Science.gov

Sample records for youth gun violence

  1. Children, Youth, and Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of articles summarizes knowledge and research about how gun violence affects children and youth and discusses which policies hold promise for reducing youth gun violence. The papers are: (1) "Statement of Purpose" (Richard E. Behrman); "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations" (Kathleen Reich, Patti L.…

  2. Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence

    PubMed Central

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions’ Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Results Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001–2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association “fingerprint” to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Conclusions Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described. PMID:25372864

  3. Gun violence among youth and the pediatrician's role in primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Webster, D W; Wilson, M E

    1994-10-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage characterized by high rates of violent behavior. Increasingly, violent injury is involving preadolescent children. Evidence suggests that the availability of guns increases the lethality of violent acts. Because guns are ubiquitous in the United States and integral to the current epidemic of youth violence, pediatricians should participate in primary prevention of firearm injuries. Efforts should begin long before children reach adolescence. Pediatricians should: (1) Encourage parents to remove guns from the home, or at a minimum to keep guns unloaded and locked up; (2) Advise parents to limit viewing of gun violence in the media, and playing with toy guns and video games that involve shooting; (3) Be alert for early indicators of aggressive behavior; and (4) Become outspoken advocates for laws that restrict gun availability. PMID:7936887

  4. Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

  5. Youth, guns, and violent crime.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Young people are overrepresented as both victims and perpetrators of violence. Indeed, some commentators have suggested that recent cohorts of youth have been composed of "superpredators" who have little regard for human life. The evidence, however, suggests that other factors are responsible for recent increases in youth gun violence. This article analyzes the extent and causes of youth violence in the United States, paying particular attention to the late 1980s and early 1990s, when rates of homicide and robbery committed by youth rose to extremely high levels. Examination of trends for these crimes shows that: The increase in violence in the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s was due primarily to an increase in violent acts committed by people under age 20. Similarly, dramatic declines in homicide and robbery in recent years are attributable primarily to a decline in youth violence. The increase in youth homicide was predominantly due to a significant increase in the use of handguns, which converted ordinary teenage fights and other violent encounters into homicides. Several other interrelated factors also fueled the rise in youth violence, including the rise of illegal drug markets, particularly for crack cocaine, the recruitment of youth into those markets, and an increase in gun carrying among young people. The author points out that youth violence diminished as the crack markets shrank, law enforcement increased efforts to control youth access to guns, youth gun carrying declined, and the robust economy provided legitimate jobs for young people. PMID:12194611

  6. Guns, Gangs, and Gossip: An Analysis of Student Essays on Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Wong, Naima; Tarver, Darian; Rabiah, Deana; White, Sharrice

    2004-01-01

    Youth violence is an important public health problem, but few researchers have studied violence from youth's perspectives. Middle school students' essays about the causes of youth violence were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. The causes of violence identified by students were categorized into individual, peer, family, and…

  7. Guns, Gangs, and Gossip: An Analysis of Student Essays on Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Wong, Naima; Tarver, Darian; Rabiah, Deana; White, Sharrice

    2004-01-01

    Youth violence is an important public health problem, but few researchers have studied violence from youth's perspectives. Middle school students' essays about the causes of youth violence were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. The causes of violence identified by students were categorized into individual, peer, family, and…

  8. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  9. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  10. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  11. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  12. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  13. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  14. Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of Programs and Initiatives. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    This report discusses a wide array of violence prevention strategies used across the United States, ranging from school-based prevention to gun market interception. Relevant research, evaluation, and legislation are included to ground these programs and provide a context for their successful implementation. The first section of the report is an…

  15. Youth, Guns, and the Juvenile Justice System. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey; Coggeshall, Mark; Gouvis, Caterina; Mears, Daniel; Travis, Jeremy; Waul, Michelle; White, Ruth

    This report documents trends in youth gun violence and the response within the justice system, noting the growing variety of data resources available to investigate the effect of new gun laws on youth, communities, and public safety. The first section reviews recent trends, examining the major wave of gun violence in the United States during the…

  16. Youth Violence, Guns, and Illicit Drug Markets. National Institute of Justice Research Preview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumstein, Alfred

    The perception that violence is on the rise is supported by data showing a sharp increase in violent crime among juveniles since the mid-1980s. Although the overall national homicide rate has not increased, homicides by youth under the age of 24 have grown significantly in recent years. The rate of arrest of nonwhite juveniles for drug offenses…

  17. Gun violence and children: factors related to exposure and trauma.

    PubMed

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-05-01

    The study discussed in this article investigated the relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on the mental health of these youths. A survey was administered to rural students who participated in a student assistance program (n = 162) that provided in-school support groups for students in grades 6 through 12. Results indicated that a substantial number of students were exposed to gun violence and exposure was significantly related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Furthermore, gun violence exposure was significantly associated with trauma among the youths. Implications for social workers include advising high-risk clients and their families on gun removal and safe storage practices. PMID:12079165

  18. Youth Violence and Gangs. Hearing on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on Activities of Youth Gangs and Their Access to Guns, and How Programs Can Help Prevent the Violence Associated with Youth Gangs, before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, (November 26, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The text of a Senate hearing on the status of youth gangs and their access to guns, and of violence prevention programs is provided in this document. Statements from Senators Herbert Kohl, Paul Simon, and Dennis DeConcini are presented. Testimony and prepared statements from these witnesses is included: (1) James Gabarino, president, Erikson…

  19. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  20. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  1. Cure violence: a public health model to reduce gun violence.

    PubMed

    Butts, Jeffrey A; Roman, Caterina Gouvis; Bostwick, Lindsay; Porter, Jeremy R

    2015-03-18

    Scholars and practitioners alike in recent years have suggested that real and lasting progress in the fight against gun violence requires changing the social norms and attitudes that perpetuate violence and the use of guns. The Cure Violence model is a public health approach to gun violence reduction that seeks to change individual and community attitudes and norms about gun violence. It considers gun violence to be analogous to a communicable disease that passes from person to person when left untreated. Cure Violence operates independently of, while hopefully not undermining, law enforcement. In this article, we describe the theoretical basis for the program, review existing program evaluations, identify several challenges facing evaluators, and offer directions for future research. PMID:25581151

  2. Understanding Youth Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent youth violence, we need to know how big the problem is, where it is, and who it affects. CDC learns about a problem by gathering and studying data. These data are critical because they help us ...

  3. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and coordinating…

  4. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy. PMID:25745735

  5. Youth Violence. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskup, Michael D., Ed.; Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores many social, political, and economic controversies, presenting the discussions in debate format. This volume focuses on youth violence. As youth violence escalates, concern grows over the safety of the neighborhoods, the victims of violence, and the future of violent youths themselves. The 35 selections in…

  6. Stopping the Violence: Creating Safe Passages for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wanda; DeLapp, Lynn

    Youth violence has reached explosive levels in California. California youth have become both victim and aggressor. Between 1988 and 1991, youth homicide rates almost doubled. During the 1988-1989 school year, schools officials reported 69,191 student-to-student assaults and confiscated 5,107 knives and guns. State and federal legislation has…

  7. The Real Costs of Gun Violence

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Philip J.

    2001-03-14

    I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the form of higher taxes and waiting to go through the airport security checks. But that's just the beginning. The extraordinary reductions in lethal violence that occurred during the 1990s help account for rising property values and urban renewal; further reductions are possible and would do still more to enhance the average standard of living. This talk will explain why the economic perspective provides a fresh, useful point of view on violence, and will discuss the technique used to arrive at an estimate of the magnitude of the burden.

  8. Gangs and Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felgar, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Examines issues of gangs and youth violence. Provides statistics and other information on weapons in schools, crime in schools, gang effects on truancy and dropout rates, gang activity, appeal of membership, recruitment, ethnic groups, new gang types (white Supremist and "stoner" gangs and Satanic cults), preventive efforts, and community…

  9. Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

  10. Gangs and Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felgar, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Examines issues of gangs and youth violence. Provides statistics and other information on weapons in schools, crime in schools, gang effects on truancy and dropout rates, gang activity, appeal of membership, recruitment, ethnic groups, new gang types (white Supremist and "stoner" gangs and Satanic cults), preventive efforts, and community…

  11. Framing Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, John; Dorfman, Lori

    Have quality newspapers incorporated what scholars have learned over the last quarter century about making news more useful as a resource for civic participation? A year-long analysis of reporting about youth violence in three California newspapers provides a schizophrenic conclusion: After the Columbine massacre, newspapers provided rich context,…

  12. Youth Violence in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    What we now know about violence in the United States is that it is a common occurrence and recurrence for youth. Self-report methods have greatly enhanced our understanding of interpersonal violence. Specifically, from the 1980s to the present the age group most vulnerable to violence is youth. In addition, and in any given year, one third will…

  13. Warning Signs of Youth Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cart JOIN APA About APA Topics Publications & Databases Psychology Help Center News & Events Science Education Careers Membership Home // Psychology Help Center // Warning signs of youth violence EMAIL ...

  14. Implementation and Evaluation of a Youth Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Mary Elana

    2009-01-01

    Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…

  15. Implementation and Evaluation of a Youth Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Mary Elana

    2009-01-01

    Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…

  16. Decreasing the supply of and demand for guns: Oakland's Youth Advocacy Project.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Deane

    2014-02-01

    This paper is a case study of how Youth ALIVE!, a nonprofit public health organization, blended direct service and policy goals to reduce youth gun violence at a time when guns became the number one killer of children in California. Youth ALIVE! trained young people living in California communities with the highest rates of gun violence to become peer educators and leaders to reduce both the supply of, and demand for, guns. The youth presented health and criminal justice data in the context of their own experiences living in communities endangered by gun violence to help build public policy solutions, contributing to the subsequent drop in gun homicides. Youth ALIVE's vibrant grassroots model provides a real-life tableau of research and direct services working together to yield realistic policy solutions to a lethal public health problem. The youths' successes demonstrate how nonprofit direct service organizations are uniquely positioned to advocate for policy and regulatory changes that can be beneficial to both program participants and society. Direct service organizations' daily exposure to real-life client needs provides valuable insights for developing viable policies-plus highly motivated advocates. When backed by scientific findings on the causes of the problem, this synergy of youth participant engagement in civil society can promote good policy and build healthy communities. PMID:24129810

  17. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  18. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  19. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  20. FCCLA Program Tackles Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Beth

    2006-01-01

    This article features "STOP (Students Taking on Prevention) the Violence," a peer-to-peer outreach initiative that empowers young people to recognize, report, and reduce the potential for youth violence. It is a national Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) program that provides young people with the attitudes, skills, and…

  1. FCCLA Program Tackles Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Beth

    2006-01-01

    This article features "STOP (Students Taking on Prevention) the Violence," a peer-to-peer outreach initiative that empowers young people to recognize, report, and reduce the potential for youth violence. It is a national Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) program that provides young people with the attitudes, skills, and…

  2. Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

    Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

  3. Taking Aim at Gun Violence: Rebuilding Community Education & Employment Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, President Obama released a plan for protecting children and communities by reducing gun violence. This plan has generated serious debate from both sides of the issue. The ensuing conversations about how to solve the issue of gun violence have been volatile. The President's plan includes reforms to close loopholes on background…

  4. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  5. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  6. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. PMID:25287413

  7. Saving Youth from Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly one million adolescents between the ages of 12 and 19 are victims of violent crimes each year, and this has been true since at least 1985. Children are becoming involved in violence at ever younger ages, both as victims and as perpetrators. The threat of firearms is the greatest concern in adolescent violence, but no single factor can be…

  8. Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

  9. Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

  10. Commentary: evidence to guide gun violence prevention in America.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively. PMID:25581156

  11. Congressional Testimony on School Violence: Early Childhood, Youth and Families Subcommittee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poland, Scott

    1998-01-01

    School violence has been linked to youth not recognizing the finality of death, extreme violence portrayed in the media, availability of guns, student reluctance to "tell," and lack of curriculum that teaches children anger management and problem-solving skills. Recommendations include making prevention programs a priority and establishing…

  12. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  13. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  14. Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

  15. Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

  16. Youth violence: What we know and what we need to know.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Newman, Katherine; Calvert, Sandra L; Downey, Geraldine; Dredze, Mark; Gottfredson, Michael; Jablonski, Nina G; Masten, Ann S; Morrill, Calvin; Neill, Daniel B; Romer, Daniel; Webster, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    School shootings tear the fabric of society. In the wake of a school shooting, parents, pediatricians, policymakers, politicians, and the public search for "the" cause of the shooting. But there is no single cause. The causes of school shootings are extremely complex. After the Sandy Hook Elementary School rampage shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, we wrote a report for the National Science Foundation on what is known and not known about youth violence. This article summarizes and updates that report. After distinguishing violent behavior from aggressive behavior, we describe the prevalence of gun violence in the United States and age-related risks for violence. We delineate important differences between violence in the context of rare rampage school shootings, and much more common urban street violence. Acts of violence are influenced by multiple factors, often acting together. We summarize evidence on some major risk factors and protective factors for youth violence, highlighting individual and contextual factors, which often interact. We consider new quantitative "data mining" procedures that can be used to predict youth violence perpetrated by groups and individuals, recognizing critical issues of privacy and ethical concerns that arise in the prediction of violence. We also discuss implications of the current evidence for reducing youth violence, and we offer suggestions for future research. We conclude by arguing that the prevention of youth violence should be a national priority. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766763

  17. 3 CFR - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Prevention of Gun Violence Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 16, 2013 Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence...

