455306

Champion, H L; Durant, R H

2001-06-01

223

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

PubMed Central

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. To current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths’ reinforcement sensitivity–behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)–is associated with specific clinical outcomes and increases risk for the development of such problems following exposure to violence. Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, Latino youth (N=168) provided reports of BIS/BAS and emotional/behavioral problems at Time 1, exposure to violence between Time 1 and Time 2, and clinical symptoms at Time 2. Results suggested that reinforcement sensitivity moderated the relation between violence exposure and psychopathology, such that increasing levels of BIS were associated with elevated risk for internalizing and posttraumatic stress symptoms following exposure to violence whereas BAS increased risk for externalizing problems. The importance of building on existing knowledge to understand minority youth psychopathology is discussed.

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2013-01-01

224

Reinforcement sensitivity and risk for psychopathology following exposure to violence: a vulnerability-specificity model in Latino youth.  

PubMed

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity-behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)-is associated with specific clinical outcomes and increases risk for the development of such problems following exposure to violence. Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, Latino youth (N = 168) provided reports of BIS/BAS and emotional/behavioral problems at Time 1, exposure to violence between Time 1 and Time 2, and clinical symptoms at Time 2. Results suggested that reinforcement sensitivity moderated the relation between violence exposure and psychopathology, such that increasing levels of BIS were associated with elevated risk for internalizing and posttraumatic stress symptoms following exposure to violence whereas BAS increased risk for externalizing problems. The importance of building on existing knowledge to understand minority youth psychopathology is discussed. PMID:22080366

Gudiño, Omar G; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H; Lau, Anna S

2012-04-01

225

Screen time and physical violence in 10 to 16-year-old Canadian youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To examine the independent associations between television, computer, and video game use with physical violence in youth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study population consisted of a representative cross-sectional sample of 9,672 Canadian youth in grades 6–10 and a 1-year\\u000a longitudinal sample of 1,861 youth in grades 9–10. The number of weekly hours watching television, playing video games, and\\u000a using a computer was determined.

Ian JanssenWilliam; William F. Boyce; William Pickett

226

Reaching through the Cracks. A Guide to Implementing the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1999, the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership (YVRP) was launched by a group of key stakeholders in Philadelphia--including the district attorney's office, adult and juvenile parole, other city agencies and community organizations. Its goal is to steer young people, ages 14 to 24 and at greatest risk of killing or being killed, away from…

Jucovy, Linda; McClanahan, Wendy S.

2008-01-01

227

A Review of Family-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence among Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At present, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of family-based intervention programs to prevent violence or related behavior problems with Latino youth and families. Although progress has been made, a number of important issues remain. In this article, the authors review several of the more prominent interventions for Latino…

Leidy, Melinda S.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Toro, Rosa I.

2010-01-01

228

Exposure to Community Violence among Arab Youth in Israel: Rates and Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research explored the rates and characteristics of exposure to community violence (CV) and its relevance to several sociodemographic factors among a sample of 833 Arab youth aged 14-18 years residing in diverse residential areas in Israel. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The frequency of exposure to CV during the past 12…

Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil

2011-01-01

229

The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

2010-01-01

230

The Child Welfare Response to Youth Violence and Homelessness in the Nineteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notes that the 19th-century problem of street children parallels contemporary problems of homelessness, youth gangs, and violence. Suggests that past and present programs developed to deal with these problems have many similarities and that understanding the origins of both the problems and the child welfare response is crucial to avoiding past…

Nelson, Kristine

1995-01-01

231

The Analysis of Extracurricular Activities and Their Relationship to Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine how extracurricular activities relate to rural youth violence. Gender differences were examined across all of the study variables. Self-report data were collected from 235 teenagers from a rural, ethnically diverse, Virginia community. Correlations revealed a significant inverse relationship between church…

Linville, Deanna C.; Huebner, Angela J.

2005-01-01

232

Violent Youth Culture in Northern Ireland: Young Men, Violence, and the Challenges of Peacebuilding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses violent male youth culture in Northern Ireland within the context of a society emerging from a prolonged period of political violence toward peacebuilding. Specifically, the article focuses on the findings from a qualitative study carried out by the Centre for Young Men's Studies with 130 marginalized young men aged 13 to 16…

Harland, Ken

2011-01-01

233

Resilience Moderates the Relationship between Exposure to Violence and Posttraumatic Reexperiencing in Mi'kmaq Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Nova Scotian Mi'kmaq community that hopes to shed light on the relationship between exposure to violence and mental health in First Nations youth. This particular study sought to examine how the multifaceted construct of resilience might act as a protective factor,…

Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H.; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Stevens, Doreen; Ungar, Michael; Wekerle, Christine

2010-01-01

234

The Rise and Fall of American Youth Violence: 1980 to 2000. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines trends in violent crime from 1980-2000, analyzing what portion of the recent crime drop can be attributed to juveniles (under age 18 years) and young adults (ages 18-24 years). Data come from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Results indicate that the decline in youth violence, as…

Butts, Jeffrey; Travis, Jeremy

235

THE ANALYSIS OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES AND PARENTAL MONITORING AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO YOUTH VIOLENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine how extracurricular activities and parental monitoring relate to rural youth violence. Gender differences were examined across all of the study variables. Self-report data were collected from 235 teenagers from a rural, ethnically diverse, Virginia community. Correlations revealed a significant inverse relationship between church activity as well as parental monitoring and weapon,carrying.

Deanna Christine Linville

236

Boys and Violence: A Gender-Informed Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the phenomenon of youth violence from a psychology of gender perspective. Although other factors are discussed—including gun availability, violence-related media influence, family and caretaker factors, and effects of teasing and bullying—the intention is to highlight new thinking on the potential relationship between boys' traditional masculine socialization experiences and violence. In this new perspective, traditional masculine socialization estranges

June Feder; Ronald F. Levant; James Dean

2010-01-01

237

Boys and Violence: A Gender-Informed Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the phenomenon of youth violence from a psychology of gender perspective. Although other factors are discussed—including gun availability, violence-related media influence, family and caretaker factors, and effects of teasing and bullying—the intention is to highlight new thinking on the potential relationship between boys' traditional masculine socialization experiences and violence. In this new perspective, traditional masculine socialization estranges

June Feder; Ronald F. Levant; James Dean

2007-01-01

238

Spanish language television news portrayals of youth and violence in california.  

PubMed

Language is central to Latino1 culture and to the current multicultural multilingual realities of the United States. This exploratory study takes those who may be unfamiliar with Spanish language television news through a comparative analysis of television portrayals of youth and violence. Findings from this ethnographic content analysis reveal that local Spanish language television news stories on youth and/or violence are framed thematically (with a social, political, and economic context) three and a half times more often than English language local television news. This study highlights the importance of engaging the Spanish media in the future health promotion efforts. Public health advocates can share information related to the socioeconomic factors associated with violence and outline policy and programmatic solutions with Spanish language journalists. PMID:20841041

Chávez, V; Dorfman, L

1996-01-01

239

Essential elements for community engagement in evidence-based youth violence prevention.  

PubMed

In the field of youth violence prevention, there has been increasing emphasis on "evidence based" programs and principles shown through scientific research as reaching their intended outcomes. Community mobilization and engagement play a critical role in many evidence-based programs and strategies, as it takes a concerted effort among a wide range of people within a community to alter behavior and maintain behavioral change. How do concerned individuals and groups within a community engage others within and outside of that community to effectively plan, develop and implement appropriate EB programs as well as evaluate the outcomes and impacts of locally developed programs yet to be proven? The authors discuss five elements essential for community engagement in evidence-based youth violence prevention based on their work in a university-community partnership through the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (API Center), a National Academic Center for Excellence on Youth Violence Prevention Center supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They include: (a) aligning EBPs with a community's shared vision and values; (b) establishing an inclusive environment for the planning, implementation and evaluation of EBPs; (c) nurturing collaboration for increased effectiveness and efficacy of EBPs; (d) building adequate leadership and community capacity to develop and sustain EBPs; and (e) building a learning community for evaluation and self-reflection. The authors propose placing greater emphasis on "evaluative thinking" and organizational capacity for evaluation as we pursue evidence-based practices for youth violence prevention. This is especially important for ethnic groups for which an evidence base is not well established. PMID:21203825

Miao, Tai-An; Umemoto, Karen; Gonda, Deanna; Hishinuma, Earl S

2011-09-01

240

Cultural Causes of Rage and Violence in Children and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines differences between rage and violence. States that attitudes towards violence are influenced by: family, peer group, the media, weapons, school structure, and community. Strategies for preventing rage and aggression include: (1) communicating clear behavioral expectations; (2) giving frequent praise and other forms of recognition; and (3)…

Manno, Carla J.; Bantz, Jeanmarie; Kauffman, James M.

2000-01-01

241

The Epidemic of Youth Violence in America: Using Public Health Prevention Strategies to Prevent Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Violence is exacting an increasingly heavy toll on individuals across the country, causing a marked rise in fear and frustration. However, historical attempts to address violence have been both episodic and inconsistent. There has not been a comprehensive and coordinated, prevention-oriented approach. Many law enforcement experts now agree that violence must be met with solutions from disciplines other than law

Deborah B. Prothrow-Stith

1995-01-01

242

The Epidemic of Youth Violence in America: Using Public Health Prevention Strategies to Prevent Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence is exacting an increasingly heavy toll on individuals across the country, causing a marked rise in fear and frustration. However, historical attempts to address violence have been both episodic and inconsistent. There has not been a comprehensive and coordinated, prevention-oriented approach. Many law enforcement experts now agree that violence must be met with solutions from disciplines other than law

1995-01-01

243

Cultural–Societal Roots of Violence: The Examples of Genocidal Violence and of Contemporary Youth Violence in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread violence in a society must have its origins in cultural characteristics, current societal conditions, or both. In this article, the cultural, societal, and psychological origins of two very different forms of violence are examined. A conception of the origins of genocide and mass killing is briefly presented, with the Holocaust and the violence in the former Yugoslavia as supporting

Ervin Staub

1996-01-01

244

The relationship between violence and youth suicide indicators among Asian American and Pacific Islander youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature documents a relationship between interpersonal violence and suicide. One tool used to understand interpersonal violence is the Power Wheel, developed from clinical experience and originally used in domestic violence education. We examine the relationship between Teen Power and Control Wheel domains and suicidal indicators (seriously considered suicide, made a suicide plan, and attempted suicide) among Asian American and

Deborah A. Goebert; Cathy K. Bell; Barry Carlton; Michael Fukuda

2009-01-01

245

Exposure to Community Violence, Psychopathology, and Personality Traits in Russian Youth  

PubMed Central

Previous research with the US inner-city youth demonstrated the hazardous effects of community violence exposure. It remains unclear, however, whether these findings are generalizable to other cultures and populations. Furthermore, the role of factors influencing the processing of traumatic events such as personality has not been investigated. Two groups of Russian adolescents (community youth (N = 546) and male delinquents (N = 352)) completed questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, conduct problems, internalizing psychopathology and personality. The study demonstrates that the relationships between exposure to violence and psychopathology are similar across different populations within the same culture (community youth and juvenile delinquents), suggesting similar mechanisms behind this phenomenon. The patterns of these relationships were also similar for boys and girls, suggesting similarities in the mechanisms across gender. Hence, the effects of community violence exposure are generalizable to other cultures outside the US. The associations between personality traits and specific types of behaviors also tend to be similar across different populations. Higher levels of novelty seeking were related to more severe problem behaviors and to higher levels of witnessing and victimization, whereas higher levels of harm avoidance were related to higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress.

Koposov, Roman; Ruchkin, Vladislav

2011-01-01

246

The radio: the tool for violence prevention among youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionViolence is a leading global public health problem and public health strategies had been advocated to address it. Radio is the predominant source of news and information for the African public. Radio may be a source to disseminate suggestions that may advance violence prevention especially in Nigeria.ObjectiveTo study the impact of using the radio in preventing injuries from violent conflict

H E Swomen; O Onazi; M Valenti; I John

2010-01-01

247

An exploratory investigation of adolescent intimate partner violence among african american youth: a gendered analysis.  

PubMed

Extant research demonstrates that while adolescent intimate partner violence (IPV) is an ever-growing concern in the United States, most research on IPV has focused on adult victims and offenders. To fill this gap in the literature, the present research examines youth IPV by conducting focus groups with 25 male and female youth between the ages of 15 and 19 years whose race was primarily African American. Drawing on open-ended responses by adolescent participants, the present study aimed to shed light on African American youths' perceptions of IPV, their perceptions regarding such violence among their peers, the dynamics of help-seeking behaviors, and what services youth perceive as most helpful in the prevention and intervention of adolescent IPV. Findings reveal that most participants only recognize physical aggression as IPV; express hesitation in disclosing violence to adults, especially nonfamily adults; and report being unaware of and/or unwilling to utilize existing prevention and intervention services traditionally targeted at adult populations. Implications for future research and policy are also presented and discussed. PMID:23920339

Love, Sharon Redhawk; Richards, Tara N

2013-08-06

248

Multiple Traumas, Postelection Violence, and Posttraumatic Stress Among Impoverished Kenyan Youth  

PubMed Central

Research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among youth has focused on specific subgroups from developed countries. Most of the world’s youth and war-like violence, however, is concentrated in developing countries, yet there is limited mental health data within affected countries. This study focused on a random community-based sample of 552 impoverished youth ages 6–18 within an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya, which experienced war-like violence for a month following the contested presidential election of 2007. Six months after the violence ended, 99 (18%) had PTSD according to the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (Steinberg, Brymer, Decker, & Pynoos, 2004), and an additional 18 (3%) were found to have partial PTSD due to high overall scores. Kenyan psychologists conducted diagnostic interviews and found the positive predictive value of the assessment tool to be 72% in this sample; the confirmed prevalence was 12%. Similar to other studies worldwide, Criterion C (avoidance) was the limiting factor for diagnosing PTSD according to the DSM-IV-TR, and parent–child agreement was at best fair. The number of traumatic experiences was strongly associated with PTSD outcomes. Differences due to age or sex were not found. The findings indicate the need for universal mental health services for trauma-exposed youth and their families in the impoverished informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.

Harder, Valerie S.; Mutiso, Victoria N.; Khasakhala, Lincoln I.; Burke, Heather M.; Ndetei, David M.

2012-01-01

249

Multiple traumas, postelection violence, and posttraumatic stress among impoverished Kenyan youth.  

PubMed

Research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among youth has focused on specific subgroups from developed countries. Most of the world's youth and war-like violence, however, is concentrated in developing countries, yet there is limited mental health data within affected countries. This study focused on a random community-based sample of 552 impoverished youth ages 6-18 within an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya, which experienced war-like violence for a month following the contested presidential election of 2007. Six months after the violence ended, 99 (18%) had PTSD according to the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (Steinberg, Brymer, Decker, & Pynoos, 2004), and an additional 18 (3%) were found to have partial PTSD due to high overall scores. Kenyan psychologists conducted diagnostic interviews and found the positive predictive value of the assessment tool to be 72% in this sample; the confirmed prevalence was 12%. Similar to other studies worldwide, Criterion C (avoidance) was the limiting factor for diagnosing PTSD according to the DSM-IV-TR, and parent-child agreement was at best fair. The number of traumatic experiences was strongly associated with PTSD outcomes. Differences due to age or sex were not found. The findings indicate the need for universal mental health services for trauma-exposed youth and their families in the impoverished informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID:22354509

Harder, Valerie S; Mutiso, Victoria N; Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Burke, Heather M; Ndetei, David M

2012-02-01

250

The mediating role of social support, cognitive appraisal, and quality health care in black mothers' stress-resilience process following loss to gun violence.  

