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1

Children, Youth, and Gun Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles summarizes knowledge and research about how gun violence affects children and youth and discusses which policies hold promise for reducing youth gun violence. The papers are: (1) "Statement of Purpose" (Richard E. Behrman); "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations" (Kathleen Reich, Patti L.…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

2

Policing Guns and Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY To combat the epidemic of youth gun violence in the 1980s and 1990s, law enforcement agencies across the United States adopted a variety of innovative strategies. This article presents case studies of eight cities' efforts to police gun crime. Some cities emphasized police-citizen partnerships to address youth violence, whereas others focused on aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of even

Jeffrey Fagan

3

Policing guns and youth violence.  

PubMed

To combat the epidemic of youth gun violence in the 1980s and 1990s, law enforcement agencies across the United States adopted a variety of innovative strategies. This article presents case studies of eight cities' efforts to police gun crime. Some cities emphasized police-citizen partnerships to address youth violence, whereas others focused on aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of even minor criminal activity. Still others attempted to change youth behavior through "soft" strategies built on alternatives to arrest. Finally, some cities used a combination of approaches. Key findings discussed in this article include: Law enforcement agencies that emphasized police-citizen cooperation benefited from a more positive image and sense of legitimacy in the community, which may have enhanced their efforts to fight crime. Aggressive law enforcement strategies may have contributed to a decline in youth gun violence, but they also may have cost police legitimacy in minority communities where residents felt that the tactics were unfair or racially motivated. Approaches that emphasize nonarrest alternatives and problem-solving strategies offer an intriguing but unproven vision for addressing youth gun violence. None of the initiatives presented in the case studies has been shown conclusively to reduce youth gun crime over the long term. The author suggests that policing alone cannot contain youth gun violence, but by carefully balancing enforcement with community collaboration, police departments can help shift social norms that contribute to youth gun violence. PMID:12194607

Fagan, Jeffrey

2002-01-01

4

Behavior-Oriented Approaches to Reducing Youth Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Advocacy groups on both sides of the guns issue frequently point to changing personal behavior—of both parents and children—as a key element in reducing gun violence among youth. Efforts to bring about these changes range from community-based cam- paigns, to laws and programs that encourage parents to store their guns safely, to educa- tional initiatives that focus on keeping

Marjorie S. Hardy

5

Guns and Sublethal Violence: A Comparative Study of At-Risk Youth in Two Canadian Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first in Canada to examine gun usage and harm to others, with original interview data, and aims to identify the correlates of sublethal violence among at-risk youth in Toronto and Montreal. Toronto youth showed 50% higher levels of this violence than Montreal youth. Despite having a common profile of conduct disorder and prior delinquency, Toronto youth

Jennifer E. Butters; James Sheptycki; Serge Brochu; Patricia G. Erickson

2011-01-01

6

Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence  

PubMed Central

Objective To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions’ Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Results Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001–2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association “fingerprint” to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Conclusions Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described. PMID:25372864

Ruggles, Kelly V.; Rajan, Sonali

2014-01-01

7

Youth and Gun Violence: The Outstanding Case for Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper was originally written as an invited contribution to the Small Arms Survey, in the preparation of a chapter in their Annual Report, Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business. Chapter 12 of that report 'Few Options but the Gun: Angry Young Men' looks at the role of young men in armed violence. (www.smallarmssurvey.org) The Small Arms Survey is an

Margaret Shaw

8

Gun violence among youth and the pediatrician's role in primary prevention.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a developmental stage characterized by high rates of violent behavior. Increasingly, violent injury is involving preadolescent children. Evidence suggests that the availability of guns increases the lethality of violent acts. Because guns are ubiquitous in the United States and integral to the current epidemic of youth violence, pediatricians should participate in primary prevention of firearm injuries. Efforts should begin long before children reach adolescence. Pediatricians should: (1) Encourage parents to remove guns from the home, or at a minimum to keep guns unloaded and locked up; (2) Advise parents to limit viewing of gun violence in the media, and playing with toy guns and video games that involve shooting; (3) Be alert for early indicators of aggressive behavior; and (4) Become outspoken advocates for laws that restrict gun availability. PMID:7936887

Webster, D W; Wilson, M E

1994-10-01

9

Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

1996-01-01

10

Guns, Gangs, and Gossip: An Analysis of Student Essays on Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is an important public health problem, but few researchers have studied violence from youth's perspectives. Middle school students' essays about the causes of youth violence were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. The causes of violence identified by students were categorized into individual, peer, family, and…

Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Wong, Naima; Tarver, Darian; Rabiah, Deana; White, Sharrice

2004-01-01

11

Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

2012-01-01

12

Youth Violence: Lessons from the Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph summarizes what is known about youth and violence, identifying 10 myths that confound people's understanding of the real causes of youth violence. It focuses on: what contributes to youth violence (e.g., children exposed to domestic violence are at risk of using violence, children and adolescents use guns when they are easily…

Rinehart, P. Mann; Borowsky, I.; Stolz, A.; Latts, E.; Cart, C. U.; Brindis, C. D.

13

Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence

Kim, Henny H., Ed.

14

Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of Programs and Initiatives. Program Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses a wide array of violence prevention strategies used across the United States, ranging from school-based prevention to gun market interception. Relevant research, evaluation, and legislation are included to ground these programs and provide a context for their successful implementation. The first section of the report is an…

Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

15

Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

Slovak, Karen

2002-01-01

16

Understanding Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... or even death. Why is youth violence a public health problem? Youth violence is widespread in the United ... CDC uses a four-step approach to address public health problems like youth violence. Step 1: Define the ...

17

At Both Ends of the Gun: Testing the Relationship Between Community Violence Exposure and Youth Violent Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much psychological inquiry has focused on understanding the contribution that exposure to urban violence makes to violent behavior among youth. However, other ways in which these variables may be related have been largely overlooked. This study compared four alternative social–ecological models of the link between community violence exposure and violent behavior to determine the degree to which (1) community violence

Colleen A. Halliday-Boykins; Sandra Graham

2001-01-01

18

Youth Violence and Gangs. Hearing on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on Activities of Youth Gangs and Their Access to Guns, and How Programs Can Help Prevent the Violence Associated with Youth Gangs, before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, (November 26, 1991).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The text of a Senate hearing on the status of youth gangs and their access to guns, and of violence prevention programs is provided in this document. Statements from Senators Herbert Kohl, Paul Simon, and Dennis DeConcini are presented. Testimony and prepared statements from these witnesses is included: (1) James Gabarino, president, Erikson…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

19

Strong Neighborhood Bonds, Less Gun Violence?  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Strong Neighborhood Bonds, Less Gun Violence? Participation of community members is essential, researchers say (* ... tie people together can protect neighborhood residents from gun violence, a new study suggests. Researchers at the Yale ...

20

The Real Costs of Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the

Cook; Philip J

2001-01-01

21

Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

22

Cure violence: a public health model to reduce gun violence.  

PubMed

Scholars and practitioners alike in recent years have suggested that real and lasting progress in the fight against gun violence requires changing the social norms and attitudes that perpetuate violence and the use of guns. The Cure Violence model is a public health approach to gun violence reduction that seeks to change individual and community attitudes and norms about gun violence. It considers gun violence to be analogous to a communicable disease that passes from person to person when left untreated. Cure Violence operates independently of, while hopefully not undermining, law enforcement. In this article, we describe the theoretical basis for the program, review existing program evaluations, identify several challenges facing evaluators, and offer directions for future research. PMID:25581151

Butts, Jeffrey A; Roman, Caterina Gouvis; Bostwick, Lindsay; Porter, Jeremy R

2015-03-18

23

Youth Violence. Current Controversies Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Current Controversies series explores many social, political, and economic controversies, presenting the discussions in debate format. This volume focuses on youth violence. As youth violence escalates, concern grows over the safety of the neighborhoods, the victims of violence, and the future of violent youths themselves. The 35 selections in…

Biskup, Michael D., Ed.; Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

24

Stopping the Violence: Creating Safe Passages for Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence has reached explosive levels in California. California youth have become both victim and aggressor. Between 1988 and 1991, youth homicide rates almost doubled. During the 1988-1989 school year, schools officials reported 69,191 student-to-student assaults and confiscated 5,107 knives and guns. State and federal legislation has…

Brown, Wanda; DeLapp, Lynn

25

Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.  

PubMed

While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy. PMID:25745735

Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

2014-01-01

26

The Real Costs of Gun Violence  

SciTech Connect

I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the form of higher taxes and waiting to go through the airport security checks. But that's just the beginning. The extraordinary reductions in lethal violence that occurred during the 1990s help account for rising property values and urban renewal; further reductions are possible and would do still more to enhance the average standard of living. This talk will explain why the economic perspective provides a fresh, useful point of view on violence, and will discuss the technique used to arrive at an estimate of the magnitude of the burden.

Cook, Philip J. (Duke University) [Duke University

2001-03-14

27

The United States and Gun Violence Americans owned between 220 and 280 million guns in  

E-print Network

1 Gun Shows in Context The United States and Gun Violence Americans owned between 220 and 280 20099 suggest a downward trend, which would be very good news, but rates of gun-related violence remain% to 50% of all firearms in civilian hands.10 Not surprisingly, death rates from gun violence are far

Leistikow, Bruce N.

28

Implementation and Evaluation of a Youth Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…

Regan, Mary Elana

2009-01-01

29

Decreasing the supply of and demand for guns: Oakland's Youth Advocacy Project.  

PubMed

This paper is a case study of how Youth ALIVE!, a nonprofit public health organization, blended direct service and policy goals to reduce youth gun violence at a time when guns became the number one killer of children in California. Youth ALIVE! trained young people living in California communities with the highest rates of gun violence to become peer educators and leaders to reduce both the supply of, and demand for, guns. The youth presented health and criminal justice data in the context of their own experiences living in communities endangered by gun violence to help build public policy solutions, contributing to the subsequent drop in gun homicides. Youth ALIVE's vibrant grassroots model provides a real-life tableau of research and direct services working together to yield realistic policy solutions to a lethal public health problem. The youths' successes demonstrate how nonprofit direct service organizations are uniquely positioned to advocate for policy and regulatory changes that can be beneficial to both program participants and society. Direct service organizations' daily exposure to real-life client needs provides valuable insights for developing viable policies-plus highly motivated advocates. When backed by scientific findings on the causes of the problem, this synergy of youth participant engagement in civil society can promote good policy and build healthy communities. PMID:24129810

Calhoun, Deane

2014-02-01

30

Aggression and Violence in Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

31

Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

32

Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative: 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Treasury Department's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) recently placed this October, 1998 report online. The report examines the illegal youth firearms market in 27 different communities, based on the results of crime gun traces conducted by the ATF. Part I of the report summarizes the general findings and describes gun tracing efforts and new initiatives by local law enforcement agencies. Part II of the report contains uniform statistical reports for each of the 27 jurisdictions covered, including number and type of guns recovered, crime types associated with recovered firearms, and source states for traced crime guns. Users may download the entire report, the table of contents, highlights, or individual city reports in .pdf format. Additional resources at the site include information briefs on firearms, youth crime, and the core areas of the ATF's mission.

1998-01-01

33

Knives, Guns, and Interparent Violence: Relations With Child Behavior Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior problems were examined across 3 groups of children (8–12 years of age), living in families characterized by recent physical spousal violence. The groups were (a) 47 children who reported observing marital violence that included the threat or use of knives or guns (observed); (b) 57 children who did not report witnessing marital violence involving knives or guns but whose

Ernest N. Jouriles; Renee McDonald; William D. Norwood; Holly Shinn Ware; Laura Collazos Spiller; Paul R. Swank

1998-01-01

34

Violence Exposure and Teen Dating Violence Among African American Youth.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. PMID:25287413

Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

2014-10-01

35

Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

2005-01-01

36

Violence, Guns, and Drugs: A Cross-Country Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence rates differ dramatically across countries. A widely held view is that these differences reflect differences in gun control and\\/or gun availability, and certain pieces of evidence appear consistent with this hypothesis. A more detailed examination of this evidence suggests that the role of gun control\\/availability is not compelling. This more detailed examination, however, does not provide an alternative explanation

2001-01-01

37

Guns and Butter? Fighting Violence with the Promise of Development  

E-print Network

Guns and Butter? Fighting Violence with the Promise of Development Gaurav Khanna1 and Laura to the country. Our results show that insurgency-related violence increases in the first year after force, but there is a growing awareness that this alone may not be enough to end violence since

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

38

Commentary: evidence to guide gun violence prevention in america.  

PubMed

Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively. PMID:25581156

Webster, Daniel W

2015-03-18

39

GUN VIOLENCE & SMALL ARMS PROLIFERATION "Whenever arms flow, violence follows", UN Messenger of Peace, actor Michael Douglas  

E-print Network

GUN VIOLENCE & SMALL ARMS PROLIFERATION "Whenever arms flow, violence follows", UN Messenger-conflict society perpetuates a culture of violence. The escalating proliferation of gun violence creates. Guns are the primary tools used to kill, threaten and intimidate civilian populations. They are easy

Plotkin, Joshua B.

40

Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

2014-01-01

41

Code Red: A Public Health Approach to School Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this case study (Code Red) is to demonstrate why school gun violence is a public health issue and to draw attention to the need for policy to address it. Traditionally, the concept of \\

Gerard Castro; Suzet M. McKinney; Anne Sobocinski; Sherry E. Weingart

42

Acculturative dissonance, ethnic identity, and youth violence.  

PubMed

Studies suggest that the process of acculturation for immigrant youth, particularly for second-generation youth, is significantly associated with delinquency and violence. This study explored the acculturation-violence link with respect to acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity. The results revealed in a sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Mien/Laotian, and Vietnamese youth that acculturative dissonance was significantly predictive of serious violence, with full mediation through peer delinquency. Ethnic identity was not significantly associated with peer delinquency or serious violence. Although acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity accounted for a small percentage of variance in violence compared with peer delinquency, it cannot be discounted as trivial. Structural equation analyses provided support for both measurement and structural invariance across the four ethnic groups, lending support for cross-cultural comparisons. The results also lend support for the inclusion of cultural factors in youth violence prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:18229995

Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary

2008-01-01

43

Youth Violence: Facts at a Glance  

MedlinePLUS

... American Indians and Alaska Natives. 1 Health Disparities School Violence Violence-related Behaviors In a 2011 nationally-representative ... being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property one or more times in the 12 months preceding the ... Youth Violence National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division ...

44

Community Violence Exposure and Positive Youth Development in Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth in urban environments are exposed to community violence, yet some do well and continue on a positive developmental trajectory.\\u000a This study investigated the relationships between lifetime community violence exposure (including total, hearing about, witnessing,\\u000a and victimization), family functioning, and positive youth development (PYD) among 110 urban youth ages 10–16 years (54% female)\\u000a using a paper and pen self-report survey. This

Catherine C. McDonaldJanet; Janet A. Deatrick; Nancy Kassam-Adams; Therese S. Richmond

45

Gun Violence and Control in Germany 1880–1911: Scandalizing Gun Violence and Changing Perceptions as Preconditions for Firearm Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a At the end of the nineteenth century, Germany faced a new form of violence based on new gun technologies. Almost uncontrolled\\u000a by social or legal norms, gun violence emerged from the juncture of technological advances in weaponry with historically rooted\\u000a patterns of behavior. It was socially and geographically widespread, but especially strong among young men in urban areas.\\u000a A control

Dagmar Ellerbrock

46

Gun Violence in Toronto: Perspectives from the Police  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This article discusses the ways in which the Toronto Police Service has constructed the problem of gun violence in the city. This violence is commonly associated in the media with young black males. The data for the study derived from semi-structured interviews with police officers and secondary sources, including police public statements, press releases, and official documents. The most

IFEANYI EZEONU

2010-01-01

47

The impact of gun control and gun ownership levels on violence rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

What effects do gun control restrictions and gun prevalence have on rates of violence and crime? Data were gathered for all 170 U.S. cities with a 1980 population of at least 100,000. The cities were coded for the presence of 19 major categories of firearms restriction, including both state- and city-level restrictions. Multiple indirect indicators of gun prevalence levels were

Gary Kleck; E. Britt Patterson

1993-01-01

48

CDC Grand Rounds: Preventing Youth Violence.  

PubMed

Youth violence occurs when persons aged 10-24 years, as victims, offenders, or witnesses, are involved in the intentional use of physical force or power to threaten or harm others. Youth violence typically involves young persons hurting other young persons and can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. Different forms of youth violence can also vary in the harm that results and can include physical harm, such as injuries or death, as well as psychological harm. Youth violence is a significant public health problem with serious and lasting effects on the physical, mental, and social health of youth. In 2013, 4,481 youths aged 10-24 years (6.9 per 100,000) were homicide victims. Homicide is the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years (after unintentional injuries and suicide) and is responsible for more deaths in this age group than the next seven leading causes of death combined. Males and racial/ethnic minorities experience the greatest burden of youth violence. Rates of homicide deaths are approximately six times higher among males aged 10-24 years (11.7 per 100,000) than among females (2.0). Rates among non-Hispanic black youths (27.6 per 100,000) and Hispanic youths (6.3) are 13 and three times higher, respectively, than among non-Hispanic white youths (2.1). The number of young persons who are physically harmed by violence is more than 100 times higher than the number killed. In 2013, an estimated 547,260 youths aged 10-24 years (847 per 100,000) were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal physical assault-related injuries. PMID:25719677

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R; Spivak, Howard; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Savannah, Sheila B; Listenbee, Robert L; Iskander, John

2015-02-27

49

Research Agenda on Guns, Violence, and Gun Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades, social scientists began serious, extensive study of firearms issues. This research attention marks a significant change from the academy's lack of interest in earlier decades regarding serious research about guns and gun control. Gary Kleck, Professor of Criminology at Florida State University, has done more than any other scholar to improve and advance firearms-related quantitative

Gary Kleck

50

Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

2008-01-01

51

Youth Violence as Adaptation? Introduction to the Special Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces the special issue of the journal on the topic of youth violence as adaptation to community violence. Contrary to the predominant perspective that youth violence is a sign of dysfunction or maladaptation, the articles collected here consider whether some youth violence may have positively adaptive consequences in the face of…

Swisher, Raymond R.; Latzman, Robert D.

2008-01-01

52

National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the White House Council on Youth Violence, the National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center is a collaboration between the Council, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other federal agencies. The Resource Center Website is offered as a portal to federal information on youth violence prevention and suicide. The heart of the site is a sizable collection of annotated links, organized alphabetically by topic. The site also explores a number of "Hot Topics," such as Youth Suicide, After School Programs, and Intimate Partner and Family Violence, with background and overviews, publications, and annotated links. Additional content includes a teens-only section, links to related organizations, and an internal search engine.

53

Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization Among Filipino and Samoan Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino youths in Hawai'i. We found that parental role (punishment)

Jane J. Chung-Do; Deborah A. Goebert

2009-01-01

54

Prosocial coping by youth exposed to violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exposure to violence encourages youth to cope with challenges via a mixture of asocial, depressive and antisocial,\\u000a aggressive tactics rather than prosocially in ways that benefit self without harming others. Youth exposed to violence are,\\u000a therefore, not only at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but also for externalizing and internalizing behavior\\u000a problems, school dropout, teen pregnancy, substance

Elaine A. Blechman; Jean E. Dumas; Ronald J. Prinz

1994-01-01

55

AdvancesFROM THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH WINTER 2013 Gun violence  

E-print Network

AdvancesFROM THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH WINTER 2013 Gun violence: SPH dean renewed its decades-old discussion about gun violence. As we struggle to understand this latest tragedy, we are coming to realize that gun violence is fundamentally a public health issue. At its core

Blanchette, Robert A.

56

Gun violence and police problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses gun seizure data from the gun lab of the St. Louis Police Department to examine a problem-solving approach to seizing illegal firearms. Further, it explores narrative data from the police reports to understand the context surrounding 113 firearms seizure. The most important findings are that most illegal firearms are seized by the police department in the course

George W Burruss; Scott H Decker

2002-01-01

57

Children and Guns. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Law enforcement officials, experts in public health, criminologists, educators, and youth offered testimony intended to help Congress understand the scope of the threat of guns and firearm violence to young people and the strains of the firearm problem on public and community services. A fact sheet points out that: (1) increasing numbers of youth

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

58

In the wake of the Newtown tragedy, Washington is preparing for what may be a major legislative battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence.  

E-print Network

battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence. Research into the causes and correlates of gun violence will undoubtedly play a major role in legislative debates. To contribute to this discussion and showcase the work of Yale scholars and national innovators on issues relating to gun violence

59

Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers\\u000a and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have\\u000a employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences\\u000a on youth violence such as family

Christopher J. Ferguson

2011-01-01

60

Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence. OJJDP Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, communities across the country have struggled to develop effective solutions to the problem of gun violence. Many have approached the United States Department of Justice for help in identifying solutions. This publication was developed in response to these requests. It is designed to provide state and local elected officials,…

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

61

Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

2009-01-01

62

Burgeoning Directions for the Prevention of Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite focused efforts toward the prevention of youth violence within the United States, it continues to adversely affect the lives of children and families within our communities and society at large. The articles in this issue address risk and protective factors that affect violence among urban youth to inform prevention and treatment. Pathways to youth violence are complex and may

Cheryl Anne Boyce; W. LaVome Robinson; Maryse H. Richards

2011-01-01

63

Juvenile Suicides, 1981?1998. Youth Violence Research Bulletin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Surgeon General?s report on youth violence, released in January 2001, notes that youth violence is a serious public health issue that affects millions of children and their families. A shared commitment to ending youth violence has led to a strong partnership between the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Centers…

Snyder, Howard N.; Swahn, Monica H.

2004-01-01

64

Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…

Ferguson, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

65

Violence in youth sports: hazing, brawling and foul play  

Microsoft Academic Search

By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognise that their connection to sport binds them together into a cohesive subset of sport injury and youth violence, past research has failed to show how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. The acceptance of violence within the sporting culture may, in part, explain why sports-related violence

S K Fields; C L Collins; R D Comstock

2010-01-01

66

Collective Violence: Comparisons between Youths and Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Patterns of collective violence found among humans include simi- larities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predom- inantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that in- clude surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to

RICHARD W. WRANGHAM; MICHAEL L. WILSON

2006-01-01

67

Collective Violence: Comparisons between Youths and Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of collective violence found among humans include similarities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predominantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that include surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be larger, composed of

Richard W. Wrangham; Michael L. Wilson

2005-01-01

68

Collective Violence: Comparisons between Youths and Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of collective violence found among humans include similarities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predominantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that include surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be larger, composed of

Richard W. Wrangham; Michael L. Wilson

2004-01-01

69

Fugitive Cultures: Race, Violence, and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the racist and sexist assault on today's youth which is being played out in the realms of popular and children's culture. The book interrogates the aesthetic of violence in a number of public arenas--talk radio, Disney animation, and in such films as "Pulp Fiction,""Kids,""Slackers," and "Juice,"--and challenges cultural workers…

Giroux, Henry A.

70

Youth Perceptions of Their School Violence Risks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to gauge youth perceptions of school violence, this study links two perceptual bias literatures: third-person perception and optimistic bias. The intersection of the two literatures may be especially beneficial in understanding how adolescents process and interpret public health messages and subsequently engage in risk behaviors or…

Chapin, John

2008-01-01

71

Youth and Violence: Phenomena and International Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of youth, violence, and disintegration needs addressing because young women and men are the world's greatest capital. They have the energy, talent, and creativity for building a future. But this group also suffers grave vulnerabilities. The time of adolescence includes important and difficult periods of life (for example, becoming more…

Legge, Sandra

2008-01-01

72

Bring a gun to a gunfight: armed adversaries and violence across nations.  

PubMed

We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms. PMID:24913946

Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

2014-09-01

73

The Concentration and Stability of Gun Violence at Micro Places in Boston, 1980–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boston, like many other major U.S. cities, experienced an epidemic of gun violence during the late 1980s and early 1990s that\\u000a was followed by a sudden large downturn in gun violence in the mid 1990s. The gun violence drop continued until the early\\u000a part of the new millennium. Recent advances in criminological research suggest that there is significant clustering of

Anthony A. Braga; Andrew V. Papachristos; David M. Hureau

2010-01-01

74

Reducing Gun Violence: Results from an Intervention in East Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one solve violent crime in big cities? It's a vexing problem, and one that attracted the attention of a group of scholars at the RAND Corporation. This 82-page eBook released in 2010 takes a close look at how the Boston Gun Project might work if applied in East Los Angeles. In Boston, a coalition of researchers, community leaders, clergy, and others, worked together and designed, implemented, and monitored a project to reduce youth violence by reducing gang and gun violence. The program was quite successful, so this led the National Institute of Justice to work with RAND to see if this might work in Los Angeles. Specifically, the intervention included increased police presences, more stringent enforcement of housing codes for properties used by gang members, more stringent enforcement of parole and probation conditions, and referral of gun violations to federal prosecutors. While the program was somewhat successful when applied to this section of Los Angeles, the report recommends, "city leaders should establish processes to support agencies in such collaborations." Both a summary of the report and the eBook in its entirety are available for free download.