  18. CDC grand rounds: preventing youth violence.

    PubMed

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R; Spivak, Howard; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Savannah, Sheila B; Listenbee, Robert L; Iskander, John

    2015-02-27

    Youth violence occurs when persons aged 10-24 years, as victims, offenders, or witnesses, are involved in the intentional use of physical force or power to threaten or harm others. Youth violence typically involves young persons hurting other young persons and can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. Different forms of youth violence can also vary in the harm that results and can include physical harm, such as injuries or death, as well as psychological harm. Youth violence is a significant public health problem with serious and lasting effects on the physical, mental, and social health of youth. In 2013, 4,481 youths aged 10-24 years (6.9 per 100,000) were homicide victims. Homicide is the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years (after unintentional injuries and suicide) and is responsible for more deaths in this age group than the next seven leading causes of death combined. Males and racial/ethnic minorities experience the greatest burden of youth violence. Rates of homicide deaths are approximately six times higher among males aged 10-24 years (11.7 per 100,000) than among females (2.0). Rates among non-Hispanic black youths (27.6 per 100,000) and Hispanic youths (6.3) are 13 and three times higher, respectively, than among non-Hispanic white youths (2.1). The number of young persons who are physically harmed by violence is more than 100 times higher than the number killed. In 2013, an estimated 547,260 youths aged 10-24 years (847 per 100,000) were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal physical assault-related injuries. PMID:25719677

  19. Poverty and Youth Violence Exposure: Experiences in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    2006-01-01

    Violence exposure among rural youths is a significant public health problem, yet little research has been conducted on violence in this setting. This study explored rural youths' direct and indirect experience of violence in the neighborhood, school, and home. The author used hierarchical regression analyses to explore youth violence exposure,…

  20. Youth Violence as Adaptation? Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Latzman, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue of the journal on the topic of youth violence as adaptation to community violence. Contrary to the predominant perspective that youth violence is a sign of dysfunction or maladaptation, the articles collected here consider whether some youth violence may have positively adaptive consequences in the face of…

  1. Poverty and Youth Violence Exposure: Experiences in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    2006-01-01

    Violence exposure among rural youths is a significant public health problem, yet little research has been conducted on violence in this setting. This study explored rural youths' direct and indirect experience of violence in the neighborhood, school, and home. The author used hierarchical regression analyses to explore youth violence exposure,…

  2. Youth Violence as Adaptation? Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Latzman, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue of the journal on the topic of youth violence as adaptation to community violence. Contrary to the predominant perspective that youth violence is a sign of dysfunction or maladaptation, the articles collected here consider whether some youth violence may have positively adaptive consequences in the face of…

  3. Implementation and evaluation of a youth violence prevention program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Regan, Mary Elana

    2009-02-01

    Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to decrease teen violence in the city. A violence prevention program for 9th and 10th graders was developed, implemented, and evaluated at a local urban charter school. Presentations were given on gun and gang violence, dating violence, and anger management/conflict resolution as well as role playing, group activities, and a field trip to a trauma program for youth at a local hospital. Posttest scores showed an increase in knowledge and skills in several areas, such as therapeutically resolving violent disputes and methods to prevent different types of dating violence. This program provides a blueprint for an adolescent violence prevention program that school nurses could adopt in their communities. PMID:19197015

  4. Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence. OJJDP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    In recent years, communities across the country have struggled to develop effective solutions to the problem of gun violence. Many have approached the United States Department of Justice for help in identifying solutions. This publication was developed in response to these requests. It is designed to provide state and local elected officials,…

  5. Predictors of Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, J. David; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Farrington, David P.; Brewer, Devon; Catalano, Richard F.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cothern, Lynn

    This Bulletin describes the strength and duration of changeable risk and protective factors for youth violence at points in youth development when they appear most salient. These predictors are potential targets for prevention and intervention. The quantitative results of a large number of studies were synthesized using meta-analysis procedures.…

  6. The Transmission of Gun and Other Weapon-Involved Violence Within Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Melissa; Braga, Anthony A; Papachristos, Andrew V

    2016-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries resulting from gun violence remain a persistent problem in the United States. The available research suggests that gun violence diffuses among people and across places through social relationships. Understanding the relationship between gun violence within social networks and individual gun violence risk is critical in preventing the spread of gun violence within populations. This systematic review examines the existing scientific evidence on the transmission of gun and other weapon-related violence in household, intimate partner, peer, and co-offending networks. Our review identified 16 studies published between 1996 and 2015 that suggest that exposure to a victim or perpetrator of violence in one's interpersonal relationships and social networks increases the risk of individual victimization and perpetration. Formal network analyses find high concentrations of gun violence in small networks and that exposure to gun violence in one's networks is highly correlated with one's own probability of being a gunshot victim. Physical violence by parents and weapon use by intimate partners also increase risk for victimization and perpetration. Additional work is needed to better characterize the mechanisms through which network exposures increase individual risk for violence and to evaluate interventions aimed at disrupting the spread of gun and other weapon violence in high-risk social networks. PMID:26733492

  7. Re-framing Gang Violence: A Pro-Youth Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Frederick

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on one aspect of contemporary youth violence, youth gangs and groups, in effort to open broad discussion of youth gangs and frame the process of developing a comprehensive prevention/intervention strategy in proyouth way. Examines three ways of framing youth gang phenomenon: youth violence as racism, alienation, and criminality. Considers…

  8. African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J. H.; Kandakai, T. L.; Casler, S.; Everett, S.; Smith, D.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence. Through a mall intercept type study, 347 adults, ages 20 to 75, responded to a 54-item questionnaire. One third of the respondents claimed they owned one or more types of guns, three fourths had personally known someone who had been shot, more than one third had actually seen someone shot, and one third had a gun pulled on them. While the vast majority (84%) believed guns are too easy to obtain, the majority (62%) also believed that having a gun at home would help protect them. There were no significant differences in perceptions of guns based on age, gender, level of education, or socioeconomic status. The results of this study tend to substantiate the concern and fear of personal harm that African Americans have to contend with on a regular basis. The results also suggest the need for some form of educational intervention and gun safety training in order to help reduce the risk of death and injury among African Americans. PMID:8078079

  9. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  10. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  11. Juvenile Suicides, 1981?1998. Youth Violence Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2004-01-01

    The Surgeon General?s report on youth violence, released in January 2001, notes that youth violence is a serious public health issue that affects millions of children and their families. A shared commitment to ending youth violence has led to a strong partnership between the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Centers…

  12. 77 FR 2731 - Request for Information on Youth Violence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Request for Information on Youth Violence... the public health problem of youth violence. DATES: Individuals and organizations interested in... consequences. Although rates of youth violence have dropped since the peak levels in the early 1990s, risk...

  13. Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…

  14. American Youth Violence: Implications for National Juvenile Justice Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimring, Franklin E.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the perception of increasing youth violence is based on fiction rather than fact. Provides the facts involved in the juvenile justice policy focusing on the differences between juvenile and adult violence, youth violence trends, population trends, and three legal policy issues toward adolescent violence. Offers juvenile crime…

  15. Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…

  16. Bring a gun to a gunfight: armed adversaries and violence across nations.

    PubMed

    Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

    2014-09-01

    We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms. PMID:24913946

  17. Understanding and Informing Policy Implementation: A Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we…

  18. Understanding and Informing Policy Implementation: A Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we…

  19. The Influence of Media Violence on Youth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig A; Berkowitz, Leonard; Donnerstein, Edward; Huesmann, L Rowell; Johnson, James D; Linz, Daniel; Malamuth, Neil M; Wartella, Ellen

    2003-12-01

    Research on violent television and films, video games, and music reveals unequivocal evidence that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in both immediate and long-term contexts. The effects appear larger for milder than for more severe forms of aggression, but the effects on severe forms of violence are also substantial (r = .13 to .32) when compared with effects of other violence risk factors or medical effects deemed important by the medical community (e.g., effect of aspirin on heart attacks). The research base is large; diverse in methods, samples, and media genres; and consistent in overall findings. The evidence is clearest within the most extensively researched domain, television and film violence. The growing body of video-game research yields essentially the same conclusions. Short-term exposure increases the likelihood of physically and verbally aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, and aggressive emotions. Recent large-scale longitudinal studies provide converging evidence linking frequent exposure to violent media in childhood with aggression later in life, including physical assaults and spouse abuse. Because extremely violent criminal behaviors (e.g., forcible rape, aggravated assault, homicide) are rare, new longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to estimate accurately how much habitual childhood exposure to media violence increases the risk for extreme violence. Well-supported theory delineates why and when exposure to media violence increases aggression and violence. Media violence produces short-term increases by priming existing aggressive scripts and cognitions, increasing physiological arousal, and triggering an automatic tendency to imitate observed behaviors. Media violence produces long-term effects via several types of learning processes leading to the acquisition of lasting (and automatically accessible) aggressive scripts, interpretational schemas, and aggression-supporting beliefs about social behavior, and by reducing individuals' normal negative emotional responses to violence (i.e., desensitization). Certain characteristics of viewers (e.g., identification with aggressive characters), social environments (e.g., parental influences), and media content (e.g., attractiveness of the perpetrator) can influence the degree to which media violence affects aggression, but there are some inconsistencies in research results. This research also suggests some avenues for preventive intervention (e.g., parental supervision, interpretation, and control of children's media use). However, extant research on moderators suggests that no one is wholly immune to the effects of media violence. Recent surveys reveal an extensive presence of violence in modern media. Furthermore, many children and youth spend an inordinate amount of time consuming violent media. Although it is clear that reducing exposure to media violence will reduce aggression and violence, it is less clear what sorts of interventions will produce a reduction in exposure. The sparse research literature suggests that counterattitudinal and parental-mediation interventions are likely to yield beneficial effects, but that media literacy interventions by themselves are unsuccessful. Though the scientific debate over whether media violence increases aggression and violence is essentially over, several critical tasks remain. Additional laboratory and field studies are needed for a better understanding of underlying psychological processes, which eventually should lead to more effective interventions. Large-scale longitudinal studies would help specify the magnitude of media-violence effects on the most severe types of violence. Meeting the larger societal challenge of providing children and youth with a much healthier media diet may prove to be more difficult and costly, especially if the scientific, news, public policy, and entertainment communities fail to educate the general public about the real risks of media-violence exposure to children and youth. PMID:26151870

  20. Fugitive Cultures: Race, Violence, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    This book examines the racist and sexist assault on today's youth which is being played out in the realms of popular and children's culture. The book interrogates the aesthetic of violence in a number of public arenas--talk radio, Disney animation, and in such films as "Pulp Fiction,""Kids,""Slackers," and "Juice,"--and challenges cultural workers…

  1. Fugitive Cultures: Race, Violence, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    This book examines the racist and sexist assault on today's youth which is being played out in the realms of popular and children's culture. The book interrogates the aesthetic of violence in a number of public arenas--talk radio, Disney animation, and in such films as "Pulp Fiction,""Kids,""Slackers," and "Juice,"--and challenges cultural workers…

  2. Youth Perceptions of Their School Violence Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John

    2008-01-01

    In order to gauge youth perceptions of school violence, this study links two perceptual bias literatures: third-person perception and optimistic bias. The intersection of the two literatures may be especially beneficial in understanding how adolescents process and interpret public health messages and subsequently engage in risk behaviors or…

  3. Youth and Violence: Phenomena and International Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legge, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The topic of youth, violence, and disintegration needs addressing because young women and men are the world's greatest capital. They have the energy, talent, and creativity for building a future. But this group also suffers grave vulnerabilities. The time of adolescence includes important and difficult periods of life (for example, becoming more…

  4. Youth Violence in Middle America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter L.; Roehlkepartain, Eugene

    1992-01-01

    Although most of the national concern about violence has focused on major cities, no community is free from violence. Violent acts in suburbs, small towns, and rural areas may not be as severe as in urban areas, yet they exist. The Profiles of Student Life survey of 47,000 students in grades 6-12 included questions about violent behavior. The…

  5. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  6. 78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, January 16, 2013 [FR Doc. 2013-01272... Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects...

  7. Mobilizing communities and building capacity for youth violence prevention: the National Academic Centers of Excellence for Youth Violence Prevention.