PubMed

Although much attention has been granted to the perpetrators and victims of gun violence, limitations exist in our understanding of the psychological well-being of parents grieving children lost to gun violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of social support, cognitive appraisal, and quality health care on the relationship between traumatic stress and resilience among Black mothers bereaving children to gun violence. A cross-sectional design and network sampling method were used to recruit 48 Black mothers living in a large Canadian city. Participants completed a survey either by phone or in person. Social support and positive appraisal were found to be protective factors of resilience for study participants. The traumatic stress experienced by the sample decreased with increased social support (beta = -.291, p = .045), leading to an increase of their resilience (beta = .297, p = .032). With positive appraisal of the loss, the stress levels of study participants decreased (beta = -.334, p = .023), leading to increased resilience (beta = .441, p = .003). Quality health care showed a significant positive relationship with the resilience of the women (beta = .313, p = .023) but did not mediate the relationship between their stress and resilience. For Black mothers who experience loss of a child to gun violence, policy and social change efforts should focus on strengthening their access to formal and informal supports and improving their abilities to find meaning in their loss. PMID:23763109

Bailey, Annette; Sharma, Manoj; Jubin, Michelle

2013-01-01

251

History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multi-Ethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest  

PubMed Central

This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. They participated in 1 of 2 prevention interventions offered by a local non-governmental organization. The first intervention was tailored for adjudicated youth (N=49) who were either institutionalized or were returning to the community after involvement with the criminal justice system. The second intervention targeted youth (N=32) who were homeless/runaway and/or self-identified as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (GLBT). T-tests and linear regression were used to determine the differences between youth reporting a history of violence by type of perpetrator, its relationship with HIV risk, and the role of ethnic identification and acculturation status as potential protective factors. Violence by a family member was the most common type of violence reported, with a history of violence positively related to HIV risk. Ethnic identification and linguistic acculturation had a protective effect against HIV risk among the homeless and GLBT youth but not among the adjudicated youth.

Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya; Valdez, Elizabeth; Gurrola, Maria; Marrs, Catherine

2009-01-01

252

The Overlap of Witnessing Partner Violence with Child Maltreatment and Other Victimizations in a Nationally Representative Survey of Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine the co-occurrence of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other forms of victimization. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 4,549 youth aged 0-17. Results: Witnessing partner…

Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard

2010-01-01

253

Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is a serious global public health problem. Despite a decline in homicide rates across the United States during the 1990s, homicide rates are again rising and continue to claim the lives of many young people. The human and economic toll of violence on young people, their families, and society is high. Homicide is the second leading…

Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Toal, Susan B., Comp.; Swahn, Monica H., Comp.; Behrens, Christopher B., Comp.

2005-01-01

254

Methods for Linking Community Views to Measureable Outcomes in a Youth Violence Prevention Program  

PubMed Central

Background All parties in community–academic partnerships have a vested interest prevention program success. Markers of success that reflect community’s experiences of programmatic prevention success are not always measurable, but critically speak to community-defined needs. Objective The purpose of this manuscript was to (1) describe our systematic process for linking locally relevant community views (community-defined indicators) to measurable outcomes in the context of a youth violence prevention program and (2) discuss lessons learned, next steps, and recommendations for others trying to replicate a similar process. Methods A research team composed of both academic and community researchers conducted a systematic process of matching community-defined indicators of youth violence prevention programmatic success to standardized youth survey items being administered in the course of a program evaluation. The research team of three community partners and Five academic partners considered 43 community-defined indicators and 208 items from the youth surveys being utilized within the context of a community-based aggression prevention program. At the end of the matching process, 92 youth survey items were identified and agreed upon as potential matches to 11 of the community-defined indicators. Conclusions We applied rigorous action steps to match community-defined indicators to survey data collected in the youth violence prevention intervention. We learned important lessons that inform recommendations for others interested in such endeavors. The process used to derive and assess community-defined indicators of success emphasized the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and use of existing and available data to reduce participant burden.

McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A.; Walker, Alia; Branas, Charles C.; TenHave, Thomas R.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Leff, Stephen S.; Hausman, Alice J.

2013-01-01

255

Community violence exposure and post-traumatic stress reactions among Gambian youth: the moderating role of positive school climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Community violence exposure among youth can lead to various negative outcomes, including post-traumatic stress symptoms. Research\\u000a in the Western world indicates that a number of social support factors may moderate the relation between violence exposure\\u000a and internalizing symptoms. Little research has been carried out in non-Western countries. This study aimed to fill this gap\\u000a by exploring the relations among violence

Deborah A. O'DonnellWilliam; William C. Roberts; Mary E. Schwab-Stone

2011-01-01

256

Does the Alcohol Make Them Do It? Dating Violence Perpetration and Drinking Among Youth  

PubMed Central

Strong evidence links alcohol use to partner violence perpetration among adults, but the relation between youth alcohol use and dating violence perpetration (DVP) is not as well studied. The authors used meta-analytic procedures to evaluate current knowledge on the association between alcohol use and DVP among youth. The authors reviewed 28 studies published in 1985–2010; most (82%) were cross-sectional. Alcohol use was measured in 3 main ways: 1) frequency or quantity of use, 2) frequency of heavy episodic drinking, or 3) problem use. Collectively, results support the conclusion that higher levels of alcohol use are positively associated with youth DVP. With fixed-effects models, the combined odds ratios for DVP for frequency/quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and problem use were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.31), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.85), and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.94, 2.80), respectively. This association persisted even after accounting for heterogeneity and publication bias. No studies were designed to assess the immediate temporal association between drinking and DVP. Future research should assess whether there are acute or pharmacologic effects of alcohol use on youth DVP. Furthermore, few studies have been hypothesis driven, controlled for potential confounding, or examined potential effect measure modification. Studies designed to investigate the youth alcohol–DVP link specifically, and whether results vary by individuals’ gender, developmental stage, or culture, are needed.

Rothman, Emily F.; McNaughton Reyes, Luz; Johnson, Renee M.; LaValley, Michael

2012-01-01

257

Coping with stress, coping with violence: Links to mental health outcomes among at-risk youth  

PubMed Central

Coping reactions to stressful events are important links between difficult experiences and the emergence of psychopathology. In this study we compared youths' negative coping with stress in general to their negative coping with violence in particular, and utilized a person-centered analytic approach to examine how patterns of coping relate to various mental health outcomes. We utilized survey interview measures to collect data from a sample of 131 youth (ages 11–14, 100% ethnic minority) residing in an economically distressed metropolitan area of the northeast. We observed significant relations between youths' tendencies to cope with stress and violence via externalized-internalized strategies (e.g., yelling to let off steam, crying) and their mental health symptoms. However, we generally did not observe relations between engagement in distancing coping strategies (e.g., making believe nothing happened) and any problematic outcomes. Negative coping does not appear be a monolithic construct uniformly associated with negative outcomes for youth. Distancing coping might represent an especially useful short-term coping response for youth living in socioeconomically distressed conditions from the standpoint of inhibiting symptom development.

Boxer, Paul; Sloan-Power, Elizabeth; Schappell, Ignacio Mercado and Ashley

2012-01-01

258

Creating an Eff ective Foundation to Prevent Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from Boston in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the course of the 1990's, Boston received national attention for Opera- tion Ceasefi re and other innovative ef- forts to prevent youth violence. In the four years after Operation Ceasefi re was launched in 1996, youth homicides in the city dropped by almost two-thirds. As a result, the U.S. Department of Justice embraced Operation Ceasefi re's \\

Anthony A. Braga

259

Making a Difference: The Impact of Traditional Male Role Models on Drug Sale Activity and Violence Involving Black Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elijah Anderson's Code of the Street provides an ethnographic account of a disadvantaged urban environment where residents face poverty and racial residential isolation. For Anderson, joblessness among African-American men deprive youth of positive male role models, creating a context for the “street code” to govern behavior, leading youth to violence. Similarly, a disadvantaged urban setting in which opportunities in legitimate

Karen F. Parker; Scott R. Maggard

2009-01-01

260

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific…

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2012-01-01

261

Invest in Kids--Californians Support New Approach To Prevent Youth Violence. Living Well, Spending for Health. Policy Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This "Policy Note" highlights new information about youth crime and prevention that suggest that California has a unique opportunity over the next several years to invest in new preventive approaches for reducing youth violence. Several surveys by the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) have documented that Californians share a vision…

California Center for Health Improvement, Sacramento.

262

Getting Teachers in on the Act: Evaluation of a Theater and Classroom-Based Youth Violence Prevention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study replicated and extended our previous evaluation of Urban Improv (UI), a theater-based youth violence prevention (YVP) program developed for urban youth. It assessed the replicability of positive program impacts when implemented by nonprogram originators, as well as the utility of a comprehensive version of the UI program that included a classroom-based teacher curriculum (TC). Outcomes compared 260 elementary

Marla Zucker; Joseph Spinazzola; Amie Alley Pollack; Lauren Pepe; Stephanie Barry; Lynda Zhang; Bessel van der Kolk

2010-01-01

263

Getting Teachers in on the Act: Evaluation of a Theater- and Classroom-Based Youth Violence Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study replicated and extended our previous evaluation of Urban Improv (UI), a theater-based youth violence prevention (YVP) program developed for urban youth. It assessed the replicability of positive program impacts when implemented by nonprogram originators, as well as the utility of a comprehensive version of the UI program that included…

Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph; Pollack, Amie Alley; Pepe, Lauren; Barry, Stephanie; Zhang, Lynda; van der Kolk, Bessel

2010-01-01

264

Youths Who Carry Handguns. The NHSDA Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent high-profile cases of gun violence have drawn attention to the problem of youths who carry handguns. More than 80 percent of homicide victims aged 15 to 19 years old between 1988 and 1997 were killed using firearms, and homicide is the second leadi...

2009-01-01

265

Framing public policy and prevention of chronic violence in American youths.  

PubMed

Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors. PMID:18855489

Dodge, Kenneth A

2008-10-01

266

Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.  

PubMed

Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. PMID:21491577

Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

2011-01-01

267

Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths  

PubMed Central

Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors.

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

268

Essential Elements for Community Engagement in Evidence-Based Youth Violence Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of youth violence prevention, there has been increasing emphasis on “evidence based” programs and principles\\u000a shown through scientific research as reaching their intended outcomes. Community mobilization and engagement play a critical\\u000a role in many evidence-based programs and strategies, as it takes a concerted effort among a wide range of people within a\\u000a community to alter behavior and

Tai-An Miao; Karen Umemoto; Deanna Gonda; Earl S. Hishinuma

269

Youth Violence and Hegemonic Masculinity among Pacific Islander and Asian American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

As scholars and community stakeholders continue to understand hegemonic masculinity and its influences on youth violence,\\u000a it is important that marginalized ethnic groups are not excluded from the discourse. This qualitative exploratory study investigates\\u000a the ways that hegemonic masculinity impacts adolescent boys and girls from Pacific Islander and Asian American backgrounds.\\u000a Research findings reveal how peers, family members, and romantic

David Tokiharu Mayeda; Lisa Pasko

270

Violence in street culture: cross-cultural comparison of youth groups and criminal gangs.  

PubMed

Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in Brazil, Russia, and Germany. Focusing on street culture norms and their relevance for youth groups in everyday life, the author shows that there are worldwide similarities, and these are most likely to be seen in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The article deals not only with the question of how people act in conflicts but also focuses on a social order in which the reputation of men is based mainly on questions of masculinity, honor, and power expressed through aggressive behavior. The results are based on more than one hundred semistructured qualitative interviews with street culture youth, prison inmates, adult family members, social workers, police, and researchers that were conducted in recent years in the three countries.The study also describes a typology of conflict behavior among male street culture youth that helps in understanding why even juveniles who were socialized in the milieu of the street culture can reject violence and do not have to turn to violence in all conflicts. The article examines the similarities in the reasons for violence and fear of violence, as well as the differences in frequency and intensity between violent countries (such as Brazil and the Russian Federation) and less violent countries (for example, Germany). PMID:18855319

Zdun, Steffen

2008-01-01

271

Preventing Youth Violence and Aggression and Promoting Safety in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased violence in schools, represented by possession of weapons, sexual or racial harassment, bullying, verbal intimidation, gang or cult activity, arson, or corporal punishment of students, for example, is a growing concern among students, educators, and communities. Since educators alone cannot ensure safety in schools, collaboration among…

Mulhern, Sean; And Others

272

Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

Ascione, Frank R.

273

The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention  

PubMed Central

School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.

Kim, Nam Su

2013-01-01

274

The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.  

PubMed

School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented. PMID:23390438

Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Nam Su

2013-01-29

275

Community readiness for change and youth violence prevention: a tale of two cities.  

PubMed

This case study identifies a situation in which there exists a set of preconditions for the successful application of evidence based practice to bear on the community based problem of youth violence. The concept of readiness to change and its impact on the success or failure of interventions designed to change harmful or dangerous behavior among individuals is well established and understood in intervention research. In recent years this concept has been discussed and developed in the community intervention and harm reduction literatures. The current study is one of a community where an attempt was made to identify community levels of harm, develop a strategic plan to reduce the source of harm, and develop, implement, and evaluate youth violence prevention interventions. Over more than 5 years of involvement by university based researchers and community partners, the effort was largely unsuccessful. The events of this project are discussed within the context of the Community Readiness Model Edwards et al. (J Community Psychol 28(3): 291-307, 2000) and we present a narrative that helps to highlight the reasons for the relative lack of success of the effort. We suggest additional strategies and actions that might have helped to overcome the lack of readiness of this particular community to reduce the harms associated with youth violence. Suggestions that may improve chances for a more successful set of outcomes for other communities in similar states of readiness to change and with similar challenges are given. PMID:21203826

Parker, Robert Nash; Alcaraz, Roxanna; Payne, Pedro R

2011-09-01

276

Mother abuse: a matter of youth justice, child welfare or domestic violence?  

PubMed

International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence. PMID:20726145

Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie

2010-01-01

277

Epidemiology of mixed martial arts and youth violence in an ethnically diverse sample.  

PubMed

Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies. PMID:22455184

Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M

2012-01-01

278

Adolescent Violence: The Protective Effects of Youth Assets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors explored adolescent physical fighting and weapon carrying, using in-home interviews with 1,098 middle-high school students and their parents. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between youth assets and the risk behaviors while controlling for demographic information. Both demographic factors and assets were…

Aspy, Cheryl B.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; McLeroy, Kenneth; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

2004-01-01

279

Adolescent Violence: The Protective Effects of Youth Assets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored adolescent physical fighting and weapon carrying, using in-home interviews with 1,098 middle-high school students and their parents. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between youth assets and the risk behaviors while controlling for demographic information. Both demographic factors and assets were…

Aspy, Cheryl B.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; McLeroy, Kenneth; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

2004-01-01

280

Children, adolescents, and war: the systematic engagement of youth in collective violence.  

PubMed

Increasingly health personnel are called on to address the needs of adolescents affected by armed conflict. Adolescents suffer as combatants, direct and indirect casualties, as dependents of combatants, and as citizens of countries whose resources are destroyed and/or consumed by war and other forms of organized violence. Survivors of war, ex-child soldiers, refugees, and others are found today in cities on all continents. This paper will review the epidemiology of armed conflict, especially with respect to children and youth, examine the etiology of youth involvement in armed conflict including social risk factors and developmental vulnerabilities, and review the peace-building efforts of the United Nations, communities, and youth themselves. Finally we will briefly review the efforts of those committed to the well-being of adolescents in the areas of advocacy and treatment. PMID:20653212

Warf, Curren; Eisenstein, Evelyn; Stahl, Christiane

2009-12-01

281

Youth Summits: Youth and Adults as Partners in Violence Prevention. Technical Assistance Bulletin, No. 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Taking the position that Youth for Justice Youth Summits were highly successful in their inaugural year of 1995, this report explains the purpose and goals of the summits. The report also summarizes the activities undertaken in the 47 states (plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) where the summits were held on a state-by-state basis. The…

Perry, George S., Jr.