Tita, George

75

Understanding and Informing Policy Implementation: A Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we…

Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P.

2006-01-01

76

Understanding and Informing Policy ImplementationA Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we designed a case study and collected data

Shannon Frattaroli; Stephen P. Teret

2006-01-01

77

Effects of gun seizures on gun violence: “Hot spots” patrol in Kansas city  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that greater enforcement of existing laws against carrying concealed weapons could reduce firearms violence with a quasi-experimental, target beat\\/comparison beat design. Over a six-month period in a ten-by-eight-block area with a homicide rate 20 times higher than the national average, intensive patrol near gun crime hot spots produced a 65 percent increase in firearms seized by

Lawrence W. Sherman; Dennis P. Rogan

1995-01-01

78

"You get caught up": youth decision-making and violence.  

PubMed

Violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. We conducted serial focus groups with 30 youth from a violence prevention program to discuss violence in their community. We identified four recurrent themes characterizing participant experiences regarding peer decision-making related to violence: (1) youth pursue respect, among other typical tasks of adolescence; (2) youth pursue respect as a means to achieve personal safety; (3) youth recognize pervasive risks to their safety, frequently focusing on the prevalence of firearms; and (4) as youth balance achieving respect in an unsafe setting with limited opportunities, they express conflict and frustration. Participants recognize that peers achieve peer-group respect through involvement in unsafe or unhealthy behavior including violence; however they perceive limited alternative opportunities to gain respect. These findings suggest that even very high risk youth may elect safe and healthy alternatives to violence if these opportunities are associated with respect and other adolescent tasks of development. PMID:24141641

Hansen, Luke O; Tinney, Barbara; Asomugha, Chisara N; Barron, Jill L; Rao, Mitesh; Curry, Leslie A; Lucas, Georgina; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

2014-02-01

79

Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

80

Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-occurrence, and Context  

PubMed Central

With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This paper examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth aggression, father-to-youth aggression, and community violence. A community-based sample of 103 parents and youth provided three waves of data at annual intervals beginning when the youth were aged 9–10. We explored stability of exposure, co-occurrence across different types of violence exposure, and associations with co-occurring risk factors. Approximately 30–45% of youth reported intermittent exposure over the 3 years. In addition to overlap among types of violence exposure within the family, we found overlap between parent-to-youth aggression and community violence, an association that was exacerbated in families where fathers reported high levels of global distress symptoms. Mother-to-youth, father-to-youth, and community violence related to youth behavior problems beyond the contextual risk factors of low income, stressful life events, and parents’ global distress symptoms. These results highlight the importance of examining violence longitudinally, across multiple types, and with attention to contextual factors. PMID:19238543

Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

2009-01-01

81

Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.  

PubMed

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth. PMID:21161351

Ferguson, Christopher J

2011-04-01

82

Cost Analysis of Youth Violence Prevention  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. METHODS: Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71?784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation. PMID:24515518

Prosser, Lisa A.; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca

2014-01-01

83

Dating violence experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.  

PubMed

Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth. PMID:23861097

Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer

2014-05-01

84

Adolescent males: Predicting attitudes toward guns and violence based on perceived gender stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looked at adolescent males' perceived gender role conflict and their attitudes towards the use of guns and violence to solve problems, as measured by the Attitudes toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire (AGVQ), the Gender Role Conflict Scales - Adolescent Version (GRCS-A), and a demographics form. Forty-six male adolescent students from an urban high school setting in Georgia acted

Aimee E Dukes

2007-01-01

85

Urban youths' perspectives on violence and the necessity of fighting  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess youth perceptions of the causes and consequences of violence generally, the causes and consequences of fighting specifically, and to determine how best to approach fighting in the context of violence prevention activities. Methods: Thirteen structured focus group interviews with youths from three high violence urban settings: a large, urban high school, a training center for disadvantaged youths, and a school for adjudicated youths. Participants were 120 urban, predominately African-American youths and young adults ages 14–22 years (mean: 17.2 years). Seven focus groups were conducted with females, and six with males. Results: Adolescents identified the causes of violence on multiple levels including: individual, family, interpersonal, and community level factors. Most youths (89%) had been in a physical fight. Participants felt that fighting was not "right", but identified situations in which it was necessary. Specifically, fighting was used as a problem solving tool, and could prevent escalation of violence. Youths felt that the adults in their lives, including physicians, were generally ill equipped to give advice about violence, as adults' experiences were so removed from their own. Participants looked to experienced role models to offer problem solving and harm reduction strategies. Youths were open to receiving anticipatory guidance about violence and fighting from primary care physicians they felt comfortable with, and who showed respect for their experiences. Conclusions: Interventions that include blanket admonitions against fighting should be reassessed in light of youth perceptions that fighting plays a complex role in both inciting and preventing more serious violence. PMID:15470008

Johnson, S; Frattaroli, S; Wright, J; Pearson-Fields, C; Cheng, T

2004-01-01

86

Using public health information to inform, build support and implement policies for gun violence prevention: A case study from the gun ban referendum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gun violence is one of the most serious health problems in Brazil. Information on gun deaths and injuries is collected by the Ministry of Health. This data has been used very successfully to inform and design public policies for preventing gun violence. This article analyses the use of public health information by researchers and activists, as well as government officials

Jessica Galeria; Luciano Phebo

2006-01-01

87

States Take a Public Health Approach to Curb Gun Violence Bridget M. Kuehn, MSJ  

E-print Network

'sveryclear expressionofsupportforsuchmeasures. "Gun control" is a very ambiguous term, and I don't use it any more. When people are asked, "Do you support gun control?" they tendtosayno,becausetheydon'tliketheidea ofcontrolStates Take a Public Health Approach to Curb Gun Violence Bridget M. Kuehn, MSJ P ublic outcry over

Leistikow, Bruce N.

88

Youth Collectivities and Adolescent Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several problems confront anyone who has the audacity to tackle the topic of this chapter. The most daunting of these is the\\u000a lack of a theoretically viable typology that situates gangs, or types of gangs, in a larger set of youth collectivities. If\\u000a the variety of terms used by police to describe “gang groups and members” is “bewildering” and “dismaying”

89

Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.  

PubMed

Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation. PMID:23440488

Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

2014-02-01

90

Reason To Hope. A Psychosocial Perspective on Violence & Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributions to this collection come from the work of the Commission on Violence and Youth established by the American Psychological Association (APA). The research reviews, discussions of implications, and recommendations presented here were summarized in a summary report, "Violence and Youth: Psychology's Response," issued by the APA in 1993.…

Eron, Leonard D., Ed.; And Others

91

Youth Violence in Central America: Discourses and Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article analyzes the social construction of youth violence in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and El Salvador on the one hand, and the related security policies of the three states, on the other. In each country, there is an idiosyncratic way of constructing youth violence and juvenile delinquency. Also, each country has its own manner of reaction to…

Peetz, Peter

2011-01-01

92

Parent Refugee Status, Immigration Stressors, and Southeast Asian Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the effects of parents’ experience of traumatic events on violence among Southeast Asian and Chinese youth. The study examines independent effects of parents’ refugee camp experiences and immigration stress on serious or family\\/partner violence among youth. Findings contribute evidence on the intergenerational effects of community-level trauma that can help policy makers better integrate family and community strategies

James H. Spencer; Thao N. Le

2006-01-01

93

PREVENTING YOUTH VIOLENCE AND DROPOUT: A RANDOMIZED FIELD EXPERIMENT  

E-print Network

PREVENTING YOUTH VIOLENCE AND DROPOUT: A RANDOMIZED FIELD EXPERIMENT April 25, 2013 Sara B. Heller for Youth Violence Prevention, grants from the Joyce, MacArthur, McCormick, Polk, and Spencer foundations Sport Chicago (the two non-profit organizations that implemented the intervention we study here

Scherer, Norbert F.

94

Broadening the approach to youth violence prevention through public health.  

PubMed

Violence is a critical cause of death and nonfatal injuries among youth, and even those who witness violence can suffer serious health and mental health consequences. This highlights the need for prevention programs and policies aimed at reducing risks, promoting prosocial behavior, strengthening families, and creating communities in which youth are safe from violence. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Injury Center is developing a National Public Health Strategy to Prevent Youth Violence. The strategy will establish a full application of the public health approach, ranging from research to practice. It also spotlights what is working, as a way to mobilize community leaders in supporting evidence-based initiatives. With the empirical guidance of articles such as those in this special issue, a shared strategy to prevent youth violence will help focus efforts and resources on solutions that show the most promise, and ensure that American communities undertake more comprehensive and coordinated prevention efforts to protect our nation's youth. PMID:21480033

Hammond, W Rodney; Arias, Ileana

2011-04-01

95

Mapping the use of guns in violence against women: Findings from three studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the role of firearms in acts of violence against women in South Africa, drawing on three datasets: one investigating the implementation of the Domestic Violence Act (DVA), the second exploring gang rapes, and the third documenting intimate femicide. In relation to domestic violence, it was found that while guns were referred to in one in four applications

Lisa Vetten

2006-01-01

96

Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-Occurrence, and Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This article examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth

Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

2009-01-01

97

Gun Violence: Making Connections with Suicide, Domestic Violence, and Substance Abuse. Join Together Action Kit, Spring 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently, firearm fatalities occur in the context of domestic violence, suicide, or acts committed under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs. Because gun violence is related to these other social problems, it must be considered more than just a criminal justice issue. It is also a public health issue that should be addressed by domestic…

Join Together, Boston, MA.

98

Youth and violence on local television news in California.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study explores how local television news structures the public and policy debate on youth violence. METHODS: A content analysis was performed on 214 hours of local television news from California. Each of the 1791 stories concerning youth, violence, or both was coded and analyzed for whether it included a public health perspective. RESULTS: There were five key findings. First, violence dominated local television news coverage. Second, the specifics of particular crimes dominated coverage of violence. Third, over half of the stories on youth involved violence, while more than two thirds of the violence stories concerned youth. Fourth, episodic coverage of violence was more than five times more frequent than thematic coverage, which included links to broader social factors. Finally, only one story had an explicit public health frame. CONCLUSIONS: Local television news provides extremely limited coverage of contributing etiological factors in stories on violence. If our nation's most popular source of news continues to report on violence primarily through crime stories isolated from their social context, the chance for widespread support for public health solutions to violence will be diminished. PMID:9279266

Dorfman, L; Woodruff, K; Chavez, V; Wallack, L

1997-01-01

99

Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

2012-01-01

100

Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

Guterman, Neil B.

2004-01-01

101

The Benefits of Reducing Gun Violence: Evidence from Contingent-Valuation Survey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first attempt to estimate the benefits of reducing crime using the contingent-valuation (CV) method. We focus on gun violence, a crime of growing policy concern in America. Our data come from a national survey in which we ask respondents referendum-type questions that elicit their willingness-to-pay (WTP) to reduce gun violence by 30 percent. We estimate that

Jens Ludwig; Philip J. Cook

1999-01-01

102

The Benefits of Reducing Gun Violence: Evidence from Contingent-Valuation Survey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an estimate of the benefits of reducing crime using the contingent-valuation (CV) method. We focus on gun violence, a crime of growing policy concern in America. Our data come from a national survey in which we ask respondents referendum-type questions that elicit their willingness-to-pay (WTP) to reduce gun violence by 30%. We estimate that the public's WTP

Jens Ludwig; Philip J. Cook

2001-01-01

103

A Community-Based Systems Learning Approach to Understanding Youth Violence in Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background: Youth violence in general and gang violence in particular continues to be a pernicious problem facing the majority of large U.S. cities. Attempts to reduce youth violence are hindered by the absence of a shared framework that crosses multiple disciplines.Objective: The goal of the Youth Violence Systems Project (YVSP) is to help communities strategize for and achieve sustained reductions

John McDevitt; Khary Bridgewater; Paul Bothwell; Steve Peterson; David Hemenway; Ros Everdell; Jeffrey Bass

2011-01-01

104

A Community-Based Systems Learning Approach to Understanding Youth Violence in Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Youth violence in general and gang violence in particular continues to be a pernicious problem facing the majority of large U.S. cities. Attempts to reduce youth violence are hindered by the absence of a shared framework that crosses multiple disciplines. Objective: The goal of the Youth Violence Systems Project (YVSP) is to help communities strategize for and achieve sustained

John McDevitt; Khary Bridgewater; Paul Bothwell; Steve Peterson; David Hemenway; Ros Everdell; Jeffrey Bass

2011-01-01

105

Violence among Street-Involved Youth: The Role of Methamphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study investigated a possible association between violence and the use of drugs, particularly methamphetamine and alcohol. Methods: Cross-sectional, baseline data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Subjects were asked whether they had suffered or perpetrated violence in the 6 months prior to the interview. Results: In total, 478

Ian Martin; Anita Palepu; Evan Wood; Kathy Li; Julio Montaner; Thomas Kerr

2009-01-01

106

Does the declining lethality of gunshot injuries mask a rising epidemic of gun violence in the United States?  

PubMed

Recent mass shootings in the U.S. have reignited the important public health debate concerning measures to decrease the epidemic of gun violence. Editorialists and gun lobbyists have criticized the recent focus on gun violence, arguing that gun-related homicide rates have been stable in the last decade. While true, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also demonstrate that although gun-related homicide rates were stable between 2002 and 2011, rates of violent gunshot injuries increased. These seemingly paradoxical trends may reflect the declining lethality of gunshot injuries brought about by surgical advances in the care of the patient with penetrating trauma. Focusing on gun-related homicide rates as a summary statistic of gun violence, rather than total violent gunshot injuries, can therefore misrepresent the rising epidemic of gun violence in the U.S. PMID:24452421

Jena, Anupam B; Sun, Eric C; Prasad, Vinay

2014-07-01

107

Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally commissioned in response to the Columbine High shootings, the Surgeon General's report on youth violence "examines the factors that lead young people to gravitate toward violence, reviews the factors that protect youth from perpetrating violence and identifies effective research-based preventive strategies." While acknowledging that there has been a downward trend in youth violence since 1993, the report concludes that the "epidemic of youth violence is not over." The report identifies 27 specific intervention programs that have shown themselves to be statistically successful as well as debunking several common myths about youth violence. These last include assumptions about early childhood behavior as predictive of later violence, about the racial make-up of violent offenders, and the myth of the young "super-predator." From the above URL, visitors can access the full report, an executive summary, the January 17th press release (all in .pdf format), an archived Webcast of the surgeon general discussing the report (requires Windows Media Player), and some relevant links.

2001-01-01

108

Finding Common Ground in the Study of Child Maltreatment, Youth Violence, and Adult Domestic Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several decades, we have witnessed a surge in public policies aimed at ending child maltreatment, youth violence, and adult domestic violence. Commensurate with this increased interest has been a growing body of research on each issues etiology, affected population, and the public policy and prevention impacts. Even a cursory review of the…

Daro, Deborah; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Pinderhughes, Howard

2004-01-01

109

Media Violence and Youth Violence: A 2Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of exposure to media violence and eight additional risk factors were path-analyzed in a 2-year longitudinal study. The exposure to media violence (total score) affected students’ later violence (? = .28) and later violent delinquency (? = .30) more strongly than other risk factors. Direct effects were also caused by risk factors assessed at Time 1, which in

Werner H. Hopf; Günter L. Huber; Rudolf H. Weiß

2008-01-01

110

J.U.M.P.: Join Us Make Peace. 16 Power Plays for Preventing Youth Violence. California Attorney General's Youth Council on Violence Prevention 1998 Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to create more youth and adult partnerships to prevent violence throughout California, the California Attorney General's Office, the California Youth Authority, and the California Department of Health Services joined together on this community action research project. The members of the Attorney General's Youth Council on Violence

California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

111

Working Against Youth Violence Everywhere: Evaluating a Peer-Led Approach to Bullying Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the 2001 murder of a locai Black youth at the hands of more than 50 White youth, community organizations in the Kitchener-Waterloo area came together to develop the Working against Youth Violence Everywhere (WAYVE) program—a program created by and for local youth that would work towards eliminating bullying and violence in area high schools. WAYVE combines interactive workshops and

Rebecca L. Pister

2010-01-01

112

In The Crossfire: The Impact of Gun Violence on Public Housing Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on February 18, this 50-page report from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the first-ever comprehensive analysis of gun-related violence in public housing communities. Based on new data from HUD and the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the report reveals that, while crime in public housing developments is falling, residents of public housing are more than twice as likely to become victims of gun violence as the rest of the population, regardless of city size. The full text of the report is offered in .pdf format with five appendixes.

113

Media Violence and Children's Emotions: Beyond the "Smoking Gun."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the reasons why media violence research is often misunderstood. First, it explains the methodological limitations of studying media violence and argues that these limitations are similar to those accepted in medical research. Second, it explores the role of emotional response that media violence can produce and possible…

Cantor, Joanne

114

Violence Against Lesbian and Gay Male Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article documents the incidence of violent assaults toward lesbian and gay male youths and those youths' suicidal behavior. Data were obtained by reviewing charts for the first 500 youths seeking services in 1988 at the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a community-based agency serving lesbian and gay male adolescents in New York City. The adolescents, who ranged in age from 14 to

JOYCE HUNTER

1990-01-01

115

3 CFR - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention...January 16, 2013 Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention...gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects...

2014-01-01

116

Reducing Gun Violence:What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to review what research we do have, what research we do not have, and how we can use what research we do have to reduce gun violence. It is also suggested how we can use new legislation to do more of the research we desperately need. For while we can conduct many experiments in

LAWRENCE W. SHERMAN

2001-01-01

117

School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

2001-01-01

118

Core Competencies and the Prevention of Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We discuss how the five core competencies for healthy adjustment in adolescence (a positive sense of self, self-control, decision-making skills, a moral system of belief, and prosocial connectedness) are represented in theories of aggression and youth violence. We then discuss research supporting the relation between these core competencies and…

Sullivan, Terri N.; Farrell, Albert D.; Bettencourt, Amie F.; Helms, Sarah W.

2008-01-01

119

77 FR 2731 - Request for Information on Youth Violence  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INFORMATION: Scope of Problem: Youth violence is a significant public health problem with the potential for...rates of emotional and social difficulties, alcohol...values, and disrupt social services. Each year...is the extent of the problem and its...

2012-01-19

120

National Evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1985 and 1994 the rate of violent criminal acts committed by juveniles rose sharply. Juvenile homicides committed with a handgun more than doubled. This bulletin discusses the national evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative (YFVI), a program initiated by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) to fund…

Dunworth, Terence

121

Client violence toward children and youth services social workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Client violence toward social workers is a serious issue for the profession, social service agencies, and those with whom we work. Although the demands and stresses faced by those who work in children and youth services have been well documented, few studies have explored the safety risks encountered by these practitioners. The present study describes social workers' experiences of client

Christina E. Newhill; Sandra Wexler

1997-01-01

122

Can Representativeness Decrease Youth Violence in Juvenile Detention Facilities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the theory on Representative Bureaucracy, this study considers the minority representative role, which suggests that administrators who are minorities are more inclined to represent minority interests. This study examined whether officers perceive themselves as advocates based on shared demographics and whether they develop attitudes toward reducing youth violence. Considerably more researchers conduct studies in adult prisons than juvenile correctional

Ginger Silvera

2012-01-01

123

Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence  

PubMed Central

Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.

2013-01-01

124

Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence.  

PubMed

Although "association with delinquent peers" is commonly identified as "a risk factor for youth violence," this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these "doubly diverse" friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and "delinquent peers." It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K

2013-08-01

125

Empowering Peers To Prevent Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of peer-on-peer abuse (e.g., bullying, harassment) and peer-on-self abuse (e.g., suicide, self-mutilation) prevention programs identified more effective ways to involve youth in similar programs. Stronger programs emphasized youth empowerment through active roles in program development and reaching out with understanding and support…

Hazler, Richard J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

2002-01-01

126

Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

2012-01-01

127

Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Resource Center Press Room Social Media Publications Electronic Aggression Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... used to describe this type of violence, electronic aggression is the term that most accurately captures all ...

128

DISASTER AND YOUTH VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL ATTENDING YOUTH IN NEW ORLEANS  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. PMID:21783056

Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne

2013-01-01

129

Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

2012-01-01

130

News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.  

PubMed

Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and "dangerous people" with SMI were more likely than "dangerous weapons" to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence. PMID:24432874

McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

2014-03-01

131

Gender differences in the effects of parental underestimation of youths' secondary exposure to community violence.  

PubMed

Secondary exposure to community violence is particularly detrimental for male youths, who disproportionately report witnessing community violence and suffering associated trauma-related symptoms. Yet, few studies have investigated whether parents perceive and report similar gender disparities among youths. In addition, few studies have examined the potentially negative effects of parent-child discord as to the youth's level of exposure to violence, or whether these effects vary across gender. Therefore, this study investigated whether differences between parents' and youths' reports of youths' exposure to violence, and the consequences of such reporting discord, varied across the gender of the youth informant. Participants were adolescents aged approximately 12 and 15 years at baseline (N = 1,517; 51 % female). Descriptive analyses indicated that male youths reported significantly higher levels of exposure to violence than female youths, but parents similarly under-reported their male and female children's experiences with violence. Hierarchical analyses indicated that parental underestimation of youths' exposure to violence had negative consequences. Moreover, significant interaction effects demonstrated that only females responded to reporting discord with internalizing problems. Conversely, both male and female youths responded to reporting discord with externalizing problems and offending. The results suggest that while parent-child discord is associated with negative outcomes for both male and female youths, discord may be disproportionately associated with negative outcomes among young females. The findings speak to the utility of examining the correlates and consequences of exposure to violence from a "gendered" perspective. PMID:23277295

Zimmerman, Gregory M; Farrell, Amy S

2013-10-01

132

Firearm violence and the effects of gun control legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two gun control laws designed to reduce different types of violent crimes were evaluated. In 1981, East St. Louis, IL, imposed stricter penalties for individuals who carry firearms outside their homes for protection (individuals could keep firearms in their homes). This law had only a temporary impact in reducing firearm use in assaults and robberies. In Evanston, IL, a slightly

Roy S. Jung; Leonard A. Jason

1988-01-01

133

Violence Prevention and Students with Disabilities: Perspectives from the Field of Youth Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the work in youth violence prevention has been based in a public health model and guided by a developmental-ecological perspective on risk and prevention (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1988). A central tenet of developmental-ecological theory is that individual development is influenced by the ongoing qualities of the social settings in which the…

Gorman-Smith, Deborah

2012-01-01

134

Respect: Interpersonal Violence Prevention Resource Guide, "Stopping Youth Violence before It Begins."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes a series of ways to translate research findings and general ideas on youth violence into day-to-day teaching and learning in homes and schools. Five sections include: (1) "Teaching and Learning Core Social Emotional Competencies" (e.g., what educators, counselors, and parents can do, and promoting core social and emotional…

Nadeau, Debra Fuchs; LaRue, Candace Mayer; Allen, Jennifer; Cohen, Jonathan; Hyman, Lauren

135

Connecting Youth Violence Prevention, Positive Youth Development, and Community Mobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several disconnects serve to weaken the use of evidence based programming in community settings. Communities face the need\\u000a to address the challenges of multiple risk behaviors faced by adolescents in their communities, but must also work to support\\u000a successful transitions to adulthood and the broader positive development of their youth. The stronger integration of positive\\u000a youth development and prevention of

Kevin W. Allison; Torey Edmonds; Karen Wilson; Michell Pope; Albert D. Farrell

136

LX-04 Violence Measurements-Steven Tests Impacted by Projectiles Shot from a Howitzer Gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

Chidester, Steven K.; Vandersall, Kevin S.; Switzer, Lori L.; Tarver, Craig M.