    PubMed

    Vivolo, Alana M; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Massetti, Greta M

    2011-09-01

    Violence, including its occurrence among youth, results in considerable physical, emotional, social, and economic consequences in the US. Youth violence prevention work at the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasizes preventing youth violence-related behaviors, injuries, and deaths by collaborating with academic and community partners and stakeholders. In 2000 and 2005, DVP funded the National Academic Centers of Excellence (ACE) for Youth Violence Prevention. Most ACE Centers focus on building community capacity and competence so that evidence-based programs for youth violence prevention can be successfully implemented through effective and supportive research-community partnerships. This commentary provides historical information about the ACE Program, including the development, goals, accomplishments of the Centers, and the utilization of a community-based participatory research approach to prevent youth violence. PMID:21222150

  8. Gun Violence Restraining Orders: Alternative or Adjunct to Mental Health-Based Restrictions on Firearms?

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; McGinty, Emma E; Barnhorst, Amy; Greenberg, Sheldon

    2015-06-01

    The gun violence restraining order (GVRO) is a new tool for preventing gun violence. Unlike traditional approaches to prohibiting gun purchase and possession, which rely on a high threshold (adjudication by criminal justice or mental health systems) before intervening, the GVRO allows family members and intimate partners who observe a relative's dangerous behavior and believe it may be a precursor to violence to request a GVRO through the civil justice system. Once issued by the court, a GVRO authorizes law enforcement to remove any guns in the respondent's possession and prohibits the respondent from purchasing new guns. In September 2014, California's governor signed AB1014 into law, making California the first U.S. state to enact a GVRO law. This article describes the GVRO and the rationale behind the concept, considers case examples to assess the potential impact of the GVRO as a strategy for preventing gun violence, and reviews the content of the California law. PMID:25990840

  9. Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

  10. Connecting youth violence prevention, positive youth development, and community mobilization.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kevin W; Edmonds, Torey; Wilson, Karen; Pope, Michell; Farrell, Albert D

    2011-09-01

    Several disconnects serve to weaken the use of evidence based programming in community settings. Communities face the need to address the challenges of multiple risk behaviors faced by adolescents in their communities, but must also work to support successful transitions to adulthood and the broader positive development of their youth. The stronger integration of positive youth development and prevention of youth risk at the community level may offer an opportunity to support the implementation and ongoing development of evidence-based practices (EBPs). This article provides an overview of the VCU Clark-Hill Institute for Positive Youth Development Institute's community mobilization effort in Richmond, Virginia and reports preliminary findings from our integrated mobilization efforts. First, we review the role of our Community Advisory Council in their collaborative work to support positive youth development and reduce risk for youth violence. Next, we present examples of institute efforts in providing technical assistance relevant to supporting the use and development of EBPs. We then discuss the adaptation of an evidence-based program to target positive youth development. We also present overviews from qualitative investigations examining barriers and supports that inform and are relevant to the implementation of EBPs. Finally, we consider ways in which community efforts inform and shape institute efforts to develop EPBs. Taken together, these activities provide examples of how community-based mobilization efforts can integrate and inform the implementation of EBPs and the role and use of prevention science as a tool in supporting effective programming to promote positive youth development and prevent youth violence. PMID:21246272

  11. "You get caught up": youth decision-making and violence.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Luke O; Tinney, Barbara; Asomugha, Chisara N; Barron, Jill L; Rao, Mitesh; Curry, Leslie A; Lucas, Georgina; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

    2014-02-01

    Violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. We conducted serial focus groups with 30 youth from a violence prevention program to discuss violence in their community. We identified four recurrent themes characterizing participant experiences regarding peer decision-making related to violence: (1) youth pursue respect, among other typical tasks of adolescence; (2) youth pursue respect as a means to achieve personal safety; (3) youth recognize pervasive risks to their safety, frequently focusing on the prevalence of firearms; and (4) as youth balance achieving respect in an unsafe setting with limited opportunities, they express conflict and frustration. Participants recognize that peers achieve peer-group respect through involvement in unsafe or unhealthy behavior including violence; however they perceive limited alternative opportunities to gain respect. These findings suggest that even very high risk youth may elect safe and healthy alternatives to violence if these opportunities are associated with respect and other adolescent tasks of development. PMID:24141641

  12. Children and Guns. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    Law enforcement officials, experts in public health, criminologists, educators, and youth offered testimony intended to help Congress understand the scope of the threat of guns and firearm violence to young people and the strains of the firearm problem on public and community services. A fact sheet points out that: (1) increasing numbers of youth…

  13. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation. PMID:23440488

  14. Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth. PMID:21161351

  15. Dating violence experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    PubMed

    Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth. PMID:23861097

  16. Accountability Issues in School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bataineh, Adel T.

    This paper examines various reasons that would account for school violence and considers ways educators can help eliminate violence from schools. The negative impact of violence in the media and easy access to guns are mentioned as probable causes of violence in youth. Students who do not feel part of the school community often resort to violence…

  17. The health and human rights of survivors of gun violence: charting a research and policy agenda.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Cate

    2011-01-01

    The health and human rights implications of violently acquired impairments (VAI), specifically gun-related injuries and trauma resulting in disability, represent an overlooked public policy concern. For several decades, detailed attention has been committed to better understanding of the international arms trade and its consequences. A discursive shift in the last decade from "small arms control" as the core objective (a "hardware" focus on the weapons themselves) to "armed violence prevention" (a focus on impacts, wider drivers, and solutions) still requires a rigorous set of objectives that respond to the rights and needs of survivors of such violence. This article seeks to chart some of the challenges of responding to gun violence survivors and identify entry points for contributions from health, social science and human rights researchers and practitioners. Efforts to address armed violence typically pivot around two goals: reduction and prevention. But what of those already injured? This article argues that a third goal is overdue for attention: response to those injured, impaired, and disabled from gun violence. This would allow a clear pathway for progress (conceptual, political, policy, and practice) to be defined related to gun violence under the ambit of three overarching goals: reducing existing gun violence; responding to those already injured, traumatized, and impaired by such violence; and preventing future violence from occurring. PMID:22773032

  18. Youth Violence in Central America: Discourses and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peetz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the social construction of youth violence in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and El Salvador on the one hand, and the related security policies of the three states, on the other. In each country, there is an idiosyncratic way of constructing youth violence and juvenile delinquency. Also, each country has its own manner of reaction to…

  19. Youth Violence in Central America: Discourses and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peetz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the social construction of youth violence in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and El Salvador on the one hand, and the related security policies of the three states, on the other. In each country, there is an idiosyncratic way of constructing youth violence and juvenile delinquency. Also, each country has its own manner of reaction to…

  20. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  1. Gun Violence: Making Connections with Suicide, Domestic Violence, and Substance Abuse. Join Together Action Kit, Spring 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Frequently, firearm fatalities occur in the context of domestic violence, suicide, or acts committed under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs. Because gun violence is related to these other social problems, it must be considered more than just a criminal justice issue. It is also a public health issue that should be addressed by domestic…

  2. Crime, Violence, and Youth: The Challenge of Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Wayne S.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that, in order to combat violence and crime by youth, children must be taught to separate reality from the world of television and other media. Parents must be educated to become their own television censorship board. Violence in media leads to violence in reality. (Author/BEF)

  3. American Medical Association's Youth Violence Prevention Training and Outreach Guide.

    PubMed

    Knox, Lyndee M; Lomonaco, Carmela; Elster, Arthur

    2005-12-01

    This article describes the development and contents of a training and outreach guide Connecting the Dots to Prevent Youth Violence: A Training and Outreach Guide for Physicians and Other Health Professionals (the Guide) on youth violence prevention for healthcare providers developed by the American Medical Association. The Guide, was developed to help translate recommendations made by the Commission for the Prevention of Youth Violence in their 2000 report, Youth and Violence: Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health: Connecting the Dots to Prevent Violence, into healthcare practice. The Guide, which will also be available in Spanish in early 2006, is structured as a speaker's kit and includes prepared speeches, case studies, issue briefs, and copies of screening tools and patient education materials from a variety of sources appropriate for use in the clinical setting. Results of a preliminary evaluation of the Guide indicate that the training can be effective in increasing providers' awareness about the problem of youth violence and encouraging them to incorporate into healthcare visits violence prevention activities such as screening youth for exposure to violence and educating patients and caregivers on strategies for reducing the risk for violence. PMID:16376722

  4. Violent Youths' Responses to High Levels of Exposure to Community Violence: What Violent Events Reveal about Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Deanna L.; Carr, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work on the relationship between adolescent violence and its outcomes has posited that aggression by adolescents who are exposed to violence can be viewed as an adaptive strategy that seeks to order dangerous and unpredictable environments. Using reports from 416 active violent youth, we analyze lifetime exposure to community violence and…

  5. Does the declining lethality of gunshot injuries mask a rising epidemic of gun violence in the United States?

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Sun, Eric C; Prasad, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    Recent mass shootings in the U.S. have reignited the important public health debate concerning measures to decrease the epidemic of gun violence. Editorialists and gun lobbyists have criticized the recent focus on gun violence, arguing that gun-related homicide rates have been stable in the last decade. While true, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also demonstrate that although gun-related homicide rates were stable between 2002 and 2011, rates of violent gunshot injuries increased. These seemingly paradoxical trends may reflect the declining lethality of gunshot injuries brought about by surgical advances in the care of the patient with penetrating trauma. Focusing on gun-related homicide rates as a summary statistic of gun violence, rather than total violent gunshot injuries, can therefore misrepresent the rising epidemic of gun violence in the U.S. PMID:24452421

  6. Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

  7. Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

  8. Youth and violence on local television news in California.

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, L; Woodruff, K; Chavez, V; Wallack, L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explores how local television news structures the public and policy debate on youth violence. METHODS: A content analysis was performed on 214 hours of local television news from California. Each of the 1791 stories concerning youth, violence, or both was coded and analyzed for whether it included a public health perspective. RESULTS: There were five key findings. First, violence dominated local television news coverage. Second, the specifics of particular crimes dominated coverage of violence. Third, over half of the stories on youth involved violence, while more than two thirds of the violence stories concerned youth. Fourth, episodic coverage of violence was more than five times more frequent than thematic coverage, which included links to broader social factors. Finally, only one story had an explicit public health frame. CONCLUSIONS: Local television news provides extremely limited coverage of contributing etiological factors in stories on violence. If our nation's most popular source of news continues to report on violence primarily through crime stories isolated from their social context, the chance for widespread support for public health solutions to violence will be diminished. PMID:9279266

  9. Prevention of Youth Violence: A Public Health Approach.

    PubMed

    Sood, Aradhana Bela; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    The causes of youth violence are multifactorial and include biological, individual, familial, social, and economic factors. The influence of parents, family members, and important adults can shape the beliefs of the child toward violence in a significant manner. However, the influence of school and the neighborhood also have an important role in attitudes and behaviors of children toward violence. The complexity of factors related to violence requires a comprehensive public health approach. This article focuses on evidence-based models of intervention to reduce violence while emphasizing collective impact as a guiding principle. PMID:26980127

  10. Youth Violence Prevention and Safety: Opportunities for Health Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2015-10-01

    Violence involvement remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for youth and young adults in the United States. The impact of adverse childhood experiences on violence involvement can be translated to the cellular level, including alterations in brain structure and function responsible for stress reactivity and coping. This knowledge is counterbalanced by a growing understanding of what works in the realm of youth violence prevention. Incorporating a resilience framework, with its focus on building developmental assets and resources at individual, family, and community levels, offers a renewed approach to fostering healthy behaviors and coping strategies. PMID:26318944

  11. The Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994: Public Health and Child Safety. Hearing on S. 1882, A Bill To Amend Title 18, United States Code, To Promote the Safe Use of Guns and To Reduce Gun Violence before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session (March 23, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution.

    The first of several hearings on the Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994 introduced and discussed the Act as comprehensive legislation to address gun violence through six discrete initiatives: (1) handgun licensing; (2) prohibition of firearms possession by persons convicted of violent misdemeanors; (3) regulation of gun dealers; (4) limitation of…

  12. Media Violence and Children's Emotions: Beyond the "Smoking Gun."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Joanne

    This paper focuses on the reasons why media violence research is often misunderstood. First, it explains the methodological limitations of studying media violence and argues that these limitations are similar to those accepted in medical research. Second, it explores the role of emotional response that media violence can produce and possible…

  13. Substance use and Violence among Youth: A Daily Calendar Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen; Zimmerman, Marc; Chermack, Stephen; Blow, Frederic C; Booth, Brenda M; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background While researchers have identified factors that contribute to youth violence, less is known about the details of violent incidents. In addition, substance use has been linked to youth violence; however, little is known about actual substance use on days in which violence occurs. Objective This study examined reasons for peer violence and the association between substance use and violence using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Methods Data were collected from Emergency Department (ED) patients (ages 14–24; n=599; 59% male, 65% African American) who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months. Daily data regarding past 30-day substance use and violence and reasons for violent incidents were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Multi-level multinomial regression models were conducted to test the associations between substance use and peer violence incidents (i.e., none, moderate and severe). Results Conflict over ‘personal belongings’ was a common reason for violence among males; ‘jealousy’/’rumors’ were common reasons among females. Moderate victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and cocaine use. Severe victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol use. Moderate or severe aggression was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and non-medical sedative use. Conclusions Results suggest that youth violence prevention that addresses differential reasons for violence among males and females as well as substance use would be beneficial. PMID:25493643

  14. The covariates of parent and youth reporting differences on youth secondary exposure to community violence.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M

    2014-09-01

    Survey data for studying youth's secondary exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing or hearing violence in the community) come from both parents and their children. There are benefits of considering multiple informants in psychosocial assessments, but parents and youths often disagree about comparable information. These reporting differences present challenges for both researchers and clinicians. To shed new light on the individual, family, and neighborhood factors that contribute to parent and youth reporting differences regarding youth's secondary exposure to community violence, this study analyzed hierarchical item response models on a sample of youth respondents from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Participants were aged approximately 9, 12, and 15 years (trimodal distribution; mean age = 12.0 years) at baseline (N = 2,344; 49.6% female). Descriptive analyses indicated that parents significantly underestimated their children's exposure to community violence. Logistic hierarchical item response models indicated that absolute discrepancies between parent and youth reports were a function of youth demographic characteristics (male, Hispanic or African American as compared to white, age, 3rd as compared to 1st generation immigrant), individual difference factors (lower levels of self-control, higher levels of violent peer exposure), and family factors (lower household socioeconomic status). Parental under-reporting of youth's exposure to violence was associated with youth demographic characteristics (male, age, 2nd as compared to 3rd generation immigrant), family factors (lower levels of parental supervision), and neighborhood characteristics (higher levels of violence, less access to youth services). The results suggest that a constellation of individual and contextual factors may contribute to the understanding of parent and youth reporting differences. The findings speak to the utility of examining parent and youth reporting differences from a hierarchical lens. PMID:24469322

  15. Youth Violence and the Health Professions: Core Competencies for Effective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Lyndee, Ed.