282

Gang Membership, Gun Carrying, and Employment: Applying Routine Activities Theory to Explain Violent Victimization Among Inner City, Minority Youth Living in Extreme Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

du Conceptual inconsistencies in routine activities theory are illustrated by demon- strating how gang membership, gun carrying, and employment can be categorized as both risk and protective factors in a high-poverty context. Two waves of longi- tudinal data from a high-poverty sample of African American youth were used to examine the determinants of victimization risk. Bivariate analyses indicated that gang

Richard Spano; Joshua D. Freilich; John Bolland

2008-01-01

283

Community Problem-Solving to Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence: Atlanta's Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1993, firearm-related deaths and injuries among American youth reached an all-time high. The following year, a consortium of federal officials, local government agencies and community groups came together to create metropolitan Atlanta Project PACT (Pu...

A. L. Kellermann C. Parramore D. Fuqua-Whitley

2004-01-01

284

Youth Violence Prevention. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session (March 31, 1992).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Senate hearing on youth violence, strategies for its prevention, and the appropriate role of the federal government. The hearing stresses the need for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach for youth violence prevention strategies and more coordination by the federal…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

285

Media Violence Research and Youth Violence Data: Why Do They Conflict?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Contrary to media headlines and public perceptions, there is little evidence of a substantial link between exposure to violent interactive games and serious real-life violence or crime. Conclusion: Further research is needed on whether violent games may affect less dramatic but real concerns such as bullying, fighting, or attitudes and…

Olson, Cheryl K.

2004-01-01

286

Guns, Alcohol, and Intimate Partner Violence: The Epidemiology of Female Suicide in New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide is among the leading causes of death in the United States, and in women the second leading cause of injury death overall. Previous studies have suggested links between intimate partner violence and suicide in women. We examined female suicide deaths to identify and describe associated risk factors. We reviewed all reports from the New Mexico Office of the Medical

Lenora Olson; Frank Huyler; Arthur W Lynch; Lynne Fullerton; Deborah Werenko; David Sklar; Ross Zumwalt

1999-01-01

287

Drugs, guns, and kids: The association between substance use and injury caused by interpersonal violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drug and alcohol uses have been linked to the frequency of injury events, recurrent hospital admission for injury, and interpersonal violence. Data regarding the association of recent substance use and injury type and frequency in children and young adults are not available. Such data probably would be valuable in planning interventions to prevent substance use and reduce the risks

Atul Madan; Derrick J. Beech; Lewis Flint

2001-01-01

288

Jumping the gun? Reflections on armed violence in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firearms have played a significant role in exacerbating invidious forms of violence in Papua New Guinea. Victimisation rates in the National Capital District (NCD) are amongst the highest in the world. Port Moresby, the country's largest and fastest growing urban centre, accounts for some 34 per cent of all nationally reported crimes, despite accounting for only 5 per cent of

Nicole Haley; Robert Muggah

2006-01-01

289

The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature…

Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard

290

Youth and Violence: The Current Crisis. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the text of a Congressional hearing, chaired by Representative George Miller, on the epidemic of gang warfare and violence among youth. Testimony is presented from these witnesses: (1) James Brown, juvenile court probation officer, Multnomah County Juvenile Justice Department, Portland, Oregon; (2) John A. Calhoun,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

291

Evaluating Agency and Responsibility in Gendered Violence: African American Youth Talk About Violence and Hip Hop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of this study provide insights into the ways that African American adolescents think about gendered interpersonal\\u000a violence. African American high school students were invited to discuss images and incidents from contemporary urban music\\u000a culture (events based on incidents with famous hip hop figures and lyrics from rap music) in a focus group format. We explored\\u000a how African American

Catherine R. Squires; Laura P. Kohn-Wood; Tabbye Chavous; Prudence L. Carter

2006-01-01

292

A Community-based Approach to Preventing Youth Violence: What Can We Learn from the Playground?  

PubMed Central

Background Aggression, bullying, and victimization represent tremendous public health concerns among youth. These behaviors occur frequently in unstructured settings, such as the playground. Direct observations of the playground permit examination of these peer processes and are readily accomplished using community-based participatory research. Objectives To present alternative viewpoints regarding the use of playground observations to evaluate peer aggression, bullying, and victimization. Methods We used (a) a child-specific observational coding system and (b) naturalistic observation of the playground to examine playground behaviors. Results Peer-child processes have differential associations with conduct disorder and depression symptoms. Group-based observations suggested a number of strengths and some areas that would be amenable to intervention. Conclusions A community-based participatory research framework is useful for identifying youth involved in bullying and victimization; providing immediate support, interventions, and problem-solving strategies; and predicting potential negative outcomes, which can inform violence prevention and intervention efforts.

Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Baugh, David

2010-01-01

293

Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. Methods Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (?18 yrs) and adult patients. Findings 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6–12], p<0.001), and less frequently by military personnel (13% vs 48%, OR 0.14 [95%CI 0.075–0.26], p<0.001). Delayed presentation for medical care (>72 hours after the assault) was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2–4.0], p?=?0.007). Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3–4.4], p?=?0.006). Nine (2.9%) pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p?=?0.34). Interpretation World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth.

Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Lussy Justin, Paluku; Kimona, Christophe; Nyavandu, Kavira; Mukekulu Eugenie, Kamabu; Jonathan, Kasereka Muhindo Lusi; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Hawkes, Michael

2011-01-01

294

Youth Helping Youth: Linking Violence to Poor School Performance in the Latino Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why so many Latino students drop out of schools is considered from the perspective that much of the literature on this problem is inadequate because it ignores the experiences of Latino youth at home, in school, and in the community, and attempts to explain the failure of the educational system in terms of just one area. Interviews were conducted…

Jose-Kampfner, Cristina

295

Effects of Baltimore's Safe Streets Program on gun violence: a replication of Chicago's CeaseFire Program.  

PubMed

Chicago's CeaseFire program is an evidence-based public health approach to preventing gun violence. Baltimore is one of many US cities attempting to replicate the program. We compared changes in the number of homicide and nonfatal shooting incidents per month in four intervention neighborhoods with changes in high-crime comparison areas (police posts) without the intervention, while controlling for several measures of police activity and baseline levels of homicide and nonfatal shootings. In South Baltimore there were large program-related reductions in homicide and nonfatal shooting incidents. Among three East Baltimore program sites, the program was associated with a reduction of homicides in one area, a reduction in nonfatal shootings in another area, and a simultaneous increase in homicides and decrease in nonfatal shootings in another area. In some instances, program effects extended to neighborhoods bordering the intervention areas. Program-related reductions in homicides appear to be linked with conflict mediations conducted by program outreach workers. PMID:22696175

Webster, Daniel W; Whitehill, Jennifer Mendel; Vernick, Jon S; Curriero, Frank C

2013-02-01

296

Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence

Council of Europe Forum, 1985

1985-01-01

297

Behavioral adaptation among youth exposed to community violence: a longitudinal multidisciplinary study of family, peer and neighborhood-level protective factors.  

PubMed

Several studies across fields have documented the detrimental effects of exposure to violence and, separately, the power of developmental assets to promote positive youth development. However, few have examined the lives of youth exposed to violence who demonstrate resilience (that is, positive adjustment despite risk), and hardly any have examined how developmental assets may shape resilient trajectories into adulthood for youth exposed to violence. What are these resources and relationships that high-risk youth can leverage to tip the balance from vulnerability in favor of resilience? We used generalized estimating equations to examine multilevel longitudinal data from 1,114 youth of ages 11-16 from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Behavioral adaptation was a dynamic process that varied over time and by level of violence exposure. In the short term, being a victim was associated with increased aggression and delinquency. In the long term though, both victims and witnesses to violence had higher odds of behavioral adaptation. Baseline family support and family boundaries, friend support, neighborhood support, and collective efficacy had positive main effects for all youth. Additionally, having family support, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities for participation modified the effect of exposure to violence and increased odds of behavioral adaptation over time. Policies, systems, and programs across sectors should focus on building caring relationships/supports with family members and friends, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities especially for witnesses and victims of violence, to promote behavioral resilience and related outcomes into adulthood for high-risk youth. PMID:23404664

Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

2013-12-01

298

The Effectiveness of the Warning Signs Program in Educating Youth about Violence Prevention: A Study with Urban High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the Warning Signs program in educating urban high school youth about the signs of potential violence in themselves and others was stud- ied. No differences were found with exposure to the program. Rather, students in all groups identified certain personality traits that are suggestive of vio- lence, but ignored family, school, and social contribu- tors. Suggestions for

Kristin Schaefer

299

The link between rap music and youth crime and violence: A review of the literature and issues for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the empirical literature to assess the validity of the perceived association between rap music and youth violence. Research shows that studies examining this issue are virtually nonexistent and do not consistently support a cause?effect relationship. Theoretical, methodological, and conceptual shortcomings further limit the significance of the research findings. The history of the music genre, arguments for the

Becky L. Tatum

1999-01-01

300

Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

2011-01-01

301

Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

302

The Link Between Mental Health Problems and Youth Violence in Adolescence: A Multilevel Test of DSM-Oriented Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early identification of mental illness in youngsters is an important goal for youth, their families, and society. This study utilized continuous indicators of DSM-oriented psychopathology to explore the link between adolescent mental health and physical violence. Relying on data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) and controlling for various community, friend, family, and individual risk

Jennifer Wareham; Denise Paquette Boots

2012-01-01

303

Keeping Colorado's Kids Safe. Special Report from the Summit on School Safety and the Prevention of Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report offers highlights of a special summit in Colorado during which policymakers and citizens discussed the many causes and possible solutions to youth violence. It opens with the statement that solutions start with family, community, faith, and a culture that reinforces the lessons of right and wrong. It advocates connecting every child…

Owens, Bill; Salazar, Ken

304

"I Live by Shooting Hill" - A Qualitative Exploration of Conflict and Violence among Urban Youth in New Haven, Connecticut  

PubMed Central

To elucidate urban youths’ perceptions of conflict and violence we conducted a qualitative study among minority urban youths in New Haven, Connecticut. We utilized the ecological framework to explore the multilevel nature of the findings, and triangulated results with a parallel quantitative study. We found risk factors for violence at multiple levels including lack of interpersonal anger management skills (individual level); parents not physically present in the household (relationship level); residence in crime and gang-ridden neighborhoods (community level); and socioeconomic inequalities between neighborhoods, as reflected by participants’ perception of the inadequacy of neighborhood resources to provide safety (societal level). Neighborhood resources were perceived as sparse, and police were not regarded as a protective factor (sometimes rather as racially discriminatory). Participants’ statements pertaining to feelings of isolation, racism, and violence without strong parental, neighborhood, and school support may impede prosocial attitudes and behaviors throughout adolescence and young adulthood.

Shuval, Kerem; Massey, Zohar; O Caughy, Margaret; Cavanaugh, Brenda; Pillsbury, Charles A; Groce, Nora

2013-01-01

305

"I live by shooting hill"-a qualitative exploration of conflict and violence among urban youth in New Haven, Connecticut.  

PubMed

To elucidate urban youths' perceptions of conflict and violence we conducted a qualitative study among minority urban youths in New Haven, Connecticut. We utilized the ecological framework to explore the multilevel nature of the findings, and triangulated results with a parallel quantitative study. We found risk factors for violence at multiple levels including lack of interpersonal anger management skills (individual level); parents not physically present in the household (relationship level); residence in crime and gang-ridden neighborhoods (community level); and socioeconomic inequalities between neighborhoods, as reflected by participants' perception of the inadequacy of neighborhood resources to provide safety (societal level). Neighborhood resources were perceived as sparse, and police were not regarded as a protective factor (sometimes rather as racially discriminatory). Participants' statements pertaining to feelings of isolation, racism, and violence without strong parental, neighborhood, and school support may impede prosocial attitudes and behaviors throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22643467

Shuval, Kerem; Massey, Zohar; Caughy, Margaret O; Cavanaugh, Brenda; Pillsbury, Charles A; Groce, Nora

2012-02-01

306

Youth Violence: Developing Local and State Solutions. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State Solutions (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state solutions. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

307

Education policy implications from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence.  

PubMed

The research from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence makes a compelling case for why educators and education policymakers should care about the effects of media on youth behavior, and the growing phenomenon of Internet bullying and harassment. The ability of the U.S. education system to respond is limited not only by competing instructional priorities but also by the governance structure of the education system itself. The federal role is limited to a proportionally small amount of funding for states and schools, to raising public awareness, and to providing research and data. States can set priorities, make requirements, and direct funding. Districts and schools ultimately have the most control over prevention program selection and setting social and behavioral norms. Key implications of the panel's research for educators and education policymakers include: Internet bullying is correlated with school behavior problems; Internet bullying behavior may peak in middle school; Internet bullying shares common predictors with verbal and, to some extent, physical bullying; Media literacy programs may mitigate the negative effects of electronic media on youth. Specific recommendations based on these conclusions are discussed, and research priorities for the prevention and education fields are identified. PMID:18047948

Worthen, Maria R

2007-12-01

308

Screening and Assessing Violence and Mental Health Disorders in a Cohort of Inner City HIV-Positive Youth between 1998-2006  

PubMed Central

Abstract The focus of the primary care appointments for HIV-positive youth is often solely on medical concerns. However, these youth also present with mental health issues and histories of exposure to violence. To screen and assess for mental health disorders, HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 to 24 consecutively enrolled in an adolescent and young adult HIV clinic between 1998–2006 (n?=?174), were screened for mental health disorders and violence, using the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ). All youth subsequently had diagnostic interviews conducted by psychologists. Findings of the CDQ and the psychological interviews revealed the following. Violence reported by youth occurred in several forms: physical assault/abuse (24% in childhood; 19% as adolescents), sexual abuse/assault (28% in childhood; 15% as adolescents), dating violence (i.e., physical abuse by sexual partner) (18%), and family violence (44%). Females had higher sexual abuse (p?youth had higher symptoms of anxiety (p?youth had higher symptoms of PTSD (p?Youth with family violence had higher symptoms of Anxiety Disorder (p?youth present with high prevalence of violence and with psychological disorders. Failure to screen for and treat these psychological disorders may impact successful treatment of their HIV infection.

Hosek, Sybil G.; Carleton, Russell A.

2009-01-01

309

Family and Youth Services Bureau  

MedlinePLUS

... We Do Positive Youth Development Interoperability Collaborations Leadership Help for Families & Youth Programs Runaway & Homeless Youth Family Violence Prevention & Services Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention ...

310

Firearms and family violence.  