2006-07-01

137

LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

2005-07-18

138

Youth Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Adjustment: The Role of Cognitive Appraisals  

E-print Network

Exposure to community violence (CV) is a significant risk factor that many urban youth experience. CV is significantly predictive of a host of psychological difficulties; however, not all youth experience psychological problems and actually exhibit...

Drerup, Lauren

2012-08-31

139

LX04 Violence Measurements-Steven Tests Impacted by Projectiles Shot from a Howitzer Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170–300 m\\/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges,

Steven K. Chidester; Kevin S. Vandersall; Lori L. Switzer; Craig M. Tarver

2006-01-01

140

LX04 Violence Measurements-Steven Tests Impacted by Projectiles Shot from a Howitzer Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m\\/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges,

Steven K. Chidester; Kevin S. Vandersall; Lori L. Switzer; Craig M. Tarver

2006-01-01

141

Dudes, Let’s Talk About Us: the Black “Community” Construction of Gun Violence in Toronto  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the ways different sections of Toronto’s black community construct the problem of gun violence commonly\\u000a associated with young black males in the city. Recognising that social policies are often products of contestations among\\u000a different claims makers trying to dominate the definition of particular social problems and the policy initiatives for their\\u000a control, the paper documents the marginalized

Ifeanyi Ezeonu

2008-01-01

142

Event-Level Analysis of Antecedents for Youth Violence: Comparison of Dating Violence with Non-Dating Violence  

PubMed Central

Background Dating violence (DV) has emerged as a major concern among youth with links to substance use, injuries, and death. The Emergency Department (ED) provides an opportunity for violence screening and prevention interventions. Additional data are needed regarding antecedents of DV versus non-dating violence (NDV; e.g., acquaintance, stranger) to develop ED-based violence interventions for youth. Methods Participants were 575 patients screening positive for past 6-month drug use in an urban ED who completed timeline follow-back aggression modules at Baseline, 6-, and 12-months, indicating event-specific antecedents of violence. Multi-level logistic regressions using event-level data, nested by individual and time (i.e. Baseline, 6- and 12-month assessment intervals) to examine antecedents of DV vs. NDV. Post-hoc analyses examined substance use × reasons and gender interactions. Results Prescription sedative/opioid misuse was more likely to be reported prior to DV whereas alcohol only, and co-ingested alcohol and marijuana only, were more likely to be reported prior to NDV. Reasons for DV included: “personal belongings, “angry/bad mood,” “jealousy,” “drunk/high on drugs” and “arguing about sex”. Reasons for NDV included: “rumors,” “retaliation,” “personal space” and “aid (someone) due to physical attack”. Substance use before/during conflicts and reasons for conflicts were both uniquely associated with DV versus NDV. Two gender interactions were found. Conclusions ED based interventions for urban youth need to be tailored by gender, substance use (alcohol, cocaine, sedatives), reasons for violence, and type of violence (DV vs. NDV). PMID:24182751

Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

2013-01-01

143

Violence, television and the health of American youth.  

PubMed

In 1973, 18,032 young Americans, 15 to 24 years of age, died in motor-vehicle accidents, 5182 were murdered, and 4098 committed suicide. The death rate, for this age group, was 19 per cent higher in 1973-74 than it had been in 1960-61, owing entirely to deaths by violence. The largest rise in deaths from homicide during the past two decades was at the ages of one to four. For a considerable proportion of American children and youth, the "culture of violence" is now both a major health threat and a way of life. One contributing factor is television's massive daily diet of symbolic crime and violence in "entertainment" programs. After numerous studies of televsion influence on real-life violence, including two major government commissions, the industry is experimenting with a 7 to 9 p.m. "Family Hour" (6 to 8 p.m. Central Time) from which violence, along with sex, has been largely banished. Three industry unions claim censorship and are suing. The medical profession is urged to concern itself with this serious and complex health hazard. PMID:1250299

Somers, A R

1976-04-01

144

Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.  

PubMed

In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

2013-11-01

145

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite declines in youth violence nationally in the past decade, incidence of youth violence and victimization--from assaults to homicide--continue to be pressing concerns in public safety and public health. Youth violence is also a particular concern for low-income, minority communities, where poverty, family instability, and unemployment…

MacDonald, John; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kofner, Aaron; Stokes, Robert J.; Sehgal, Amber; Fain, Terry; Beletsky, Leo

2009-01-01

146

"If They Could Make Us Disappear, They Would!" Youth and Violence in Cite Soleil, Haiti  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores community-level risk and protective factors for youth violence in Cite Soleil, Port-au-Prince's most violent slum. The youth of Cite Soleil have often been mobilized to violence by powerful actors as tools for achieving political or financial gain. Drawing on a formal survey (N=1,575) and ethnographic data collected between…

Willman, Alys; Marcelin, Louis Herns

2010-01-01

147

The Role of Families and Care Givers as Risk and Protective Factors in Preventing Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research which discusses the risk and protective functions that families and other caregivers provide in influencing the development of aggressive behavior in youth. Currently, there is an emphasis on providing violence prevention programs in the school environment, typically with little parental or caregiver involvement. By enhancing the role of families and caregivers in youth violence prevention programs,

Le'Roy E. Reese; Elizabeth M. Vera; Thomas R. Simon; Robin M. Ikeda

2000-01-01

148

Examining the Developmental Process of Risk for Exposure to Community Violence Among Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research has documented the effects of community violence exposure on adolescents' behavior and mental health functioning, yet there has been less research on the process by which early risks increase the likelihood that youth will be exposed to community violence. The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 623 urban youth followed from 1st grade

Sharon F. Lambert; Catherine P. Bradshaw; Nicole L. Cammack; Nicholas S. Ialongo

2011-01-01

149

Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

2007-01-01

150

Preventing Youth Violence. A Summary of Program Evaluations. Urban Health Initiative Monograph Series, Monograph 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary explaining the results of evaluations of programs to prevent youth violence is an attempt to fill the gap in information about what works and what does not. An effort is made to place the problem of youth violence in perspective, using information largely taken from Bureau of Justice statistics. The existing programs are divided into…

Kellermann, Arthur L.; Fuqua-Whitley, Dawna S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

151

Cultural Context of School Communities in Rural Hawaii to Inform Youth Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…

Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher

2010-01-01

152

Youth Violence Prevention Comes of Age: Research, Training and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent be- havior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the in- dividual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work

Kara Williams; Lourdes Rivera; Robert Neighbours; Vivian Reznik

2007-01-01

153

Parent-youth discordance about youth-witnessed violence: Associations with trauma symptoms and service use in an at-risk sample  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth and parents about youth witnessed violence, and determine whether concordance predicted trauma symptoms and recognition of need and receipt of counseling services. Methods Concordance about youth-witnessed violence was examined in 766 dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Youth participants self-reported trauma symptoms, caregivers indicated youth need for and receipt of services. Both youth and parents provided information about youth-witnessed violence exposure in the last year. Results Results showed youth and caregivers differed significantly about youth-witnessed violence. Specifically, 42% of youth reported youth-witnessed violence, compared to only 15% of parents. For those parents who reported youth-witnessed violence, only 29% reported an identified need for services and only 17% reported the youth had received any mental health services. Concordance between parent-youth dyads was associated with greater identified need for services but was not associated with the use of counseling services or trauma symptoms. Conclusions Youth who reported witnessing violence reported more frequent trauma symptoms regardless of concordance. Parents from dyads in which both informants reported youth-witnessed violence were more likely to endorse need for, but not receipt of counseling services. Given this association between youth-witnessed violence and mental health problems, more work is needed to identify barriers to concordance as well as service utilization. PMID:23153569

Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R.; Dubowitz, Howard

2013-01-01

154

Youth for Justice: Students Speak Out against Youth Violence. Report of the Annual Youth for Justice Summit (3rd, Columbus, Ohio, April 30, 1997).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ideas submitted by middle school Youth for Justice teams are presented. Sixty-four teams from middle schools in all regions of Ohio spent 5 months researching and preparing their ideas for the Youth Summit. Ideas that identify and propose solutions and action steps to address the multiple problems of violence by and against youth are compiled in…

Ohio Center for Law-Related Education, Columbus.

155

Human Development and Violence Prevention: A Focus on Youth. Center Paper 011.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication outlines a theoretical framework to guide research, policy, and action plans to combat youth violence. Research findings suggest that analyzing violence in connection with human development will provide a greater understanding of the problem. Such an analysis should trace pathways to violence in order to infuse prevention…

Williams, Kirk R.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Elliott, Delbert S.

156

The Impact of Culturally Relevant Violence Prevention Models on School-Age Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The Family and Community Violence Prevention (FCVP) Program was established in 1994 to address the escalation of youth violence\\u000a among ethnic minorities. This federally funded program adapted the public health model and organized Family Life Centers throughout\\u000a the country to serve youth who were considered to be at risk for violence and other abusive behaviors. The purpose of this\\u000a three-year

Laxley W. Rodney; Dana L. Johnson; Rameshwar P. Srivastava

2005-01-01

157

Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.  

PubMed

Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals. PMID:17367286

Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

2007-01-01

158

Evaluation of a hospital-based youth violence intervention.  

PubMed

To decrease adolescent morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life, a violence-prevention consultation is offered to hospitalized victims of nondomestic violence. The context is a violence-prevention team approach to patient assessment, treatment, and follow-up. Psychoeducational counseling emphasizes the individual through a cognitive behavioral approach and also recognizes the individual in the proximal social setting through referrals to community resources. The in-hospital component draws on the health beliefs model, self-efficacy, the theory of reasoned action and their synergy with cognitive mediation theory as expressed in developmental psychology. The target group for the intervention is adolescents (12-17 years of age) who have been victims of violent assaults severe enough to warrant treatment at a Level One trauma center. The six steps in the intervention are to (1) review and assess the incident, (2) review the patient's conflict-resolution strategies and introduce nonviolent alternatives, (3) provide information on the prevalence of violence/homicide and determine the patient's risk status, (4) explore the patient's coping skills and support system, (5) develop a plan to stay safe, and (6) refer patient to services for follow-up activities. Approximately 15 study participants are identified each month, half of whom are randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Over the 12-month recruitment interval, approximately 180 adolescent patients will be identified. Baseline data are collected through hospital intake procedures and chart reviews. A battery of standardized measures supplemented by a brief structured, closed-ended interview is collected four months after the youths leave the hospital. Preliminary baseline data for 39 youths are reported. The "typical" youth is a 16-year-old African-American male. Even though nearly one third of victims had been shot, the typical patient was injured in a fight during which he was kicked, bitten, or beaten with or without a blunt instrument. The majority of incidents involved only one attacker who was known to the victim. Nearly half the injuries were precipitated by an argument or fight. No statistically significant differences between intervention subjects and nonintervention controls in terms of baseline variables have been observed. For inner-city adolescent victims of violent assaults, a hospital-based intervention offers a unique opportunity for reduction of the incidence of reinjury. We describe the elements of the intervention, including the theoretical basis and implementation; detail the overall evaluation design including modifications; and present preliminary analyses of baseline data. PMID:8909630

De Vos, E; Stone, D A; Goetz, M A; Dahlberg, L L

1996-01-01

159

LX-04 Violence Measurments: Steven Tests Impacted By Projectiles Shot From A Howitzer Gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 150-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

Chidester, Steven K.

2005-07-01

160

Community monitoring for youth violence surveillance: testing a prediction model.  

PubMed

Predictive epidemiology is an embryonic field that involves developing informative signatures for disorder and tracking them using surveillance methods. Through such efforts assistance can be provided to the planning and implementation of preventive interventions. Believing that certain minor crimes indicative of gang activity are informative signatures for the emergence of serious youth violence in communities, in this study we aim to predict outbreaks of violence in neighborhoods from pre-existing levels and changes in reports of minor offenses. We develop a prediction equation that uses publicly available neighborhood-level data on disorderly conduct, vandalism, and weapons violations to predict neighborhoods likely to have increases in serious violent crime. Data for this study were taken from the Chicago Police Department ClearMap reporting system, which provided data on index and non-index crimes for each of the 844 Chicago census tracts. Data were available in three month segments for a single year (fall 2009, winter, spring, and summer 2010). Predicted change in aggravated battery and overall violent crime correlated significantly with actual change. The model was evaluated by comparing alternative models using randomly selected training and test samples, producing favorable results with reference to overfitting, seasonal variation, and spatial autocorrelation. A prediction equation based on winter and spring levels of the predictors had area under the curve ranging from .65 to .71 for aggravated battery, and .58 to .69 for overall violent crime. We discuss future development of such a model and its potential usefulness in violence prevention and community policing. PMID:23494404

Henry, David B; Dymnicki, Allison; Kane, Candice; Quintana, Elena; Cartland, Jenifer; Bromann, Kimberly; Bhatia, Shaun; Wisnieski, Elise

2014-08-01

161

Striving for a culturally responsive process in training health professionals on Asian American and Pacific Islander youth violence prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of youth violence prevention practice is dependent on the quality of education and training of professionals who will care for disadvantaged and\\/or underserved youth. The authors propose that culturally responsive youth violence prevention curricula, focused on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, should: 1) target institutions that train health professionals likely to serve Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders; 2)

Anthony P. S. Guerrero; Deborah A. Goebert; Daniel A. Alicata; Cathy K. Bell

2009-01-01

162

African American and Latino Youth and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome: Effects on School Violence and Interventions for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…

Zyromski, Brett

2007-01-01

163

Building relationships and resilience in the prevention of youth violence.  

PubMed

Self Enhancement, Inc., is a grassroots, community-service organization working in the most disadvantaged high-risk community in Portland, Oregon. Its violence-prevention program targets middle-school and high-school students by providing classroom and community activities to these young people. These activities are designed to enhance protective factors and build resilience in youths to enable them to attain healthy and productive lives and to resist the threats of gangs, violence, and drugs. RMC Research Corporation works in partnership with Self Enhancement, Inc., to conduct research and evaluation on the effectiveness of its programs. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program works primarily at the individual student and interpersonal relationship levels. Resilience Theory and its culturally specific Relationship Model drive the formulation of specific strategies and activities. Program staff mentor each student through his or her preadolescent and adolescent years, promoting positive, prosocial norms and expectations for behavior through their peer group activities. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program consists of three major components: classroom, exposure, and proactive education. Classroom education focuses on anger management, conflict resolution, and problem solving. Exposure education consists of quarterly field trips to agencies and organizations in the Portland area that deal with the causes and consequences of violence in the community. Proactive education includes newsletters, student-run assemblies and conferences, and radio/ television public service announcements that communicate antiviolence messages. The evaluation plan is a longitudinal matched comparison group designed to assess the outcomes of the violence-prevention program. Key outcomes are protective factors, health-risk behaviors, and academic measures. Standardized assessment instruments (the Individual Protective Factors Index and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were administered to all students during winter 1994. The instruments will be readministered during the same period in the following two years of the project. School records were extracted to assess students' attendance and progress through their academic programs. Of the 326 seventh-, eighth-, and ninth-grade students participating in this study, 95% are African Americans and 51% are boys. The prevalence of fighting (56%) during the past 12 months is higher than that among African-American high-school students nationally, but weapon carrying (27%), alcohol use (30%), and marijuana use (18%) are the same or lower than national averages for this group. All baseline indicators are equivalent between the program and comparison groups with the exception of weapon carrying. Program students report carrying weapons more than do their comparison group counterparts. Baseline indicators of violence-related behaviors clearly indicate the need for intervention in this highly disadvantaged, African-American community. Through its historical presence and recent program development efforts, Self Enhancement, Inc., is well positioned to make a difference in the lives of these young people. The equivalence of program and comparison group students on baseline indicators of violence bodes well for an unequivocal assessment of program effectiveness over time. PMID:8909624

Gabriel, R M; Hopson, T; Haskins, M; Powell, K E

1996-01-01

164

Youth Perspectives on the Intersections of Violence, Gender, and Hip-Hop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth's perceptions of violence within their social environments can provide relevant insights into the gender-based interpersonal violence epidemic in inner-city communities. To explore this issue, we examined two sets of narratives with young men and women, aged 15 to 21, involved in hip-hop culture in New York City. In the analysis, we reveal…

Hernandez, Diana; Weinstein, Hannah; Munoz-Laboy, Miguel

2012-01-01

165

A Meditational Model Linking Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence and Bullying Behaviors and Victimization among Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research documents that various forms of violence exposures are interrelated. This paper presents a conceptual model, which accounts for the relationship between youth witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) at home and their subsequent engagement in bullying behaviors and victimization by peers. A comprehensive search of…

Voisin, Dexter R.; Hong, Jun Sung

2012-01-01

166

Youth Action Strategies in the Primary Prevention of Teen Dating Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a school-based youth-driven teen dating violence prevention project. The project objectives are to provide opportunities for students to plan presentations and activities; develop knowledge and awareness about unhealthy gender norms, seen as an important root cause of relationship violence, particularly for teenagers; and…

Kervin, Denise; Obinna, Jennifer

2010-01-01

167

The Predictive Validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth in Secondary Educational Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current developments in violence risk assessment warrant consideration for use within educational settings. Using a structured professional judgment (SPJ) model, the present study investigated the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence in Youth (SAVRY) within educational settings. The predictive accuracy of the SAVRY scales was assessed using a retrospective file review to gather data on 87 adolescents ranging

Mark R. McGowan; Robert A. Horn; Ramona N. Mellott

2011-01-01

168

Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include "superpredator", "quarantining the contagious", "corrective surgery", "man as computer", "vaccine",…

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2008-01-01

169

Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

2011-01-01

170

Player Violence in Sport: Consequences for Youth Cross-Nationally (Part 2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual athletes are not primarily responsible for violence in sports. It is a product of the system. Sports leaders are responsible for allowing it and for curbing it. Contributing factors and consequences are outlined, together with recommendations for overcoming violence in youth sports. (IAH)

Pooley, John C.

1989-01-01

171

Rebekah Angove is a PhD candidate with the Medical College of Wisconsin. She is doing research on violence  

E-print Network

violence. Together we can make our community safer! Sunday, April 14 Learn about: * Gun injury as a public on violence screening in pediatric primary care, and has worked with the youth from project Ujima researching psychiatrist. Our Guest Panelists: Welcome and thank you for attending this information session on reducing gun

172

Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

Lai, Mary H.

2005-01-01

173

Acculturative Stress, Violence, and Resilience in the lives of Mexican-American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how Mexican-American youth experience stress and trauma in a variety of arenas. Such youth utilize their energy, creativity, and resilience in order to cope with cultural tensions that arise from acculturative processes, role conflicts with family and peers, school challenges, and identity formation processes. Violence, in the form of internalized colonialism, external oppression, and actual violent acts

Lori K. Holleran; Soyon Jung

2005-01-01

174

Contrasting Portraits of War: Youths' Varied Experiences with Political Violence in Bosnia and Palestine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates some of the complexity of youths' experience with political violence as a means of cautioning researchers, applied professionals and policy makers against overly-simplistic conclusions and interventions when attempting to understand and serve the large populations of the world's youth who endure conflict. A variety of…

Barber, Brian K.

2008-01-01

175

Contrasting portraits of war: Youths' varied experiences with political violence in Bosnia and Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates some of the complexity of youths' experience with political violence as a means of cautioning researchers, applied professionals and policy makers against overly-simplistic conclusions and interventions when attempting to understand and serve the large populations of the world's youth who endure conflict. A variety of forms of data and their analyses from one research program are utilized

Brian K. Barber

2008-01-01

176

Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCD's Research-Based Programs Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

2007-01-01

177

Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCDs Research-Based Programs Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

2007-01-01

178

Does social capital deter youth from cheating, alcohol use, and violence in Turkey?: Bringing torpil in  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to explore the link between social capital and cheating, alcohol use, and violence using a self-reported survey involving a sample of Turkish university students. The relatively comprehensive measures of social capital included both parental social capital (membership in organizations, political engagement, book\\/newspaper readership, parental control over the youth's social network, and religion) and youth

Özden Özbay

2008-01-01

179

Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Homeless Youth in Columbus, Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and…

Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Collins, Jennifer; Patton, Rikki; Buettner, Cynthia

2010-01-01

180

The Gold Standard of Gun Control Book Review of Joyce Malcolm, Guns and Violence: The English Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the last several decades, the United States and Canada have enjoyed robust scholarly inquiry into the law and policy issues regarding gun control and gun rights. Yet in the United Kingdom, scholarly attention to firearms policy has been almost nil. 4 As a result, the definitive history of the right to arms guarantee in the 1689 English Bill of

David B. Kopel; Paul Gallant; Joanne D. Eisen

181

Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Introduction Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences. Methods We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N=457) of urban youth, 14–24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration. Results The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls) reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR=2.28;95%CI: 1.12—4.62) and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81—10.53) were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reporting hunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30—6.33), any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12—4.92) and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16—7.82) were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization. Conclusion The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In particular, reporting hunger, drunkenness and drug use were specifically associated with victimization and perpetration. These are all modifiable risk factors that can be prevented. It is clear that these vulnerable youth are in need of additional services and guidance to ameliorate their adverse childhood experiences, current health risk behaviors and disadvantaged living context. PMID:22900123

Swahn, Monica H; Gressard, Lindsay; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Lynch, Catherine; Yao, Huang

2012-01-01

182

The nature of violence: a multilevel analysis of gun use and victim injury in violent interpersonal encounters.  

PubMed

A large number of studies have examined predictors of crime quantities yet considerably less attention has been directed toward exploring patterns in the nature or quality of violence within and across communities. The current study adds to the literature on qualitative variations in violence by assessing the incident and contextual-level predictors of offender gun use and physical injuries sustained by victims of robbery and aggravated assault. Specifically, we examine incident-level data from the National Incident Based Reporting System in conjunction with contextual-level data on the cities in which the incidents occurred. We use hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling techniques to explore variations in predictors of offender gun use and extent of victim injury. Supporting cultural effects explicated by Anderson, results reveal certain individual-level predictors are conditioned by community characteristics. PMID:24142443

Burgason, Kyle A; Thomas, Shaun A; Berthelot, Emily R

2014-02-01

183

Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Post-Traumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Method Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their parents once a year for three consecutive years. Results Palestinian children, males, and older youth were generally at greatest risk for exposure to conflict/violence across contexts. Regression analysis found unique effects of exposure to ethnic-political (Palestinian sample), school (Palestinian and Israeli Jewish samples), and family conflict/violence (Israeli Arab sample) during the first two years on PTS symptoms in year 3, controlling for prior PTS symptoms. Cumulative exposure to violence in more contexts during the first two years predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms than did exposure to violence in fewer contexts, and this was true regardless of the youth’s level of prior PTS symptoms. Conclusions These results highlight the risk that ongoing exposure to violence across multiple contexts in the social ecology poses for the mental health of children in contexts of ethnic-political violence. Researchers and mental health professionals working with war-exposed youth in a given cultural context must assess both war- and non-war-related stressors affecting youth. Based on this assessment, interventions may not be limited to individual-based, war-trauma-focused approaches, but also may include school-based, community-based, and family-level interventions. PMID:22540411

Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

184

Fostering resilience among urban youth exposed to violence: a promising area for interdisciplinary research and practice.  

PubMed

Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and building individual, family, and community assets and strengths that may more effectively support youth who have been exposed to community violence and related risks into competent, caring, and thriving adults. In this article, we review how resilience has been conceptualized and operationalized within the context of community violence, highlight gaps in literature, and offer directions for future public health research and practice. We illustrate this review with practice-based examples from public health work in the San Francisco Bay Area. Future multidisciplinary longitudinal studies that identify protective processes and successful trajectories and rigorous evaluations of strength-based policies, programs, and protective processes are needed. PMID:23818463

Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K

2013-12-01

185

Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic achievement moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict\\/violence and subsequent posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. We

Eric F. Dubow; L. Rowell Huesmann; Paul Boxer; Simha Landau; Shira Dvir; Khalil Shikaki; Jeremy Ginges

2012-01-01

186

Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective\\u000a treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship\\u000a between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban adolescents (n=1,358) were surveyed using the Social and Health Assessment. The proposed relationships were examined

Vladislav Ruchkin; Christopher C. Henrich; Stephanie M. Jones; Robert Vermeiren; Mary Schwab-Stone

2007-01-01

187

The Changing Nature of Youth Violence. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Current State of Youth Violence, Focusing on Its Changing Nature and Juvenile Intervention Programs Designed To Prevent Increased Violence (February 28, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing examined the current state of youth violence, focusing on its changing nature and juvenile intervention programs designed to prevent increased violence. Opening statements by Senators Fred Thompson, Herbert Kohl, and Joseph R. Biden addressed the seriousness of the problem. Two panels contributed prepared statements. The first panel…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

188

Linkages Between Internet and Other Media Violence With Seriously Violent Behavior by Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.The goal was to examine the association between violence in the media and the expression of seriously violent behavior among older children and teenagers in a national sample. METHODS.The Growing up with Media survey was a national, online survey of 1588 youths that was conducted in August and September 2006. Participants were 10- to 15-year-old youths who had used the

Michele L. Ybarra; Marie Diener-West; Dana Markow; Philip J. Leaf; Merle Hamburger; Paul Boxer

2010-01-01

189

The Link between Poverty, the Proliferation of Violence and the Development of Traumatic Stress among Urban Youth in the United States to School Violence: A Trauma Informed, Social Justice Approach to School Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents two premises regarding school violence in urban America. First, that traumatic stress among urban youth in the United States is a key factor in the development and exacerbation of school violence in urban areas. Secondly, an efficacious approach to the resolution of school violence cannot be achieved without addressing this…

Rawles, Portia D.