    The Southern California Developing Center on Youth Violence Prevention, in conjunction with the Department of Family Medicine of the University of Southern California, convened a working group to identify core competencies in youth violence prevention for health professionals. Experts in youth violence prevention and health professional education…

  16. Social Stress, Legitimate Violence, and Gun Availability: Links to Weapon-Specific Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

    In comparative studies of homicide, many theories compete. This study examined two established theories, stress theory and culture of violence theory, in terms of their ability to explain state-to-state differences in the rate of highly specific types of homicides. The separate and joint effects on homicide committed by handguns, shoulder guns,…

  17. School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

  18. ADOLESCENTS’ EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized community-based activities, which, in turn, protects against community violence exposure. Second, at the neighborhood level, we tested the hypothesis that lower violent crime rates explain the inverse relation between neighborhood youth organization variety and community violence exposure. Our findings supported the latter of these two mechanisms. PMID:21666761

  19. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  20. Navigating between cultures: the role of culture in youth violence.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Fernando I; Rivera, Lourdes M; Williams, Kara J; Daley, Sandra P; Reznik, Vivian M

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review three cultural concepts (acculturation, ethnic identity, bicultural self-efficacy) and their relationship to the known risk and protective factors associated with youth violence. We conducted a review of the relevant literature that addresses these three cultural concepts and the relationship among culture, violent behavior, and associated cognition. The available literature suggests that ethnic identity and bicultural self-efficacy can be best thought of as protective factors, whereas acculturation can be a potential risk factor for youth violence. We examine the connection between these cultural concepts and the risk and protective factors described in the 2001 Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence, and present a summary table with cultural risk and protective factors for violence prevention. These concepts can assist physicians in identifying risk and protective factors for youth violence when working with multicultural adolescents and their families. Physicians are more effective at providing appropriate referrals if they are aware that navigating among different cultures influences adolescent behavior. PMID:14967339

  1. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Beginning with statistics pertaining to children and gun violence in a single year in the United States, this report details trends in child and youth gun deaths. Tables present information on the following: (1) number of firearms deaths by manner and by race from 1979 to 2000; (2) number of firearms deaths by manner for each state and nationwide,…

  2. Advancing prevention research on child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence: emerging strategies and issues.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Neil B

    2004-03-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent methodological issues in these areas and points out emerging research strategies that are forging advances in garnering valid, rigorous, and useful knowledge to prevent interpersonal violence. Research issues and emerging strategies in three key domains of prevention research are considered, including complexities in validly conceptualizing and measuring varying forms of violence as specific targets for preventive intervention, research issues and strategies designed to reliably predict and identify future violence risk to be targeted by preventive intervention, and research issues and emerging strategies in the application of empirical methods to forge specific advances in preventive intervention strategies themselves. PMID:15005994

  3. News Media Framing of Serious Mental Illness and Gun Violence in the United States, 1997-2012

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Daniel W.; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and “dangerous people” with SMI were more likely than “dangerous weapons” to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence. PMID:24432874

  4. News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-03-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and "dangerous people" with SMI were more likely than "dangerous weapons" to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence. PMID:24432874

  5. A Ground-Up Model for Gun Violence Reduction: A Community-Based Public Health Approach.

    PubMed

    Byrdsong, T Rashad; Devan, Angela; Yamatani, Hide

    2016-01-01

    The suggested strategy for the reduction of violence is to collaboratively address the problem, based on an intervention system focused on prevention, rehabilitation, and development. This strategy is capable of engaging community residents in positive ways, and it empowers them to take ownership and sustain much-needed resident commitments to achieve long-term public safety. The community residents largely insist that over-reliance on law enforcement to control violence invites further affliction among Black youth and adults. PMID:26151769

  6. Alternatives to Violence: Empowering Youth To Develop Healthy Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; And Others

    Practical ways are presented to promote healthy and nonviolent relationships for youth, guided by the belief that prevention is cheaper and more effective than deterrence or punishment. Equality and balance are the basis of prevention efforts. It must be acknowledged that violence is ingrained in cultural expressions of power and inequality, and…

  7. Optimistic Bias among Potential Perpetrators and Victims of Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John; de las Alas, Stacy; Coleman, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This study furthers the current understanding of optimistic bias regarding youth violence among high school students. Results from a survey of 387 urban high school students indicate a wide range of predictors of optimistic bias, including experience, demographics, and attitudes. Linkages to other developmental frameworks (personal fable and…

  8. Core Competencies and the Prevention of Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Farrell, Albert D.; Bettencourt, Amie F.; Helms, Sarah W.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss how the five core competencies for healthy adjustment in adolescence (a positive sense of self, self-control, decision-making skills, a moral system of belief, and prosocial connectedness) are represented in theories of aggression and youth violence. We then discuss research supporting the relation between these core competencies and…

  9. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  10. Optimistic Bias among Potential Perpetrators and Victims of Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John; de las Alas, Stacy; Coleman, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This study furthers the current understanding of optimistic bias regarding youth violence among high school students. Results from a survey of 387 urban high school students indicate a wide range of predictors of optimistic bias, including experience, demographics, and attitudes. Linkages to other developmental frameworks (personal fable and…

  11. Optimistic bias among potential perpetrators and victims of youth violence.

    PubMed

    Chapin, John; de las Alas, Stacy; Coleman, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This study furthers the current understanding of optimistic bias regarding youth violence among high school students. Results from a survey of 387 urban high school students indicate a wide range of predictors of optimistic bias, including experience, demographics, and attitudes. Linkages to other developmental frameworks (personal fable and self-efficacy) suggest future directions for additional research. PMID:16468669

  12. LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2005-07-18

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

  13. Middle Class Youth and Proclivities for Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauss, Armand L.; Winston, William

    Answers from questionnaires administered to middle-class freshman and junior students in 4 different rural and suburban high schools were used to assess predisposition to violence. The findings indicated a modest inverse relation between violence proclivity and age, with a sharp difference between boys and girls, reflecting our cultural norms.…

  14. Emergency medicine: competencies for youth violence prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Denninghoff, Kurt R; Knox, Lyndee; Cunningham, Rebecca; Partain, Sandi

    2002-09-01

    By any standard one wishes to apply, the impact of violence on the health and safety of the public is significant. The expression of violence among children in the United States has increased significantly during the modern era. Homicide and suicide are the second and third leading causes of death in youths 15-24 years of age. The emergency department (ED) is a common site for the care of these victims, and because victims often become assailants, the emergency care provider needs to know the epidemiology, treatment, and methods for prevention of youth violence in order to curtail the cycle. A multidisciplinary task force was convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded Southern California Center of Academic Excellence on Youth Violence Prevention and the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California to define competencies for health professionals in youth violence prevention and control. Three levels of competence were identified: the generalist level, which should be obtained by all health professionals; the specialist level, which should be obtained by health professionals such as emergency medicine providers, who frequently work with populations affected by violence; and a third, or scholar level, to be acquired by health professionals who wish to become experts not only in the care, but also in research and advocacy. This article reports the details of this group's efforts and applies them to emergency care provider education. These competencies should shape the development of curricula for the span of emergency medical training from emergency medical services scholastic training to postgraduate continuous medical education. PMID:12208685

  15. Risk Versus Direct Protective Factors and Youth Violence

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun; Hawkins, J. David

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have examined predictors of youth violence associated with the individual child, the family, school, and the surrounding neighborhood or community. However, few studies have examined predictors using a systematic approach to differentiate and compare risk and direct protective factors. Purpose This study examines risk and protective factors associated with youth violence in an ongoing longitudinal panel study of 808 students from 18 Seattle public elementary schools followed since 1985 when they were in fifth grade. Predictors span the individual, family, school, peer, and neighborhood domains. Methods Data were collected annually, beginning in 1985, to age 16 years, and then again at age 18 years. This paper provides findings of analyses in which continuous predictor variables, measured at ages 10–12 years, were trichotomized to reflect a risk end of the variable, a direct protective end, and a middle category of scores. Youth violence was measured at ages 13–14 years and 15–18 years. Results Bivariate analyses of risk and direct protective factors identified the following predictors of violence at ages 13–14 years and 15–18 years. Risk for violence was increased by earlier antisocial behavior (e.g., prior violence, truancy, nonviolent delinquency), attention problems, family conflict, low school commitment, and living in a neighborhood where young people were in trouble. Direct protective factors at ages 10–12 years include a low level of attention problems, low risk-taking, refusal skills, school attachment, and low access and exposure to marijuana at ages 10–12 years. Multivariate regressions showed neighborhood risk factors to be among the most salient and consistent predictors of violence after accounting for all other variables in the tested models. Conclusions Relatively few direct protective factors were identified in these statistical tests, suggesting the need for further review and possible refinement of the measures and methods that were applied. Implications provide important information for programs and policy. PMID:22789957

  16. Asian/Pacific islander youth violence prevention center: community mobilization efforts to reduce and prevent youth violence.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mary H

    2008-03-01

    Although youth violence is a serious concern in the United States, Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) youth have generally been neglected as a demographic group for scholarly inquiry or community mobilization efforts. This lack of attention in the violence prevention field is indicative of two perceptual impediments with which AAPI communities have struggled for decades: (1) That AAPIs represent a relatively small portion of the United States population, and (2) That AAPIs are stereotyped as "model minorities" who do not encounter serious social obstacles and who lack ethnic heterogeneity. This paper challenges these concerns, and describes two community mobilization efforts to prevent youth violence in AAPI communities. Both of these efforts were carried out from 2000 to 2003 by the University of Hawaii, Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center. Findings from these mobilization efforts highlight the need for long-term university-community commitments, in which university entities take a leadership role in disaggregating AAPI juvenile justice data. Another critical need is to work with previously marginalized ethnic groups within the AAPI population. PMID:18267200

  17. Gun Violence and the Meaning of American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Kim, Sang Hyun; Robinson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, targeted school shootings have become a distinct genre of violence. In this essay, Bryan Warnick, Sang Hyun Kim, and Shannon Robinson examine the social meanings that exist in American society that might contribute to this phenomenon, focusing on the question: "Why are schools conceptualized as appropriate places to…

  18. The Financial Costs of Gun Violence. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Aside from the fear, isolation, or the loss of a loved one that violence imposes on many Americans, the financial burden placed on taxpayers through medical costs is significant. This fact sheet provides statistical information on the monetary impact of treating the "typical" gunshot victim in the United States. Data are provided on cost of direct…

  19. Gun Violence and the Meaning of American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Kim, Sang Hyun; Robinson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, targeted school shootings have become a distinct genre of violence. In this essay, Bryan Warnick, Sang Hyun Kim, and Shannon Robinson examine the social meanings that exist in American society that might contribute to this phenomenon, focusing on the question: "Why are schools conceptualized as appropriate places to…

  20. Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

  1. Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

  2. Youth Violence: Facts at a Glance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property one or more times in the 12 months preceding the survey. 2 Nonfatal Injuries Due to Violence • In 2011, 707,212 young people ages 10 ...

  3. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.

    2013-01-01

    Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

  4. Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

  5. Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

  6. Empowering Peers To Prevent Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazler, Richard J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

    2002-01-01

    An examination of peer-on-peer abuse (e.g., bullying, harassment) and peer-on-self abuse (e.g., suicide, self-mutilation) prevention programs identified more effective ways to involve youth in similar programs. Stronger programs emphasized youth empowerment through active roles in program development and reaching out with understanding and support…

  7. DISASTER AND YOUTH VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL ATTENDING YOUTH IN NEW ORLEANS

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. PMID:21783056

  8. Youth and Violence. Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health: Connecting the Dots To Prevent Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Health Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Proposes solutions to youth violence which encompass action across seven priorities. Within each priority, strategic recommendations and action steps for change are included. Priorities include: support the development of healthy families; promote healthy communities; increase access to health and mental health care services; reduce access to and…

  9. Violence Prevention and Students with Disabilities: Perspectives from the Field of Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Much of the work in youth violence prevention has been based in a public health model and guided by a developmental-ecological perspective on risk and prevention (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1988). A central tenet of developmental-ecological theory is that individual development is influenced by the ongoing qualities of the social settings in which the…

  10. Violence Prevention and Students with Disabilities: Perspectives from the Field of Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Much of the work in youth violence prevention has been based in a public health model and guided by a developmental-ecological perspective on risk and prevention (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1988). A central tenet of developmental-ecological theory is that individual development is influenced by the ongoing qualities of the social settings in which the…

  11. Warning Signs of Youth Violence. Just the Facts: Answers to Your Questions about Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association (APA), 2002

    2002-01-01

    Violence. It's the act of purposefully hurting someone. And it's a major issue facing today's young adults. This fact sheet answers questions that those aged 12-24 might ask about violence. This age group faces the highest risk of being the victim of violence. Questions regard the causes of youth violence, warning signs, what to do if someone…

  12. Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Researchers [PDF 11MB] Journal of Adolescent Health Technology and Youth: Protecting your Child from Electronic Aggression [PDF 161KB] Additional CDC Resources Adolescent and School Health CDC Podcast on Electronic Aggression [Podcast 12: ...