PubMed

Firearms contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in family violence. This article discusses the debate on gun use for protection and guns in the home. Weapons-related risks in the setting of intimate partner violence are closely reviewed. Recommendations for physicians are discussed in the context of firearms and family violence. PMID:10516848

Kellermann, A; Heron, S

1999-08-01

311

Religiosity profiles of American youth in relation to substance use, violence, and delinquency.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known in terms of the relationship between religiosity profiles and adolescents' involvement in substance use, violence, and delinquency. Using a diverse sample of 17,705 (49 % female) adolescents from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, latent profile analysis and multinomial regression are employed to examine the relationships between latent religiosity classes and substance use, violence, and delinquency. Results revealed a five class solution. Classes were identified as religiously disengaged (10.76 %), religiously infrequent (23.59 %), privately religious (6.55 %), religious regulars (40.85 %), and religiously devoted (18.25 %). Membership in the religiously devoted class was associated with the decreased likelihood of participation in a variety of substance use behaviors as well as decreases in the likelihood of fighting and theft. To a lesser extent, membership in the religious regulars class was also associated with the decreased likelihood of substance use and fighting. However, membership in the religiously infrequent and privately religious classes was only associated with the decreased likelihood of marijuana use. Findings suggest that private religiosity alone does not serve to buffer youth effectively against involvement in problem behavior, but rather that it is the combination of intrinsic and extrinsic adolescent religiosity factors that is associated with participation in fewer problem behaviors. PMID:22476727

Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Hodge, David R; Perron, Brian E

2012-04-03

312

Methodological challenges examining subgroup differences: examples from universal school-based youth violence prevention trials.  

PubMed

This article reviews the literature on school-based universal violence prevention programs to illustrate key methodological challenges for investigating subgroup differences in prevention effects. The variety of potential moderating factors examined within this literature is discussed within the context of a social-ecological model. Our review of this literature identified the following methodological issues: the need for a clear a priori theoretical basis for selecting potential moderators, inflated Type I error rates that result from large numbers of comparisons, the absence of explicit tests of moderation, interpretive issues arising from a restricted range on moderator variables, the failure to report effect size estimates, the presence of potential confounding factors, and the importance of examining factors that might operate at multiple ecological levels. These points are illustrated using examples of studies, primarily within youth violence prevention research, that have identified factors within the individual, school, and community that moderate the outcomes of preventive interventions. We conclude with general recommendations for future work. These include the benefits of using the social-ecological model to provide a basis for moving from exploratory to more theory-driven confirmatory models of subgroup differences, the potential merits of qualitative research designed to identify factors that may influence the effectiveness of intervention efforts for specific subgroups of individuals, and the provision of effect size estimates and confidence intervals for effect sizes in prevention reports. PMID:21274627

Farrell, Albert D; Henry, David B; Bettencourt, Amie

2013-04-01

313

Now Is the Time: The President's Plan to Protect Our Children and Our Communities By Reducing Gun Violence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most gun owners are responsible and law-abiding, and they use their guns safely. The President strongly believes that the Second Amendment guarantees an individual right to bear arms. But to better protect our children and our communities from tragic mass...

2013-01-01

314

Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City's Youth: A Matter of Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…

Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

2004-01-01

315

Mobilizing Communities to Implement Evidence-Based Practices in Youth Violence Prevention: The State of the Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community mobilization can increase the effective implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in youth violence prevention.\\u000a These strategies bring together people and organizations in a community to try to solve or reduce a problem. They help communities\\u000a address the challenges of identifying EBPs, disseminating them to local decision-makers, and then implementing and sustaining\\u000a them if they are successful. Science-based systems for

Thomas E. Backer; Nancy G. Guerra

316

Examining Space–Time Interaction in City-Level Homicide Data: Crack Markets and the Diffusion of Guns Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the linkage between crack market activity and gunhomicide suggested by Blumstein (1995), who argues that the arrival ofcrack stimulated an increased availability of guns among juveniles. Thisgreater availability of guns, the argument continues, is responsible for thesharp upswing in juvenile homicide experienced in the United States in themid-1980s. Using city-level data on crack arrests and gun-related juvenilehomicide,

Daniel Cork

1999-01-01

317

Youth Empowerment Solutions for Peaceful Communities: combining theory and practice in a community-level violence prevention curriculum.  

PubMed

This article describes the development and evaluation of an after-school curriculum designed to prepare adolescents to prevent violence through community change. This curriculum, part of the Youth Empowerment Solutions for Peaceful Communities (YES) program, is guided by empowerment and ecological theories within a positive youth development context. YES is designed to enhance the capacity of adolescents and adults to work together to plan and implement community change projects. The youth curriculum is organized around six themed units: (a) Youth as Leaders, (b) Learning about Our Community, (c) Improving Our Community, (d) Building Intergenerational Partnerships, (e) Planning for Change, and (f) Action and Reflection. The curriculum was developed through an iterative process. Initially, program staff members documented their activities with youth. These outlines were formalized as curriculum sessions. Each session was reviewed by the program and research staff and revised based on underlying theory and practical application. The curriculum process evaluation includes staff and youth feedback. This theoretically based, field-tested curriculum is designed to be easily adapted and implemented in a diverse range of communities. PMID:21059871

Zimmerman, Marc A; Stewart, Sarah E; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan; Reischl, Thomas M

2010-11-08

318

Effects of Exposure to Community Violence on Internalizing Symptoms: Does Desensitization to Violence Occur in African American Youth?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to community violence to internalizing symptoms in 251 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.86, SD = 1.28). Participants reported on exposure to community violence, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses were used to…

Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Zelencik, Brett

2011-01-01

319

75 FR 42126 - Office on Violence Against Women  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...assistance for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. Overall, the purpose of the...services for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking, as well...

2010-07-20

320

Violence risk and gang affiliation in youth offenders: a recidivism study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs are ubiquitous around the world and have been problematic for the social and criminal justice agencies. Despite widespread public concern, there has been relatively scarce empirical scrutiny of youth gangs internationally and little outside of America and Europe. In particular, the activities of youth gangs, the function of gang membership, the criminogenic needs of gang-affiliated youth, and the

Chi Meng Chu; Michael Daffern; Stuart Thomas; Jia Ying Lim

2010-01-01

321

Effects of Exposure to Community Violence on Internalizing Symptoms: Does Desensitization to Violence Occur in African American Youth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to community violence\\u000a to internalizing symptoms in 251 African American adolescents (mean age?=?12.86, SD?=?1.28). Participants reported on exposure to community violence, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses\\u000a were used to test the hypotheses and, consistent with predictions, the results indicated that the association

Noni K. Gaylord-Harden; Jamila A. Cunningham; Brett Zelencik

2011-01-01

322

Granny, (don't) get your gun: competency issues in gun ownership by older adults.  

PubMed

This article explores the possible risks associated with gun ownership by older adults. We summarize existing regulations on who may own firearms, especially with respect to age. We then present data on older gun owners and violence committed by older adults in general, followed by a discussion of gun violence perpetrated by gun owners whose functional and cognitive abilities have declined, perhaps as a result of dementia. For comparison purposes, we review regulations on driving among older adults, drawing parallels to gun ownership. The paper concludes with recommendations for ensuring the safety of older gun owners and others, balanced against citizens' right to bear arms, and with some directions for research. PMID:17559168

Greene, Edith; Bornstein, Brian H; Dietrich, Hannah

2007-01-01

323

Exploring Violence Exposure, Stress, Protective Factors and Behavioral Problems Among Inner-City Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relationships between violence exposure, other stressors, family support, and self-concept on self-reported behavioral problems among 320 urban adolescents (aged 11–18) referred for mental health treatment. Overall, participants reported high levels of violence exposure, with a median of six past encounters with violence as a witness, victim, or through the experiences of associates. All forms of violence exposure

Eric Youngstrom; Mark D. Weist; Kathleen E. Albus

2003-01-01

324

Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

McNeil, Michele

2013-01-01

325

Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

McNeil, Michele

2013-01-01

326

Situational analysis of poverty and violence among children and youth with disabilities in the Americas -- an agenda proposal.  

PubMed

This article reviews the prevalence of poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean discussing the cycle and culture of poverty, their links to violence and maltreatment among disabled children and youth, from 1990 to 2006. There is a discussion of child maltreatment both of typical and disabled children taking into consideration the disabled child's unique needs, the impact on the family and society and the availability of supports and resources. Finally, an agenda is set forth to address poverty and violence, seeking to diminish the prevalence of maltreatment of all children, but especially children with disabilities. In addition, there is the hope of breaking the cycle of poverty and supporting disabled and marginalized individuals. This agenda speaks to the need for multidisciplinary collaboration as well as collaboration regionally and locally among governmental and non-governmental agencies, advocacy groups and the community at large. PMID:19142300

Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves; Goldson, Edward

327

Dealing with Youth Violence. What Schools and Communities Need To Know.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication addresses many of the complexities of violence, and provides information to prepare educators and parents to combat violence in schools and communities. The chapters are: (1) "How Educators, Students, Parents, and Law Enforcement Officials See School Violence" (Rose M. Duhon-Sells and Halloway C. Sells); (2) "Addressing School…

Duhon-Sells, Rose, Ed.

328

Youth Violence Perpetration: What Protects? What Predicts? Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To identify individual, family and community-level risk and protective factors for violence perpetration in a national sample of adolescents. Methods: Analysis of two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The key outcome variable was Time 2 violence involvement, approximately 1 year after initial data collection, mea- sured by a validated scale of violence perpetration

MICHAEL D. RESNICK; MARJORIE IRELAND; IRIS BOROWSKY

329

Dealing with Youth Violence. What Schools and Communities Need To Know.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication addresses many of the complexities of violence, and provides information to prepare educators and parents to combat violence in schools and communities. The chapters are: (1) "How Educators, Students, Parents, and Law Enforcement Officials See School Violence" (Rose M. Duhon-Sells and Halloway C. Sells); (2) "Addressing School…

Duhon-Sells, Rose, Ed.

330

Gun Laws and Policies: A Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

I would like to begin by asking you to talk about the place of guns in American culture... Guns do represent a special problem in our society. The level of gun violence in the United States is much higher than in our peer nations...

Gregg Lee Carter

2003-01-01

331

Drinking Style and Dating Violence in a Sample of Urban, Alcohol-Using Youth*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study examined childhood abuse, problem behavior, drinking style, and dating violence (DV). Our goal was to assess whether (a) alcohol use—related beliefs and behaviors (“drinking style”) would be associated with DV perpetration and victimization, (b) drinking style would mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and DV, and (c) the drinking style—DV relationship would be attributable to propensity for problem behavior. Method: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 456 youth ages 14—21 years who were patients in an urban emergency department. Participants were eligible if they were unmarried and reported past-month alcohol use and dating in the past year. By design, the sample was 50% female. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results: For both males and females, past-year DV was associated with a more risky drinking style, characterized by more frequent alcohol use, alcohol-aggression expectancies, drinking to cope, and beliefs that alcohol is disinhibiting and that being drunk provides a “time-out” from behavioral expectations. Drinking style mediated the childhood victimization—DV relationship for males and females. However, when propensity for problem behavior was included in the model, the effect of drinking style on DV was no longer significant. Substantial path differences for males and females were observed. Conclusions: The current study examined adolescent drinking style as a potential mediator between childhood victimization and DV. Drinking style was associated with DV for males and females and mediated the relationship between childhood victimization and DV. The relationship between drinking style and DV appeared to reflect adolescents' propensity for problem behavior. Variations in males' and females' pathways to DV were observed. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Rothman, Emily F.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Heeren, Timothy; Bowen, Deborah J.; Vinci, Robert; Baughman, Allyson L.; Bernstein, Judith

2011-01-01

332

Situational Contexts of Adolescent Violence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project shows that firearms, especially handguns and automatic weapons, play a central role in initiating, sustaining, and elevating the youth violence. While youth violence has always been a critical part of delinquency, the modern epidemic...

D. L. Wilkinson J. Fagan

2000-01-01

333

Urban stress and mental health among African-American youth: assessing the link between exposure to violence, problem behavior, and coping strategies.  

PubMed

This project examines gender differences in exposure to violence, coping strategies and problem behavior among 306 African-American middle and high school students in the state of Virginia. Gender differences in problem behaviors among youth exposed to violence as either victims or witnesses are examined in addition to variations in coping strategies. Relying on recent research examining violent behavior and victimization events, the study focuses on the internalizing and externalizing behavioral characteristics (i.e., academic achievement, anxiety, depression, negative self-esteem, and delinquency) of urban students exposed to violence and the extent to which coping strategies differ. Results show specific gender differences with regard to problem behavior and coping strategy among African-American youth exposed to violence. For adolescent males, exposure to violence and victimization is strongly associated with externalizing problem behaviors such as delinquency, while adolescent females exposed to violence and victimization are more likely to exhibit internalizing symptoms indicative of post-traumatic stress disorder. Among students exposed to violence and victimization, females are more likely to use problem-focused coping (i.e., social support) as an adaptive strategy in comparison to males. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed. PMID:11855219

McGee, Z T; Davis, B L; Brisbane, T; Collins, N; Nuriddin, T; Irving, S; Mutakkabir, Y; Martin, K

2001-01-01

334

Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health  

PubMed Central

Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates.

Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

2012-01-01

335

Firearms, youth homicide, and public health.  

PubMed

Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

Levine, Robert S; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

2012-02-01

336

Crime and Violence in American Society: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six articles focus on various aspects on violence in American society. Titles are "Evolving a Science of Violence,""Violence by Youth; Violence Against Youth,""Victims and Aggressors in Marital Violence,""Television Violence, Victimization, and Power," and "Violence in Business Settings." (DB)|

Flynn, Edith Elisabeth; And Others

1980-01-01

337

Alcoholism and gun control.  

PubMed

The recurring dilemma of having to deal with an intoxicated person in possession of a gun uttering homicidal or suicidal threats along with the current debate on gun control prompted this controlled survey of the characteristics of individuals with problems arising from the joint abuse of alcohol and possession of a gun. A comparison of the data point to violence as being the most significant differentiating variable involved. This violent potential was reflected by the presence among the alcoholics involved of more past and present antisocial traits, a higher rating on the Nicol's scale of violence, more offences committed against the person and homicidal behaviour. The availability of a gun was a significant factor. No correlation was found between the severity of the drinking problem and the risk of dangerous handling of a gun. The need for more stringent gun controls is supported but their implications to the physician and especially the psychiatrist as a potential guarantor for a licence application ought to be further explored by the professional bodies involved. PMID:890644

el-Guebaly, N; Lee, M

1977-08-01

338

Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2013-01-01

339

Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which…

Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.

2007-01-01

340

Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

2006-01-01

341

The Relationship Between Gun and Gun Buyer Characteristics and Firearm Time-to-Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gun violence continues to be a major crime control problem in many metropolitan cities in America. To comprehend this problem more completely, this study seeks to develop an understanding of the dynamics of illegal firearm markets in one particular city: Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In particular, the characteristics of guns and gun buyers that are related to fast firearm time-to-crime are identified.

Steven G. Brandl; Meghan S. Stroshine

2011-01-01

342

Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Violence among children and adolescents is a significant public health concern. In 1999, violence claimed the lives of more than 3,200 Americans ages 19 and under-that's an average of 9 deaths per day-making the homicide rate for young people in the Unite...