2010-01-01

190

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Talk about Experiencing and Coping with School Violence: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative of the vulnerability that the youth felt at

Arnold H. Grossman; Adam P. Haney; Perry Edwards; Edward J. Alessi; Maya Ardon; Tamika Jarrett Howell

2009-01-01

191

Disentangling the Effects of Violent Victimization, Violent Behavior, and Gun Carrying for Minority Inner-City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two waves of longitudinal data were used to examine the sequencing between violent victimization, violent behavior, and gun carrying in a high-poverty sample of African American youth. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that violent victimization T1 and violent behavior T1 increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying T2…

Spano, Richard; Bolland, John

2013-01-01

192

Youth Violence and School Safety Task Force Has Lasting Impact. Research Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North Carolina's 1999 Governor's Task Force on Youth Violence and School Safety produced a report that generated 10 action items and 6 main recommendations. This research bulletin presents a follow-up to the task force's efforts. It begins by providing background information about the task force and putting its work into context. It then discusses…

North Carolina State Dept. of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Raleigh.

193

From Illinois' Front Line against Crime: A School and Youth Violence Prevention Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that one of the most powerful weapons to prevent crime are programs such as quality educational child care, after-school and summer programs, and child abuse prevention, this brief presents the school and youth violence prevention plan of an organization of Illinois law enforcement officers, state's attorneys, crime survivors, and leaders…

2003

194

The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

2010-01-01

195

The Rise and Fall of American Youth Violence: 1980 to 2000. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines trends in violent crime from 1980-2000, analyzing what portion of the recent crime drop can be attributed to juveniles (under age 18 years) and young adults (ages 18-24 years). Data come from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Results indicate that the decline in youth violence, as…

Butts, Jeffrey; Travis, Jeremy

196

Reaching through the Cracks. A Guide to Implementing the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership (YVRP) was launched by a group of key stakeholders in Philadelphia--including the district attorney's office, adult and juvenile parole, other city agencies and community organizations. Its goal is to steer young people, ages 14 to 24 and at greatest risk of killing or being killed, away from…

Jucovy, Linda; McClanahan, Wendy S.

2008-01-01

197

Adolescent Coping and Neighborhood Violence: Perceptions, Exposure, and Urban Youths' Efforts to Deal with Danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neighborhood violence is a persistent source of danger, stress, and other adverse outcomes for urban youth. We examined how 140 African American and Latino adolescents coped with neighborhood danger in low, medium, and high crime neighborhoods throughout Chicago. Participants reported using a range of coping strategies (measured via a modified version of the Ways of Coping Scale; R. S. Lazarus

Andrew Rasmussen; Mark S. Aber; Arvinkumar Bhana

2004-01-01

198

Youth Violence Prevention in Latino Communities: A Resource Guide for MCH Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide brings together the latest available information on Latino adolescent violence prevention efforts and existing resources in Latino communities. It seeks to help maternal and child health (MCH) professionals better address the specific needs of Latino youth and their families by presenting ethnic-specific factors for…

Hoffman, Joan Serra

199

Dating Violence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in a Sample of At-Risk Israeli Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This exploratory study examines the reported dating violence and its association with sexual risk behavior among Israeli adolescents, who are at risk for dropping out of school. Methodology: A convenience sample of 105 at-risk youth (51 boys and 54 girls) completed self-administered anonymous, questionnaires in small same-gender groups.…

Schiff, Miriam; Zeira, Anat

2005-01-01

200

A Challenging Job: Physical and Sexual Violence towards Group Workers in Youth Residential Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…

Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

2014-01-01

201

Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

202

Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

203

Community Violence, School-Related Protective Factors, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of two putative school-based protective factors--student identification with school and perceived teacher support--to psychosocial outcomes in a sample of urban youth exposed to community violence. Participants were 175 high school students ages 14-19 in grades 9-12 from a large urban school district. Results…

Ludwig, Kristy A.; Warren, Jared S.

2009-01-01

204

Violent Youth Culture in Northern Ireland: Young Men, Violence, and the Challenges of Peacebuilding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses violent male youth culture in Northern Ireland within the context of a society emerging from a prolonged period of political violence toward peacebuilding. Specifically, the article focuses on the findings from a qualitative study carried out by the Centre for Young Men's Studies with 130 marginalized young men aged 13 to 16…

Harland, Ken

2011-01-01

205

The Analysis of Extracurricular Activities and Their Relationship to Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine how extracurricular activities relate to rural youth violence. Gender differences were examined across all of the study variables. Self-report data were collected from 235 teenagers from a rural, ethnically diverse, Virginia community. Correlations revealed a significant inverse relationship between church…

Linville, Deanna C.; Huebner, Angela J.

2005-01-01

206

After the Epidemic: Recent Trends in Youth Violence in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemic of youth violence in the United States peaked in 1993 and has been followed by a rapid, sustained drop. In parallel with our earlier treatment (Cook and Laub 1998), we assess two types of explanation for this drop -- those that focus on 'cohort' effects (including the effects of abortion legalization) and those that focus on 'period' effects

Philip J. Cook; John H. Laub

2001-01-01

207

Combat experience and youth: Influences on reported violence against women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 101 VA psychiatric and chemically dependent inpatients (mean age 44.8 yrs) was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that combat veterans (n?=?54) would report a higher frequency of physical violence against female partners than noncombat veterans (n?=?47). Veterans were interviewed by staff psychologists seeking information about the frequency and severity of violence toward their female partners and about

Norman D. Petrik; Angela M. Rosenberg; Charles G. Watson

1983-01-01

208

The Developmental Ecology of Urban Males' Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a longitudinal study of 294 African American and Latino adolescent boys and their caregivers living in poor urban communities were used to test a developmental-ecological model of violence. Six annual waves of data were applied to evaluate the relations between microsystem influences of parenting and peer deviance (peer violence and gang membership), macrosystem influences of community structural characteristics

Patrick H. Tolan; Deborah Gorman-Smith; David B. Henry

2003-01-01

209

Essential elements for community engagement in evidence-based youth violence prevention.  

PubMed

In the field of youth violence prevention, there has been increasing emphasis on "evidence based" programs and principles shown through scientific research as reaching their intended outcomes. Community mobilization and engagement play a critical role in many evidence-based programs and strategies, as it takes a concerted effort among a wide range of people within a community to alter behavior and maintain behavioral change. How do concerned individuals and groups within a community engage others within and outside of that community to effectively plan, develop and implement appropriate EB programs as well as evaluate the outcomes and impacts of locally developed programs yet to be proven? The authors discuss five elements essential for community engagement in evidence-based youth violence prevention based on their work in a university-community partnership through the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (API Center), a National Academic Center for Excellence on Youth Violence Prevention Center supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They include: (a) aligning EBPs with a community's shared vision and values; (b) establishing an inclusive environment for the planning, implementation and evaluation of EBPs; (c) nurturing collaboration for increased effectiveness and efficacy of EBPs; (d) building adequate leadership and community capacity to develop and sustain EBPs; and (e) building a learning community for evaluation and self-reflection. The authors propose placing greater emphasis on "evaluative thinking" and organizational capacity for evaluation as we pursue evidence-based practices for youth violence prevention. This is especially important for ethnic groups for which an evidence base is not well established. PMID:21203825

Miao, Tai-An; Umemoto, Karen; Gonda, Deanna; Hishinuma, Earl S

2011-09-01

210

Practicas optimas para la prevencion de la violencia juvenil: Libro de referencia para la accion comunitaria (Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Spanish-language version of this best practices sourcebook builds on a 1993 publication, "The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action." It offers insight into tested strategies to prevent violence by children and adolescents. It was developed with input from people working to prevent youth violence and people whose…

Thornton, Timothy N., Comp.; Craft, Carole A., Comp.; Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Lynch, Barbara S., Comp.; Baer, Katie, Comp.

211

The effects of the evidence-based Safe Dates dating abuse prevention program on other youth violence outcomes.  

PubMed

In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n?=?1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence. PMID:24599482

Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath

2014-12-01

212

Position Statement on Youth Violence Prevention and Recommended Actions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This position paper was prepared by the New Futures Collaborative, a group of community leaders concerned with improving outcomes for at-risk youth and families in the Dayton (Ohio) community. It is evident that for some individuals, there has been a value shift and devaluation of human life. A small but growing number of youth are committing…

Emery, Kathleen J.

213

Boys and Violence: A Gender-Informed Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the phenomenon of youth violence from a psychology of gender perspective. Although other factors are discussed—including gun availability, violence-related media influence, family and caretaker factors, and effects of teasing and bullying—the intention is to highlight new thinking on the potential relationship between boys' traditional masculine socialization experiences and violence. In this new perspective, traditional masculine socialization estranges

June Feder; Ronald F. Levant; James Dean

2010-01-01

214

Boys and Violence: A Gender-Informed Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the phenomenon of youth violence from a psychology of gender perspective. Although other factors are discussed—including gun availability, violence-related media influence, family and caretaker factors, and effects of teasing and bullying—the intention is to highlight new thinking on the potential relationship between boys' traditional masculine socialization experiences and violence. In this new perspective, traditional masculine socialization estranges

June Feder; Ronald F. Levant; James Dean

2007-01-01

215

Perceptions of gender-based violence among South African youth: implications for health promotion interventions.  

PubMed

Gender-based violence is a widespread problem in South Africa. Past structural inequities have created a climate conducive to violence against women. As an initial step toward developing a health promotion program, we conducted exploratory formative research to examine the barriers that affect the health and well-being of youth. Fourteen focus groups (nine with girls and five with boys) were conducted with 112 adolescents in a racially mixed community on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. We utilized grounded theory and thematic analysis to examine the data. The impact of poverty, ubiquitous gendered violence, transactional sex and unsafe recreational spaces emerged as the major themes. The experiences of youth were consumed by issues of safety rather than the pursuit of other developmentally appropriate markers. Our findings suggest that health promotion programs should create safe spaces for youth and opportunities to critically question the assumptions and manifestations of a patriarchal society. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a strong need for multi-sectorial interventions directed at many levels to prevent gender-based violence. PMID:21733916

Mosavel, M; Ahmed, R; Simon, C

2012-09-01

216

Perceptions of gender-based violence among South African youth: implications for health promotion interventions  

PubMed Central

Gender-based violence is a widespread problem in South Africa. Past structural inequities have created a climate conducive to violence against women. As an initial step toward developing a health promotion program, we conducted exploratory formative research to examine the barriers that affect the health and well-being of youth. Fourteen focus groups (nine with girls and five with boys) were conducted with 112 adolescents in a racially mixed community on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. We utilized grounded theory and thematic analysis to examine the data. The impact of poverty, ubiquitous gendered violence, transactional sex and unsafe recreational spaces emerged as the major themes. The experiences of youth were consumed by issues of safety rather than the pursuit of other developmentally appropriate markers. Our findings suggest that health promotion programs should create safe spaces for youth and opportunities to critically question the assumptions and manifestations of a patriarchal society. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a strong need for multi-sectorial interventions directed at many levels to prevent gender-based violence. PMID:21733916

Mosavel, M.; Ahmed, R.; Simon, C.

2012-01-01

217

Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female) African American youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods who participated in the Mobile Youth Survey from 1998 through 2006. Using general growth mixture modeling, we found two hopelessness trajectory classes for both boys and girls during middle adolescence: a consistently low hopelessness class and an increasingly hopeless class with quadratic change. In all classes, youth who reported stronger early adolescent connections to their mothers were less hopeless at age 13. The probability of later adolescent violence with a weapon was higher for boys and was associated with the increasingly hopeless class for both boys and girls. Implications for new avenues of research and design of hope-based prevention interventions will be discussed. PMID:20690037

Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

2011-01-01

218

Gun Crime in the Age Group 18-20  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, released jointly by the US Department of Justice and the Department of the Treasury, presents a statistical analysis of the extent of gun crime committed in the US by persons between the ages of 18 and 20. The findings of the report show that this age group committed the most gun homicides in 1997, were more likely to use a firearm during a crime, and possessed the largest number of guns connected to documented crimes. The report also makes suggestions for reducing gun violence for this age group through legislation, and outlines the proposed Youth Gun Crime Enforcement Act of 1999. The report derived the latest data from the Uniform Crime Reports and the National Crime Victimization Survey as well as the gun tracing data from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

1999-01-01

219

The Overlap of Witnessing Partner Violence with Child Maltreatment and Other Victimizations in a Nationally Representative Survey of Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the co-occurrence of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other forms of victimization. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 4,549 youth aged 0-17. Results: Witnessing partner…

Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard

2010-01-01

220

Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is a serious global public health problem. Despite a decline in homicide rates across the United States during the 1990s, homicide rates are again rising and continue to claim the lives of many young people. The human and economic toll of violence on young people, their families, and society is high. Homicide is the second leading…

Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Toal, Susan B., Comp.; Swahn, Monica H., Comp.; Behrens, Christopher B., Comp.

2005-01-01

221

Does the Alcohol Make Them Do It? Dating Violence Perpetration and Drinking Among Youth  

PubMed Central

Strong evidence links alcohol use to partner violence perpetration among adults, but the relation between youth alcohol use and dating violence perpetration (DVP) is not as well studied. The authors used meta-analytic procedures to evaluate current knowledge on the association between alcohol use and DVP among youth. The authors reviewed 28 studies published in 1985–2010; most (82%) were cross-sectional. Alcohol use was measured in 3 main ways: 1) frequency or quantity of use, 2) frequency of heavy episodic drinking, or 3) problem use. Collectively, results support the conclusion that higher levels of alcohol use are positively associated with youth DVP. With fixed-effects models, the combined odds ratios for DVP for frequency/quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and problem use were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.31), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.85), and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.94, 2.80), respectively. This association persisted even after accounting for heterogeneity and publication bias. No studies were designed to assess the immediate temporal association between drinking and DVP. Future research should assess whether there are acute or pharmacologic effects of alcohol use on youth DVP. Furthermore, few studies have been hypothesis driven, controlled for potential confounding, or examined potential effect measure modification. Studies designed to investigate the youth alcohol–DVP link specifically, and whether results vary by individuals’ gender, developmental stage, or culture, are needed. PMID:22128086

Rothman, Emily F.; McNaughton Reyes, Luz; Johnson, Renee M.; LaValley, Michael

2012-01-01

222

Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M?=?15?years; range?=?13–16?years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

2014-01-01

223

Gun Safety (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC School Violence and the News Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents ... Your Child Gun Safety Should You Worry About School Violence? Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should ...

224

Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

2014-01-01

225

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2012-01-01

226

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Talk about Experiencing and Coping with School Violence: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative…

Grossman, Arnold H.; Haney, Adam P.; Edwards, Perry; Alessi, Edward J.; Ardon, Maya; Howell, Tamika Jarrett

2009-01-01

227

Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths  

PubMed Central

Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors. PMID:18855489

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

228

Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.  

PubMed

Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. PMID:21491577

Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

2011-01-01

229

The Developmental Ecology of Urban Males' Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested a developmental-ecological model of violence using longitudinal data from poor, urban African American and Latino adolescent boys and caregivers. Found that community structural characteristics significantly predicted neighborhood social processes. Parenting practices partially mediated relationship between neighborhood social processes and…

Tolan, Patrick H.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.

2003-01-01

230

Political Violence, Family Relations, and Palestinian Youth Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated associations among involvement in political violence, family relations, and adolescent social and psychological functioning in Palestinian families in Israel. Found that childhood "Intifada" experience predicted increased antisocial behavior for adolescent males and females and depression for females 1 to 2 years after the end of the…

Barber, Brian K.

1999-01-01

231

Youth Exposed to Violence: The Role of Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of 174 inner-city urban high school students, this study examined the degree to which family and peer support would moderate the negative impact of exposure to violence on academic performance, symptoms of distress, and persistence intentions. Over 94% of the students reported having been exposed to at least one form of community…

Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Budge, Stephanie L.; McKay, Kevin M.

2010-01-01

232

Understanding and Responding to Youth Violence in North Minneapolis Using  

E-print Network

of Minnesota's Urban Research and Outreach/Engagement Center, University of Minnesota Program in Health Disparities Research, and the University of Minnesota Center for health Equity. The project plan- ning/University of Minnesota) Dr. Esther Jenkins (Institute on Domestic Violence in the African American Community

Amin, S. Massoud

233

The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention  

PubMed Central

School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented. PMID:23390438

Kim, Nam Su

2013-01-01

234

The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.  

PubMed

School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented. PMID:23390438

Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Nam Su

2013-01-01

235

Youth Violence and Hegemonic Masculinity among Pacific Islander and Asian American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

As scholars and community stakeholders continue to understand hegemonic masculinity and its influences on youth violence,\\u000a it is important that marginalized ethnic groups are not excluded from the discourse. This qualitative exploratory study investigates\\u000a the ways that hegemonic masculinity impacts adolescent boys and girls from Pacific Islander and Asian American backgrounds.\\u000a Research findings reveal how peers, family members, and romantic

David Tokiharu Mayeda; Lisa Pasko

236

Violence in street culture: cross-cultural comparison of youth groups and criminal gangs.  

PubMed

Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in Brazil, Russia, and Germany. Focusing on street culture norms and their relevance for youth groups in everyday life, the author shows that there are worldwide similarities, and these are most likely to be seen in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The article deals not only with the question of how people act in conflicts but also focuses on a social order in which the reputation of men is based mainly on questions of masculinity, honor, and power expressed through aggressive behavior. The results are based on more than one hundred semistructured qualitative interviews with street culture youth, prison inmates, adult family members, social workers, police, and researchers that were conducted in recent years in the three countries.The study also describes a typology of conflict behavior among male street culture youth that helps in understanding why even juveniles who were socialized in the milieu of the street culture can reject violence and do not have to turn to violence in all conflicts. The article examines the similarities in the reasons for violence and fear of violence, as well as the differences in frequency and intensity between violent countries (such as Brazil and the Russian Federation) and less violent countries (for example, Germany). PMID:18855319

Zdun, Steffen

2008-01-01

237

Fighting Violence without Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence is becoming the number one problem in United States schools. Approximately 20 percent of high school students regularly carry guns and other weapons. Several nonviolent measures are appropriate to reduce violence in schools; but only the implementation of multiple ideas and measures, not "quick fix" solutions, will curb violence. Peer…

Rowicki, Mark A.; Martin, William C.

238

Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors  

PubMed Central

Objective We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and post-traumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children’s self-esteem, and academic achievement, moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Method We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Results Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first two waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child’s initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth’s self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Conclusions Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms. PMID:22594697

Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

239

Gun Control Debate in US Senate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News targets recent developments in federal gun control legislation. Last week, in a contentious and often contradictory debate, the Republican-led US Senate approved several gun control amendments adjoined to a juvenile crime bill chiefly sponsored by Sen. Orrin G. Hatch, R-Utah. Despite the ostensible Republican concessions on gun control policy in the wake of recent youth gun violence, Democrats did not support some of the measures because they believe them to be "riddled with high-caliber loopholes" exhorted by the powerful gun lobby. On Friday, the Senate voted 48-47 for an amendment that would require compulsory background checks of buyers at gun shows. Opponents cited various loopholes in the amendment, including provisions that decrease the wait for negative background checks at gun shows (a 24-hour deadline instead of the three-day limit required with other gun sales) and permit people to hock a gun at a pawnshop and reclaim it without a check. Other gun control amendments to the bill passed earlier last week include the restriction of access to semiautomatic assault weapons for juveniles and a ban on the importation of high-capacity ammunition clips. Today the Senate plans to vote on another amendment that would mandate licensed gun dealers to include a child safety lock with the sale of any handgun. The omnibus juvenile justice bill still has more than 80 amendments awaiting action, which presumably will be tabled at least until after Memorial Day, and ultimately may perish if the partisan bickering in the Senate over gun control policy cannot be resolved before they must move on to other business.

Osmond, Andrew.

240

Race, youth violence, and the changing jurisprudence of waiver.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the legal history and jurisprudential theory of legislative offense-exclusion and prosecutorial waiver laws over the past quarter-century. Initially concerns about racial discrimination and civil rights motivated the Supreme Court in Kent v. United States to require due process in judicial waiver hearings. Offense-exclusion and "direct file" laws evolved and expanded in direct reaction to Kent as lawmakers sought simple and expedient alternatives to judicial waiver hearings. The "just deserts" sentencing movement of the 1970s, which advocated determinate and presumptive offense-based sentences, provided a conceptual alternative to judicial discretion and a jurisprudential rationale for offense exclusion laws. Research on delinquent and criminal careers in the 1970s, which initially promised empirically grounded selective incapacitation sentencing strategies, provided another conceptual foundation for offense-based waiver laws that focused on youths' prior records. Finally, offense exclusion provided a politically attractive strategy for "get tough" public officials who proposed to "crack down" on "baby boom" increases in youth crime. The jurisprudential shift in sentencing emphases from considerations of the offender to characteristics of the offense relocated waiver and sentencing discretion from judges to prosecutors. By the early 1990s, as a result of political "crack-downs" on youth crime, the scope of excluded offense legislation increased substantially, became overly inclusive and excessively rigid, and exhibited many of the negative features associated with mandatory sentencing laws. PMID:11241678

Feld, B C

2001-01-01

241

African Indigenous Proverbs and the Question of Youth Violence: Making the Case for the Use of the Teachings of Igbo of Nigeria and Kiembu of Kenya Proverbs for Youth Character and Moral Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historic and contemporary global concern over youth violence and indiscipline/subordination in schools has educators, school administrators and policy makers working hard to ensure that schools are welcoming and safe spaces for learners. Social harmony can only be achieved by understanding and addressing the causes of youth violence and…

Dei, George Sefa

2013-01-01

242

Youth Violence Prevention. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session (March 31, 1992).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Senate hearing on youth violence, strategies for its prevention, and the appropriate role of the federal government. The hearing stresses the need for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach for youth violence prevention strategies and more coordination by the federal…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

243

Making Peace with the Sea: one man's life after gun violence in the new South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagine a world where a missing cell phone could incite reprisal by gun against the suspected thief. Rebecca Rosenberg goes behind the scenes with one such victim and his family attempting to sort things out after the fact in twenty-first-century South Africa.

Rebecca Rosenberg

2009-01-01

244

Media Violence Research and Youth Violence Data: Why Do They Conflict?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Contrary to media headlines and public perceptions, there is little evidence of a substantial link between exposure to violent interactive games and serious real-life violence or crime. Conclusion: Further research is needed on whether violent games may affect less dramatic but real concerns such as bullying, fighting, or attitudes and…

Olson, Cheryl K.

2004-01-01

245

Educational Performance and Attitudes toward School as Risk-Protective Factors for Violence: A Study of the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether school experiences, school performance, and other risk-protective factors were related to violence among Hawaiian, Filipino, and Samoan youths residing in Hawai'i. This study analyzed survey data (N = 325) collected in three high schools having concentrations of Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan…

Wegner, Eldon L.; Garcia-Santiago, Orlando; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.