  13. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.

    PubMed

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

  14. Beyond the Academic Journal: Unfreezing Misconceptions About Mental Illness and Gun Violence Through Knowledge Translation to Decision-Makers.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Joshua; Grilley, Anna; Kennedy, Orla

    2015-06-01

    In a policy arena characterized by polarized debate, such as the consideration of legal interventions to prevent gun violence, research evidence is an important tool to inform decision-making processes. However, unless the evidence is communicated to stakeholders who can influence policy decisions, the research will often remain an academic exercise with little practical impact. The Educational Fund to Stop Violence's process of "unfreezing" individual perceptions and conventional interpretations of the relationship between mental illness and gun violence, forming a consensus, and translating this knowledge to stakeholders through state discussion forums is one way to inform policy change. The recent passage of gun violence prevention legislation in California provides an example of successfully closing the knowledge translation gap between research and decision-making processes. PMID:25827824

  15. Engaging health professionals in advocacy against gun violence.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andrew D

    2008-01-01

    Health professionals have long been involved with advocacy around the social determinants of health, including protesting against war and mitigating the production, trade and use of specific weapon systems. Small arms and light weapons are a key area on which to focus, as they are responsible for the majority of injuries and deaths in war and their availability is related to increased levels of crime and suicide. Challenges for health professionals hoping to engage in such advocacy include a lack of adequate data, the need to confront political questions and the gun-lobby, and difficulty in measuring the effectiveness of campaigns. This article discusses some examples of successful advocacy and suggests future directions for health professionals in this area. PMID:19065869

  16. J.U.M.P.: Join Us Make Peace. 16 Power Plays for Preventing Youth Violence. California Attorney General's Youth Council on Violence Prevention 1998 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    In an attempt to create more youth and adult partnerships to prevent violence throughout California, the California Attorney General's Office, the California Youth Authority, and the California Department of Health Services joined together on this community action research project. The members of the Attorney General's Youth Council on Violence…

  17. Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kofner, Aaron; Stokes, Robert J.; Sehgal, Amber; Fain, Terry; Beletsky, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Despite declines in youth violence nationally in the past decade, incidence of youth violence and victimization--from assaults to homicide--continue to be pressing concerns in public safety and public health. Youth violence is also a particular concern for low-income, minority communities, where poverty, family instability, and unemployment…

  18. Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kofner, Aaron; Stokes, Robert J.; Sehgal, Amber; Fain, Terry; Beletsky, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Despite declines in youth violence nationally in the past decade, incidence of youth violence and victimization--from assaults to homicide--continue to be pressing concerns in public safety and public health. Youth violence is also a particular concern for low-income, minority communities, where poverty, family instability, and unemployment…

  19. Gun use, attitudes toward violence, and aggression among combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Freeman, T W; Roca, V

    2001-05-01

    Vietnam veterans with chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been frequently reported to exhibit high levels of aggression and violent behavior. In this study, gun collection and use habits, attitudes toward violence, and self-reported levels of aggression were compared between veterans with chronic PTSD and non-PTSD veterans with equivalent histories of alcohol and substance abuse. PTSD patients reported different attitudes toward violent crime, higher levels of self-reported aggression, and a significantly higher incidence of potentially dangerous firearm-related behaviors than comparison subjects. PMID:11379976

  20. Cultural Context of School Communities in Rural Hawaii to Inform Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…

  1. Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2011-01-01

    Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and after migration, immigrant youth might be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental…

  2. "If They Could Make Us Disappear, They Would!" Youth and Violence in Cite Soleil, Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willman, Alys; Marcelin, Louis Herns

    2010-01-01

    This study explores community-level risk and protective factors for youth violence in Cite Soleil, Port-au-Prince's most violent slum. The youth of Cite Soleil have often been mobilized to violence by powerful actors as tools for achieving political or financial gain. Drawing on a formal survey (N=1,575) and ethnographic data collected between…

  3. "If They Could Make Us Disappear, They Would!" Youth and Violence in Cite Soleil, Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willman, Alys; Marcelin, Louis Herns

    2010-01-01

    This study explores community-level risk and protective factors for youth violence in Cite Soleil, Port-au-Prince's most violent slum. The youth of Cite Soleil have often been mobilized to violence by powerful actors as tools for achieving political or financial gain. Drawing on a formal survey (N=1,575) and ethnographic data collected between…

  4. Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

  5. Youth Violence: An Overview of Predictors, Counselling Interventions, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leschied, Alan W.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2002-01-01

    This special issue of the Canadian Journal of Counseling focuses on one of society's greatest challenges: youth violence. This article provides counselors with a general overview of the major advances in understanding the etiology of youth violence, the highlights of promising counseling interventions, and the role of gender in addressing…

  6. Cultural Context of School Communities in Rural Hawaii to Inform Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…

  7. From Pennsylvania's Front Line against Crime: A School and Youth Violence Prevention Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Based on findings that high-quality early care and education, youth development programs for after-school and summer hours, child abuse and neglect prevention, and intervention programs can help to prevent violence crime, this document presents a violence prevention plan for the schools and youth of Pennsylvania. Four actions are proposed to…

  8. Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2011-01-01

    Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and after migration, immigrant youth might be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental…

  9. Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

  10. Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gudiño, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2013-01-01

    Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and following migration, immigrant youth may be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental separations). Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, we assessed exposure to violence and immigrant stressors and examined their relative impact on psychopathology in a sample of 164 Latino youth. Immigrant youth reported greater exposure to immigrant stressors relative to native-born peers, but few differences in rates of exposure to violence emerged. When considered alongside relevant immigration stressors, exposure to violence emerged as the strongest predictor of youth psychopathology. Results suggest that some types of stressors have more consistently deleterious effects on mental health and understanding resilient outcomes may entail considering the meaning attributed to stressors and the resources available to cope with stressors. PMID:24465062

  11. Youth for Justice: Students Speak Out against Youth Violence. Report of the Annual Youth for Justice Summit (3rd, Columbus, Ohio, April 30, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Center for Law-Related Education, Columbus.

    Ideas submitted by middle school Youth for Justice teams are presented. Sixty-four teams from middle schools in all regions of Ohio spent 5 months researching and preparing their ideas for the Youth Summit. Ideas that identify and propose solutions and action steps to address the multiple problems of violence by and against youth are compiled in…

  12. Alive at 25: Reducing Youth Violence through Monitoring and Support. Field Report Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClanahan, Wendy S.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, seeking to reduce Philadelphia's homicide rate and put youthful offenders on the path to a productive adulthood, various Philadelphia agencies and organizations, including Public/Private Ventures, partnered to form the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership (YVRP). The project's goal is to steer youth, ages 14 to 24 and at greatest risk of…

  13. Alive at 25: Reducing Youth Violence through Monitoring and Support. Field Report Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClanahan, Wendy S.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, seeking to reduce Philadelphia's homicide rate and put youthful offenders on the path to a productive adulthood, various Philadelphia agencies and organizations, including Public/Private Ventures, partnered to form the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership (YVRP). The project's goal is to steer youth, ages 14 to 24 and at greatest risk of…

  14. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals. PMID:17367286

  15. Community monitoring for youth violence surveillance: testing a prediction model.

    PubMed

    Henry, David B; Dymnicki, Allison; Kane, Candice; Quintana, Elena; Cartland, Jenifer; Bromann, Kimberly; Bhatia, Shaun; Wisnieski, Elise

    2014-08-01

    Predictive epidemiology is an embryonic field that involves developing informative signatures for disorder and tracking them using surveillance methods. Through such efforts assistance can be provided to the planning and implementation of preventive interventions. Believing that certain minor crimes indicative of gang activity are informative signatures for the emergence of serious youth violence in communities, in this study we aim to predict outbreaks of violence in neighborhoods from pre-existing levels and changes in reports of minor offenses. We develop a prediction equation that uses publicly available neighborhood-level data on disorderly conduct, vandalism, and weapons violations to predict neighborhoods likely to have increases in serious violent crime. Data for this study were taken from the Chicago Police Department ClearMap reporting system, which provided data on index and non-index crimes for each of the 844 Chicago census tracts. Data were available in three month segments for a single year (fall 2009, winter, spring, and summer 2010). Predicted change in aggravated battery and overall violent crime correlated significantly with actual change. The model was evaluated by comparing alternative models using randomly selected training and test samples, producing favorable results with reference to overfitting, seasonal variation, and spatial autocorrelation. A prediction equation based on winter and spring levels of the predictors had area under the curve ranging from .65 to .71 for aggravated battery, and .58 to .69 for overall violent crime. We discuss future development of such a model and its potential usefulness in violence prevention and community policing. PMID:23494404

  16. Interpersonal Violence and its Association with US Migration Desires and Plans among Youths in Guanajuato, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Steven; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined interpersonal physical and sexual violence and its association with desires and plans to migrate to the USA among 500 alternative high school students, aged 14–17 years, from Guanajuato, Mexico. Two thirds of the youths had ever experienced interpersonal violence, the most common form being physical fights. More youths, and more boys relative to girls, reported wanting to migrate than planning to migrate. Although those who had experienced interpersonal violence were not more likely to want to migrate to the USA, their odds of planning to migrate were 44% greater. Gender did not moderate the effect of interpersonal violence. PMID:24611031

  17. Moving toward comprehensiveness and sustainability in a social ecological approach to youth violence prevention: lessons from the Asian/Pacific islander youth violence prevention center.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Karen; Baker, Charlene K; Helm, Susana; Miao, Tai-An; Goebert, Deborah A; Hishinuma, Earl S

    2009-12-01

    Youth violence is a serious public health problem affecting communities across the United States. The use of a social ecological approach has helped reduce its prevalence. However, those who have put the approach into practice often face challenges to effective implementation. Addressing social ecology in all its complexity presents one obstacle; the ability of private non-profit and public agencies to sustain such comprehensive efforts presents another. Here, we provide an example of our efforts to prevent youth violence. We worked with the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (APIYVPC) and two communities on O'ahu. We provide a case example from the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (APIYVPC) of our work, in collaboration with two communities on O;ahu, to develop and implement a youth violence prevention initiative that is becoming both comprehensive and sustainable. We illustrate the incremental nature of what it means to be comprehensive and we underscore the importance of reaching sustainability as the project unfolds. PMID:19911267

  18. African American and Latino Youth and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome: Effects on School Violence and Interventions for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyromski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…

  19. African American and Latino Youth and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome: Effects on School Violence and Interventions for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyromski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…

  20. A systematic review of the effects of poverty deconcentration and urban upgrading on youth violence.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Tali; Inglis, Gabrielle; Wiysonge, Charles; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors have been shown to be associated with youth violence and predictors of youth violence. This systematic review examined the existing evidence for youth violence interventions involving the deconcentration of poverty and urban upgrading. Search strategies combined related terms for youth, violence and a broad combination of terms for the intervention from a range of academic databases and websites. Abstracts were screened by two authors and appraised using a quantitative study assessment tool. Nine studies were included. No strong evidence was available to support diversification as an intervention, some evidence was identified in support of a variety of urban upgrading interventions, while the strongest study designs and demonstrated positive effects were shown for resettlement interventions. The small number of studies meeting the inclusion criteria was ascribed to the methodological complexity of inferring a causal association with 'upstream' interventions. No studies from low and middle income countries satisfied the inclusion criteria. PMID:24412655

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Self-Reported Violence of Osaka and Seattle Male Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P.; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non- Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported violence of Osaka and Seattle male youths.