B. S. Lynch C. A. Craft K. Baer L. L. Dahlberg T. N. Thornton

2002-01-01

343

Violent backgrounds of economically disadvantaged youth: Risk factors for perpetrating violence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent Job Corps residents (n=474) reported the violence they had experienced, witnessed, and perpetrated with regards to parents, siblings, friends, and strangers. Results indicated that there was a high prevalence of all types of violence in this atrisk adolescent sample. Moreover, the majority of adolescents who reported violent experiences indicated threat or use of a weapon was involved. Gender differences

Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling; Peter Neidig

1995-01-01

344

Gang Violence and Latino Youth in Chicano Literature: The Loss of Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature analysis examines the representation of violence in Chicano literature, in particular, gang violence. The violent culture of gangs in the Chicano community is an essential aspect of the works of Luis Rodriguez, Mona Ruiz, Yxta Maya Murray, and Alejandro Morales. By examining the lives of the protagonists in a selection of works by these authors, this analysis aims

Maria C. Lara

2005-01-01

345

Refining the Measurement of Exposure to Violence (ETV) in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Correlational analysis, classical test theory, confirmatory factor analysis, and multilevel Rasch modeling were used to refine a measure of adolescents' exposure to violence (ETV). Interpersonal violence could be distinguished from other potentially traumatic events; it was also possible to distinguish three routes of exposure (victimization,…

Brennan, Robert T.; Molnar, Beth E.; Earls, Felton

2007-01-01

346

Service Without Guns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Service Without Guns"--by Donald J. Eberly and Reuven Gal with a guest chapter by Michael Sherraden--notes the many similarities between military service and civilian National Youth Service (NYS) and concludes that NYS can and should become as large and influential in the 21st Century as military service was in the 20th. The book examines the…

Eberly, Donald J.; Gal, Reuven

2006-01-01

347

Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent\\u000a behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories,\\u000a and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female) African American youth living in\\u000a impoverished urban neighborhoods who participated in the Mobile Youth

Sarah A. StoddardSusan; Susan J. Henly; Renee E. Sieving; John Bolland

2011-01-01

348

75 FR 27820 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...assistance for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. Overall, the purpose of the...services for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking, as well...

2010-05-18

349

Peace and Non-Violence: A Community Collaborates for Inner City Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the escalation of violent crime among youth in Knoxville, Tennessee, two partnerships have been developed by Pellissippi State Technical Community College (PSTCC), a university and the K-12 system in the Greater Knoxville area, and community leaders to provide non-violent alternatives for youth. The first effort, the annual Greater…

Chandler, Vrondelia

350

High School Youths, Weapons, and Violence: A National Survey. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous studies have yielded little knowledge about firearm-related behavior applicable to the "average" youth, either because the research focused on select populations, or because only the most general of weapon-related questions were asked. To fill this void, a study was conducted on the firearm experience of average youths based on results…

Sheley, Joseph F.; Wright, James D.

351

African American adolescents living and coping with community violence on Chicago's southside.  

PubMed

This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and incidents involving police, gun violence, and murders. Boys report more exposure to violence as victims and witnesses, whereas girls are more likely to hear about violent acts. Coping styles range from "getting through," which included both an acceptance of community conditions; "getting along," which included self-defense techniques; "getting away," which included avoidance coping strategies; and "getting back," which consisted of confrontational coping strategies. Boys report more confrontational coping styles than are girls, who utilized more avoidance approaches. Widespread school-based interventions are warranted, given the high prevalence of community violence exposure among these youth and may provide important supports for coping against such trauma. PMID:20956443

Voisin, Dexter R; Bird, Jason D P; Hardestry, Melissa; Cheng Shi Shiu

2010-10-18

352

A Public Policy Perspective on Televised Violence and Youth: From a Conversation with Peggy Charren.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An interview with Peggy Charren explores the founding of Action for Children's Television, its role in the Children's Television Act of 1990, ways to reduce televised violence, and strategies for activism. (SK)|

Harvard Educational Review, 1995

1995-01-01

353

Effectiveness of a Mentor-Implemented Violence Prevention Intervention for Assault-Injured Youth Presenting to the Emergency Department: Results of a Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Context The emergency department has been described as a promising setting to initiate interventions with assault-injured youth to reduce the risk of re-injury and reactive perpetration. Efforts to intervene have received little study. Objective To assess the impact of a mentor-implemented violence prevention intervention on reducing aggression, fighting and re-injury among assault-injured youth. Design Randomized controlled trial Setting Two large urban hospital emergency departments Participants Youth age 10–15 presenting with peer assault injury were recruited and randomly assigned to intervention and comparison groups. Intervention Intervention youth received a mentor who implemented a 6 session problem-solving curriculum while parents received 3 home visits with a health educator to discuss family needs and facilitate service use and parental monitoring. The comparison group received a list of community resources with 2 follow-up phone calls to facilitate service use. Main Outcome Measures Youth and parents were interviewed at baseline and 6 months to assess attitudes about violence, risk factors, fighting and repeat injury. Results 227 families were recruited with 23% refusing participation and 4% partial interview completion. 166 families were enrolled with 87 randomized to the intervention group and 79 in the comparison group; 118 (71%) completed both youth and parent follow-up interviews and 113 had usable data. Intervention and comparison groups were not significantly different at baseline on demographics or risk factors except for increased knife carrying and less deviant peers in the intervention group. After adjustment for baseline differences, there was a trend toward significant program effect including reducing misdemeanor activity (rate ratio 0.29, confidence interval 0.08–0.98), youth-reported aggression scores (rate ratio .63, 0.4–1.00) and increasing youth self efficacy (beta=2.28, p<.05). Program impact was associated with number of intervention sessions received. Conclusions A community-based, mentor-implemented program with assault-injured youth presenting to the ED trended in the direction of decreased violence with reduced misdemeanors and increased self efficacy. The ED may be an important contact location, and injuries an important context, for augmenting self efficacy for violence prevention.

Cheng, Tina L.; Haynie, Denise; Brenner, Ruth; Wright, Joseph L.; Chung, Shang-en; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2008-01-01

354

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles [pdf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Business improvement districts (BIDs) are a tool used by concerned members of the business community and politicians to enhance a commercial retail area's economic fortunes. As it turns out, they may also improve the social environment of their neighborhoods as well. Published in 2009, this study commissioned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was completed by the RAND Corporation. Throughout its 139-pages the study takes a critical look at how these BIDs have the potential "to reduce a youth's risk to neighborhood violence" and generally improve the social environment. The study was based on research performed in Los Angeles and the report itself is divided into six chapters. The study notes that the activities of BIDs can help increase informal social control, reducing visible signs of disorder and blight, and provide enriched employment opportunities.

MacDonald, John M. (John Michael), 1972-

355

Association between early marriage and intimate partner violence in India: a focus on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan.  

PubMed

The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women aged 20 to 24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India's girls who are married under the legal age of marriage. PMID:20587462

Speizer, Ilene S; Pearson, Erin

2010-06-28

356

Preventing youth violence and delinquency through a universal school-based prevention approach.  

PubMed

Violence is an important public health problem among adolescents in the United States. Substance use and violence tend to co-occur among adolescents and appear to have similar etiologies. The present study examined the extent to which a comprehensive prevention approach targeting an array of individual-level risk and protective factors and previously found effective in preventing tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use is capable of decreasing violence and delinquency. Schools (N=41) were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Participants in the 20 intervention schools received the Life Skills Training prevention program including material focusing on violence and the media, anger management, and conflict resolution skills. Survey data were collected from 4,858 sixth grade students prior to the intervention and three months later after the intervention. Findings showed significant reductions in violence and delinquency for intervention participants relative to controls. Stronger prevention effects were found for students who received at least half of the preventive intervention. These effects include less verbal and physical aggression, fighting, and delinquency. The results of this study indicate that a school-based prevention approach previously found to prevent tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use can also prevent violence and delinquency. PMID:17136462

Botvin, Gilbert J; Griffin, Kenneth W; Nichols, Tracy Diaz

2006-11-29

357

Youth, Firearms and Violence in Atlanta: A Problem-Solving Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1993, firearm-related deaths and injuries reached an all-time high among America's youth. The following year, a consoqium of federal officials, local agencies and community groups known as Metropolitan Atlanta Project PACT (Pulling America's Communitie...

A. L. Kellermann D. Fuqua-Whitley

2001-01-01

358

National Youth Gang Survey (1997). Summary: National Youth Gang Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent proliferation of youth gangs throughout the United States and the growth of youth gang violence have heightened the awareness of the youth gang problem among public policymakers, law enforcement agencies, and social scientists. To measure the e...

1999-01-01

359

Quality Improvement as a Tool for Translating Evidence Based Interventions Into Practice: What the Youth Violence Prevention Community can Learn from Healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care has been working for the past 2 decades to improve the translation of evidence based practice (EBPs) into care.\\u000a The strategies used to facilitate this, and lessons learned, can provide useful models for similar work taking place in youth\\u000a violence prevention. This article discusses the history of evidence translation in health care, reviews key strategies used\\u000a to support

Lyndee M. KnoxCheryl; Cheryl B. Aspy

360

A Delphi Approach to Reach Consensus on Primary Care Guidelines regarding Youth Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Anticipatory guidance is a cornerstone of modern pediatric practice. In recognition of its importance for child well being, injury prevention counseling is a standard element of that guidance. Over the last 20 years, there has been growing recognition that intentional injury or violence is one of the leading causes of morbidity and…

De Vos, Edward; Spivak, Howard; Hatmaker-Flanigan, Elizabeth; Sege, Robert D.

2007-01-01

361

Attitudes toward Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youth in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objectives of this research were to assess the attitudes toward dating violence among Jewish and Arab male and female adolescents in Israel. The random sample consisted of 1,357 participants from among 9th to 12th grade pupils enrolled in eight Arab and eight Jewish junior and senior high schools. The study assessed attitudes toward…

Sherer, Moshe

2010-01-01

362

Suicide and youth violence prevention: The promise of an integrated approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tragic events across the United States in recent years have highlighted the important relationship between suicidal impulses and violent attacks on others. Research suggests that suicide and interpersonal violence share a number of important risk and protective factors across multiple domains of influence. These include problem-solving and coping skills, characteristics of school and community environments such as bullying, intolerance, and

Keri M. Lubell; James B. Vetter

2006-01-01

363

Violence in Street Culture: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Youth Groups and Criminal Gangs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture…

Zdun, Steffen

2008-01-01

364

Restorative Justice after Mass Violence: Opportunities and risks for children and youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in the role that restorative justice can play in addressing mass atrocities. This paper describes the associated principles and practices within juvenile justice systems and in societies emerging from mass violence. It also examines the meaning, opportunities and limitations of restorative justice in transitional societies, particularly in relation to the needs of young victims and offenders.

Marta Valiñas; Laura Stovel

2010-01-01

365

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

366

Educating Youth for a World beyond Violence: A Pedagogy for Peace. Education, Politics and Public Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a time of unprecedented social and economic crisis, this book represents a challenge to the orthodoxy that shapes the vision of educational purpose. It argues that now, more than ever, there is a moral imperative for educators to assume responsibility for helping to bring about a culture of peace and non-violence in both the nation and…

Shapiro, H. Svi

2010-01-01

367

Serious Youth Violence and Innovative Prevention: On the Emerging Link Between Public Health and Criminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was not so long ago that scholarly writings pointed to the vast chasm that existed between criminal justice and public health approaches to understanding and controlling interpersonal violence. Other scholarship of the day examined how criminal justice and criminology could benefit from adopting elements of the public health approach. For sure, there still exist many differences in how the

Brandon C. Welsh; Anthony A. Braga; Christopher J. Sullivan

2012-01-01

368

Educating Youth for a World beyond Violence: A Pedagogy for Peace. Education, Politics and Public Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a time of unprecedented social and economic crisis, this book represents a challenge to the orthodoxy that shapes the vision of educational purpose. It argues that now, more than ever, there is a moral imperative for educators to assume responsibility for helping to bring about a culture of peace and non-violence in both the nation and…

Shapiro, H. Svi

2010-01-01

369

Facilitating Violence: A Comparison of Gang-Motivated, Gang-Affiliated, and Nongang Youth Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that gangs facilitate violent offending by members,but the mechanisms by which that facilitation occurs remain unclear. Gangsmay promote violence indirectly by facilitating members' access to riskysituations such as drug markets or directly through gang functions such asturf defense. We explore alternative modes of facilitation in a comparisonof gang-affiliated homicides (which involve gang members but do not

Richard Rosenfeld; Timothy M. Bray; Arlen Egley

1999-01-01

370

Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

2009-01-01

371

Role Model Behavior and Youth Violence: A Study of Positive and Negative Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study investigated how role models' behavior may positively or negatively influence African American early adolescents' attitudes toward violence and violent behavior. Participants in this study included 331 African American seventh and eighth graders from low-income neighborhoods in an urban, Midwestern city. The study used a model developed…

Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

372

An ecological developmental community initiative to reduce youth violence: safe schools/healthy students.  

PubMed

A social ecological framework integrated the six elements of the U.S. Department of Education Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative in High School District 201, Cook County, Illinois. Program components were organized across ecological levels (community-wide strategies, school-wide strategies, classrooms, and targeted individual students) along the developmental continuum from preschool to Grade 12. The goal of the community initiative was to promote positive youth development and social and emotional learning in all youth settings in the community, including the schools. There were demonstrated program effects for each of the components of the Initiative. The coalition and the program's activities have been sustained and have brought new interagency collaboration to more effectively serve Latino immigrant youth and their families. PMID:19830627

Telleen, Sharon; Kim, Young O; Pesce, Rosario

2009-01-01

373

Examining the validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) for predicting probation outcomes among adjudicated juvenile offenders.  

PubMed

The current study examined the ability of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk for Youth (SAVRY), a standardized risk assessment instrument, to predict probation outcomes among a sample of 158 adjudicated juvenile offenders placed on probation. Traditionally, the SAVRY has been used to measure violence risk among adolescents after release from custody. More recently, a delinquency risk measure based on SAVRY responses was developed, which could be useful for other types of outcome. This study examined the predictive validity of both summary risk ratings (SRR) for probation outcomes, including the reason for terminating probation and length of time on probation. A number of bivariate analyses and Cox regression models provided preliminary support for the ability of the nonviolent delinquency SRR, and modest support for the violence SRR, to predict probation outcomes. The implications for use of the SAVRY SRRs during juvenile justice system decision-making and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23606362

Childs, Kristina K; Ryals, John; Frick, Paul J; Lawing, Kathryn; Phillippi, Stephen W; Deprato, Debra K

2013-04-22

374

A British perspective on guns, crime and social order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed an escalation in the number of young men involved in lethal gun-related violence in the UK. Within the last two years these have resulted in over 80 deaths. Lacking any overarching explanation some have attributed such violence to a burgeoning 'gun culture', others to the (alleged) arrival of American style gangs onto the streets of the

SIMON HALLSWORTH; DANIEL SILVERSTONE

375

Kansas City Gun Experiment. Research in Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of a police patrol project to reduce gun violence, drive by shootings, and homicides in a patrol beat where the homicide rate was 20 times higher than the national average. Gun crime is rising rapidly nationwide, while other types of crime a...

L. W. Sherman J. W. Shaw D. P. Rogan

1995-01-01

376

Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female)…

Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

2011-01-01

377

Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female)…

Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

2011-01-01

378

Gun Safety  

MedlinePLUS

Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

379

Psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence victimization among Latino early adolescents.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was physical dating violence; the independent variables included violence, substance use, emotional well-being, prosocial behaviors, and parenting practices. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed and adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were examined. Overall, 13.5% (n = 43) of Latino early adolescents reported being a victim of physical dating violence within the past year. The prevalence was 14.4% for girls and 12.9% for boys. Among the girls, binge drinking was the sole risk behavior associated with dating violence. Gun carrying, alcohol consumption, and having considered suicide were associated with dating violence among the boys. Physical dating violence appears to affect a small but significant proportion of Latino early adolescents and is associated with other risk behaviors. Healthy dating relationship programs are warranted for middle school youth with some tailoring to reflect gender differences in risk profiles. PMID:19584406

Yan, Fang A; Howard, Donna E; Beck, Kenneth H; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa

2009-07-07

380

School Violence: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the school nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and development of violence prevention strategies in the school and community, offering an overview of school violence; risk factors for youth violence (gender, age, race, ethnicity, behavior, family, school, and community); risk factors for school shootings; and implications for…

Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper

2002-01-01

381

A Nation of Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The United States leads the developed world in youth violence, with the highest homicide and suicide rates among young people. Exposure starts early. To reduce violence in U.S. schools, we must control handguns, abolish television violence, isolate violent students, and change the ways that juvenile offenders are punished. (MLH)|

Haynes, Richard M.; Chalker, Donald M.