2010-01-01

246

Gang Membership, Gun Carrying, and Employment: Applying Routine Activities Theory to Explain Violent Victimization Among Inner City, Minority Youth Living in Extreme Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

du Conceptual inconsistencies in routine activities theory are illustrated by demon- strating how gang membership, gun carrying, and employment can be categorized as both risk and protective factors in a high-poverty context. Two waves of longi- tudinal data from a high-poverty sample of African American youth were used to examine the determinants of victimization risk. Bivariate analyses indicated that gang

Richard Spano; Joshua D. Freilich; John Bolland

2008-01-01

247

The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew’s general strain theory (GST) give contrasting accounts of whether exposure to violence has a

Richard Spano; Craig Rivera; John Bolland

2006-01-01

248

Evaluating Agency and Responsibility in Gendered Violence: African American Youth Talk About Violence and Hip Hop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of this study provide insights into the ways that African American adolescents think about gendered interpersonal\\u000a violence. African American high school students were invited to discuss images and incidents from contemporary urban music\\u000a culture (events based on incidents with famous hip hop figures and lyrics from rap music) in a focus group format. We explored\\u000a how African American

Catherine R. Squires; Laura P. Kohn-Wood; Tabbye Chavous; Prudence L. Carter

2006-01-01

249

Teaching Chicano Youth the Sociology of Barrio Social Problems with the Aid of Small Airplane Flights. (An Experiment to Help Reduce Chicano Youth Violence).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chicano youth violence (CYV) is a serious problem, progressively more generalized and vicious and increasingly involving girls and children as assailants and also attacks on old people, whites and Mexican nationals. Becoming romanticized and institutionalized into a subculture, CYV is an important factor in the destruction of authentic Chicano…

Jorquez, Jaime S.

250

Youth and Violence: The Current Crisis. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the text of a Congressional hearing, chaired by Representative George Miller, on the epidemic of gang warfare and violence among youth. Testimony is presented from these witnesses: (1) James Brown, juvenile court probation officer, Multnomah County Juvenile Justice Department, Portland, Oregon; (2) John A. Calhoun, executive…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

251

Aiming for Prevention: Medical and Public Health Approaches to Small Arms, Gun Violence, and Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of global small arms violence is enormous and the scale of human suffering it causes is immense, although poorly counted. It causes at least hundreds of thousands of deaths and more than a million injuries each year, as well as permanent physical and psychological damage, destruction of families, lost productivity, and diversion of resources from basic health services.

Brian Rawson

252

Guns, alcohol, and intimate partner violence: the epidemiology of female suicide in New Mexico.  

PubMed

Suicide is among the leading causes of death in the United States, and in women the second leading cause of injury death overall. Previous studies have suggested links between intimate partner violence and suicide in women. We examined female suicide deaths to identify and describe associated risk factors. We reviewed all reports from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator for female suicide deaths occurring in New Mexico from 1990 to 1994. Information abstracted included demographics, mechanism of death, presence of alcohol/drugs, clinical depression, intimate partner violence, health problems, and other variables. Annual rates were calculated based on the 1990 census. The New Mexico female suicide death rate was 8.2/100,000 persons per year (n = 313), nearly twice the U.S. rate of 4.5/100,000. Non-Hispanic whites were overrepresented compared to Hispanics and American Indians. Decedents ranged in age from 14 to 93 years (median = 43 years). Firearms accounted for 45.7% of the suicide deaths, followed by ingested poisons (29.1%), hanging (10.5%), other (7.7%), and inhaled poisons (7.0%). Intimate partner violence was documented in 5.1% of female suicide deaths; in an additional 22.1% of cases, a male intimate partner fought with or separated from the decedent immediately preceding the suicide. Nearly two-thirds (65.5%) of the decedents had alcohol or drugs present in their blood at autopsy. Among decedents who had alcohol present (34.5%), blood alcohol levels were far higher among American Indians compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (p = .01). Interpersonal conflict was documented in over 25% of cases, indicating that studies of the mortality of intimate partner violence should include victims of both suicide and homicide deaths to fully characterize the mortality patterns of intimate partner violence. PMID:10553307

Olson, L; Huyler, F; Lynch, A W; Fullerton, L; Werenko, D; Sklar, D; Zumwalt, R

1999-01-01

253

Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. Methods Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (?18 yrs) and adult patients. Findings 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6–12], p<0.001), and less frequently by military personnel (13% vs 48%, OR 0.14 [95%CI 0.075–0.26], p<0.001). Delayed presentation for medical care (>72 hours after the assault) was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2–4.0], p?=?0.007). Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3–4.4], p?=?0.006). Nine (2.9%) pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p?=?0.34). Interpretation World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth. PMID:21267467

Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Lussy Justin, Paluku; Kimona, Christophe; Nyavandu, Kavira; Mukekulu Eugenie, Kamabu; Jonathan, Kasereka Muhindo Lusi; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Hawkes, Michael

2011-01-01

254

The Impact of Violence on At-Risk Youth in Canada, the United States, and the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns over youth violence and victimization are widespread, but it is rare that national trends can be compared with identical methods. This paper provides a cross-national examination of internalized, externalized, and help-seeking responses to weapon-related victimization among 1,398 at-risk male and female youth between the ages of 14 and 17 in Toronto, Montreal, Philadelphia, and Amsterdam. Analyses were conducted of

Jennifer Butters; Lana Harrison; Dirk J. Korf; Serge Brochu; Patricia G. Erickson

2011-01-01

255

Disintegration and Violence among Migrants in Germany: Turkish and Russian Youths versus German Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turkish and Russian immigrants are the two largest groups of immigrants in Germany, but there are some important differences regarding their legal status. Although most of the Turkish adolescents were born in Germany, few of them have German citizenship. In contrast, most of the Russian youths were born outside Germany, but they mostly possess…

Baier, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Christian

2008-01-01

256

Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

Council of Europe Forum, 1985

1985-01-01

257

Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study  

PubMed Central

Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating victim status in boys. All violence-affected youth exhibited significantly higher rates of cumulative mental health problems. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of violence for the mental health of youth. They reveal a particular vulnerability as a function of gender. Implications for policy making, clinical practice and research are discussed. PMID:23819775

2013-01-01

258

Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

259

Helping Children Exposed to War and Violence: Perspectives from an International Work Group on Interventions for Youth and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This paper outlines conclusions from a three-day workgroup hosting the eight authors as well as others with expertise in the evaluation and treatment of youth exposed to war and violence. Objective: The purpose of this meeting was to bring multiple perspectives together to identify components that comprise effective psychosocial…

Kletter, Hilit; Rialon, Rebecca A.; Laor, Nathaniel; Brom, Daniel; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Shaheen, Mohammed; Hamiel, Daniel; Chemtob, Claude; Weems, Carl F.; Feinstein, Carl; Lieberman, Alicia; Reicherter, Daryn; Song, Suzan; Carrion, Victor G.

2013-01-01

260

‘Crossing the line’: addressing youth leisure, violence and socio?geographic exclusion through documentary film?making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores a documentary film?making approach to leisure scholarship and practice. Two films – Crossing the Line (2007) and Crossing the Line: Northern Exposure (2008) produced by young people to address issues of violence and the politics of place – provide the specific focus of the paper. These films illustrate youth perspectives of neighbourhoods; both documentaries share the processes

Brett D. Lashua

2010-01-01

261

The link between rap music and youth crime and violence: A review of the literature and issues for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the empirical literature to assess the validity of the perceived association between rap music and youth violence. Research shows that studies examining this issue are virtually nonexistent and do not consistently support a cause?effect relationship. Theoretical, methodological, and conceptual shortcomings further limit the significance of the research findings. The history of the music genre, arguments for the

Becky L. Tatum

1999-01-01

262

Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

2011-01-01

263

Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from…

Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

2011-01-01

264

“I Live by Shooting Hill” – A Qualitative Exploration of Conflict and Violence among Urban Youth in New Haven, Connecticut  

PubMed Central

To elucidate urban youths’ perceptions of conflict and violence we conducted a qualitative study among minority urban youths in New Haven, Connecticut. We utilized the ecological framework to explore the multilevel nature of the findings, and triangulated results with a parallel quantitative study. We found risk factors for violence at multiple levels including lack of interpersonal anger management skills (individual level); parents not physically present in the household (relationship level); residence in crime and gang-ridden neighborhoods (community level); and socioeconomic inequalities between neighborhoods, as reflected by participants’ perception of the inadequacy of neighborhood resources to provide safety (societal level). Neighborhood resources were perceived as sparse, and police were not regarded as a protective factor (sometimes rather as racially discriminatory). Participants’ statements pertaining to feelings of isolation, racism, and violence without strong parental, neighborhood, and school support may impede prosocial attitudes and behaviors throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22643467

Shuval, Kerem; Massey, Zohar; O Caughy, Margaret; Cavanaugh, Brenda; Pillsbury, Charles A; Groce, Nora

2013-01-01

265

Education policy implications from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence.  

PubMed

The research from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence makes a compelling case for why educators and education policymakers should care about the effects of media on youth behavior, and the growing phenomenon of Internet bullying and harassment. The ability of the U.S. education system to respond is limited not only by competing instructional priorities but also by the governance structure of the education system itself. The federal role is limited to a proportionally small amount of funding for states and schools, to raising public awareness, and to providing research and data. States can set priorities, make requirements, and direct funding. Districts and schools ultimately have the most control over prevention program selection and setting social and behavioral norms. Key implications of the panel's research for educators and education policymakers include: Internet bullying is correlated with school behavior problems; Internet bullying behavior may peak in middle school; Internet bullying shares common predictors with verbal and, to some extent, physical bullying; Media literacy programs may mitigate the negative effects of electronic media on youth. Specific recommendations based on these conclusions are discussed, and research priorities for the prevention and education fields are identified. PMID:18047948

Worthen, Maria R

2007-12-01

266

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Systems of Gun Commerce Modern gun commerce operates under the terms of the Gun Control Act of 1968. ThoseInside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Executive Summary #12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence

Nguyen, Danh

267

Youth Violence: Developing Local and State Solutions. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State Solutions (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state solutions. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

268

FBI Reports Drop in Crime Due to Gun Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a report released Sunday, the FBI found that a seven percent drop in homicides was entirely attributable to a decrease in killings committed with guns. The report also linked a drop in the rate of robbery involving guns to a ten percent drop in overall robberies nationwide. The decline in crime remained consistent in other categories as well, including property crimes, homicide against women, and random violent crimes. Surprisingly, in the wake of certain highly publicized acts of youth violence, the rate of violent juvenile crime has also dropped. This marks the seventh straight year that crime has declined in America. While both the report and many experts see a direct link between declining crime and tougher gun control, there continue to be dissenters -- one might ask if there isn't a certain circularity to the FBI's conclusions, and it remains to be seen if the current Congress will be swayed to retake up the gun legislation defeated this past summer.

Charbonneau, David D.

269

Religiosity profiles of American youth in relation to substance use, violence, and delinquency.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known in terms of the relationship between religiosity profiles and adolescents' involvement in substance use, violence, and delinquency. Using a diverse sample of 17,705 (49 % female) adolescents from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, latent profile analysis and multinomial regression are employed to examine the relationships between latent religiosity classes and substance use, violence, and delinquency. Results revealed a five class solution. Classes were identified as religiously disengaged (10.76 %), religiously infrequent (23.59 %), privately religious (6.55 %), religious regulars (40.85 %), and religiously devoted (18.25 %). Membership in the religiously devoted class was associated with the decreased likelihood of participation in a variety of substance use behaviors as well as decreases in the likelihood of fighting and theft. To a lesser extent, membership in the religious regulars class was also associated with the decreased likelihood of substance use and fighting. However, membership in the religiously infrequent and privately religious classes was only associated with the decreased likelihood of marijuana use. Findings suggest that private religiosity alone does not serve to buffer youth effectively against involvement in problem behavior, but rather that it is the combination of intrinsic and extrinsic adolescent religiosity factors that is associated with participation in fewer problem behaviors. PMID:22476727

Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Hodge, David R; Perron, Brian E

2012-12-01

270

The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew's general strain theory (GST) give…

Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John

2006-01-01

271

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

for that reason, are an important source of guns used in criminal violence. The intent of this reportPreface Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching #12;#12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH #12;Violence

Leistikow, Bruce N.

272

The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth as a Predictor of Recidivism in a United Kingdom Ccohort of Adolescent Offenders with Conduct Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective study examined the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 99 male adolescents who were assessed in custody and followed up 12 months post release. Outcome data on recidivism were based on official Home Office records. The base…

Dolan, Mairead C.; Rennie, Charlotte E.

2008-01-01

273

Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City's Youth: A Matter of Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…

Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

2004-01-01

274

What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal  

E-print Network

guns in America. San Francisco, CA: Legal Community Against Violence; 2008. 56 #12;How Gun Shows Work2 How Gun Shows Work What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal. But other states have enacted more specific definitions as they acted to regulate gun shows themselves

Leistikow, Bruce N.

275

Characteristics of Youth Seeking Emergency Care for Assault Injuries  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To characterize youth seeking care for assault injuries, the context of violence, and previous emergency department (ED) service utilization to inform ED-based injury prevention. METHODS: A consecutive sample of youth (14–24) presenting to an urban ED with an assault injury completed a survey of partner violence, gun/knife victimization, gang membership, and context of the fight. RESULTS: A total of 925 youth entered the ED with an assault injury; 718 completed the survey (15.4% refused); 730 comparison youth were sampled. The fights leading to the ED visit occurred at home (37.6%) or on streets (30.4%), and were commonly with a known person (68.3%). Fights were caused by issues of territory (23.3%) and retaliation (8.9%); 20.8% of youth reported substance use before the fight. The assault-injured group reported more peer/partner violence and more gun experiences. Assault-injured youth reported higher past ED utilization for assault (odds ratio [OR]: 2.16) or mental health reasons (OR: 7.98). Regression analysis found the assault-injured youth had more frequent weapon use (OR: 1.25) and substance misuse (OR: 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: Assault-injured youth seeking ED care report higher levels of previous violence, weapon experience, and substance use compared with a comparison group seeking care for other complaints. Almost 10% of assault-injured youth had another fight-related ED visit in the previous year, and ?5% had an ED visit for mental health. Most fights were with people known to them and for well-defined reasons, and were therefore likely preventable. The ED is a critical time to interact with youth to prevent future morbidity. PMID:24323994

Ranney, Megan; Newton, Manya; Woodhull, Whitney; Zimmerman, Marc; Walton, Maureen A.

2014-01-01

276

What's happening to our kids? Almost all of us have read about or experienced an incident of bullying or violence directed toward youth in our communities or neighborhood schools.  

E-print Network

What's happening to our kids? Almost all of us have read about or experienced an incident Zimmerman Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids and the Arts Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids

Shyy, Wei

277

Pathways from childhood maltreatment to emerging adulthood: investigating trauma-mediated substance use and dating violence outcomes among child protective services-involved youth.  

PubMed

Longitudinal survey data were used to examine the relationship between two types of childhood maltreatment, abuse/neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and two outcomes, substance use and dating violence, within the past year. Participants were youth (N = 158, aged 16-19 at Time 3) involved with child protective services (CPS). A parallel multiple mediator model was used to test the hypothesis that trauma symptoms would mediate the relationship between both types of maltreatment and dating violence, marijuana, and alcohol use outcomes. Although both types of maltreatment were not directly associated with dating violence and substance use outcomes, the indirect effects of anxiety, anger, and dissociation on the relationship between maltreatment and substance use/dating violence were significant. Direct effects of both types of maltreatment on past year use of dating violence + alcohol use and dating violence + marijuana use were not significant, but results demonstrated a significant indirect effect for anger on the relationship between exposure to IPV and past year dating violence + marijuana use. No other indirect effects were significant. Findings highlight the negative effects of exposure to IPV and have implications for the development of prevention programming for youth transitioning out of CPS. PMID:25287053

Faulkner, Breanne; Goldstein, Abby L; Wekerle, Christine

2014-01-01

278

Youth Violence Perpetration: What Protects? What Predicts? Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To identify individual, family and community-level risk and protective factors for violence perpetration in a national sample of adolescents. Methods: Analysis of two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The key outcome variable was Time 2 violence involvement, approximately 1 year after initial data collection, mea- sured by a validated scale of violence perpetration

MICHAEL D. RESNICK; MARJORIE IRELAND; IRIS BOROWSKY

279

Dealing with Youth Violence. What Schools and Communities Need To Know.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication addresses many of the complexities of violence, and provides information to prepare educators and parents to combat violence in schools and communities. The chapters are: (1) "How Educators, Students, Parents, and Law Enforcement Officials See School Violence" (Rose M. Duhon-Sells and Halloway C. Sells); (2) "Addressing School…

Duhon-Sells, Rose, Ed.

280

Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…

Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

2013-01-01

281

Perpetrator and victim gender patterns for 21 forms of youth victimization in the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence.  

PubMed

Most interest in violence and gender has focused on certain types of victimization such as sex offenses and relational aggression. This study examined gender patterns across numerous forms of youth victimization. The data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative U.S. sample of 4,549 children ages 1 month to 17 years obtained through a telephone survey of caregivers and youth. For 18 of 21 victimization types, male perpetration was significantly more common than female perpetration. Perpetrator-victim patterns revealed that most forms of physical assault and bullying showed a predominantly male-on-male pattern. All forms of sexual assault, plus kidnapping, showed a predominantly male-on-female pattern. Nonphysical maltreatment showed a mixed pattern, with fairly similar rates across all four gender configurations. Many violence types were more severe when perpetrated by males versus females as indicated by higher injury rates and greater victim fear. Higher order analyses by victimization type indicated, among other findings, that victimization types with more stranger perpetrators had more male perpetrators, victimizations with higher percentages of male-on-female and female-on-male incidents were more likely to be sexual offenses, and higher percentages of female-on-female incidents were associated with verbal victimizations. Results also suggest that males are more likely to aggress in more impersonal contexts compared to females. Gender socialization, physical power, and social power appear to intersect in ways that create gendered patterns of violence. These factors, versus a focus on skills deficits, need more attention in prevention and intervention. PMID:24547672

Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

2013-01-01

282

Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?  

PubMed

Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization. PMID:24364129

McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

2013-01-01

283

Is low self-control associated with violence among youths in Turkey?  

PubMed

Self-control theory is tested in relation to violence on a sample of university students in Turkey. The primary findings indicate support for the theory net of the impacts of strain, deterrence, differential association, social bonding, and routine activity theories: The greater the low self-control, the greater the violence. No subdimensions of self-control have consistent significant impacts on violence. Most high-opportunity measures have positive impacts on violence. Interaction effects occur only among subdimensions of self-control and opportunity variables. Social class and age are significant even when low self-control measures were controlled. PMID:18635741

Ozbay, Ozden; Köksoy, Onur

2009-04-01

284

Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

McNeil, Michele

2013-01-01

285

Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2013-01-01

286

Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which were…

Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.

2007-01-01

287

The Effects of Family and Community Violence Exposure among Youth: Recommendations for Practice and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with other segments of the population, adolescents and, in particular, African Americans are disproportionately exposed to family and community violence. Research has consistently documented that exposure to such violence is often associated with psychological difficulties, poor educational and behavioral outcomes, and juvenile justice…

Voisin, Dexter R.

2007-01-01

288

Gang Violence and Latino Youth in Chicano Literature: The Loss of Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature analysis examines the representation of violence in Chicano literature, in particular, gang violence. The violent culture of gangs in the Chicano community is an essential aspect of the works of Luis Rodriguez, Mona Ruiz, Yxta Maya Murray, and Alejandro Morales. By examining the lives of the protagonists in a selection of works by these authors, this analysis aims

Maria C. Lara

2005-01-01

289

Are movies with tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sex, and violence rated for youth?: A comparison of rating systems in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to determine between-country differences and changes over time in the portrayal of youth risk behaviors in films rated for youth in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the United States. Methods Content and ratings were analyzed for 362 films that were popular across all four countries from 2002–2009. Country-specific ratings were classified as either youth or adult, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to determine between-country differences in the presence of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sexual content, and violence in youth-rated films. Within-country differences in this content over time were also assessed, comparing films released from 2002–2005 with those released from 2006–2009. Results In the US, films rated for youth were less likely to contain all five risk behaviors than in youth-rated films in Argentina, Brazil, and, when the “15 and older” rating was considered a youth rating, in Mexico. All three Latin American countries “downrated” films that received an adult rating in the US. Nevertheless, tobacco and drug use in youth-rated films declined over time in all countries, whereas moderate to extreme alcohol use and violence involving children or youth increased in all countries. Conclusions Tobacco and drug use have declined in popular US films, but these behaviors are still prevalent in films rated for youth across the Americas. The apparent success of advocacy efforts to reduce tobacco and other drugs in films suggests that similar efforts be directed to reduce alcohol portrayals. PMID:24316001

Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Vargas, Rosa; Braun, Sandra; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Sevigny, Eric L.; Billings, Deborah L.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Navarro, Ashley; Hardin, James

2014-01-01

290

A game theoretic model of gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the passage of the Brady Bill in 1993 and the approval of the Feinstein Amend- ment the following year, gun control has once again become a subject of heated public debate in the United States. Procontrol forces point to high levels of gun ownership as the cause of much, if not most, violence in America, and argue that gun

Robert Taylor

1995-01-01

291

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Epilogue #12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence Prevention;Epilogue In February 2010, I attended a Crossroads of the West gun show at the Arizona State Fairgrounds

Leistikow, Bruce N.

292

Dating Violence Among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence, sexual, and substance use behaviors. METHODS Logistic regression models for clustered data from 7th grade students attending 10 Texas urban middle schools were used to examine cross-sectional associations between dating violence victimization and risk behaviors. RESULTS The sample (N = 950) was 48.5% African American, 36.0% Hispanic, 55.7% female, mean age 13.1 years (SD 0.64). About 1 in 5 reported physical dating violence victimization, 48.1% reported nonphysical victimization, and 52.6% reported any victimization. Adjusted logistic regression analyses indicated that physical, nonphysical, and any victimization was associated with ever having sex, ever using alcohol, and ever using drugs. CONCLUSIONS Over 50% of sampled middle school students had experienced dating violence, which may be associated with early sexual initiation and substance use. Middle school interventions that prevent dating violence are needed. PMID:23586886

Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

2015-01-01

293

Peace and Non-Violence: A Community Collaborates for Inner City Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the escalation of violent crime among youth in Knoxville, Tennessee, two partnerships have been developed by Pellissippi State Technical Community College (PSTCC), a university and the K-12 system in the Greater Knoxville area, and community leaders to provide non-violent alternatives for youth. The first effort, the annual Greater…

Chandler, Vrondelia

294

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Develop the PARTNERS Youth Violence Prevention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background: School-based violence prevention programs have shown promise for reducing aggression and increasing children's prosocial behaviors. Prevention interventions within the context of urban after-school programs provide a unique opportunity for academic researchers and community stakeholders to collaborate in the creation of meaningful and sustainable violence prevention initiatives.Objectives: This paper describes the development of a collaborative between academic researchers and community

Stephen S. Leff; Duane E. Thomas; Nicole A. Vaughn; Nicole A. Thomas; Julie Paquette MacEvoy; Melanie A. Freedman; Saburah Abdul-Kabir; Joseph Woodlock; Terry Guerra; Ayana S. Bradshaw; Elizabeth M. Woodburn; Rachel K. Myers; Joel A. Fein

2010-01-01

295

Violence and Crime Prevention  

E-print Network

that the annual cost of gun violence alone to the U. S. economy is $100 billion ($2.5 billion each year in ChicagoViolence and Crime Prevention Where we stand: What can policymakers and public officials learn from research on violence prevention? Between 2000-2012, approximately 6,500 soldiers died on the battlefields

Butler, Laurie J.

296

Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

2006-01-01

297

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles [pdf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Business improvement districts (BIDs) are a tool used by concerned members of the business community and politicians to enhance a commercial retail area's economic fortunes. As it turns out, they may also improve the social environment of their neighborhoods as well. Published in 2009, this study commissioned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was completed by the RAND Corporation. Throughout its 139-pages the study takes a critical look at how these BIDs have the potential "to reduce a youth's risk to neighborhood violence" and generally improve the social environment. The study was based on research performed in Los Angeles and the report itself is divided into six chapters. The study notes that the activities of BIDs can help increase informal social control, reducing visible signs of disorder and blight, and provide enriched employment opportunities.

MacDonald, John M. (John Michael), 1972-

298

Prevalence of youth violence in the U.S., 1999-2009: ethnic comparisons and disaggregating Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.  