    PubMed

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non-Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769

  3. Fresh Start: a multilevel community mobilization plan to promote youth development and prevent violence.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cordero, Lourdes J; Ortiz, Angelo; Trinidad, Tomas; Link, Bruce

    2011-09-01

    While much has been written about community mobilization for health, few detailed expositions of the formation of community mobilization, especially focused on youth violence prevention exist. The Columbia Center for Youth Violence Prevention, in collaboration with the UNIDOS Inwood Coalition, developed a Community mobilization plan to guide youth violence prevention in Inwood. The plan was developed within the context of an evidence-based organizing framework-Communities that Care (CTC) and takes a multi-level approach to service coordination that includes activities at the Individual, Family, Block, Organizational and Built Environment levels. This article describes how the Community mobilization plan was created, illustrates the use of evidence-based practices to lead to the development of the plan, outlines the plan's community/organizational activities, and summarizes the principles and processes that can be replicated in other communities seeking to start their own community mobilization efforts to reduce youth violence. PMID:21279433

  4. Building relationships and resilience in the prevention of youth violence.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, R M; Hopson, T; Haskins, M; Powell, K E

    1996-01-01

    Self Enhancement, Inc., is a grassroots, community-service organization working in the most disadvantaged high-risk community in Portland, Oregon. Its violence-prevention program targets middle-school and high-school students by providing classroom and community activities to these young people. These activities are designed to enhance protective factors and build resilience in youths to enable them to attain healthy and productive lives and to resist the threats of gangs, violence, and drugs. RMC Research Corporation works in partnership with Self Enhancement, Inc., to conduct research and evaluation on the effectiveness of its programs. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program works primarily at the individual student and interpersonal relationship levels. Resilience Theory and its culturally specific Relationship Model drive the formulation of specific strategies and activities. Program staff mentor each student through his or her preadolescent and adolescent years, promoting positive, prosocial norms and expectations for behavior through their peer group activities. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program consists of three major components: classroom, exposure, and proactive education. Classroom education focuses on anger management, conflict resolution, and problem solving. Exposure education consists of quarterly field trips to agencies and organizations in the Portland area that deal with the causes and consequences of violence in the community. Proactive education includes newsletters, student-run assemblies and conferences, and radio/ television public service announcements that communicate antiviolence messages. The evaluation plan is a longitudinal matched comparison group designed to assess the outcomes of the violence-prevention program. Key outcomes are protective factors, health-risk behaviors, and academic measures. Standardized assessment instruments (the Individual Protective Factors Index and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were administered to all students during winter 1994. The instruments will be readministered during the same period in the following two years of the project. School records were extracted to assess students' attendance and progress through their academic programs. Of the 326 seventh-, eighth-, and ninth-grade students participating in this study, 95% are African Americans and 51% are boys. The prevalence of fighting (56%) during the past 12 months is higher than that among African-American high-school students nationally, but weapon carrying (27%), alcohol use (30%), and marijuana use (18%) are the same or lower than national averages for this group. All baseline indicators are equivalent between the program and comparison groups with the exception of weapon carrying. Program students report carrying weapons more than do their comparison group counterparts. Baseline indicators of violence-related behaviors clearly indicate the need for intervention in this highly disadvantaged, African-American community. Through its historical presence and recent program development efforts, Self Enhancement, Inc., is well positioned to make a difference in the lives of these young people. The equivalence of program and comparison group students on baseline indicators of violence bodes well for an unequivocal assessment of program effectiveness over time. PMID:8909624

  5. Player Violence in Sport: Consequences for Youth Cross-Nationally (Part 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pooley, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Individual athletes are not primarily responsible for violence in sports. It is a product of the system. Sports leaders are responsible for allowing it and for curbing it. Contributing factors and consequences are outlined, together with recommendations for overcoming violence in youth sports. (IAH)

  6. Youth Action Strategies in the Primary Prevention of Teen Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kervin, Denise; Obinna, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a school-based youth-driven teen dating violence prevention project. The project objectives are to provide opportunities for students to plan presentations and activities; develop knowledge and awareness about unhealthy gender norms, seen as an important root cause of relationship violence, particularly for teenagers; and…

  7. Aggression and Violence and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of aggression and violence among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which aggression and violence adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Methods: Literature review. Results: Recent national data…

  8. Fostering Resilience among Urban Youth Exposed to Violence: A Promising Area for Interdisciplinary Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and…

  9. Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include "superpredator", "quarantining the contagious", "corrective surgery", "man as computer", "vaccine",…

  10. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  11. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Henrich, Christopher C.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban…

  12. Violence Exposure and PTSD: The Role of English Language Fluency in Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kataoka, Sheryl; Langley, Audra; Stein, Bradley; Jaycox, Lisa; Zhang, Lily; Sanchez, Norma; Wong, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    Although Latinos have been a rapidly growing population in the US, little is known about how mental health symptoms may present in Latino children especially in the context of those living in poverty and exposed to violence. We explored the level of violence exposure and trauma symptoms in Latino youth and the relationship of these factors with…

  13. Linking Law-Related Education to Reducing Violence by and against Youth. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Carolyn

    This digest addresses the topic of increasing violence among and against youth in society. The opening section "What Personal Qualities Are Associated with Reduction of Violence," identifies: (1) problem-solving and reasoning skills; (2) social capacities; and (3) a productive sense of purpose, independence, and power. The section "What Can…

  14. Youth Perspectives on the Intersections of Violence, Gender, and Hip-Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Diana; Weinstein, Hannah; Munoz-Laboy, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Youth's perceptions of violence within their social environments can provide relevant insights into the gender-based interpersonal violence epidemic in inner-city communities. To explore this issue, we examined two sets of narratives with young men and women, aged 15 to 21, involved in hip-hop culture in New York City. In the analysis, we reveal…

  15. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  16. Fostering Resilience among Urban Youth Exposed to Violence: A Promising Area for Interdisciplinary Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and…

  17. Youth Perspectives on the Intersections of Violence, Gender, and Hip-Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Diana; Weinstein, Hannah; Munoz-Laboy, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Youth's perceptions of violence within their social environments can provide relevant insights into the gender-based interpersonal violence epidemic in inner-city communities. To explore this issue, we examined two sets of narratives with young men and women, aged 15 to 21, involved in hip-hop culture in New York City. In the analysis, we reveal…

  18. Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include "superpredator", "quarantining the contagious", "corrective surgery", "man as computer", "vaccine",…

  19. Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCD's Research-Based Programs Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

  20. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Homeless Youth in Columbus, Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Collins, Jennifer; Patton, Rikki; Buettner, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and…

  1. Evaluation of a Theater-Based Youth Violence Prevention Program for Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisiel, Cassandra; Blaustein, Margaret; Spinazzola, Joseph; Schmidt, Caren Swift; Zucker, Marla; van der Kolk, Bessel

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of Urban Improv (UI), a theater-based youth violence prevention (YVP) program developed for inner-city youth, on three behavioral and psychological outcome domains: aggressive behaviors, prosocial behaviors, and scholastic attention and engagement. This study compared outcomes for 77 elementary school…

  2. Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCDs Research-Based Programs Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

  3. Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCD's Research-Based Programs Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

  4. Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

  5. Contrasting Portraits of War: Youths' Varied Experiences with Political Violence in Bosnia and Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some of the complexity of youths' experience with political violence as a means of cautioning researchers, applied professionals and policy makers against overly-simplistic conclusions and interventions when attempting to understand and serve the large populations of the world's youth who endure conflict. A variety of…

  6. Does Parenting Shield Youth from Exposure to Violence during Adolescence? A 5-Year Longitudinal Test in a High-Poverty Sample of Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group-based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results…

  7. Youth Conferences, Forums and Workshops to Prevent Violence and Promote Peaceful Relations. Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Office of Criminal Justice, Columbus. Ohio Violence Prevention Center.

    Violent crimes, especially those committed with guns, have been increasing at an alarming rate among children and teenagers. This manual is intended to help teach young people in Ohio how to prevent violence and to assist individuals, groups, and organizations in planning and implementing antiviolence conferences, forums, or workshops for children…

  8. Prevention of youth violence: rationale and characteristics of 15 evaluation projects.

    PubMed

    Powell, K E; Dahlberg, L L; Friday, J; Mercy, J A; Thornton, T; Crawford, S

    1996-01-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major cause of injury, disability, and death, especially among youth. Evaluations of 15 youth violence-prevention projects are under way. Public health is concerned about health problems that need to be addressed via collective action. Public health involvement in addressing interpersonal violence among youths brings an emphasis on primary prevention, a systematic and scientific process, and integrative leadership. Few quantitative evaluations of violence-prevention projects have been done. The interventions are scientifically based and use a spectrum of strategies. Individually oriented strategies are more common than those directed toward peers, families, schools, or communities. Each project has a rigorous evaluation design. Twelve are randomized. Sample sizes range from 180 to 10,000. Participants range in age from 5 to 18 years, although most are in the middle-school years (11-14 years). At baseline, intervention and comparison groups are similar. Baseline data demonstrate high frequency of violent behavior, weapon carrying, and exposure to violence among the youthful participants. Field intervention and evaluation research is difficult and expensive. Difficulties encompass organizational programatic, and scientific issues; these difficulties reduce scientific interest and financial support for projects such as these. Public health has an important role to play in reducing violence. These projects will make important contributions to that task. PMID:8909619

  9. The perpetration of intimate partner violence among LGBTQ college youth: the role of minority stress.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary research suggests that partner violence is a problem among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) college youth. However, there is no study to date with college youth on the factors associated with perpetration of same-sex partner violence, which is needed to inform prevention efforts specific to this population. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to assess how facets of minority stress (i.e., sexual-orientation-related victimization, sexual minority stigma, internalized homonegativity, sexual identity concealment) relate to physical, sexual, and psychological partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ college youth (N = 391; 49% identified as men; 72% Caucasian; M age: 20.77 years). At the bivariate level, physical perpetration was related to identity concealment and internalized homonegativity; sexual perpetration was related to internalized homonegativity; and psychological perpetration was related to sexual-orientation-related victimization. However, at the multivariate level (after controlling for concurrent victimization), psychological perpetration was unrelated to minority stress variables, whereas physical and sexual perpetration were both related to internalized homonegativity; physical perpetration was also related to identity concealment. These results underscore the utility of understanding partner violence among LGBTQ youth through a minority stress framework. Moreover, the current study highlights the need for a better understanding of factors that mediate and moderate the relationship between minority stress and partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ youth in order to inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23233160

  10. Preventing Violence Among High-Risk Youth and Communities with Economic, Policy, and Structural Strategies.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; David-Ferdon, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Youth violence is preventable, and the reduction of health disparities is possible with evidence-based approaches. Achieving community-wide reductions in youth violence and health disparities has been limited in part because of the lack of prevention strategies to address community risk factors. CDC-supported research has resulted in three promising community-level approaches: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in Los Angeles, California; alcohol policy to reduce youth access in Richmond, Virginia; and the Safe Streets program in Baltimore, Maryland. Evaluation findings indicated that BIDs in Los Angeles were associated with a 12% reduction in robberies (one type of violent crime) and an 8% reduction in violent crime overall. In Richmond's alcohol policy program, investigators found that the monthly average of ambulance pickups for violent injuries among youth aged 15-24 years had a significantly greater decrease in the intervention (19.6 to 0 per 1,000) than comparison communities (7.4 to 3.3 per 1,000). Investigators of Safe Streets found that some intervention communities experienced reductions in homicide and/or nonfatal shootings, but results were not consistent across communities. Communitywide rates of violence can be changed in communities with disproportionately high rates of youth violence associated with entrenched health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage. Community-level strategies are a critical part of comprehensive approaches necessary to achieve broad reductions in violence and health disparities. PMID:26916848

  11. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Post-Traumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Method Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their parents once a year for three consecutive years. Results Palestinian children, males, and older youth were generally at greatest risk for exposure to conflict/violence across contexts. Regression analysis found unique effects of exposure to ethnic-political (Palestinian sample), school (Palestinian and Israeli Jewish samples), and family conflict/violence (Israeli Arab sample) during the first two years on PTS symptoms in year 3, controlling for prior PTS symptoms. Cumulative exposure to violence in more contexts during the first two years predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms than did exposure to violence in fewer contexts, and this was true regardless of the youth’s level of prior PTS symptoms. Conclusions These results highlight the risk that ongoing exposure to violence across multiple contexts in the social ecology poses for the mental health of children in contexts of ethnic-political violence. Researchers and mental health professionals working with war-exposed youth in a given cultural context must assess both war- and non-war-related stressors affecting youth. Based on this assessment, interventions may not be limited to individual-based, war-trauma-focused approaches, but also may include school-based, community-based, and family-level interventions. PMID:22540411

  12. Connections between online harassment and offline violence among youth in Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Timo Tapani; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas Ebanan

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that face-to-face (offline) youth violence and online harassment are closely interlinked, but evidence from Asian countries remains limited. This study was conducted to quantitatively assess the associations between offline violence and online harassment among youth in Central Thailand. Students and out-of-school youth (n=1,234, age: 15-24 years) residing, studying, and/or working in a district in Central Thailand were surveyed. Participants were asked about their involvement in online harassment and in verbal, physical, sexual, and domestic types of offline violence, as perpetrators, victims, and witnesses within a 1-year period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between different kinds of involvement in offline violence and online harassment. Perpetration and victimization within the past year were both reported by roughly half of the youth both online and offline. Over three quarters had witnessed violence or harassment. Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with being a victim online (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=10.1; 95% CI [7.5, 13.6]), and perpetrating offline violence was independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR=11.1; 95% CI [8.1, 15.0]). Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with perpetrating offline violence (AOR=2.7; 95% CI [1.9, 3.8]), and being a victim online was likewise independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR=2.6; 95% CI [1.9, 3.6]). Online harassment and offline violence are interlinked among Thai youth, as in other countries studied so far. Interventions to reduce either might best address both together. PMID:25913812

  13. What Works (and What Does Not) in Youth Violence Prevention: Rethinking the Questions and Finding New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Nancy G.; Boxer, Paul; Cook, Clayton R.