1999-01-01

382

Gun Blast from Naval Guns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The available data on gun blasts from naval guns are complied utilizing computer curve fitting techniques. Curves of peak free-air pressure are presented for all naval guns, ranging in size from 20 mm to 16in./50. In addition, curves of arrival time, dura...

M. F. Walther

1972-01-01

383

Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

Kleck, Gary

1979-01-01

384

Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)|

Kleck, Gary

1979-01-01

385

Preventing School Violence: What Schools Can Do. Hot Topics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers provide a range of data on dealing with violence in the schools and communities, focusing on risk factors and correlates of youth violence, how violence affects young people, and how schools can help students avoid violence. The papers include: "Youth Violence in the United States: Major Trends, Risk Factors, and…

Bosworth, Kris, Ed.

386

The Anatomy of School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To stop violence, school professionals should apply both reactive and proactive methods. Schools that focus on the psychological and sociological causes of youth violence have greater chances of success. This document presents the different aspects of school violence in order to bring about a better understanding of the violence and in turn…

Canady, Linda

387

Appetitive Violence: A New Phenomenon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence has long been regarded as a major social issue. The past decade has, however, seen the scrutiny which encompasses this violence intensify, largely due to a recent media focus on an apparently increasing tendency amongst some young people to engage in acts of ‘appetitive’ or ‘thrill-seeking’ violence. This is reported to be a new form of violence, in

Hannah Ching; Michael Daffern; Stuart Thomas

2011-01-01

388

Various Viewpoints on Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

Klemm, Bonita; And Others

1995-01-01

389

Violence in America's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is concerned with the issue of school violence. The introductory section provides examples of violence in schools and notes that the Centers for Disease Control state that 1 student in 5 takes a weapon to school and 1 in 20 carries a gun. It is further noted that urban schools in the major metropolitan areas have the greatest risk of…

William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

390

Are medical societies developing a standard for gun injury prevention?  

PubMed Central

Context: Following heightened gun violence in the 1990s, many medical societies in the United States adopted policies on the topic. Objective: Identify points of firearm violence policy agreement among large medical organizations. Design: Fourteen national medical societies—clinical focus, demonstrated interest in gun injury prevention, >2000 members—were selected for policy review in 2002. Policies were categorized on areas covered and items within these. Consensus areas were addressed by ?7/14 societies.Consensus items were included by ?7/14 societies, shared items by 5–6. Results: There were five consensus areas: access prevention, gun commerce, research, public education, and clinical counseling. There were four consensus items: restricting gun access by enforcing existing laws, restricting access to all guns at the point of sale, restricting access to handguns at the point of sale, and creating a national database on gun injury and death. Shared items promote violence prevention, clinical education on risks of guns in the home, treating guns as consumer products, restricting gun access to children, bans on automatic weapons, and promoting trigger locks. Conclusions: Large medical societies in the United States agree on key approaches for reducing gun injury mortality and morbidity. Future research will be needed to track the evolution of this emerging standard for physician action, which now includes the consensus areas and items. It promises to be, in effect, a medical standard of care for gun injury prevention. The United States experience may be useful to others working on gun injury prevention.

Longjohn, M; Christoffel, K

2004-01-01

391

Smart guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines a research project on smart guns: weapons that can only be fired by someone recognized as an authorized user. Technologies under research include electronic tags and implicit enabling, magnetics, radio-frequency and command disablement and biometrics, using fingerprints, voice recognition and hand geometry. Concludes that smart-gun technology can help prevent the unauthorized use of law-enforcement guns. Purely mechanical options could

Cheryl Pellerin

1995-01-01

392

Child and adolescent violence.  

PubMed

Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important. PMID:12640949

Daane, Diane M

393

Youth homicide prevention.  

PubMed

Homicide continues to be a problematic public health concern, but homicide rates have dropped considerably since the mid-1980s. This article proposes that the decrease in violence was caused by a large number of national and local violence prevention initiatives. Homicide and violence data are reviewed and the developmental dynamics of violence and homicide are discussed, noting the different tracks youth take toward violence. The risk factors that lead youth toward a violent lifestyle are compared with the protective factors that shield them from it. The principles involved in the prevention of violent behavior such as homicide are also discussed. PMID:21333848

Douglas, Kobie; Bell, Carl C

2010-12-13

394

Understanding Violence: A School Initiative for Violence Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluates Understanding Violence, a violence prevention initiative implemented in a Boston-area elementary school whose students experience high rates of community violence. Understanding Violence draws on the educational and personal skills of youths and allows them to practice positive alternatives to violence. Participating 5th graders (n = 123) completed a survey that included rating scale items and open-ended questions to

Christina E. Nikitopoulos; Jessica S. Waters; Erin Collins; Caroline L. Watts

2009-01-01

395

Releasing Their Stories: A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Histories of Mental Health Issues and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often the narratives of youth self-exploration and experience are lost in a drive to prevent, diagnose, or respond to youth-led crime. This exploratory qualitative study looks at and documents the life histories of youth concurrently involved in the juvenile justice system and in clinical treatment independent of the crimes they committed. A purposive sample of 9 male juvenile-justice-involved youth

Tina Maschi; Jennifer Perillo; Deborah Courtney

2011-01-01

396

Youth, violence, and courtship in late-Victorian Birmingham: The case of James Harper and Emily Pimm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late-Victorian England witnessed a decline in the recorded level of violence. Recent historical scholarship ascribes this fall to the 19th-century “civilising offensive” and suggests that male violence was effectively targeted by legislators and subject to increasingly stringent punishment by the courts. Yet concern with violence persisted. During the 1890s, it was expressed both in the enduring debate on the problem

Andrew Davies

2006-01-01

397

Stolen Gun Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guns stolen from law-abiding households provide an important source of guns for criminals. Crime rates increase with the availability of stolen guns, so the gun market is subject to externalities that generate excessive ownership and inadequate spending on protective measures to deter gun theft. We show that a simple refundable deposit for guns can internalize the externalities in the gun

Robert W. Helsley; Arthur O'Sullivan

2001-01-01

398

Anger Mediates the Relation Between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that\\u000a is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two\\u000a important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are posttraumatic stress\\u000a disorder and problematic anger. The

Eva R. KimonisJames; James V. Ray; Jessica R. Branch; Elizabeth Cauffman

399

Violence in adolescents' romantic relationships: findings from a survey amongst school-going youth in a South African community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study of heterosexual adolescent dating violence among secondary school students in a South African community. Approximately half of the surveyed males, and just over half of the surveyed females reported involvement in a physically violent dating relationship either as a perpetrator and\\/or victim. The study found significant associations between the beliefs about violence in a

LU-ANNE SWART; MOHAMED SEEDAT; GARTH STEVENS; IZABEL RICARDO

2002-01-01

400

Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

Lester, David

1988-01-01

401

Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)|

Lester, David

1988-01-01

402

Prevalence of youth access to alcohol, guns, illegal drugs, or cigarettes in the home and association with health-risk behaviors.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of access to alcohol, guns, drugs, or cigarettes in the home and its association with related health-risk behaviors among adolescents.METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 1995 in-home survey of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health which used a nationally representative school-based sample (N = 6,504) of adolescents in grades 7-12. We used logistic regression analysis, adjusted for gender, race/ethnicity and age, to examine the associations between access to alcohol, guns, drugs, and cigarettes in the home and the practice of risk behaviors involving those variables.RESULTS: Overall, 1,817 (28%) adolescents reported having easy access to alcohol in the home, 1,616 (25%) had access to a gun, 189 (3%) had access to drugs, and 2,067 (32%) had access to cigarettes. Associations were found between easy home access to alcohol and drinking during the past 12 months (Adj. OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.89-2.47), ever being drunk at school (Adj. OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.85-2.95, and ever driving drunk (Adj. OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.29-2.09). Access to a gun at home was associated with carrying a gun to school (Adj. OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.40-4.64). Associations were also found between access to drugs and cigarettes in the home and ever using drugs and smoking regularly.CONCLUSIONS: Easy access to alcohol, guns, and cigarettes in the home is prevalent among adolescents and may increase involvement in risky behaviors. Limiting access therefore is important in order to reduce the occurrence of health-risk behaviors associated with substance use, deliquency and injury among adolescents. PMID:11018352

Swahn; Hammig

2000-10-01

403

TELEVISION VIOLENCE AND KIDS' BEHAVIOUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the televised violence on children and their exposure to television violence. Since children are very visual learners, they model both the positive and negative the behaviors they see. This paper also reviews the television violence effect on the child's youth, which can also affect his or her adulthood. Some psychologists and psychiatrists feel that continued exposure to

MIRZA JAN

404

Street Gang Violence in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels and descriptors of violence among European street gangs are summarized from studies reported primarily under the aegis of the Eurogang Program initiated in 1997 and continuing still. European gang violence is placed in the context of its American counterpart, of European non-gang youth violence, and of the definitional and structural components of the Eurogang Program. European gangs in over

Malcolm W. Klein; Frank M. Weerman; Terence P. Thornberry

2006-01-01

405

Kids and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume presents three papers commissioned by the National Governors' Association on children and violence. "Risk Factors for Youth Violence" (Terence P. Thornberry) discusses findings from longitudinal studies conducted over the last decade about children and violent behavior. Nine significant risk factors for violent behavior are…

McCart, Linda

406

Countering Violence with RESPECT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fort Smith Council of PTAs in Fort Smith, Arkansas, conducted RESPECT, a citywide campaign against youth violence, during the 1994-95 school year. RESPECT included an educational brochure sent to all parents, a gang prevention video for PTAs, public service announcements, and a week-long school violence prevention program. (SM)

Cole, Jeannie

1995-01-01

407

Violence Is Golden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campus violence is strongly determined by our increasingly violent American culture. National increases in violent crime, weapon carrying, drug dependency, eating disorders, and youth suicide rates in recent decades are both reflected by and promoted by commercial interests. Addiction cultivation, wheter to cigarettes, alcohol or other drugs, diets, or violence per se is extremely profitable for its purveyors. The large

Leighton C. Whitaker

1994-01-01

408

'That's life innit'A British perspective on guns, crime and social order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed an escalation in the number of young men involved in lethal gun-related violence in the UK. Within the last two years these have resulted in over 80 deaths. Lacking any overarching explanation some have attributed such violence to a burgeoning `gun culture', others to the (alleged) arrival of American style gangs onto the streets of the

Simon Hallsworth; Daniel Silverstone

2009-01-01

409

School violence: an overview.  

PubMed

School violence is a growing area of concern for school nurses across the nation. Recent national data and a compilation of risk factors for youth violence and school shootings are presented as a general guide to identifying students who may be in need of assistance. The nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and developing violence prevention strategies in the school and the community are examined. PMID:12017248

Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper

2002-04-01

410

Gender differences in violence risk profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

By contributing to the discussion concerning applicability of methods for assessing risk of violence to special groups, we studied the gender differences in violence risk profiles in 231 institutionalised adolescents. Initially, subjects were assessed for risk of violent behaviour according to the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY). Six months later, information regarding institutional violence was collected. Risk

Monica Gammelgård; Ghitta Weizmann-Henelius; Anna-Maija Koivisto; Markku Eronen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

2011-01-01

411

Gender differences in violence risk profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

By contributing to the discussion concerning applicability of methods for assessing risk of violence to special groups, we studied the gender differences in violence risk profiles in 231 institutionalised adolescents. Initially, subjects were assessed for risk of violent behaviour according to the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY). Six months later, information regarding institutional violence was collected. Risk

Monica Gammelgård; Ghitta Weizmann-Henelius; Anna-Maija Koivisto; Markku Eronen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

2012-01-01

412

A Modest Proposal To End Gun Running In America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gun violence is a serious issue in our society. However, finding common ground between those who favor, and those who oppose, gun control can be a difficult task. Mayor David Dinkins and the Police Department propose a four prong solution that would pave a middle ground acceptable to most individuals. (1) put teeth into the existing federal regulations concerning those

Jeremy Travis; William Smarrito

1992-01-01

413

The National Television Violence Study: Key Findings and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes findings of the Television Violence Study indicating that the context of much television violence is dangerous to viewers, perpetrators go unpunished in the majority of programs, negative consequences of violence are often ignored, guns feature prominently, and presentation of violence differs greatly across networks and across…

Young Children, 1996

1996-01-01

414

Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level…

Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

2011-01-01

415

Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are…

Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

2011-01-01

416

Trends in BB/pellet gun injuries in children and teenagers in the United States, 1985-99  

PubMed Central

Objective: To characterize national trends in non-fatal BB/pellet gun related injury rates for persons aged 19 years or younger in relation to trends in non-fatal and fatal firearm related injury rates and discuss these trends in light of injury prevention and violence prevention efforts. Setting: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) includes approximately 100 hospitals with at least six beds that provide emergency services. These hospitals comprise a stratified probability sample of all US hospitals with emergency departments. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) is a complete census of all death certificates filed by states and is compiled annually. Methods: National data on BB/pellet gun related injuries and injury rates were examined along with fatal and non-fatal firearm related injuries and injury rates. Non-fatal injury data for all BB/pellet gun related injury cases from 1985 through 1999, and firearm related injury cases from 1993 through 1999 were obtained from hospital emergency department records using the NEISS. Firearm related deaths from 1985 through 1999 were obtained from the NVSS. Results: BB/pellet gun related injury rates increased from age 3 years to a peak at age 13 years and declined thereafter. In contrast, firearm related injury and death rates increased gradually until age 13 and then increased sharply until age 18 years. For persons aged 19 years and younger, BB/pellet gun related injury rates increased from the late 1980s until the early 1990s and then declined until 1999; these injury rates per 100 000 population were 24.0 in 1988, 32.8 in 1992, and 18.3 in 1999. This trend was similar to those for fatal and non-fatal firearm related injury rates per 100 000 which were 4.5 in 1985, 7.8 in 1993, and 4.3 in 1999 (fatal) and 38.6 in 1993 and 16.3 in 1999 (non-fatal). In 1999, an estimated 14 313 (95% confidence interval (CI) 12 025 to 16 601) cases with non-fatal BB/pellet gun injuries and an estimated 12 748 (95% CI 7881–17 615) cases with non-fatal firearm related injuries among persons aged 19 years and younger were treated in US hospital emergency departments. Conclusions: BB/pellet gun related and firearm related injury rates show similar declines since the early 1990s. These declines coincide with a growing number of prevention efforts aimed at reducing injuries to children from unsupervised access to guns and from youth violence. Evaluations at the state and local level are needed to determine true associations.

Nguyen, M; Annest, J; Mercy, J; Ryan, G; Fingerhut, L

2002-01-01

417

Gun culture and symbolism among U.K. and U.S. women.  