PubMed

This study examined ethnic and gender differences in youth violence in the U.S. across time, especially when disaggregating Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and examining adolescents with mixed ancestry. National data from 1999 to 2009 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System were analyzed. The analyses were performed on individual items and three factors (i.e., carry weapon, felt unsafe, fights). Overall, 43.9 % responded to at least one indicator of violence. In general, males reported higher rates than females. American Indians/Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders tended to have the highest rates, while Asians and Whites tended to have the lowest rates. However, significant interaction effects between ethnicity and sex indicated a more complex relationship. The findings highlight the (1) parsimony in utilizing the three factors; (2) importance of disaggregating the heterogeneous "Asian/Pacific Islander" population; and (3) need to conduct more research on youth of mixed ancestry. These findings better inform program design and implementation, as well as policy making in youth violence prevention. PMID:23292802

Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle; Hishinuma, Earl; Chang, Janice

2013-12-01

299

70 FR 10096 - Urban Networks To Increase Thriving Youth Through Violence Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Urban Networks To Increase Thriving Youth...activity, including poverty, substance abuse...behavior, a decrease in grade point...NCIPC): to increase the capacity...organizations to decrease risk factors and increase protective...

2005-03-02

300

Reducing Youth Violence. Coordinated Federal Efforts and Early Intervention Strategies Could Help. Statement of Gregory J. McDonald, Director of Human Services, Policy and Management Issues, Human Resources Division. Testimony before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The testimony presented in this document discusses the extent of the problem of youth violence, risk factors, type of approach required, federal prevention efforts, and conclusions. It is suggested that young people at risk of later violence tend to: come from families that are abusive, neglectful, and otherwise dysfunctional; show an early…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

301

Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

302

Investigating the Role of Gender and Delinquency in Exposure to Violence Among Puerto Rican Youth.  

PubMed

Using a longitudinal sample of Puerto Rican adolescents living in the Bronx, New York, this study examines the predictors of exposure to violence within gender. Results from a series of negative binomial regressions suggested (a) sensation seeking, peer delinquency, coercive discipline, and initial delinquency increased the likelihood of exposure to violence for both males and females at multiple time points and (b) initial delinquency was the only consistent predictor of exposure to violence at all time points. Regarding the role of gender, the results indicated that some risk factors were similar across genders (e.g., sensation seeking, coercive discipline, peer delinquency, and delinquent behavior), whereas other risk factors differed across gender (e.g., age and welfare among males and school environment for females). Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23914125

Reingle, Jennifer M; Jennings, Wesley G; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Piquero, Alex R; Canino, Glorisa

2011-08-01

303

Attitudes toward Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youth in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this research were to assess the attitudes toward dating violence among Jewish and Arab male and female adolescents in Israel. The random sample consisted of 1,357 participants from among 9th to 12th grade pupils enrolled in eight Arab and eight Jewish junior and senior high schools. The study assessed attitudes toward…

Sherer, Moshe

2010-01-01

304

Middle School Youth: Satisfaction with and Responses to a Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how group composition influences students' level of satisfaction with a dating violence and sexual assault prevention program. A 10- to 12-session program was presented to 396 urban African American middle school students in mixed- and same-gender groups. Both males and females were significantly more satisfied with the…

Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly; Sharma, Yasoda

2010-01-01

305

Exposure to Violence o Youths' beliefs about the justifiability or acceptability of  

E-print Network

family relationships, and so parental relationships may play a more salient for in shaping children aggression had combined effects on attitudes about aggression, with parent-child and community aggression to greater community violence was not related to more aggressive attitudes, whereas this relationship

Sanders, Matthew

306

Violent youth or violent schools? A critical incident analysis of symbolic violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing critical incidents primarily from a year?long ethnographic study of a single gender middle school, the authors attempt to capture the mechanisms of symbolic violence as described by Bourdieu and Passeron in Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture and by Bourdieu in latter publications. Our analysis suggests that problems of persistent social inequality, crime, and incarceration are linked to symbolic

Kathryn Herr; Gary Anderson

2003-01-01

307

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

308

Facilitating Violence: A Comparison of Gang-Motivated, Gang-Affiliated, and Nongang Youth Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that gangs facilitate violent offending by members,but the mechanisms by which that facilitation occurs remain unclear. Gangsmay promote violence indirectly by facilitating members' access to riskysituations such as drug markets or directly through gang functions such asturf defense. We explore alternative modes of facilitation in a comparisonof gang-affiliated homicides (which involve gang members but do not

Richard Rosenfeld; Timothy M. Bray; Arlen Egley

1999-01-01

309

Violence in Street Culture: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Youth Groups and Criminal Gangs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in…

Zdun, Steffen

2008-01-01

310

Serious Youth Violence and Innovative Prevention: On the Emerging Link Between Public Health and Criminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was not so long ago that scholarly writings pointed to the vast chasm that existed between criminal justice and public health approaches to understanding and controlling interpersonal violence. Other scholarship of the day examined how criminal justice and criminology could benefit from adopting elements of the public health approach. For sure, there still exist many differences in how the

Brandon C. Welsh; Anthony A. Braga; Christopher J. Sullivan

2012-01-01

311

Role Model Behavior and Youth Violence: A Study of Positive and Negative Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated how role models' behavior may positively or negatively influence African American early adolescents' attitudes toward violence and violent behavior. Participants in this study included 331 African American seventh and eighth graders from low-income neighborhoods in an urban, Midwestern city. The study used a model developed…

Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

312

A Delphi Approach to Reach Consensus on Primary Care Guidelines regarding Youth Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Anticipatory guidance is a cornerstone of modern pediatric practice. In recognition of its importance for child well being, injury prevention counseling is a standard element of that guidance. Over the last 20 years, there has been growing recognition that intentional injury or violence is one of the leading causes of morbidity and…

De Vos, Edward; Spivak, Howard; Hatmaker-Flanigan, Elizabeth; Sege, Robert D.

2007-01-01

313

How Communities Can Bring Up Youth Free from Fear and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the extent of the violence problem, names some key causes, presents some successful strategies, and outlines how a number of communities have developed and carried out thoughtful, coordinated game plans. Part 1 frames the problem, presenting facts, causes, and costs, and explaining the value of prevention. Part 2…

National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

314

Sexual Violence and Youth in South Africa: The Need for Community-Based Prevention Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: South Africa is reported to have one of the highest rates of sexual violence in the world, with adolescent girls between the ages of 12-17 being particularly at risk. Given that adolescence is considered a critical developmental period for establishing normative sexual behavior, this study explored multiple levels of risk influences…

Petersen, Inge; Bhana, Arvin; McKay, Mary

2005-01-01

315

Preventing Dating Violence in Public Schools: An Evaluation of an Interagency Collaborative Program for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many communities offer programs aimed at improving teen dating skills and knowledge about violence and sexual behavior. This research study evaluates one such program, operated by an interagency collaborative. Each of four participating community agencies provided one hour of curriculum during one week of health class. Lecture, group activities,…

Lowe, Laura A.; Jones, Chris D.; Banks, Leon

2007-01-01

316

Pacific Youth and Shifting Thresholds: Understanding Teen Dating Violence in Hawai'i  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high prevalence of teen dating violence (TDV) nationally suggests that it is a public health problem in need of intervention. However, there is limited information about what constitutes TDV in the eyes of teens. Equally limited is an understanding of these parameters among diverse cultures. To fill these gaps, the current study conducted…

Baker, Charlene K.; Helm, Susana

2010-01-01

317

Educating Youth for a World beyond Violence: A Pedagogy for Peace. Education, Politics and Public Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a time of unprecedented social and economic crisis, this book represents a challenge to the orthodoxy that shapes the vision of educational purpose. It argues that now, more than ever, there is a moral imperative for educators to assume responsibility for helping to bring about a culture of peace and non-violence in both the nation and…

Shapiro, H. Svi

2010-01-01

318

Community Perceptions of Safety in Relation to Perceived Youth Violence-Delinquency in a Primarily Native Hawaiian and Asian American Community in Hawai‘i  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of safety is an important component to the well-being of community members in their own neighborhood. The present\\u000a study was the first of its kind to model community perception of safety utilizing a primarily Native Hawaiian and Asian American\\u000a community sample (N = 101) and with perceived youth violence and delinquency as prominent potential influences. The study found that the majority

Earl S. HishinumaJanice; Janice Y. Chang; Faapisa M. Soli

319

Examining the validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) for predicting probation outcomes among adjudicated juvenile offenders.  

PubMed

The current study examined the ability of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk for Youth (SAVRY), a standardized risk assessment instrument, to predict probation outcomes among a sample of 158 adjudicated juvenile offenders placed on probation. Traditionally, the SAVRY has been used to measure violence risk among adolescents after release from custody. More recently, a delinquency risk measure based on SAVRY responses was developed, which could be useful for other types of outcome. This study examined the predictive validity of both summary risk ratings (SRR) for probation outcomes, including the reason for terminating probation and length of time on probation. A number of bivariate analyses and Cox regression models provided preliminary support for the ability of the nonviolent delinquency SRR, and modest support for the violence SRR, to predict probation outcomes. The implications for use of the SAVRY SRRs during juvenile justice system decision-making and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23606362

Childs, Kristina K; Ryals, John; Frick, Paul J; Lawing, Kathryn; Phillippi, Stephen W; Deprato, Debra K

2013-01-01

320

Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female)…

Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

2011-01-01

321

Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence  

PubMed Central

The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

2013-01-01

322

Exposure to Community Violence and Daily Feeling States Among Urban African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the relationships between exposure to community violence and daily feeling states among 175 6th- through 8th-grade African American students. The relationships were tested both cross-sectionally and longitudinally over the 3-year span. Four daily feeling state subscales: contented, hostile, anxious, and dysphoric were developed from a factor analysis of the 30 Experience Sampling Method (ESM) feeling states.

Catherine K. Sweeney; Jonathon Goldner; Maryse H. Richards

2011-01-01

323

Guns, Southernness, and gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southerners have been found to have higher levels of gun ownership than persons who reside elsewhere. This may be due to cultural factors peculiar to the Southern region. If so, this would have interesting implications for gun control initiatives. Although the differential in gun ownership has been linked to varying support or opposition to gun control, the relationship between this

Pauline Gasdow Brennan; Alan J. Lizotte; David McDowall

1993-01-01

324

Youth, gangs and violence: Analysing the social and spatial mobility of young people in Guatemala City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs have become an increasingly significant, and controversial, social institution in low-income communities in many cities in Central America, and yet the local-level impacts of this phenomenon, especially on young people, remain under-explored. Drawing on research with young people in Guatemala City, this paper explores the multiple barriers to the social and spatial mobility of both gang and non-gang

Ailsa Winton

2005-01-01

325

The relationship between self-harm and teen dating violence among youth in hawaii.  

PubMed

The connection between teen dating violence (TDV) and self-harm is important to consider because of the serious consequences for teens who engage in these behaviors. Self-harm includes nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide behaviors such as suicide attempts or deaths. Although prior research shows that these two public health problems are related, the context in which they occur is missing, including what leads teens to engage in self-harm and the timing of self-harming behaviors within the relationship. To fill this gap, we conducted focus groups with 39 high-school-aged teens, all of whom had experienced prior relationship violence. Teens described incidents in which they and their partners engaged in NSSI and suicide attempts. Incidents often were associated with extreme alcohol and drug use and occurred during the break-up stage of the relationship. Prevention and intervention programs are needed that consider the intersections of TDV, substance use, and self-harm. PMID:25281243

Baker, Charlene K; Helm, Susana; Bifulco, Kristina; Chung-Do, Jane

2015-05-01

326

An Exploratory Look at Youth Exposure to Violence in an Urban Setting Annie Nguyen, MPH1; Kirsten Beyer, PhD, MPH2; David Wyatt Seal, PhD2; Jose Flores3; Cheryl Maurana, PhD2 & the MCW VPI Community Asset Team  

E-print Network

An Exploratory Look at Youth Exposure to Violence in an Urban Setting Annie Nguyen, MPH1; Kirsten puts youth at increased risk for a number of adverse health outcomes. Prevention approaches increasingly seek to address violence at multiple levels of influence and through evidence-based programs

327

Preventing gun injuries in children.  

PubMed

Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308

Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

2015-02-01

328

Preventing School Violence: What Schools Can Do. Hot Topics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provide a range of data on dealing with violence in the schools and communities, focusing on risk factors and correlates of youth violence, how violence affects young people, and how schools can help students avoid violence. The papers include: "Youth Violence in the United States: Major Trends, Risk Factors, and…

Bosworth, Kris, Ed.

329

Appetitive Violence: A New Phenomenon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence has long been regarded as a major social issue. The past decade has, however, seen the scrutiny which encompasses this violence intensify, largely due to a recent media focus on an apparently increasing tendency amongst some young people to engage in acts of ‘appetitive’ or ‘thrill-seeking’ violence. This is reported to be a new form of violence, in

Hannah Ching; Michael Daffern; Stuart Thomas

2011-01-01

330

Gun Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... guns are featured in many television shows, video games, computer games, and movies, it's important to know that real ... only happen on TV, in movies, or video games. A real gun is never a toy, and ...

331

Gun Safety  

MedlinePLUS

Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

332

Various Viewpoints on Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

Klemm, Bonita; And Others

1995-01-01

333

Child and adolescent violence.  

PubMed

Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important. PMID:12640949

Daane, Diane M

2003-01-01

334

Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

Kleck, Gary

1979-01-01

335

Effects of a Web-based Educational Module on Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physicians' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Regarding Youth Violence  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Youth seen in the emergency department (ED) with injuries from youth violence (YV) have increased risk for future violent injury and death. Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians rarely receive training in, or perform, YV screening and intervention. Our objective was to examine effects of a web-based educational module on PEM physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding YV screening and interventions in the ED. Methods: We invited all PEM fellows and attendings at an urban Level I pediatric trauma center to complete an interactive web-based education module (and 1-month booster) with information on YV's public health impact and how to screen, counsel and refer YV-involved patients. Consenting subjects completed electronic assessments of YV prevention knowledge and attitudes (using validated measures when possible) before and after the initial module and after the booster. To measure behavior change, chart review identified use of YV-specific discharge instructions in visits by YV-injured PEM patients (age 12–17; identified by E codes) 6 months before and after the intervention. We analyzed survey data were analyzed with Fisher's exact for binary outcomes and Kruskal-Wallis for Likert responses. Proportion of patients given YV discharge instructions before and after the intervention was compared using chi-square. Results: Eighteen (67%) of 27 PEM physicians participated; 1 was lost at post-module assessment and 5 at 1 month. Module completion time ranged from 15–30 minutes. At baseline, 50% of subjects could identify victims' re-injury rate; 28% were aware of ED YV discharge instructions. After the initial module and at 1 month, there were significant increases in knowledge (p<0.001) and level of confidence speaking with patients about avoiding YV (p=0.01, df=2). Almost all (94%) said the module would change future management. In pre-intervention visits, 1.6% of patients with YV injuries were discharged with YV instructions, versus 15.7% in the post-intervention period (p=0.006, 95%CI for difference 3.6%-24.5%). Conclusion: A brief web-based module influenced PEM physicians' knowledge and attitudes about YV prevention and may have affected behavior changes related to caring for YV victims in the ED. Further research should investigate web-based educational strategies to improve care of YV victims in a larger population of PEM physicians. PMID:25157311

Madsen, Tracy E.; Riese, Alison; Choo, Ester K.; Ranney, Megan L.

2014-01-01

336

Releasing Their Stories: A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Histories of Mental Health Issues and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often the narratives of youth self-exploration and experience are lost in a drive to prevent, diagnose, or respond to youth-led crime. This exploratory qualitative study looks at and documents the life histories of youth concurrently involved in the juvenile justice system and in clinical treatment independent of the crimes they committed. A purposive sample of 9 male juvenile-justice-involved youth

Tina Maschi; Jennifer Perillo; Deborah Courtney

2011-01-01

337

Web Sites Related to Injury and Violence Web Sites Related to Injury and Violence  

E-print Network

://www.cfchildren.org/ Common Sense about Kids & Guns http://www.kidsandguns.org Division of Violence Prevention httpWeb Sites Related to Injury and Violence Web Sites Related to Injury and Violence Administration for Children & Families http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/ Adolescent Conflict and Violence http

de Lijser, Peter

338

Are medical societies developing a standard for gun injury prevention?  

PubMed Central

Context: Following heightened gun violence in the 1990s, many medical societies in the United States adopted policies on the topic. Objective: Identify points of firearm violence policy agreement among large medical organizations. Design: Fourteen national medical societies—clinical focus, demonstrated interest in gun injury prevention, >2000 members—were selected for policy review in 2002. Policies were categorized on areas covered and items within these. Consensus areas were addressed by ?7/14 societies.Consensus items were included by ?7/14 societies, shared items by 5–6. Results: There were five consensus areas: access prevention, gun commerce, research, public education, and clinical counseling. There were four consensus items: restricting gun access by enforcing existing laws, restricting access to all guns at the point of sale, restricting access to handguns at the point of sale, and creating a national database on gun injury and death. Shared items promote violence prevention, clinical education on risks of guns in the home, treating guns as consumer products, restricting gun access to children, bans on automatic weapons, and promoting trigger locks. Conclusions: Large medical societies in the United States agree on key approaches for reducing gun injury mortality and morbidity. Future research will be needed to track the evolution of this emerging standard for physician action, which now includes the consensus areas and items. It promises to be, in effect, a medical standard of care for gun injury prevention. The United States experience may be useful to others working on gun injury prevention. PMID:15178674

Longjohn, M; Christoffel, K

2004-01-01

339

76 FR 62291 - National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...experience domestic violence are at a higher risk for failure in school, emotional disorders...perpetuate the cycle of violence themselves later...to play in ending violence against youth...and fathers, and schools and...

2011-10-07

340

Conditions for resolving controversies between social actors in domestic violence and youth protection services: Toward innovative collaborative practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a qualitative analysis on strategies to encourage innovative collaborative practices, and the difficulties these pose, among various groups of practitioners involved with families experiencing domestic violence and child maltreatment simultaneously. The sociology of innovation provides the theoretical framework of this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 71 practitioners in the fields of domestic violence

Geneviève Lessard; Chantal Lavergne; Claire Chamberland; Dominique Damant; Daniel Turcotte

2006-01-01

341

Gun Safety Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here Home > Safety Tips > Tip > Guns Gun Safety Tips Store Guns and Ammunition Safely Store ... visit about safe gun storage practices. Dispose of Guns You Don't Need If you decide that ...

342

The Impact of the 1994 Federal Assault Weapon Ban on Gun Violence Outcomes: An Assessment of Multiple Outcome Measures and Some Lessons for Policy Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 bans a group of military-style semiautomatic firearms (i.e., assault weapons) and ammunition magazines capable of holding more than 10 rounds. Ban advocates argue that these weapons are particularly dangerous because they facilitate the rapid firing of high numbers of shots. Though the banned guns and magazines were used in

Christopher S. Koper; Jeffrey A. Roth

2001-01-01

343

Stolen Gun Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guns stolen from law-abiding households provide an important source of guns for criminals. Crime rates increase with the availability of stolen guns, so the gun market is subject to externalities that generate excessive ownership and inadequate spending on protective measures to deter gun theft. We show that a simple refundable deposit for guns can internalize the externalities in the gun

Robert W. Helsley; Arthur O'Sullivan

2001-01-01

344

Understanding the Relationship Between Hyper-Violence and Educational Disparity: Listening to the Voices of Latina Youth From Oakland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hyper-violence that exists in Oakland, California, has persistently made national headlines. When examining the violence that exists in low-income urban cities, studies usually overemphasize the male experience. The studies that center on female experience usually focus on extreme cases such as gang-involved and incarcerated girls. This study foregrounds the experiences of Latina high school girls from Oakland who are

Yanira Madrigal-Garcia

2011-01-01

345

Intervening Processes Between Youths’ Exposure to Community Violence and Internalizing Symptoms Over Time: The Roles of Social Support and Coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of social support and coping as intervening processes between exposure to community violence and internalizing symptoms\\u000a were examined longitudinally among a community sample of 667 middle school students in the inner city. After controlling for\\u000a potential confounders (e.g., social desirability, victimization and witnessing of family violence, guardian’s psychological\\u000a symptomatology), internalizing symptoms at Year 2 were predicted by hypothesized

Margaret Rosario; Suzanne Salzinger; Richard S. Feldman; Daisy S. Ng-Mak

2008-01-01

346

Different Concepts of Ethnicity in a Cross-Atlantic Study of Violence and Drug Use among Deviant Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their common multi-ethnic populations, the meaning and application of the term ethnicity varies between the United States, Canada and the Netherlands. This paper attempts the construction of a racial\\/ethnic measure that enables meaningful cross-national comparisons. As part of the Drugs, Alcohol and Violence International (DAVI) project, the link between different measures of ethnicity and alcohol use, drug use, violence,

Annemieke Benschop; Lana D. Harrison; Dirk J. Korf; Patricia G. Erickson

2006-01-01

347

Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

Lester, David

1988-01-01

348

Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use,…

Sundaram, Vanita

2013-01-01

349

The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, drawing on approximately 1,100 males from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, demonstrates the importance of genetics, and genetic-environmental interactions, for understanding adolescent delinquency and violence. Our analyses show that three genetic polymorphisms--specifically, the 30-bp promoter-region variable…

Guo, Guang; Roettger, Michael E.; Cai, Tianji

2008-01-01

350

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

351

The Effects of Dating Violence, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among a Diverse Sample of Illinois Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active adolescents…

Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A.; Vines, Linda N.

2011-01-01

352

Developing ethical leadership in youth to reduce violence among them: a resource for the church and society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifeworlds and problems that lead some young people to lives of violence, crime, cognitive and academic deficiencies, substance and alcohol abuse and\\/or other anti-social behaviors is one of the most serious problems facing our nation as we enter the new millennium. In order to critically examine this problem attention is first given to the issue of identity formation, the

Gregory E. Coles

2001-01-01

353

Prevalence of youth access to alcohol, guns, illegal drugs, or cigarettes in the home and association with health-risk behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of access to alcohol, guns, drugs, or cigarettes in the home and its association with related health-risk behaviors among adolescents.METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 1995 in-home survey of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health which used a nationally representative school-based sample (N = 6,504) of adolescents in grades 7–12. We used logistic

MH Swahn; BJ Hammig

2000-01-01

354

Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level…

Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

2011-01-01

355

Spectrometer gun  

DOEpatents

A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

356

Gene Gun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the gene gun works to transform cells with new DNA. This is thesixth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of cropgenetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Modification. To go to the next animation, go to Backcross Breeding.)

357

Spectrometer gun  

DOEpatents

A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

1981-11-03

358

The Contribution of Childhood Emotional Abuse to Teen Dating Violence among Child Protective Services-Involved Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…

Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall

2009-01-01

359

The relationship between psychopathic features, violence and treatment outcome: the comparison of three youth measures of psychopathic features.  

PubMed

Few studies have compared self-report and clinician-administered measures of youth psychopathic features in juvenile-justice settings in terms of antisocial behavior and treatment indices. In a sample of 85 adjudicated delinquents, the predictive validities of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD), the modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS), and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) were tested. Three indices of institutional antisocial behavior (physical aggression; verbal aggression; administrative infractions) and two indices of treatment progress (time to treatment level promotion; whether treatment levels were dropped) were used as external correlates. The self-report measures (mCPS more so than APSD) were more consistently and strongly related to antisocial behavior and to the days required to progress in treatment than the PCL:YV. The following issues are discussed: (i) implications of the potential impact of measurement format on the understanding and predictive validity of youth psychopathy features and measures; (ii) the differential predictive validity of self-report versus clinician-administered measures; and (iii) the potential practical utility of measures of psychopathic features in youth. PMID:14963882

Spain, Sarah E; Douglas, Kevin S; Poythress, Norman G; Epstein, Monica

2004-01-01

360

Holocaust Youth and Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Holocaust study for youth becomes integrated into the U.S. educational structure, educators throughout the country are going to need resources that combine history and humanity to convey to young people the impact of tragedy and violence that World War II and the Holocaust had on the youth of a particular time in the 20th century. This paper…

Clark, Joanna

361

Urban African American Youth Exposed to Community Violence: A School-Based Anxiety Preventive Intervention Efficacy Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd–5th-grade students (ages 8–12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus waitlist comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS,

Michele R. Cooley-Strickland; Robert S. Griffin; Dana Darney; Katherine Otte; Jean Ko

2011-01-01

362

Prevention of youth injuries.  