    2006-01-01

    Dramatic rises in youth violence in the United States beginning in the 1980s coupled with high visibility acts such as school shootings have resulted in a corresponding proliferation of programs designed to prevent aggression and violence in children and youth. Parallel with this increasing programmatic expansion, there have been repeated calls…

  14. What Works (and What Does Not) in Youth Violence Prevention: Rethinking the Questions and Finding New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Nancy G.; Boxer, Paul; Cook, Clayton R.

    2006-01-01

    Dramatic rises in youth violence in the United States beginning in the 1980s coupled with high visibility acts such as school shootings have resulted in a corresponding proliferation of programs designed to prevent aggression and violence in children and youth. Parallel with this increasing programmatic expansion, there have been repeated calls…

  15. Parent-Youth Discordance about Youth-Witnessed Violence: Associations with Trauma Symptoms and Service Use in an At-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth…

  16. Exposure to Community Violence and Social Maladjustment Among Urban African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Devin C.; Richards, Maryse H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Because of the evidence that children living in inner city communities are chronically exposed to violence, the goal of the present study was to longitudinally explore the reciprocal and perpetuating relationship between exposure to violence and child social maladjustment. Method Participants were 268 African American students (M age = 11.65 years, 40% males and 60% females) from six inner city Chicago public schools in high crime neighborhoods. Data was collected longitudinally over three years on measures of demographic information, exposure to community violence, and social adjustment. It was hypothesized that high levels of exposure to community violence, would be related to higher reports of social maladjustment (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally) and these variables would interact transactionally, leading to a greater risk of exposure to violence. Results These hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and results revealed that exposure to community violence was not consistently linked to social maladjustment. Transactional results revealed that there are certain periods in development in which being more socially maladjusted may put a youth in risk for more exposure to violence. Conclusions Results of the present study have important implications for interventions for inner-city youth exposed to violence. PMID:25171169

  17. Fostering resilience among urban youth exposed to violence: a promising area for interdisciplinary research and practice.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K

    2013-12-01

    Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and building individual, family, and community assets and strengths that may more effectively support youth who have been exposed to community violence and related risks into competent, caring, and thriving adults. In this article, we review how resilience has been conceptualized and operationalized within the context of community violence, highlight gaps in literature, and offer directions for future public health research and practice. We illustrate this review with practice-based examples from public health work in the San Francisco Bay Area. Future multidisciplinary longitudinal studies that identify protective processes and successful trajectories and rigorous evaluations of strength-based policies, programs, and protective processes are needed. PMID:23818463

  18. Policy statement--Role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.

    PubMed

    2009-07-01

    Youth violence continues to be a serious threat to the health of children and adolescents in the United States. It is crucial that pediatricians clearly define their role and develop the appropriate skills to address this threat effectively. From a clinical perspective, pediatricians should become familiar with Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure, the American Academy of Pediatrics' primary care violence prevention protocol. Using this material, practices can incorporate preventive education, screening for risk, and linkages to community-based counseling and treatment resources. As advocates, pediatricians may bring newly developed information regarding key risk factors such as exposure to firearms, teen dating violence, and bullying to the attention of local and national policy makers. This policy statement refines the developing role of pediatricians in youth violence prevention and emphasizes the importance of this issue in the strategic agenda of the American Academy of Pediatrics. PMID:19520726

  19. Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-Occurrence, and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

    2009-01-01

    With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This article examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth…

  20. Enabling Prosecutors To Address Drug, Gang, and Youth Violence. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramckow, Heike P.; Tompkins, Elena

    This bulletin offers data on recent trends in juvenile violence, juvenile drug offenses, and gang-related juvenile offending, and describes prosecutorial responses to such offenses. Examples of promising prosecutor-led programs combating the illicit use of guns, violence, drugs, and gangs are also provided. These examples provide a range of ideas…

  1. The Changing Nature of Youth Violence. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Current State of Youth Violence, Focusing on Its Changing Nature and Juvenile Intervention Programs Designed To Prevent Increased Violence (February 28, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing examined the current state of youth violence, focusing on its changing nature and juvenile intervention programs designed to prevent increased violence. Opening statements by Senators Fred Thompson, Herbert Kohl, and Joseph R. Biden addressed the seriousness of the problem. Two panels contributed prepared statements. The first panel…

  2. The Link between Poverty, the Proliferation of Violence and the Development of Traumatic Stress among Urban Youth in the United States to School Violence: A Trauma Informed, Social Justice Approach to School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Portia D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two premises regarding school violence in urban America. First, that traumatic stress among urban youth in the United States is a key factor in the development and exacerbation of school violence in urban areas. Secondly, an efficacious approach to the resolution of school violence cannot be achieved without addressing this…

  3. Preventing recurring injuries from violence: the risk of assault among Cleveland youth after hospitalization.

    PubMed Central

    Litacker, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although interpersonal violence has increased among urban youth, its epidemiology remains unclear. To prevent such violence, identifying the susceptible population is important. METHODS: Medical records for 998 patients aged 5 to 25 years at an urban hospital were reviewed to compare data for patients admitted for assault-related injuries, those admitted for unintentional injuries, and those for problems other than injuries. RESULTS: Those initially admitted for treatment of assault were found to be at greater risk of subsequent treatment for assault than those admitted for noninjuries. CONCLUSIONS: Admission for injuries caused by violence may increase risk for future assaults; hospitalization may offer an opportunity to interrupt these patterns. PMID:8916535

  4. Disentangling the Effects of Violent Victimization, Violent Behavior, and Gun Carrying for Minority Inner-City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Bolland, John

    2013-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data were used to examine the sequencing between violent victimization, violent behavior, and gun carrying in a high-poverty sample of African American youth. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that violent victimization T1 and violent behavior T1 increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying T2…

  5. Disentangling the Effects of Violent Victimization, Violent Behavior, and Gun Carrying for Minority Inner-City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Bolland, John

    2013-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data were used to examine the sequencing between violent victimization, violent behavior, and gun carrying in a high-poverty sample of African American youth. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that violent victimization T1 and violent behavior T1 increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying T2…

  6. Testing Pathways Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Sexual Behaviors Among African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hotton, Anna L.; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to community violence and HIV sexual risks are two major public health concerns among youth. This study tests various pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors among African American adolescents. Using a sample of 563 (61 % females) African American youth attending high school we examined whether problematic psychological symptoms, low school engagement, and/or negative perceptions of peer norms about safer sex functioned as pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors. Major findings indicated that, for boys, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début and sexual risk behaviors were linked by aggression. In addition, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual risk behaviors were linked by negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. For girls, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début was linked by aggression and negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. These findings provide support for pathways linking exposure to community violence to sexual behaviors. PMID:24327295

  7. Relationships Between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health Among Homeless Families

    PubMed Central

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and trauma exposure among homeless families, in order to better serve the needs of this vulnerable population. The objective of this study is to explore the relationships between caregiver exposure to violence, caregiver depression, and youth depression and behavioral problems among homeless families. Preliminary findings indicate that among this sample of homeless families, caregiver violence exposure has statistically significant relationships with both youth behavioral problems and youth depression symptoms, as mediated by caregiver depression. These findings indicate that youth behavioral health is associated with caregiver mental health, which, in turn, is associated with caregiver trauma exposure. This highlights the importance of taking into account adult mental health while treating youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors and ensuring that caregivers, too, have access to adequate treatment and supports. Furthermore, this treatment should be trauma informed, given the link between trauma and mental health. PMID:26420978

  8. World Health Organization's TEACH-VIP: contributing to capacity building for youth violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Meddings, David R; Knox, Lyndee M; Maddaleno, Matilde; Concha-Eastman, Alberto; Hoffman, Joan Serra

    2005-12-01

    Youth violence is a major public health problem in every region of the world, yet it is especially prevalent in specific settings. Youth homicide rates exceeding 10.0/100,000 occur most often in countries that are low or middle income, or which are experiencing rapid economic or social change. Particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the capacity to develop and implement the comprehensive, multisectoral strategies to prevent youth violence is only just emerging. The prevention of youth violence requires multidisciplinary approaches and a variety of trained professionals. A public health approach to training in the area of injury prevention focuses on providing professionals and paraprofessionals a common understanding of essential skills and knowledge. One important benefit of this is that it addresses a major gap in current public health training that until recently has devoted relatively little attention to injury prevention. Another benefit is that it allows professionals from a variety of backgrounds to work together more effectively to reduce injury. This article will provide a broad overview of youth violence in low- and middle-income countries and will discuss the existing level of capacity within healthcare and public health sectors for responding to these problems. It concludes with a discussion of next steps for increasing capacity and a profile of the World Health Organization (WHO) training curriculum on injury and violence prevention called TEACH-VIP, an acronym for Training, Education, and Advancing Collaboration in Health on Violence and Injury Prevention, as one important effort undertaken by WHO and global injury partners to build capacity. PMID:16376728

  9. Wraparound care for youth injured by violence: study protocol for a pilot randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Carolyn; Jiang, Depeng; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Strome, Trevor; Klassen, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Injury by violence is the fourth cause of death and the leading reason for a youth to visit an emergency department (ED) in Canada. In Winnipeg, 20% of youth who visit an ED with an injury due to violence have a second visit for a subsequent violent injury within 1 year. Youth injured by violence are in a reflective and receptive state of mind, rendering the ED setting appropriate for intervention. Methods and analysis This protocol describes a wraparound care model delivered by a support worker with lived experience with violence, supported by social workers and links to multiple community partners. Support workers will be on call 24 h a day, 7 days a week in order to start the intervention in the ED and take advantage of the ‘teachable moment’. The protocol is of a pilot randomised control trial to assess the feasibility of a randomised control trial designed to assess efficacy. For the pilot trial, we will assess recruitment, treatment fidelity, participant adherence and safety. The intervention arm will receive wraparound care initiated at the time of their visit for injury due to violence. The control arm will receive standard care. We will use an adapted preconsent randomisation methodology. This intervention has been developed using an integrated knowledge translation approach. Discussion Interventions delivered in the ED for youth injured by violence require an approach that is appropriate for the unique situation the youth are in. Ethics The University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board (HS 16445 (Cohort study) and HS 16444 (WrapAround Care study) granted ethical approval. Trial registration number NCT01895738. PMID:25991461

  10. Learning from youth exposed to domestic violence: decentering DV and the primacy of gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Beth; Phillips, Debby A

    2010-03-01

    Up to 8 million American children witness domestic violence (DV) every year. Since this discovery in the mid-1980s, psychologists and social service professionals have conducted research with children exposed to DV. This ethnographic study expands on existing research by examining how youth exposed to DV perceive their experiences and staff interventions. Findings show they draw on gender stereotypes for behaviors, and these frequently resist DV education and the advocates' suggestions for coping. Findings also showed the staff's formal interventions with the youth contradict gender norms and their casual interactions with the youth often inadvertently reinforce stereotypical gender identities and behaviors. PMID:20093434

  11. Experiencing Violence and Enacting Resilience: The Case Story of a Transgender Youth.

    PubMed

    DiFulvio, Gloria T

    2015-11-01

    Research about victimization among sexual minority youth has focused on documenting the prevalence and consequences of such experiences. Lacking in the literature is an in-depth exploration of the social context of both risk and resilience in the face of violence. This is especially true for transgender youth who are largely absent from the dominant discourse. This case story provides an example of how one transgender youth interpreted and adaptively responded to the discrimination and prejudice she encountered. Katie's story illustrates the process of resilience. Despite the adversity she has faced, she shares stories of pride and strength in a culture that considers her as "other." PMID:25091981

  12. Attitudes of Rural Middle-School Youth toward Alcohol, Tobacco, Drugs, and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kathleen J.; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Edwards, Ruth W.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, our research team has conducted 15 focus groups with 169 middle-school youth in small communities as formative research for campaigns against alcohol, tobacco, drugs, and violence. Some key findings of a synthesis of focus-group results are that girls and boys perceive different risks to alcohol and tobacco use; peer relationships are…

  13. The Analysis of Extracurricular Activities and Their Relationship to Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Deanna C.; Huebner, Angela J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how extracurricular activities relate to rural youth violence. Gender differences were examined across all of the study variables. Self-report data were collected from 235 teenagers from a rural, ethnically diverse, Virginia community. Correlations revealed a significant inverse relationship between church…

  14. Violent Youth Culture in Northern Ireland: Young Men, Violence, and the Challenges of Peacebuilding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses violent male youth culture in Northern Ireland within the context of a society emerging from a prolonged period of political violence toward peacebuilding. Specifically, the article focuses on the findings from a qualitative study carried out by the Centre for Young Men's Studies with 130 marginalized young men aged 13 to 16…

  15. A Challenging Job: Physical and Sexual Violence towards Group Workers in Youth Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…

  16. Relationships between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health among Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…

  17. Resilience Moderates the Relationship between Exposure to Violence and Posttraumatic Reexperiencing in Mi'kmaq Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H.; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Stevens, Doreen; Ungar, Michael; Wekerle, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This study is part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Nova Scotian Mi'kmaq community that hopes to shed light on the relationship between exposure to violence and mental health in First Nations youth. This particular study sought to examine how the multifaceted construct of resilience might act as a protective factor,…

  18. The Rise and Fall of American Youth Violence: 1980 to 2000. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey; Travis, Jeremy

    This report examines trends in violent crime from 1980-2000, analyzing what portion of the recent crime drop can be attributed to juveniles (under age 18 years) and young adults (ages 18-24 years). Data come from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Results indicate that the decline in youth violence, as…

  19. From Illinois' Front Line against Crime: A School and Youth Violence Prevention Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Noting that one of the most powerful weapons to prevent crime are programs such as quality educational child care, after-school and summer programs, and child abuse prevention, this brief presents the school and youth violence prevention plan of an organization of Illinois law enforcement officers, state's attorneys, crime survivors, and leaders…

  20. Community Violence, School-Related Protective Factors, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Kristy A.; Warren, Jared S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two putative school-based protective factors--student identification with school and perceived teacher support--to psychosocial outcomes in a sample of urban youth exposed to community violence. Participants were 175 high school students ages 14-19 in grades 9-12 from a large urban school district. Results…

  1. Reaching through the Cracks. A Guide to Implementing the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda; McClanahan, Wendy S.