PubMed

The authors explored attitudes of young women in the United Kingdom (n = 108) and the United States (n = 91) toward (a) the possession and use of guns through the Attitude to Guns Scale (N. R. Branscombe, J. A. Weir, & P. Crosby, 1992) and (b) guns' perceived functional and symbolic significance through the Symbolic Nature of Guns Scale (C. A. Cooke & J. E. Puddifoot, 1997). There were significant differences in beliefs concerning the right to own a gun and the protective effect of guns but not in the perceived contribution of guns to crime. Although neither group strongly equated guns symbolically with power or control, the U.S. women were more likely to perceive guns as expressions of freedom or independence, and the U.K. women were more likely to view guns as expressions of danger and violence. The findings were contextualized by comparison with samples of male control participants of similar ages. PMID:10981372

Cooke, C A; Puddifoot, J E

2000-08-01

418

Gun Use By Male Juveniles: Research and Prevention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although many adolescents own and use guns for legitimate, legal sporting activities, other youth report that they own and carry guns for protection or for the purpose of committing a crime. Illegal gun ownership and use among juveniles are the focus of p...

A. Lizotte D. Sheppard

2001-01-01

419

Tuned air gun array  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention provides a method for determining the spacing and size of air guns in a tuned air gun array. Volume ratios are calculated based upon a predetermined maximum volume for any individual air gun. The volumes are cross-referenced to spacings for optimum air gun interaction. The resulting air gun array operates as a broadband high-energy point source.

William H. Ruehle

1983-01-01

420

The Effects of Dating Violence, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among a Diverse Sample of Illinois Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active adolescents…

Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A.; Vines, Linda N.

2011-01-01

421

The Effects of Dating Violence, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among a Diverse Sample of Illinois Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active…

Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A.; Vines, Linda N.

2011-01-01

422

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

423

Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: A school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3-5th grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait-list comparison groups. Students attended 13 bi-weekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed.

Cooley-Strickland, Michele R.; Griffin, Robert S.; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean

2010-01-01

424

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

425

The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study, drawing on approximately 1,100 males from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, demonstrates the importance of genetics, and genetic-environmental interactions, for understanding adolescent delinquency and violence. Our analyses show that three genetic polymorphisms--specifically, the 30-bp promoter-region variable…

Guo, Guang; Roettger, Michael E.; Cai, Tianji

2008-01-01

426

High School Youth, Weapons, and Violence: A National Survey of Weapon-Related Experiences, Behaviors, and Concerns - Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In short, weapon-related violence is not unknown to most schools and students like those we sampled. Further, to the extent that it is known, it is influenced by the same variables that have influenced it in more troubled environments: crime, drug sales, ...

J. D. Wright J. F. Sheley

2000-01-01

427

Developing ethical leadership in youth to reduce violence among them: a resource for the church and society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifeworlds and problems that lead some young people to lives of violence, crime, cognitive and academic deficiencies, substance and alcohol abuse and\\/or other anti-social behaviors is one of the most serious problems facing our nation as we enter the new millennium. In order to critically examine this problem attention is first given to the issue of identity formation, the

Gregory E. Coles

2001-01-01

428

Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths and finds the statistics alarming, despite recent decline. The first of three tables in the report delineates 1979-1999…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

429

Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths from 1994 and 1999 and comparisons of U.S. data to those of other industrialized countries. A table delineates 1996-1998…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

430

Prevention of youth injuries.  

PubMed Central

There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents.

Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

1999-01-01

431

Failing at Kindness: Why Fear of Violence Endangers Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Violence-prevention policies stress high-tech security measures and zero tolerance over compassion. Student policing is intensifying, despite declining youth violence, rarity of shootings, and failure of police protection. Suburban youth violence is rooted in masculinity misconceptions and sexual harassment. Education, not retribution, should…

Perlstein, Daniel

2000-01-01

432

The Contribution of Childhood Emotional Abuse to Teen Dating Violence among Child Protective Services-Involved Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…

Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall

2009-01-01

433

Urban African American Youth Exposed to Community Violence: A School-Based Anxiety Preventive Intervention Efficacy Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd–5th-grade students (ages 8–12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus waitlist comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS,

Michele R. Cooley-Strickland; Robert S. Griffin; Dana Darney; Katherine Otte; Jean Ko

2011-01-01

434

ION GUN  

DOEpatents

An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

Dandl, R.A.

1961-10-24

435

Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

Utter, Glenn H.

436

Gun Control vs. Gun Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website from opensecrets.org (see the July 30, 1999 Scout Report) summarizes the current state of the debate including the positions of the interest groups on both sides and, most revealingly, offers statistics on campaign contributions from both sides of the debate to Congress. In addition, links are provided to a congressperson-by-congressperson breakdown of voting records vis-a-vis contributions received. Such a site may not resolve the constitutional (and sometimes metaphysical) issues involved in the gun debate, but it gives us a more realistic picture of how the politics of influence impact this issue.

437

Intimate Partner Violence Among Hispanic Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intimate partner violence poses a major public health and social problem with serious criminal justice, health and social-related consequences. However, little is known about the etiology of intimate partner violence among young people, especially minority youth. Using the Hispanic Stress Inventory, we examine intimate partner violence among Hispanics, particularly Mexican American adolescent females. Understanding and identifying issues related to intimate

Rebecca D. Petersen; Avelardo Valdez

2004-01-01

438

Do guns provide safety? At what cost?  

PubMed

Many people feel that having a gun provides greater safety for them and their family. Actually, having a firearm in the home escalates the risk for death or injury, while using it to shoot someone who endangers the household is much less common. The resultant injuries, deaths, emotional turmoil, and/or disabilities lead to greater utilization of health care and legal/police services. Payment for these expenses is provided by higher insurance premiums and tax rates. This financial aspect has become a part of our country's current political concern over firearm ownership rights, gun violence or regulation, health care costs, the economy, and taxes. PMID:20065902

Narang, Puneet; Paladugu, Anubha; Manda, Sainath Reddy; Smock, William; Gosnay, Cynthia; Lippmann, Steven

2010-02-01

439

The Gun Dispute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)|

Spitzer, Robert J.

1999-01-01

440

Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

441

More Guns, More Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual gun ownership rates at both the state and the county level during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively

Mark Duggan

2000-01-01

442

More Guns, More Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual rates of gun ownership at both the state and the county levels during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly

Mark Duggan

2001-01-01

443

Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing on forty years of distinguished service in delinquency prevention, John Calhoun, founder of the National Crime Prevention Council, lays out the essential ingredients for preventing violence. These include strategies for connecting with alienated youth, building community norms of caring, reducing access of weapons of violence, and…

Calhoun, John

2006-01-01

444

Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)|

Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

2009-01-01

445

Effects on violence of laws and policies facilitating the transfer of youth from the juvenile to the adult justice system: a report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services.  

PubMed

The independent, nonfederal Task Force on Community Preventive Services (Task Force), which directs the development of the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide), conducted a systematic review of published scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness of laws and policies that facilitate the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system to determine whether these transfers prevent or reduce violence among youth who have been transferred and among the juvenile population as a whole. For this review, transfer is defined as placing juveniles aged <18 years under the jurisdiction of the adult criminal justice system. The review followed Community Guide methods for conducting a systematic review of literature and for providing recommendations to public health decision makers. Available evidence indicates that transfer to the adult criminal justice system typically increases rather than decreases rates of violence among transferred youth. Available evidence was insufficient to determine the effect of transfer laws and policies on levels of violent crime in the overall juvenile population. On the basis of these findings, the Task Force recommends against laws or policies facilitating the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system for the purpose of reducing violence. PMID:18046302

Hahn, Robert; McGowan, Angela; Liberman, Akiva; Crosby, Alex; Fullilove, Mindy; Johnson, Robert; Moscicki, Eve; Price, LeShawndra; Snyder, Susan; Tuma, Farris; Lowy, Jessica; Briss, Peter; Cory, Stella; Stone, Glenda

2007-11-30

446

Violence and the Schools. A Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Statistics paint a startling and frightening picture of school violence in America. Understanding the real problem is essential to focus national attention and to bring about awareness that energy must be committed to preventing violence. The 27 items in this collection are organized into 4 comprehensive sections. Section 1, "Attention: Guns,…

Harris, Phillip, Ed.

447

Violence in the Media  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many think that television and other media are primarily responsible for the aggressiveness of American youth and the youth of Western nations. Several experimental and longitudinal studies have provided considerable support to this claim. However, there are those who outright deny that the media has any influence on aggressive behavior. The debate over media violence and its impact on society is addressed in this chapter.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

448

Illinois Youth Summit, 2001. Resource Guide for Students and Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Now in its seventh year, the Illinois Youth Summit focuses on issues of violence affecting youth. On December 5, 2000, representatives from 21 high school classrooms across Illinois met to determine youth safety issues of greatest relevance to students across the state. These students identified three sources of violence to address at the 2001…

Constitutional Rights Foundation, Chicago, IL.

449

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Domestic Violence Domestic violence is an escalating pattern of violence or intimidation by an intimate partner, which is used to gain power and control. Several categories of domestic violence against the elderly have been identified: "Domestic violence ...

450

Youth In Action: Youth Preventing Drug Abuse. Bulletin No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drug prevention projects have proven successful in curtailing drug activity and the violence associated with it. An effective drug prevention project can educate children, youth, and adults about the dangers of illegal drugs. It can provide skills to help...

S. Bilchik

1998-01-01

451

Youth's Strategies for Staying Safe and Coping with the Stress of Living in Violent Communities  

PubMed Central

Youth living in urban environments of pervasive violence are exposed to a variety of violence-related stressors. This qualitative descriptive study sought to ascertain how community-dwelling youth perceived exposure to violence and how these youth identified and used available resources. The intent of this community-based participatory research study was to help inform the design of a youth violence prevention center intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 18 youth ages 10–16. Youth reported high levels of exposure to neighborhood violence. A theme of identifying and navigating safe and unsafe places emerged. Other stressors were more proximal and included interpersonal issues and conflicts. Youth used neighborhood and individual resources to cope with stressors. Youth maintained a high level of vigilance and developed clear strategies to safely navigate violent neighborhoods. Implications for youth due to the constant vigilance and exquisite sensitivity to stressors of chronic neighborhood violence are discussed.

Teitelman, Anne; McDonald, Catherine C.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

2011-01-01

452

Gun Control: Opportunities to Close Loopholes in the National Instant Criminal Background Check System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report responds to your request for information on states firearms related laws and procedures involving restoration of gun ownership rights, permits for concealed carry of firearms, and convictions for domestic violence. The National Instant Crimina...

2002-01-01

453

Individual-level risk factors for gun victimization in a sample of probationers.  

PubMed

Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level variables uniquely related to the likelihood of experiencing a gun victimization in a sample of probationers, individuals already at a heightened risk for criminal victimization. Self-report data were collected from 235 felony probationers about, for instance, gun and nongun victimization, gang involvement, and drug sales. Results show different variables are related to nongun victimization and gun victimization. In the current sample, involvement in gun crimes are linked to an increased risk of gun victimization. Violent offending and residential stability are associated with an increased chance of crime victimization. PMID:21362679

Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

2011-02-28

454

Characteristics of a gun exchange program, and an assessment of potential benefits  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To describe a gun exchange program and assess potential benefits for participants and host communities. Methods—Mail survey of participants in a Sacramento, California gun exchange program, August 1993; the response rate was 79%. Comparative data were obtained from nationwide polls of gun owners. Results—Most (62%) respondents were men; 40% were more than 55 years old; none was less than 25. Concern that children might find and use the gun was the most frequently cited reason for participating (46% of respondents). Of 141 firearms exchanged, 72% were handguns; 23% of respondents indicated that the guns they turned in were not in working order. Of respondents who owned a gun at the time of the program (rather than those who owned no guns and turned in a gun owned by someone else), 41% owned no guns after participating; the prevalence of handgun ownership declined from 79% to 32%. Those who continued to own guns were as likely as gun owners nationwide to keep a gun loaded in the house (odds ratio (OR) 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4 to 1.7) or to carry a gun with them (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.6 to 3.8). Conclusions—Gun exchange programs may reduce risk for firearm violence among some participants, but a number of factors limit their overall benefits to host communities.

Romero, M.; Wintemute, G.; Vernick, J.

1998-01-01

455

Guns in the home: nurses' roles.  

PubMed

Firearms in the home are an increasing concern for parents and health professionals alike. A number of professional groups have begun to speak out about firearm safety and children. Both the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Society of Pediatric Nurses (SPN) have position statements on the issue. The AAP recommends that pediatricians incorporate questions about guns into patient histories and also urge parents who possess guns, especially handguns, to remove them from the home. The SPN (1998) says that "[p]ediatric nurses, employed in a variety of settings, have the opportunity to educate parents and children about gun violence and prevention of firearm injuries." Nurses and other professionals can easily access information and strategies to address firearm safety with families. See Table 1 for a list of resources that are available online. PMID:12024531

Ahmann, E

456

Gender and the impact of gun control on suicide and homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An avenue to controlling lethal violence—suicide and homicide—may be to restrict the availability of the method. Guns are a preferred method for violence in many countries. An opportunity to study the effects of gun control laws on the use of firearms for suicide and homicide is provided by Canada's Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1977 (Bill C-51), enforced from 1978

Antoon A. Leenaars; David Lester

1996-01-01

457

Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes seven categories of violent crime in Phoenix, Arizona, and provides causes, facts, preventative programs, and lessons learned pertaining to each category of violence. The categories are: (1) prenatal and early childhood; (2) families; (3) individual youth; (4) schools; (5) neighborhood and community; (6) workplace; and (7)…

Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Silverstein, Rustin

458

Firearm Retailers’ Willingness to Participate in an Illegal Gun Purchase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm\\u000a retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample\\u000a of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or “straw” purchase of a handgun;

Garen Wintemute

2010-01-01

459

Adolescent violence: concepts for a new millennium.  

PubMed

Violence is a form of aggressive behavior that has a debilitating effect on the optimal growth and development of our youth. Violence pervades the lives of a significant proportion of all adolescents in the U.S., but has a particularly devastating impact on males and minority youth. Adolescent males are more likely to be victimizers and victims of violence and aggression, except in cases of sexual victimization and suicide attempts. For all adolescents, exposure to violence at home, school, or in the community is associated with aggression later in life, the development of supportive attitudes toward aggression and violence, psychological distress, school absenteeism, academic dysfunction, and subsequent injury. Violence has historical, cultural, and societal roots in our world. Until and unless we begin to understand where violence fits on the continuum of aggressive behavior and until we address the politics of violence, we will remain conflicted and paralyzed by the dangers our youth face. By understanding the social, political, and developmental aspects of violence and understanding the nature and characteristics of resilient children, we can better prepare our youth for life. We may not be able to protect our adolescents from exposure to violence, but we most certainly can help them develop the necessary skills to survive such exposure and work to enhance and strengthen their access to protective factors so that they can experience a healthy transition from adolescence to adulthood in this new millennium. PMID:10640341

Pratt, H D; Greydanus, D E

2000-02-01

460

Underground Gun Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teens in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir A. Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

2005-01-01

461

Liquid Propellant Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to bulk loaded liquid propellant guns of a type wherein a liquid propellant is injected into the chamber of the gun between the projectile and the bolt. Method and apparatus is provided for use in liquid propellant guns such as that ...

W. L. Black R. A. Gould S. E. Wood

1978-01-01

462

Underground Gun Markets &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets, drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teenagers in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities, plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

2007-01-01

463

Underground Gun Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets, drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teenagers in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities, plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

2007-01-01

464

National Youth Gang Survey, 1996. Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The youth gang problem in the United States has become an important public policy issue in recent years, largely because of the growth of youth gang violence and the apparent proliferation of youth gangs throughout the United States. In order to measure t...

1999-01-01

465

Adolescent violence exposure, gender issues and impact.  