PubMed Central

There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

1999-01-01

363

Developing a Trauma-Informed, Emergency Department–Based Intervention for Victims of Urban Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Surgeon General's report on youth violence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other national organizations are calling for public health approaches to the issue of youth violence. Hospital-based violence intervention programs have shown promise in reducing recurrent violence and decreasing future involvement in the criminal justice system. These programs seldom address trauma-related symptoms. We describe a conceptual

Theodore J. Corbin; John A. Rich; Sandra L. Bloom; Dionne Delgado; Linda J. Rich; Ann S. Wilson

2011-01-01

364

Developing a Trauma-Informed, Emergency Department-Based Intervention for Victims of Urban Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence, the Centers for Disease Control, and other national organizations are calling for public health approaches to the issue of youth violence. Hospital-based violence intervention programs have shown promise in reducing recurrent violence and decreasing future involvement in the criminal justice system. These programs seldom address trauma-related symptoms. We describe a conceptual framework for

Theodore J. Corbin; John A. Rich; Sandra L. Bloom; Dionne Delgado; Linda J. Rich; Ann S. Wilson

2011-01-01

365

1998 National Gun Policy Survey of the National Opinion Research Center: Research Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research in 1999 released a final report based on the research findings of a national survey on gun policies. The 64-page study reports on topics such as the regulation of firearms, gun ownership and use, knowledge and attitudes toward guns, gun violence, and safety issues. The report includes thirteen statistical tables and concludes that the American public strongly supports "legislation to regulate firearms, make guns safer, and reduce the accessibility of firearms to criminals and children."

Smith, Tom W.

366

Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths and finds the statistics alarming, despite recent decline. The first of three tables in the report delineates 1979-1999…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

367

Violence Prevention: A Group Discussion Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a society, the United States is becoming increasingly concerned with the far-reaching consequences of childhood aggression and youth violence. This book offers a way in which educators can talk to K-12 students about violence. The step-by-step approach enables students to talk about experiences with anger, violence, threats, loss of control,…

Allan, John; And Others

368

Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

McGee, Zina T.

1999-01-01

369

Violence in the Media  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many think that television and other media are primarily responsible for the aggressiveness of American youth and the youth of Western nations. Several experimental and longitudinal studies have provided considerable support to this claim. However, there are those who outright deny that the media has any influence on aggressive behavior. The debate over media violence and its impact on society is addressed in this chapter.

Irwin Slesnick

2004-01-01

370

Illinois Youth Summit, 2001. Resource Guide for Students and Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now in its seventh year, the Illinois Youth Summit focuses on issues of violence affecting youth. On December 5, 2000, representatives from 21 high school classrooms across Illinois met to determine youth safety issues of greatest relevance to students across the state. These students identified three sources of violence to address at the 2001…

Constitutional Rights Foundation, Chicago, IL.

371

Gun Control vs. Gun Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website from opensecrets.org (see the July 30, 1999 Scout Report) summarizes the current state of the debate including the positions of the interest groups on both sides and, most revealingly, offers statistics on campaign contributions from both sides of the debate to Congress. In addition, links are provided to a congressperson-by-congressperson breakdown of voting records vis-a-vis contributions received. Such a site may not resolve the constitutional (and sometimes metaphysical) issues involved in the gun debate, but it gives us a more realistic picture of how the politics of influence impact this issue.

372

Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

Utter, Glenn H.

373

Violence and the Schools. A Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics paint a startling and frightening picture of school violence in America. Understanding the real problem is essential to focus national attention and to bring about awareness that energy must be committed to preventing violence. The 27 items in this collection are organized into 4 comprehensive sections. Section 1, "Attention: Guns,…

Harris, Phillip, Ed.

374

Do guns provide safety? At what cost?  

PubMed

Many people feel that having a gun provides greater safety for them and their family. Actually, having a firearm in the home escalates the risk for death or injury, while using it to shoot someone who endangers the household is much less common. The resultant injuries, deaths, emotional turmoil, and/or disabilities lead to greater utilization of health care and legal/police services. Payment for these expenses is provided by higher insurance premiums and tax rates. This financial aspect has become a part of our country's current political concern over firearm ownership rights, gun violence or regulation, health care costs, the economy, and taxes. PMID:20065902

Narang, Puneet; Paladugu, Anubha; Manda, Sainath Reddy; Smock, William; Gosnay, Cynthia; Lippmann, Steven

2010-02-01

375

Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

376

The Gun Dispute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)

Spitzer, Robert J.

1999-01-01

377

Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes seven categories of violent crime in Phoenix, Arizona, and provides causes, facts, preventative programs, and lessons learned pertaining to each category of violence. The categories are: (1) prenatal and early childhood; (2) families; (3) individual youth; (4) schools; (5) neighborhood and community; (6) workplace; and (7)…

Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Silverstein, Rustin

378

Pew Interactive Tools: Gun Rights versus Gun Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Research Center has tracked shifting public opinion on gun rights and gun control over the past 20 years. Explore our polling data below to discover how demographics influence public opinion on gun rights and gun control. 

Pew Research Center

379

Gender and the impact of gun control on suicide and homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An avenue to controlling lethal violence—suicide and homicide—may be to restrict the availability of the method. Guns are a preferred method for violence in many countries. An opportunity to study the effects of gun control laws on the use of firearms for suicide and homicide is provided by Canada's Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1977 (Bill C-51), enforced from 1978

Antoon A. Leenaars; David Lester

1996-01-01

380

Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence  

PubMed Central

Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists. PMID:25641992

Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

2014-01-01

381

Characteristics of a gun exchange program, and an assessment of potential benefits  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To describe a gun exchange program and assess potential benefits for participants and host communities. Methods—Mail survey of participants in a Sacramento, California gun exchange program, August 1993; the response rate was 79%. Comparative data were obtained from nationwide polls of gun owners. Results—Most (62%) respondents were men; 40% were more than 55 years old; none was less than 25. Concern that children might find and use the gun was the most frequently cited reason for participating (46% of respondents). Of 141 firearms exchanged, 72% were handguns; 23% of respondents indicated that the guns they turned in were not in working order. Of respondents who owned a gun at the time of the program (rather than those who owned no guns and turned in a gun owned by someone else), 41% owned no guns after participating; the prevalence of handgun ownership declined from 79% to 32%. Those who continued to own guns were as likely as gun owners nationwide to keep a gun loaded in the house (odds ratio (OR) 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4 to 1.7) or to carry a gun with them (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.6 to 3.8). Conclusions—Gun exchange programs may reduce risk for firearm violence among some participants, but a number of factors limit their overall benefits to host communities. PMID:9788092

Romero, M.; Wintemute, G.; Vernick, J.

1998-01-01

382

Is Youth Violence Just Another Fact of Life? Some Kids Resilient; Some Kids at Risk. Clarifying the Debate: Psychology Exmaines the Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological research has demonstrated that violence is learned, and it has identified some factors that put children at risk of perpetrating or being victimized by violence. Because aggression is often learned at an early age, prevention programs that start early in childhood and continue throughout adolescence have the best chance for success.…

American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

383

Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

entation of minorities in the juvenile justicesystem.State Relations and Assistance Division supportscollaborative efforts by States to carry out the mandatesof the JJDP Act by providing formula grantfunds to States; furnishing technical assistance toStates, local governments, and private agencies;and monitoring State compliance with the JJDP Act.Information Dissemination Unit informs individualsand organizations of OJJDP initiatives; disseminatesinformation on juvenile justice,...

Shay Bilchik

1999-01-01

384

Teen Suicide and Guns  

MedlinePLUS

... Problems > Teen Suicide and Guns Health Issues Listen Teen Suicide and Guns Article Body Protect Your Teenager ... thinking of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of ...

385

How to Say Things with Guns: Military Technology and the Politics of Robinson Crusoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friday may understand Robinson Crusoe’s gun better than Crusoe does. In the scene noted in the epigraph above, although Friday is innocent of the gun’s inner workings, he sees something that Crusoe has missed: Crusoe’s power to dispense violence, rather than cultural authority or friendship, has started Friday down the path towards civility and virtue. Conversely, Crusoe’s disavowal of his

Christopher F. Loar

2006-01-01

386

Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging as one of the most significant health issues facing American youth today, child and adolescent exposure to community violence has generated much interest across multiple disciplines. Most research to date has focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and the emotional and behavioral ramifications. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding prevalence of youth exposure

Bradley D. Stein; Lisa H. Jaycox; Sheryl Kataoka; Hilary J. Rhodes; Katherine D. Vestal

2003-01-01

387

The Violence of Adolescent Life: Experiencing and Managing Everyday Threats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the experiences of 43 adolescents living in Denver, Colorado, from 1994 to 1996--the 2-year period following the peak of the youth violence epidemic. Where the dominant theories explaining inner-city violence tend to focus on disadvantaged communities, this study sampled youths from 5 neighborhoods with varying crime,…

Irwin, Katherine

2004-01-01

388

Violence against surgical residents.  

PubMed Central

Violence against hospital personnel is underreported (less than one in five assaults), and accurate statistics as to the rate of violence against hospital personnel are thus difficult to establish. In the psychiatric discipline, an abundance of information has been published regarding violence in the health care setting, but few studies have examined violence outside psychiatric hospitals or by patients not diagnosed with psychiatric ailments. Using a survey that elicits information about workplace violence, we sought to gauge the prevalence of violent acts affecting general hospital workers who treat victims of violence on a daily basis. The survey was completed by a cohort of surgical staff nationwide (475 responses from 57 residency programs). Two hundred and eighty residents reported having witnessed one or more physical attacks, and 179 reported having been attacked. Violent acts were more likely to be committed in a public hospital than a private institution (P = 0.05). As shown in previous research, most attacks occurred in the emergency room (P = 0.01); the wards and parking lot were next in frequency. Women residents were more likely than men to call hospital security to intervene in a potentially violent situation (P = 0.04), and junior residents (postgraduate years 1-4) were more likely to be attacked than senior residents (> or = 5 years) (P = 0.04). The attacker was most likely to be a young black male between ages 19 and 30 (P = 0.01). We found no statistical relationship between the attacker and the victim regarding sex or race. Of the 475 respondents, 470 reported that they carry a gun themselves or know someone in the hospital environment who carries a gun. Images Figure 1. PMID:9291743

Barlow, C B; Rizzo, A G

1997-01-01

389

Adolescent interpersonal violence: implications for health care professionals.  

PubMed

Violence involvement is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. This review provides a summary of the burden of adolescent violence and violence-related behavior, risk, and protective factors for violence outcomes. The importance of screening for violence involvement in the primary care setting and examples of online resources to support providers in advocating, assessing, and intervening on behalf of youth are also reviewed. The article draws attention to bullying and dating/relationship violence, not as new forms of violence-related behavior, but as behaviors with health outcomes that have recently received increased attention. PMID:25124212

Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

2014-09-01

390

The Washington, DC, youth curfew: Effect on transports of injured youth and homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Curfews are implemented to curtail youth violence. Trauma systems and emergency medical services (EMS) may need to prepare for changes in patient volume resulting from local ordinances. This study evaluated the impact of the 1995 Washington, DC, Juvenile Curfew Act on EMS transports of injured youth and on youth homicides. Methods. A retrospective, comparative cohort study was performed. Transports

Harry Moscovitz; David Milzman; Yolanda Haywood

2000-01-01

391

The Battle Over the Brady Bill and the Future of Gun Control Advocacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

No matter how effective a legislative scheme is, legislation alone will not eradicate the deeply rooted culture of gun violence that exists in this country. Accordingly, Handgun Control divides its efforts between legislative and non-legislative efforts. In this regard, the Center to Prevent Handgun Violence carries out the non-legislative interventions of Handgun Control. These efforts include working with elementary, secondary

Richard M. Aborn

1995-01-01

392

Measuring Violence Risk and Outcomes among Mexican American Adolescent Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central to the development of culturally competent violence prevention programs for Hispanic youth is the development of psychometrically sound violence risk and outcome measures for this population. A study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of two commonly used violence measures, in this case for Mexican American adolescent…

Cervantes, Richard C.; Duenas, Norma; Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles

2006-01-01

393

No Safe Place: KIDS COUNT Report on Children and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing increasing concerns about rising youth-related crime in Missouri, this Kids Count report on children and violence examines the impact of community and family violence on young perpetrators and victims, and explores characteristics of successful programs to prevent or reduce family and community violence in Missouri. Data suggest that…

Hensley, Melissa; And Others

394

Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence

Jordan, Lucinda

2012-01-01

395

Rail gun program  

SciTech Connect

Rail guns are devices that drive projectiles by electromagnetic forces. Ultimate projectile speeds therefore are not limited by hydrodynamic velocities, as is the case with conventional guns. The two-phase rail gun program is described. In both phases, explosively driven flux compression generators (FCGs) are used to supply power to the guns. In the Los Alamos phase, part of the gun itself is explosively compressed and thus serves as a second-stage FCG. Factors affecting gun performance and projectile acceleration and integrity are discussed. The first experiment in the joint phase of the programs is described. Here, a 12.7-mm lexan cube was accelerated to speed about 3 km/s in a 0.9-m-long gun by currents reaching nearly 600 kA over a time of several hundred microseconds. Although the projectile was stressed to several times its static yield strength during acceleration, it was recovered intact.

Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.

1980-12-01

396

"Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun": Getting Real in Upward Bound.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a teacher found literature for Upward Bound students. Presents Geoffrey Canada's "Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America" as a nonfiction work to provide clarity and connections that might not have been available in a fictional work, yet it had elements of literary fiction that made the text engaging. (SG)

Pace, Barbara G.; Adkins, Theresa A.

2002-01-01

397

School Violence: Preventative, Restorative, and Educative Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently in many Canadian schools, escalated violence presents an evident threat. Rates of severe youth violence are considerably lower than sensational media coverage would have people believe, but at the same time, many young people, as well as adults, do not feel safe, respected, or constructively engaged as they should be. While schools cannot…

Bickmore, Kathy

2008-01-01

398

Seeking Solutions to Violence on Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television Programming on Black…

Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.

399

Violence on Campuses. Hearing. Senate Task Force on School Violence, California Legislature (Los Angeles, California, April 30, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report consists of a California State Senate Task Force on School Violence hearing on violence on school campuses. Opening statements were given by State Senator Teresa Hughes. Three mothers of slain youth, Mildred Hillard, Missy Zeitsoff, and Margaret Ensley, testified on violence on and off campus. Alexis Cushon and Carlos Galvan of the…

California State Legislature, Sacramento. Senate.

400

Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence.  

PubMed

Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners. PMID:25494051

Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

2015-03-18

401

Multiculturalism as a Policy for Disarming Gang Violence in Communities at Large and in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those who try to deal with violence in U.S. communities and schools have tended to concentrate on suppression of violence, rather than real prevention, particularly as violence is associated with youth gangs. This discussion focuses on multiculturalism as a policy for reducing gang violence, rather than strategies that have been used to deal with…

Clark, Christine; Jenkins, Morris

402

Violence Prevention: An Evaluation of Program Effects with Urban African American Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many violence prevention programs have been developed to combat the problems of violence and aggression among youth, few programs have been evaluated. This study examines the impact of a violence prevention program among African American students in two inner-city schools in Chicago. Students in 5th through 8th grade participated in Second Step: A Violence Prevention Program, and completed surveys

Susan D. McMahon; Jason J. Washburn

2003-01-01

403

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

404

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Violence, Intimate Partner Violence, Violence Against Women, and Sexual Assault National Clearinghouse on Abuse in Later Life Through ... more than 170 languages through interpreter services. National Sexual Assault Hotline 1-800-656-HOPE (4673) When a ...

405

Youth injury risk behaviour and safety in Macedonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth in Macedonia face a number of health problems among which violence and injuries are dominant. The main objective of the paper is to determine the magnitude and characteristics of violence and injuries among youth at national and community level. Data from global student health survey 2007 (GSHS) conducted in Macedonia (sample of 2114 students at age 13–15) and from

F Tozija; G Dragan; B Kasapinov; D Gudeva Nikovska

2010-01-01

406

Survey of SRF guns  

SciTech Connect

Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

Belomestnykh, S.

2011-07-25

407

Warning Signs of Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States and is the world's ... members. Through its divisions in 54 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian ...

408

Pacific Center for Violence Prevention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at San Francisco General Hospital, the Pacific Center for Violence Prevention supports community-based violence prevention in California and works to reduce youth access to drugs, alcohol, and firearms. Despite the Center's focus on California, interested users from any state will find a large number of violence-prevention resources at the site. Sections for Drugs, Alcohol, and Firearms each contain facts sheets, policy briefs, statistics, and links to related publications and other resources. Additional offerings at the site include memos on and links to federal and state firearm legislation, news updates, and a listing of events and conferences. Portions of the site are also available in Spanish.

Pacific Center for Violence Prevention.

409

Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

410

Carbon nanotube electron gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

411

Law, Social Policy, and Violence: The Impact of Regional Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social policies reflect cultural values. Because of their frontier heritage, the U.S. South and West were hypothesized to have cultures favoring violence for self-protection. Predictions were confirmed for laws relating to guns, defense of self and home, and foreign policy. In addition, the legacy of slavery should make the South more accepting of violence used for coercion and punishment. Predictions

Dov Cohen

1996-01-01

412

Domestic Violence Identification and Intervention for Health Professionals  

E-print Network

Domestic Violence Identification and Intervention for Health Professionals ASSESS LETHALITY 1. ASK in Emergency (SHE) Hotline 434-293-8509 Virginians Against Domestic Violence (VADV) (Crisis Counseling, especially guns?" 5. "Does your partner abuse drugs or alcohol?" 6. "Is your partner violent outside the home

Acton, Scott

413

Yale University Policy Campus and Workplace Violence Prevention  

E-print Network

Yale University Policy Campus and Workplace Violence Prevention Background Yale University has is immune from acts of violence, clear policies and procedures help reduce the likelihood of such events. Weapons may include, but are not limited to, guns, ammunition, knives, explosives and the like, crossbows

414

Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), showing gun mounting pad, wall rings, small niche, and opening to outside - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Battery Adair, Princeton Place, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

415

Linking Academics and Social Learning: Perceptions of School Staff to a Violence Prevention Program at an Alternative School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how school staff conceptualize their work with youths in an alternative school for weapon policy offend- ers after having undergone at least one year of a whole-school violence prevention program conducted by the Syracuse University Violence Pre- vention Project. The article examines the intent of school staff, their ideas, perspectives, and language about youths, violence, and schooling,

Ronnie Casella; Joan Burstyn

416

Simplified pipe gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified version of a deuterium pellet gun based on the pipe gun principle is described. The pipe gun is made from a continuous tube of stainless steel and gas is fed in from the muzzle end only. It is indicated that the pellet length is determined by the temperature gradient along the barrel right outside the freezing cell. Velocities of around 1000 m/s with a scatter of ±2% are obtained with a propellant gas pressure of 40 bar.

Sørensen, H.; Nordskov, A.; Sass, B.; Visler, T.

1987-12-01

417

Pathways to Aggression in Urban Elementary School Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the pathways from violence exposure to aggressive behaviors in urban, elementary school youth. We utilized structural equation modeling to examine putative causal pathways between children's exposure to violence, development of posttraumatic stress symptoms, permissive attitudes towards violence, and engagement in aggressive…

Ozkol, Hivren; Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph

2011-01-01

418

School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents papers from a 1998 conference on school violence in Valparaiso, Indiana. The papers include: "What is School Violence? An Integrated Definition" (Stuart Henry); "Violence in Schools: Rage against a Broken World" (J. Scott Staples); "Listening to What the Streets Say: Vengeance as Ideology?" (Ralph Cintron); "School Violence:…

Hinkle, William G., Ed.; Henry, Stuart, Ed.

2000-01-01

419

Sex Role and Attitudes Toward Institutional Violence Among College Youth: The Impact of Sex-Role Identification, Parental Socialization, and Socio-Cultural Milieu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudinal differences between males and females on certain issues have been repeatedly documented through commercial public polls and academic studies. One of these differences is the greater reluctance on the part of females to support the use of institutional violence as an instrument of public policy. This paper empirically explores the…

Starr, Jerold M.; Cutler, Neal E.

420

Remotely controlled spray gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

Cunningham, William C. (inventor)

1987-01-01

421

Adolescents and media violence: six crucial issues for practitioners.  

PubMed

The mass media are rife with violent images and messages and youth spend a great deal of time with media. A rich tradition of research shows that exposure to media violence leads to aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior, and also to fear and desensitization. Certain youth are more vulnerable to violent media messages and images; the impact of media violence is modified by its nature and context. Parents, teachers, and the media industry should work toward mitigating the effects of media violence on youth; pediatricians and other health care providers play a key role in fostering healthy family media habits. PMID:16111617

Hogan, Marjorie J

2005-06-01

422

School Experiences of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) youth are coming out at younger ages, but schools have not changed as fast as the culture, leaving many youth isolated and at risk of violence and harassment. For GLBT youth of color, these problems are exacerbated by racism and the risk of rejection by their ethnic community. Children of GLBT parents…

Holmes, Sarah E.; Cahill, Sean

2004-01-01

423

Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

2004-01-01

424

Cognitive-Behavioral-Expressive Interventions with Aggressive and Resistant Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, youth placed in residential treatment facilities demonstrate violent. aaaressive behavior. Research on national, regional and local levels consistently demonstrate that youth referred for residential placement evidence violent and aggressive ideation and behavior. Tpically, such youth have experienced abuse and come from families of origin characterized by violence as well as probable sexual and substance abuse. Trends in the provision

Daniel L. Davis; Lucinda H. Booster

1993-01-01

425

School Violence Continues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An expelled student dressed in all black and carrying two guns opened fire at Gutenberg Gymnasium School in the eastern German city of Erfurt Friday morning, killing 17 people before shooting himself. This tragic incident caused the death of two young girls, 14 teachers, a police officer who responded to the scene, and the gunman. According to police chief Manfred Grube, the gunman, armed with a handgun and a pump-action gun, stalked the corridors and rooms of the school around 9 am (GMT), seeking out adults and then gunning them down. Describing the scene as a "picture of horror," Grube said the 19-year-old gunman fled German commandos as they stormed the building, and shot himself in a classroom. A special church service is due to take place this Friday evening. All the city's bells are to be rung, and flags are being flown at half mast.German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said he was "staggered" by the shooting, and cancelled an election campaign planned to begin on Saturday. Approximately 750 students in grades 5-12 are enrolled at the school, which celebrated its 10th anniversary in December. The shooting came just hours before the German Parliament approved a new bill tightening the country's already strict gun control laws. For more information on this tragic shooting, users may access the first two articles. The third article provides information on the gun law recently passed by Germany's Parliament, and the fourth article provides data regarding the Gutenberg Gymnasium School and the city of Erfurt. Articles 5 through 7 all provide chronological listings of other school shootings around the world, and the last site offers risk factors for school violence compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Green, Marcia.

426

Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of…

Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Padilla, Mark B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

2011-01-01

427

The Impact of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Later Violence and Psychological Distress: A Study of Resilience among a Scottish Youth Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of bullying between age 13 and 16 years on negative outcomes at age 17 years, taking into account various resilience factors at the individual, family, and community level. Using longitudinal data from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, a prospective cohort study of around 4,300 young people in…

McVie, Susan

2014-01-01

428

Workplace and Family and Relationship Violence  

E-print Network

or sawed off firearms, starter pistols, zip guns, etc.), knife, club, brass knuckles, martial arts weapon and relationship violence, to the extent allowed by law. C. Perpetrators of workplace and family and relationship Program. Confidentiality will be maintained to the extent allowed by law. I. Crisis Assessment Team (CAT

Howat, Ian M.

429

Youth Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subject of youth policy is discussed in three articles: youth policy developments in Western Australia, Australian Council of Trade Unions policies on youth employment and training, and an outline of developments and provisions in youth policy. (CT)

Williams, Norm; And Others

1985-01-01

430

Respect, Reflect, Resolve. Ten Anti-Violence Lessons for Use in Middle and High School. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide provides 10 interactive lesson plans to educate youth about the consequences of violence. The lessons explore the different kinds of violence in society, conflict resolution through mediation, the behaviors that constitute sexual harassment, statistics on violence, ways to avoid domestic violence and the use of deadly force,…

Hanna, Jack C.; Maddalena, Gracemarie.