PubMed

Youth violence is a growing problem worldwide. Research on adolescent violence in India is limited. Fifteen hundred high school students were investigated to study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of violence and to see the impact of violence exposure on their psychosocial adjustments. Sixty nine percent of students had witnessed violence in real life and 28% were of serious nature. Media violence exposure was universal. The prevalence of victims and perpetrators was 27% and 13% respectively. Bullying was prevalent. Male sex was the most important predictive risk factor for witnessing and perpetrating violence (P < or = 0.001). Victims were predominantly females. Those having exposure to violence had poorer school performance and adjustment scores (P < or = 0.05). Thus violence exposure is prevalent even in the lives of Indian adolescents and gender differences exist. Its impact on their psychosocial adjustments is detrimental. Early identification and corrective interventions of these adolescents is vital. PMID:16891680

Munni, Ray; Malhi, P

2006-07-01

466

The Battle Over the Brady Bill and the Future of Gun Control Advocacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

No matter how effective a legislative scheme is, legislation alone will not eradicate the deeply rooted culture of gun violence that exists in this country. Accordingly, Handgun Control divides its efforts between legislative and non-legislative efforts. In this regard, the Center to Prevent Handgun Violence carries out the non-legislative interventions of Handgun Control. These efforts include working with elementary, secondary

Richard M. Aborn

1995-01-01

467

Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

entation of minorities in the juvenile justicesystem.State Relations and Assistance Division supportscollaborative efforts by States to carry out the mandatesof the JJDP Act by providing formula grantfunds to States; furnishing technical assistance toStates, local governments, and private agencies;and monitoring State compliance with the JJDP Act.Information Dissemination Unit informs individualsand organizations of OJJDP initiatives; disseminatesinformation on juvenile justice,...

Shay Bilchik

1999-01-01

468

Violence in the Schools: Programs and Policies for Prevention. A Report from the Canadian Education Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication offers some insight into the problem of violence in Canadian schools and provides examples of ways to reduce it. The forms of violent activities examined include youth/youth-gang violence, violence against teachers, bullying, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Each chapter presents research findings and examples of programs…

MacDougall, Jyl

469

The prevalence of risky behaviors related to violence in high school students in a southern city, Turkey.  

PubMed

Injuries are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents and can be grouped as unintentional (such as motor vehicle crashes and fires) and intentional (violence and suicide). The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of high risk behaviors related to violence in high school students. The population comprised 2,480 randomly selected students from 10 schools among 46,271 students from 72 high schools in 1999-2000 in Adana and 2,352 (94.8%) were reached. They completed a Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire (YRBSQ). The mean age was 16.5 +/- 1 (14-21) years. 275 (11.7%) students stated that they carried a knife or a sharp weapon during the last 30 days, 151 (6.4%) carried a gun, 710 (30.2%) participated in a physical fight, 68 (2.9%) were threatened or injured by a weapon, 73 (3.1%) could not attend school because of threats from other students, 96 (4.1%) were forced into sexual intercourse. Male students were significantly more likely than female students to report all types of high risk behaviors except forced sexual intercourse. The rate of risky behaviors increased with higher grade. Violence towards and by adolescents is a severe problem. Families, teachers, and health care professionals should be aware of risk factors and be active in prevention of high risk behaviors in youth. PMID:19149208

Ozcan, Sevgi; Ergin, Ahmet; Saatci, Esra; Bozdemir, Nafiz; Kurdak, Hatice; Akpinar, Ersin

2008-12-01

470

Aggression and Violence on the Move in Russian Schoolchildren.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examination of trends in aggression and violence in Russian youth identifies risk factors including political factors, economic factors, ecological factors, the crash of ideals and decrease of morality, cultural factors, family problems, educational aspects, mass media influences, and delinquent groups. Incidents of youth violence and aggression…

Pervova, Irina

1999-01-01

471

Community solutions to violence: a Minnesota managed care action plan.  

PubMed

Reducing violence is a critical health and economic priority. In Minnesota, as in other parts of the United States, violence is increasingly viewed as a public health problem. Helping people work together to prevent violence is one way that managed care organizations are collaborating with public health to improve the health of communities. In 1994, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota worked with community organizations to develop The Minnesota Action Plan to End Gun Violence, a broad-based solution to a community problem: violence in Minnesota. The goal of this initiative was to develop grassroots solutions to violence and to inspire community members to take action. Outcomes of the initiative included: participation by over 1,000 Minnesotans in 12 community violence prevention forums; a widely distributed action plan; Students Stop Guns, a school-based intervention to keep Minnesota schools gun-free; the Governor's Task Force on Violence as a Public Health Problem, which led to a commitment of resources to prevent violence and respond to the victims and consequences of violence, and the Health Care Coalition on Violence, to institutionalize strategies within the Minnesota health care environment. The project's qualitative evaluation resulted in lessons and advice on how to execute a collaborative health improvement initiative. These lessons have been widely shared with Minnesota community health advocates. PMID:9566945

Johnson, D S

1998-04-01

472

Practicas optimas para la prevencion de la violencia juvenil: Libro de referencia para la accion comunitaria (Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Violence among children and adolescents is a significant public health concern, in 1999, violence claimed the lives of more than 3,200 Americans ages 19 and under (that's an average of 9 deaths per day) making the homicide rate for young people in the Uni...

B. S. Lynch C. A. Craft K. Baer L. L. Dahlberg T. N. Thorton

2001-01-01

473

“The Lord is my Shepherd”: examining spirituality as a protection against mental health problems in youth exposed to violence in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic and institutional spirituality or religiosity may each provide unique protective effects against the negative impacts of stress on mental health. Whether this extends to adolescents exposed to high levels of community violence is unknown. Three hundred twenty-five incarcerated adolescents from São Paulo City, Brazil responded to questions about spirituality and violence exposure drawn from the Social and Health Assessment,

Susan Huculak; John D. McLennan

2010-01-01

474

DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN COMMUNITY VIOLENCE EXPOSURE AND PERCEIVED NEIGHBORHOOD VIOLENCE  

PubMed Central

Community violence exposure (CVE) has been identified as a significant public health concern given its association with numerous mental health problems. Perceptions of neighborhood violence (PNV) also may adversely affect youth adjustment. In recognition that PNV may differ from individuals own experience of CVE, the current study utilized latent class analysis to examine the degree and consequences of consistency and discrepancy in adolescents community violence exposure and PNV. Participants included an epidemiologically-defined community sample of 456 African American adolescents (52% male; mean age=11.77). Results revealed three groups of youth: high CVE/high PNV, low CVE/low PNV, and low CVE/high PNV. Longitudinal analyses suggest that a discrepancy between CVE and PNV is important for understanding depressive and anxious symptoms among urban African American youth. Implications for intervention are discussed.

Cammack, Nicole L.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

475

Guns in the medical literature--a failure of peer review.  

PubMed

Errors of fact, design, and interpretation abound in the medical literature on guns and violence. The peer review process has failed to prevent publication of the errors of politicized, results-oriented research. Most of the data on guns and violence are available in the criminologic, legal, and social sciences literature, yet such data escape acknowledgment or analysis of the medical literature. Lobbyists and other partisans continue to promulgate the fallacies that cloud the public debate and impede the development of effective strategies to reduce violence in our society. This article examines a representative sample of politicized and incompetent research. PMID:8201280

Suter, E A

1994-03-01

476

Women and Guns. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many gun manufacturers market guns to women claiming a gun can provide protection. Statistics provided in this fact sheet indicate gun ownership may provide a false sense of security that can be fatal, since the greatest threat to a woman comes from the people and guns within her own home. Contrary to "typical" scenarios created by advertisers,…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

477

Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), showing gun mounting pad, wall rings, small niche, and opening to outside - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Battery Adair, Princeton Place, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

478

Sexual bullying: addressing the gap between bullying and dating violence.  

PubMed

Millions of youth in the United States are involved in some aspects of bullying behavior. Increasing rates of youth violence, including horrific violent school events, have brought national attention upon the phenomenon. Bullying is a broad construct that covers a wide variety of behaviors from name calling to physical abuse, and it is associated with serious negative health outcomes. Sexual bullying appears to be antecedent to more severe forms of relationship violence, and it is proposed as a conceptual link between bullying and more advanced forms of sexualized violence, such as teen dating violence and adult forms of intimate partner violence. PMID:18497586

Fredland, Nina M

479

Self-Esteem as an Antidote to Crime and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The United States suffers the highest incidence of interpersonal violence among all industrial nations, and violence among youth is increasing. While the causes of crime and violence are multiple and complex, research indicates that self-esteem is a critical factor as both a source of crime prevention and an essential element of rehabilitation…

Reasoner, Robert W.

480

Profiling Students for Violence. ERIC Digest Number 139.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This digest discusses student profiling and describes strategies for reducing the risk of violence in schools. "Student profiling" refers to a process in which checklists of behaviors and personal characteristics associated with youth who have perpetrated violence are used to determine a student's potential for future violence. A central concern…

Lumsden, Linda

481

Children and Violence: Findings and Implications from a Rural Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study addresses gaps in the youth violence literature by exploring the types and levels of children's violence exposure in a rural setting and examining psychological trauma associated with violence exposure. The study is a secondary data analysis using a rural sample (N = 549) from a larger study. The larger study employed a 45-minute questionnaire given to students

Karen Slovak; Mark I. Singer

2002-01-01

482

No Safe Place: KIDS COUNT Report on Children and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognizing increasing concerns about rising youth-related crime in Missouri, this Kids Count report on children and violence examines the impact of community and family violence on young perpetrators and victims, and explores characteristics of successful programs to prevent or reduce family and community violence in Missouri. Data suggest that…

Hensley, Melissa; And Others

483

Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

484

Risk Factors for Community Violence Exposure in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community violence is recognized a significant public health problem. However, only a paucity of research has examined risk factors for community violence exposure across domains relevant to adolescents or using longitudinal data. This study examined youth aggressive behavior in relation to community violence exposure among a community epidemiologically defined sample of 582 (45% female) urban adolescents. Internalizing behaviors, deviant peer

Sharon F. Lambert; Nicholas S. Ialongo; Rhonda C. Boyd; Michele R. Cooley

2005-01-01

485

Electrothermal light gas gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrothermal light gas gun (ELGG) has been developed that has launched 2.0 g to about 7 km\\/s, 10 g to 4.6 km\\/s, and 17 g to 3.5 km\\/s with an efficiency of 32% from a 16-mm reusable steel gun tube. These initial experiments were with a single-chamber breech fed launcher. The gun is scalable to large bore sizes and

D. A. Tidman; D. W. Massey

1993-01-01

486

Electrothermal light gas gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrothermal light gas gun (ELGG) has been developed that has launched 2.0 grams to about 7 km\\/sec, 10 grams to 4.6 km\\/sec, and 17 grams to 3.5 km\\/sec with an efficiency of 32 percent, from a 16 mm reusable steel gun tube. These initial experiments were with a single chamber breech fed launcher. The gun is scalable to large

Derek A. Tidman; Dennis W. Massey

1993-01-01

487

The Effect of Attachment on Adolescent Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Violence among American youth is a significant societal problem. The past decade witnessed juvenile arrests for violence, weapons, drugs, and curfew violations peak in the mid 90's. Analogous to the arrest trends for older juveniles, the arrest rate for young offenders rose 63% from 1987 until 1994 when it declined slightly. Since that time,…

Franke, Todd M.

2003-01-01

488

An Elementary School Violence Prevention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article details the implementation and empirical evaluation of an elementary school violence program. The problem of school violence and the significance and focus of the study are discussed. The general research question in this study was to examine the potential for a computer-mediated anger management program to enhance or improve the conflict resolution skills of youth with aggressive behavior

Stacey B. Scheckner; Stephen A. Rollin

2003-01-01

489

Violence Prevention for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The United States is recognized as leading the industrialized world in violent death rates. The increase in youth violence is primarily attributable to an increase in the "lethality" and not the "frequency" of violent acts because more crimes are being committed with handguns. This chapter reviews the existing literature on violence prevention…

Murray, Mary E.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Williams, Kirk R.

490

An Overview: Children and Violence. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report of the Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth reviews the role of schools, bullying, media, family violence, gangs, and substance use in the violence experienced by children and young people in Virginia and the United States. The report finds that increasing numbers of young people experience violent images and…

Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

491

Interpersonal Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence kills more than 1.6 million people each year. The impact of nonfatal violence cannot be quantified, but it is even more pernicious given resultant disabilities and long-term physical, psychological, economic, and social consequences. The direct and indirect costs of violence are enormous. Violence directly affects health care expenditures worldwide. Indirectly, violence has a negative effect on national and local

Mark L. Rosenberg; Alexander Butchart; James Mercy; Vasant Narasimhan; Hugh Waters; Maureen S. Marshall

492

Multiculturalism as a Policy for Disarming Gang Violence in Communities at Large and in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Those who try to deal with violence in U.S. communities and schools have tended to concentrate on suppression of violence, rather than real prevention, particularly as violence is associated with youth gangs. This discussion focuses on multiculturalism as a policy for reducing gang violence, rather than strategies that have been used to deal with…

Clark, Christine; Jenkins, Morris

493

Violence Prevention: An Evaluation of Program Effects with Urban African American Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many violence prevention programs have been developed to combat the problems of violence and aggression among youth, few programs have been evaluated. This study examines the impact of a violence prevention program among African American students in two inner-city schools in Chicago. Students in 5th through 8th grade participated in Second Step: A Violence Prevention Program, and completed surveys

Susan D. McMahon; Jason J. Washburn

2003-01-01

494

Criminal Violence in America: The First Hundred Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

America has long been notorious for its vio lence, but illegitimate criminal violence has received rela tively little attention. Vigilantism is the best known of the specifically American forms of social violence. Woven deeply into our history, bound up in the westward movement, the gun culture, and slavery, vigilantism in its wider sense was an important form of political expression.

1976-01-01

495

Violence in the Americas: The emergence of a social epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence is becoming an increasingly serious problem in the Americas, and in some countries a distinctive ‘culture of violence’ has developed. This is affecting children and adolescents, mainly the disadvantaged, both as protagonists and victims, particularly of ‘death squads’ attacking street children in some Latin American countries. In the United States, ready availability of guns, and in Latin America links

Cesar Chelala; Gustavo de Roux

1995-01-01

496

Kids and Guns: From Playgrounds to Battlegrounds. Also, The National Juvenile Justice Action Plan: A Comprehensive Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue offers various articles about encouraging progress in the problem areas of juvenile violence and delinquency. The first feature article, "Kids and Guns: From Playgrounds to Battlegrounds" by Stuart Greenbaum, cites statistics showing significant increases in the past two decades in gun ownership and use by juveniles. Some promising…

Juvenile Justice, 1997

1997-01-01

497

Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems  

PubMed Central

The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal maternal and early childhood externalizing problems. Social competency and depression during middle childhood moderated the relationship between victimization and violent behaviors for girls, but not boys: Lower levels of social competency and depression served as risk factors for delinquency among teenage girls who experienced victimization during childhood. These findings have important implications for youth violence prevention programs.

Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

2009-01-01

498

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

499

Rarefaction wave gun propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of gun propulsion that dramatically reduces recoil momentum imparted to the gun is presented. First conceived by the author on 18 March 1999, the propulsion concept is explained, a methodology for the design of a reasonable apparatus for experimental validation using NATO standard 35mm TP anti-aircraft ammunition is developed, and the experimental results are presented. The firing

Eric Lee Kathe

2002-01-01

500

''Smart Gun'' Technology Update  

SciTech Connect

This report is an update to previous ''smart gun'' work and the corresponding report that were completed in 1996. It incorporates some new terminology and expanded definitions. This effort is the product of an open source look at what has happened to the ''smart gun'' technology landscape since the 1996 report was published.

WIRSBINSKI, JOHN W.

2001-11-01