431

Rarefaction wave gun propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new species of gun propulsion that dramatically reduces recoil momentum imparted to the gun is presented. First conceived by the author on 18 March 1999, the propulsion concept is explained, a methodology for the design of a reasonable apparatus for experimental validation using NATO standard 35mm TP anti-aircraft ammunition is developed, and the experimental results are presented. The firing results are juxtaposed by a simple interior ballistic model to place the experimental findings into a context within which they may better be understood. Rarefaction wave gun (RAVEN) propulsion is an original contribution to the field of armament engineering. No precedent is known, and no experimental results of such a gun have been published until now. Recoil reduction in excess of 50% was experimentally achieved without measured loss in projectile velocity. RAVEN achieves recoil reduction by means of a delayed venting of the breech of the gun chamber that directs the high enthalpy propellant gases through an expansion nozzle to generate forward thrust that abates the rearward momentum applied to the gun prior to venting. The novel feature of RAVEN, relative to prior recoilless rifles, is that sufficiently delayed venting results in a rarefaction wave that follows the projectile though the bore without catching it. Thus, the projectile exits the muzzle without any compromise to its propulsion performance relative to guns that maintain a sealed chamber.

Kathe, Eric Lee

432

Efficacy of a Randomized Trial of a Community and School-based Anti-violence Media Intervention Among Small-town Middle School Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a community randomized controlled trial, intervention middle school students from small towns were exposed to a community\\u000a and school-based anti-violence intervention (“Resolve It, Solve It”). The primary intervention was a media campaign in which\\u000a local high school students served as models in print, radio, and television PSAs and spearheaded local school and community\\u000a activities. The media campaign was supported

Randall C. Swaim; Kathleen Kelly

2008-01-01

433

An economic analysis of guns, crime, and gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is posited in which guns are demanded for recreation, self-protection, or criminal purposes, and in which crime is supplied. Crime rates influence guns demanded for self-protection, and guns demanded by criminals depend upon guns held by law-abiding citizens. Comparative static analysis was used to investigate the effects of crime and gun control policies, including laws that permit citizens

John F. McDonald

1999-01-01

434

The Warp, Woof, and Weave of This Story's Tapestry Would Foster the Illusion of Further Progress: Justified and the Evolution of Western Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Western's conception of justifiable gun violence has always been historically contingent and interrelated to variations in the American legal system. This essay draws the disparate threads of a legal discourse and a cultural tradition together to fashion the interwoven cloth of a social, juridical, and political acceptance of personal gun violence that is still expanding today. The first part

Justin A. Joyce

2012-01-01

435

High Velocity Gas Gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

1988-01-01

436

Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their\\u000a risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the\\u000a Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe

Lorena M. Estrada-MartinezMark; Mark B. Padilla; Cleopatra Howard Caldwell; Amy Jo Schulz

437

Psychopathy and instrumental violence: facet level relationships.  

PubMed

The relationship between psychopathy and violence is well established. However, the extent to which psychopathy is related to different types of violent behavior warrants further study. We examined the relationship between instrumental violence, psychopathy, and psychopathic traits among 248 European American and African American adult male county jail inmates. We assessed instrumentality based on subjective motivations for respondent-identified acts of violence. Psychopathy was assessed using the PCL-R based on interview and file review. We controlled for potentially important covariates, namely IQ and prior violence. Results were in part consistent with findings from studies with adolescents, in that we identified a positive relationship between instrumentality of violence and manipulative interpersonal style. Results differed from youth studies with regard to relationships between instrumentality and other facets of psychopathy. The implications of our study are discussed with regard to treatment and the developmental stability of the relationship between psychopathic traits and instrumental violence. PMID:19663661

Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T; Kosson, David S

2009-08-01

438

Teen Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young ... death. An important risk factor for violence in teens is the behavior of their friends and classmates. ...

439

Dating Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, sad, lonely, depressed, or confused. Feel ... a victim of dating violence is not your fault. Nothing you say, wear, or do gives anyone ...

440

Youth Voices Thrive in Facilitating Leadership in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the inner-city of Washington, D.C., lives a generation of young people for whom violence, discrimination, and poverty are a daily reality. This article describes one youth organization that encourages these young people to voice their hopes and concerns for their community and work to create solutions. The out-of-school-time programming of…

Detzler, Mindy Larson; Van Liew, Charise; Dorward, Lisa Granquist; Jenkins, Roneka; Teslicko, David

2007-01-01

441

[Psychological violences].  

PubMed

Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

Leray, M

2014-12-01

442

School Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

2006-01-01

443

Comparisons between Youths and Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of collective violence found among humans include simi- larities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predom- inantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that in- clude surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be

RICHARD W. WRANGHAMa

444

Violence exposure, sleep disturbance, and poor academic performance in middle school.  

PubMed

Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth. PMID:23315234

Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy

2013-11-01

445

Mental Health Service Use among High School Students Exposed to Interpersonal Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Violence-exposed youth rarely receive mental health services, even though exposure increases risk for academic and psychosocial problems. This study examines the association between violence exposure and mental health service contact. The 4 forms of violence exposure were peer, family, sexual, and witnessing. Methods: Data are from…

Green, Jennifer Greif; Johnson, Renee M.; Dunn, Erin C.; Lindsey, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

2014-01-01

446

Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…

Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.

2008-01-01

447

Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization among U.S. High School Students, 1999-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence is a serious form of violence that places students at risk for injury, death, and negative mental health sequelae. The current analysis presents data on the prevalence of dating violence over a 12-year period among a nationally representative sample of high school-attending youth in the United States, stratified by race and gender.…

Rothman, Emily F.; Xuan, Ziming

2014-01-01

448

Multisystemic therapy: an effective violence prevention approach for serious juvenile offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of a treatment approach, Multisystemic Therapy (MST), that has demonstrated long-term reductions in criminal activity and violence among youth at high-risk for perpetrating violence. Importantly, central aspects of MST are consistent with the recent public health agenda of violence prevention in the United States. Moreover, as demonstrated from the findings of controlled clinical trials evaluating

SCOTT W. HENGGELER; PHILLIPPE B. CUNNINGHAM; SUSAN G. PICKREL; SONJA K. SCHOENWALD; MICHAEL J. BRONDINO

1996-01-01

449

Strong association between earlier abuse and revictimization in youth  

PubMed Central

Background Violence victimization among youth is recognized as a public health problem. The objective was to analyze the risk pattern of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse during the past 12 months by gender, sociodemographic factors, health risk behaviors, and exposure to abuse before the age of 15, among young men and women attending youth health centers in Sweden. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a nationally representative sample of youth health centers. A total of 2,250 young women and 920 young men aged 15–23 completed a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% CI were calculated. Results A consistent and strong association was noted between exposure to all types of violence during the past year and victimization before the age of 15 for all types of violence for both women and men. The only exceptions were childhood sexual victimization and sexual violence during the past year for men. Younger age was associated with all violence exposure for the women and with emotional violence for the men. For the women, drug use was associated with all types of violence, while the association with hazardous alcohol use and not living with parents was restricted to physical and sexual violence exposure, present smoking was restricted to emotional and physical violence exposure, and partnership and living in urban areas were restricted to sexual violence. For men, not being partnered, hazardous alcohol consumption, and drug use meant increased risk for physical violence, while smoking and living in urban areas were associated with sexual violence. After adjustment, immigration had no association with violence exposure. Conclusions Violence victimization in young men and women is often not a single experience. Findings underline the importance of early interventions among previously abused youth. PMID:25018145

2014-01-01

450

Not fear, nor quarantine, but science: preparation for a decade of research to advance knowledge about causes and control of violence in youths.  

PubMed

Both the single case I encountered in the Boston Globe and several sources of national data give a picture of young Black males as a group at extraordinarily high risk for injury and premature death. It is a consequence of violent behavior most often directed toward them by individuals of the same race and of similar age. I do not believe, however, that focusing on the behavioral characteristics of this subgroup will gain us much in controlling the very high costs in life and well-being they incur. Rather, we need to concentrate our attention on the social contexts in which these young men grow up, on the quality of housing and public schools available to them, on their access to firearms, and on opportunities for legitimate employment available to them. This is an urgent, pressing need for which there exists no formula for success. Many communities across the country are making an effort to find ways of coordinating such needs into a common and sustained strategy. We are clearly at the beginning stage of a campaign. In morally isolating ourselves from this segment of the population, we confer on it the status of being quarantined. Public fear and distrust assume the appearance of a rational response. Gradually these young men and their would-be families become functionally obsolete in society. As a matter of policy, the environments they inhabit are neglected, and, predictably, they deteriorate. It is in this sense that our science policy in regard to violence may be ahead of public policies that regulate (or fail to regulate) the environments in which violence breeds most extensively. The fact that public health, bolstered by the basic developmental and sociological sciences, is poised to take on a leadership role in combating this modern epidemic is welcome news. Recalling the successes of public health campaigns to control infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, may only be relevant in providing us with a sense of what constitutes a campaign to combat violence. The key actors in this important endeavor appear to be ready for a period of intense cooperation and forging of new knowledge. Now that we have failed in our effort to meet the 1990 objective for a reduction in violent death, the challenge is indeed a weighty one. PMID:1799572

Earls, F

1991-12-01

451

Treating Violence in the School through Traditional Martial Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a comprehensive survey of the literature title "Coping With Violence in the School System," Benbenisti, Astor, and Marachi (2003) map out the programs being deployed throughout the school system today. Those programs listed are "peace builders," "second step," "Richmond's youth against violence," "student's project for peace," "community…

Kim, Israel

2004-01-01

452

Mental Health Consequences of Palestinian Adolescents' Exposure to Family Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the psychological consequences of adolescents' exposure to psychological abuse and physical violence in the family. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 1,185 Palestinian adolescents. Different forms of the Conflict Tactic Scales were used to measure adolescents' witnessing and experiencing different patterns of abuse and violence in their families. The Youth Self Report was used

Muhammad M. Haj-Yahia; Rula Abdo-Kaloti

2007-01-01

453

Impact of violence exposure on urban middle school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to violence has reached epidemic proportions among youth in the United States in recent years (Fingerhut & Klemman, 1990; Finkelhor & Dzuiba-Leatherman, 1994). Recently, efforts to quantify violence exposure, both direct victimization and victimization through witnessing, have been initiated. Additionally, researchers have begun to explore the effect such exposure exerts on its victims. The present study was designed to

Carie Hand McGauley

1998-01-01

454

Preventing Violence in Schools. Information Capsule. Volume 0906  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on the causes and incidence of youth violence and summarizes violence prevention strategies used in schools across the country. Particular attention is devoted to the use of metal detectors in schools. It would cost an estimated $32.5 million to implement a metal detection program in all of the District's…

Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2009

2009-01-01

455

Victories over Violence: The Quest for Safe Schools and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Periodic mass school shootings and the steady slaughter of youth on the streets of our cities are both products of cultures of violence. The authors highlight key factors that promote or prevent such acts, beginning with the little-known account of a young boy who perpetuated the most deadly school violence in history.

Mitchell, Martin L.; Brendtro, Larry K.

2013-01-01

456

Mole gun injury.  

PubMed

A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. PMID:23746826

Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

2013-09-01

457

Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence on Adolescent Violence and Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the…

Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.

2011-01-01

458

Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This yearbook compiles information on research findings on children and youth and media violence, as seen from the perspective of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child. The thematic focus of the yearbook is on the influence of children's exposure to media violence. Section 1 of the yearbook, "Children and Media on the UN…

Carlsson, Ulla, Ed.; von Feilitzen, Cecilia, Ed.

459

Unbalanced field RF electron gun  

DOEpatents

A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

Hofler, Alicia

2013-11-12

460

Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly  

DOEpatents

A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1985-01-01

461

Glue Guns: Aiming for Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While glue guns are very useful, there are safety issues. Regardless of the temperature setting, glue guns can burn skin. The teacher should demonstrate and supervise the use of glue guns and have a plan should a student get burned. There should be an initial first aid protocol in place, followed by a visit to the school nurse. An accident report…

Roy, Ken

2010-01-01

462

Hot hollow cathode gun assembly  

DOEpatents

A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, J.D.

1983-11-22

463

Prevention of Youth and Gang Violence. Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (June 13, 2005) S. Hrg. 109-77  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During this hearing, the Committee heard testimony on the issue of juvenile violence. Juvenile violence is a problem nationally of epidemic proportion, a very, very serious problem in the city of Philadelphia and in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. In the first five months of this year there has been an enormous increase in juvenile violence with…

US Senate, 2005

2005-01-01

464

Adapting dating violence prevention to francophone Switzerland: a story of intra-western cultural differences.  

PubMed

Dating violence prevention programs, which originated in the United States, are beginning to be implemented elsewhere. This article presents the first adaptation of a violence prevention program for a European culture, Francophone Switzerland. A U.S. dating violence prevention program, Safe Dates (Foshee & Langwick, 1994), was reviewed in 19 youth and 4 professional focus groups. The most fundamental program concepts--"dating" and "violence"--are not the same in Switzerland and the United States. Swiss youth were not very focused on establishing monogamous romantic relationships, and there is no ready translation for "dating." Violence has not become the focus of a social movement in Switzerland to the same extent that it has in the United States, and distinctions among terms such as "dating violence" and "domestic violence" are not well known. Psychoeducational approaches are also less common in the Swiss context. As the movement to prevent violence extends worldwide, these issues need greater consideration. PMID:22455183

Hamby, Sherry; Nix, Kaki; De Puy, Jacqueline; Monnier, Sylvie

2012-01-01

465

RF Gun optimization study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development

A. Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko; M. Krasilnikov

2007-01-01

466

Radar gun hazards  

SciTech Connect

Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

Not Available

1991-12-20

467

The Rail Gun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…

Stewart, Gay B.

1996-01-01

468

Gun Dealers, USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, more than 11,500 adolescents' and young adults' lives are taken each year by firearms. Although Federal law prohibits minors from purchasing handguns, they typically get them by asking someone of legal age (18 years or older) to purchase them from one of the 256,771 Federally licensed gun dealers. This pamphlet answers…

Duker, Laurie; And Others

469

Aggression and Violence in the United States: Reflections on the Virginia Tech Shootings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggression and violence in the United States remain vexing problems that require several key responses. First, universal prevention programs and targeted treatment strategies for people at risk of aggressive behavior are needed to address the established link between mental illness and the potential for violence. Sadly, many perpetrators of gun

Jenson, Jeffrey M.

2007-01-01

470

The Effectiveness of Policies and Programs that Attempt to Reduce Firearm Violence: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to rising rates of firearms violence that peaked in the mid-1990s, a wide range of policy interventions have been developed in an attempt to reduce violent crimes committed with firearms. Although some of these approaches appear to be effective at reducing gun violence, methodological variations make comparing effects across program…

Makarios, Matthew D.; Pratt, Travis C.

2012-01-01

471

The Effectiveness of Policies and Programs That Attempt to Reduce Firearm Violence: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to rising rates of firearms violence that peaked in the mid-1990s, a wide range of policy interventions have been developed in an attempt to reduce violent crimes committed with firearms. Although some of these approaches appear to be effective at reducing gun violence, methodological variations make comparing effects across program evaluations difficult. Accordingly, in this article, the authors

Matthew D. Makarios; Travis C. Pratt

2012-01-01

472

Spinal Cord Injury as a Permanent Consequence of Victimization in Random Violence: A Public Health Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traumatic spinal cord injuries resulting from criminal violence is a growing public health concern. Citing the criminal justice system's failure to reduce violence and the costs of treating injuries, a public health-education approach is advocated. Approaches to prevention, gun control, and a comprehensive family policy are discussed. (Author/EMK)

Anderson, James F.; Dyson, Laronistine; Grandison, Terry

1998-01-01

473

5Gun shows are not only for buying and selling. For some unlicensed vendors and attendees in particular, it appears that  

E-print Network

in hunting and other sporting uses of guns. Through the National Shooting Sports Foundation's STEP Outside to firearm violence. These concern 1) the relationship between men and women, 2) children's access to firearms, and 3) violence as a tool for problem-solving. First, consider these two cautionary notes. Some

Leistikow, Bruce N.

474

Has America's tide of violence receded for good?  

PubMed

Experts in the young field of violence epidemiology blame guns and crack cocaine for America's deadly crime surge in the early 1990s. Explaining the subsequent decline in violent crime rates has been more difficult, however. Some of the factors that seem to have helped squelch crime could be temporary, such as low unemployment rates. But others, including a growing intolerance for violence as a means of settling interpersonal disputes, seem to have become cultural norms. PMID:10939973

Helmuth, L

2000-07-28

475

Examining How Neighborhood Disadvantage Influences Trajectories of Adolescent Violence: A Look at Social Bonding and Psychological Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To understand how neighborhoods influence the development of youth violence, we investigated intrapersonal mediators of the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and youth violence trajectories between ages 11 and 18. The hypothesized mediators included indicators of social bonding (belief in conventional values, involvement…

Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.

2011-01-01

476

Dating Violence Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Girls and Boys: Associations With Behavioral and Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adolescent dating violence, associations between dating violence and behavioral and mental health, and the percentage of youth who remain in potentially harmful relationships due to a fear of being hurt if they leave. METHODS: A nationally representative population-based sample of 3533 youth in 9th through 12th grades completed the Commonwealth Fund Survey of the

Diann M. Ackard; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Peter Hannan

477

Gun Cultures or Honor Cultures? Explaining Regional and Race Differences in Weapon Carrying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…

Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe

2010-01-01

478

Public Opinion and Gun Control: A Comparison of Results From Two Recent National Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares results from two recent national surveys of public opinion on gun control and related weapons-policy issues. One survey was commissioned by the National Rifle Association, the other by the Center for the Study and Prevention of Handgun Violence. Despite the vastly different outlooks of the two sponsoring organizations, the results from both surveys are nearly identical everywhere

James D. Wright

1981-01-01

479

Violent Media, Guns and Moral Panics: The Columbine High School Massacre, 20 April 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in a historical perspective. Describes the shootings in Littleton and the high school shootings since 1996. Interprets the possible reasons for the Columbine shootings, such as the role of the high school, access to guns, and violence in the mass media. (CMK)

Springhall, John

1999-01-01

480

... strengthen the fight to end violence against women, and ensure that all women can exercise their right to live in safety in a peaceful society. In Quebec, women make  

E-print Network

... strengthen the fight to end violence against women, and ensure that all women can exercise and health. ...continue the struggle for better gun control, given the abolition of the long-gun registry and the further weakening of controls by the current federal government at the behest of the gun lobby. Firearms

Toronto, University of

481

Youth Unemployment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

482

Violence Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Mental Health and Social Services (continued) Percentage of Schools Providing Violence Prevention Services in One-on-One or Small- ... Healthy and Safe School Environment • 30.6% of schools had or participated in a program to prevent gang violence. • The percentage of districts that required schools to ...

483

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

National Domestic Violence Awareness Month 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have experienced physical violence by an intimate partner Resources ... you are in danger. • Remember, you know your situation better than anyone else. Don’t let someone ...

484

Framing Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes civil societal discourses on violence in contemporary Argentina and identifies a gender ‘gap’ therein. I argue that class-based interpretations of violence have frequently eclipsed gendered understandings, even though the two perspectives are not mutually exclusive. Through an examination of the collective action frames that human rights advocates use, I demonstrate that activists often politicize two forms of

Amy Risley

2006-01-01

485

Dating Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

Stader, David L.

2011-01-01

486

Imaging's insights into human violence.  

PubMed

Following every well-publicized act of incomprehensible violence, the news media rush to interview neighbors, family members, and experts in an attempt to discover what could have led an individual to commit such a barbarous act. Certain stock answers are reiterated: video games, bullying, violent films, mental illness, the availability of guns, and a society that is increasingly both anonymous and callous. Might imaging be one of the more valuable keys to unlocking the mysteries of violent, aggressive people? This article explores these questions and their complex answers in the context of violent individuals. PMID:24614436

Church, Elizabeth J

2014-01-01

487

Preventing School Violence by Promoting Wellness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for school-based health promotion and prevention programming that can serve to guide planning and action. Rather than separating specific prevention programs (such as violence prevention, substance abuse prevention, etc.) from more broad-based youth development efforts, this approach provides an integrated framework that: (a) identifies benchmarks of healthy development and strategies to support this development across

Nancy G. Guerra

2003-01-01

488

Legal Implications of Profiling Students for Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how predicting violent activity with a youth violence profile in school raises legal concerns focusing on the validity and use of profiles as social science evidence: the impact of potential discrimination, search and seizure, and the implications for privacy. Argues that these issues rest on fundamental concerns about the general…

Bailey, Kirk A.

2001-01-01

489

Keeping Every Child Safe: Curbing the Epidemic of Violence. Joint Hearing Examining the Impact of Violence on Children before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate, and the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families of the House of Representatives. One Hundred Third Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents testimony regarding the impact of violence on children. The opening statement of Senator Dodd discusses the exposure of American children to violence and notes the Senator's introduction of the "Child and Family Services and Law Enforcement Partnership Act," an act proposed to provide children exposed to violence with…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

490

"Hollow cathode" gun optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of an electron beam by a hollow cathode gun in a cusp magnetic field is discussed. Such a gun is proposed for an electron cooling device without toroids. In a section with a homogeneous magnetic field, this beam experiences a disturbance region near the axis where the electron temperature becomes higher. The main purpose of the article is to define conditions for generating the beam so as to restrict the extent of this region as much as possible. It is shown that a state with a virtual cathode in the vicinity of the zero magnetic field point is the most suitable for this aim. The experimental and essential analytical results are presented.

Ciullo, G.; Sharapa, A. N.; Shemyakin, A. V.; Tecchio, L.

1997-03-01

491

RF Gun Optimization Study  

SciTech Connect

Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

2007-07-03

492

Friction in rail guns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

Kay, P. K.

1984-01-01

493

America, guns, and freedom. Part I: A recapitulation of liberty  

PubMed Central

The role of gun violence and street crime in the United States and the world is currently a subject of great debate among national and international organizations, including the United Nations. Because the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the individual right of American citizens to own private firearms, availability of firearms is greater in the U.S. than the rest of the world, except perhaps in Israel and Switzerland. Indeed, although the American people continue to purchase and possess more firearms, homicides and violent crimes have continued to diminish for several decades because guns in the hands of the law-abiding citizens does not translate into more crime. As neurosurgeons, we can be compassionate and still be honest and have the moral courage to pursue the truth and find viable solutions through the use of sound, scholarly research in the area of guns and violence. We have an obligation to reach our conclusions based on objective data and scientific information rather than on ideology, emotionalism or partisan politics. PMID:23227438

Faria, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

494

Guns, society, and medicine.  

PubMed

Given the 96 incidents of firearm violence on school campuses since Sandy Hook and the ongoing toll on lives and health, the lack of relevant data and a research pipeline in this area should be anathema to all physicians. PMID:25714166

Kassirer, Jerome P

2015-02-26

495

Improved DC Gun Insulator  

SciTech Connect

Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

2009-05-01

496

Doing Cultural Studies: Youth and the Challenge of Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers why cultural studies scholars do not take seriously the schools' role in shaping culture and politics and why educators do not analyze teaching and learning within a cultural studies framework. Examines effects on youth of popular media, economic conditions, and violence through a discussion of films on youth culture. (SK)

Giroux, Henry A.

1994-01-01

497

OVERVIEW: A Gender War on America's Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

50 Under 30: Masculinity and the War on America's Youth documents a murderous tide of under-reported violence that is claiming the lives of gender non-con- forming youth and young adults ages 30 and under, and the dangerous indifference of law enforcement authorities, policy-makers and mainstream media. Few of us realize just how many young people are dying violently each year

Riki Wilchins; Taneika Taylor; Kim Mills; Tamar Nordenberg; Mark Bromley; Debora Rogo; Stefan Romberg; Mariann Donnelly; Michael Meenan

498

The World's Youth 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the Population Reference Bureau (see the November 17, 1998 Scout Report for the Social Sciences) provides data and analysis on the world's youth. The report includes data on "population, education, and health, with a special focus on sexual and reproductive health." The topics covered in this report include "education, sexual and reproductive lives of young people, use of contraception, sexual violence against young women, HIV/AIDS, and policy and program approaches." The text of the report is presented in .pdf format, and the data tables may be viewed in either HTML or .pdf format. Individual topics are also accessible using a sidebar menu.

499

Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

1997-01-01

500

Containing violence.  

PubMed

The use of behavior modification techniques to control criminal violence has been condemned as a violation of human rights because it destroys the possibility of moral choice, an important component of personality. Beehler examines the conditioning used on Alex in Anthony Burgess's book and film A Clockwork Orange and concludes that Alex was left still capable of moral choice except where acts of violence were involved. He argues that behavior modification to control violence is preferable to imprisonment, psychosurgery, or electronic surveillance, and counters objections that its use destroys autonomy, violates privacy and trust, and depersonalizes offenders. PMID:11651760

Beehler, Rodger

1982-07-01