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership (YVRP) was launched by a group of key stakeholders in Philadelphia--including the district attorney's office, adult and juvenile parole, other city agencies and community organizations. Its goal is to steer young people, ages 14 to 24 and at greatest risk of killing or being killed, away from…

  2. Youth Violence and School Safety Task Force Has Lasting Impact. Research Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Raleigh.

    North Carolina's 1999 Governor's Task Force on Youth Violence and School Safety produced a report that generated 10 action items and 6 main recommendations. This research bulletin presents a follow-up to the task force's efforts. It begins by providing background information about the task force and putting its work into context. It then discusses…

  3. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  4. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

  5. Reaching through the Cracks. A Guide to Implementing the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda; McClanahan, Wendy S.

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership (YVRP) was launched by a group of key stakeholders in Philadelphia--including the district attorney's office, adult and juvenile parole, other city agencies and community organizations. Its goal is to steer young people, ages 14 to 24 and at greatest risk of killing or being killed, away from…

  6. Relationships between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health among Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…

  7. Adapting the Concept of Explanatory Models of Illness to the Study of Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biering, Pall

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of adapting Kleinman's concept of explanatory models of illness to the study of youth violence and is conducted within the hermeneutic tradition. Data were collected by interviewing 11 violent adolescents, their parents, and their caregivers. Four types of explanatory models representing the adolescent girls',…

  8. A Review of Family-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence among Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidy, Melinda S.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Toro, Rosa I.

    2010-01-01

    At present, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of family-based intervention programs to prevent violence or related behavior problems with Latino youth and families. Although progress has been made, a number of important issues remain. In this article, the authors review several of the more prominent interventions for Latino…

  9. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  10. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  11. A Challenging Job: Physical and Sexual Violence towards Group Workers in Youth Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…

  12. Violent Youth Culture in Northern Ireland: Young Men, Violence, and the Challenges of Peacebuilding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses violent male youth culture in Northern Ireland within the context of a society emerging from a prolonged period of political violence toward peacebuilding. Specifically, the article focuses on the findings from a qualitative study carried out by the Centre for Young Men's Studies with 130 marginalized young men aged 13 to 16…

  13. Dating Violence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in a Sample of At-Risk Israeli Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Miriam; Zeira, Anat

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study examines the reported dating violence and its association with sexual risk behavior among Israeli adolescents, who are at risk for dropping out of school. Methodology: A convenience sample of 105 at-risk youth (51 boys and 54 girls) completed self-administered anonymous, questionnaires in small same-gender groups.…

  14. Violence on the Russian & American Media Screen and Youth Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of the Russian and American experience regarding media violence, standards for rating Russian media programs, and a course of study on media violence for students will have a significant impact upon Russian society, will raise Russian societal and governmental attention to the infringement of the Rights of the Child on the Russian…

  15. Cultural Causes of Rage and Violence in Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Carla J.; Bantz, Jeanmarie; Kauffman, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines differences between rage and violence. States that attitudes towards violence are influenced by: family, peer group, the media, weapons, school structure, and community. Strategies for preventing rage and aggression include: (1) communicating clear behavioral expectations; (2) giving frequent praise and other forms of recognition; and (3)…

  16. Delinquency best treatments: how to divert youths from violence while saving lives and detention costs.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Robert John; Grove, William M; Busch, Kenneth G

    2013-01-01

    Youth development and violence prevention are two sides of the same public policy. The focus of much theoretical and empirical effort is identifying delinquency risks and intervening. Given the great costs of homicide and the historically high nationwide prison population, new policies must address increasing violence and rising expenses. Treatments of prenatal care, home visitation, bullying prevention, alcohol-substance abuse education, alternative thinking promotion, mentoring, life skills training, rewards for graduation and employment, functional family and multi-systemic therapy, and multi-dimensional foster care are effective, because they ameliorate age-specific risks for delinquency. At present, these interventions only yield a 10-40% diversion from crime however. Returns on investment (ROIs) vary from $1 to $98. Targeting empirical treatments to those determined to be most at risk, based on statistical models or actuarial testing, and using electronic surveillance for non-violent prisoners significantly diverted youth from violence, improving ROI, while simultaneously saving costs. PMID:23733324

  17. Depressive Symptoms, Social Support and Violence Exposure Among Urban Youth: A Longitudinal Study of Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Eisman, Andria B.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Heinze, Justin; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious mental health concern among adolescents. Violence exposure is a potent risk factor for depression. Social support may help reduce depression risk, even when adolescents are exposed to violence. Using a compensatory model of resilience, we investigate the influence of violence exposure and social support on depression over time in a sample of urban youth during the high school years (N=824, 52% female, mean age year 1 = 14.9). We used growth curve modeling to examine depressive symptoms across adolescence and its association with violence exposure and social support, accounting for important sociodemographic characteristics (sex, socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity). Depressive symptoms on average increase from year one to two of high school and then are stable or decline from years two to four. Violence observation and conflict in the family were each associated with increased depressive symptoms during the high school years. Mother support was associated with decreased depressive symptoms over time. Our results support a compensatory model of resilience. Promoting positive parent-child communication among urban youth living in disadvantaged contexts may help reduce the probability that exposure to violence will result in depressive symptoms. PMID:26147772

  18. Depressive symptoms, social support, and violence exposure among urban youth: A longitudinal study of resilience.

    PubMed

    Eisman, Andria B; Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a serious mental health concern among adolescents. Violence exposure is a potent risk factor for depression. Social support may help reduce depression risk, even when adolescents are exposed to violence. Using a compensatory model of resilience, we investigate the influence of violence exposure and social support on depression over time in a sample of urban youth during the high school years (N = 824, 52% female, mean age Year 1 = 14.9). We used growth curve modeling to examine depressive symptoms across adolescence and its association with violence exposure and social support, accounting for important sociodemographic characteristics (sex, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity). Depressive symptoms on average increase from Year 1 to 2 of high school and then are stable or decline from Years 2 to 4. Violence observation and conflict in the family were each associated with increased depressive symptoms during the high school years. Mother support was associated with decreased depressive symptoms over time. Our results support a compensatory model of resilience. Promoting positive parent-child communication among urban youth living in disadvantaged contexts may help reduce the probability that exposure to violence will result in depressive symptoms. PMID:26147772

  19. Gun Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC School Violence and the News How to Talk to Your ... Your Child Gun Safety Should You Worry About School Violence? Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should ...

  20. Practicas optimas para la prevencion de la violencia juvenil: Libro de referencia para la accion comunitaria (Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Timothy N., Comp.; Craft, Carole A., Comp.; Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Lynch, Barbara S., Comp.; Baer, Katie, Comp.

    The Spanish-language version of this best practices sourcebook builds on a 1993 publication, "The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action." It offers insight into tested strategies to prevent violence by children and adolescents. It was developed with input from people working to prevent youth violence and people whose…

  1. Dating conflicts: rethinking dating violence and youth conflict.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Madelaine; Kil, Sang Hea

    2007-12-01

    Dating couples are tied to each other's friends who have expectations about dating, such as who constitutes an acceptable date and how to balance friendship and dating. We explore the place of friends in dating conflicts (i.e., conflicts and violence associated with heterosexual teen dating) and ask: (a) How are friends implicated in teen dating/violence not only as targets or confidants, but also as participants in conflict that stems from their friends' relationships, and (b) in what ways do dating conflicts conserve or challenge the power of gender and sexual conformity that underlies heterosexual dating and dating violence? PMID:18046043

  2. Position Statement on Youth Violence Prevention and Recommended Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kathleen J.

    This position paper was prepared by the New Futures Collaborative, a group of community leaders concerned with improving outcomes for at-risk youth and families in the Dayton (Ohio) community. It is evident that for some individuals, there has been a value shift and devaluation of human life. A small but growing number of youth are committing…

  3. Parent-Youth Discordance about Youth-Witnessed Violence: Associations with Trauma Symptoms and Service Use in an At-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth…

  4. Perceptions of gender-based violence among South African youth: implications for health promotion interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, M.; Ahmed, R.; Simon, C.

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a widespread problem in South Africa. Past structural inequities have created a climate conducive to violence against women. As an initial step toward developing a health promotion program, we conducted exploratory formative research to examine the barriers that affect the health and well-being of youth. Fourteen focus groups (nine with girls and five with boys) were conducted with 112 adolescents in a racially mixed community on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. We utilized grounded theory and thematic analysis to examine the data. The impact of poverty, ubiquitous gendered violence, transactional sex and unsafe recreational spaces emerged as the major themes. The experiences of youth were consumed by issues of safety rather than the pursuit of other developmentally appropriate markers. Our findings suggest that health promotion programs should create safe spaces for youth and opportunities to critically question the assumptions and manifestations of a patriarchal society. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a strong need for multi-sectorial interventions directed at many levels to prevent gender-based violence. PMID:21733916

  5. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572

  6. An exploratory investigation of adolescent intimate partner violence among African American youth: a gendered analysis.

    PubMed

    Love, Sharon RedHawk; Richards, Tara N

    2013-11-01

    Extant research demonstrates that while adolescent intimate partner violence (IPV) is an ever-growing concern in the United States, most research on IPV has focused on adult victims and offenders. To fill this gap in the literature, the present research examines youth IPV by conducting focus groups with 25 male and female youth between the ages of 15 and 19 years whose race was primarily African American. Drawing on open-ended responses by adolescent participants, the present study aimed to shed light on African American youths' perceptions of IPV, their perceptions regarding such violence among their peers, the dynamics of help-seeking behaviors, and what services youth perceive as most helpful in the prevention and intervention of adolescent IPV. Findings reveal that most participants only recognize physical aggression as IPV; express hesitation in disclosing violence to adults, especially nonfamily adults; and report being unaware of and/or unwilling to utilize existing prevention and intervention services traditionally targeted at adult populations. Implications for future research and policy are also presented and discussed. PMID:23920339

  7. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M?=?15?years; range?=?13–16?years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

  8. History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multi-Ethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya; Valdez, Elizabeth; Gurrola, Maria; Marrs, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. They participated in 1 of 2 prevention interventions offered by a local non-governmental organization. The first intervention was tailored for adjudicated youth (N=49) who were either institutionalized or were returning to the community after involvement with the criminal justice system. The second intervention targeted youth (N=32) who were homeless/runaway and/or self-identified as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (GLBT). T-tests and linear regression were used to determine the differences between youth reporting a history of violence by type of perpetrator, its relationship with HIV risk, and the role of ethnic identification and acculturation status as potential protective factors. Violence by a family member was the most common type of violence reported, with a history of violence positively related to HIV risk. Ethnic identification and linguistic acculturation had a protective effect against HIV risk among the homeless and GLBT youth but not among the adjudicated youth. PMID:20016770

  9. Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

    2011-01-01

    Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female) African American youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods who participated in the Mobile Youth Survey from 1998 through 2006. Using general growth mixture modeling, we found two hopelessness trajectory classes for both boys and girls during middle adolescence: a consistently low hopelessness class and an increasingly hopeless class with quadratic change. In all classes, youth who reported stronger early adolescent connections to their mothers were less hopeless at age 13. The probability of later adolescent violence with a weapon was higher for boys and was associated with the increasingly hopeless class for both boys and girls. Implications for new avenues of research and design of hope-based prevention interventions will be discussed. PMID:20690037

  10. Solving Youth Violence: Partnerships That Work: National Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., August 15-17, 1994). Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Over a period of several months, seven Federal agencies met to study and discuss the national problem of violence, especially youth violence, and to determine how best to assist states and communities in dealing with this volatile subject. One result of these discussions was a national conference to focus attention on the many programs being tried…

  11. The Overlap of Witnessing Partner Violence with Child Maltreatment and Other Victimizations in a Nationally Representative Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the co-occurrence of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other forms of victimization. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 4,549 youth aged 0-17. Results: Witnessing partner…

  12. Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Toal, Susan B., Comp.; Swahn, Monica H., Comp.; Behrens, Christopher B., Comp.

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence is a serious global public health problem. Despite a decline in homicide rates across the United States during the 1990s, homicide rates are again rising and continue to claim the lives of many young people. The human and economic toll of violence on young people, their families, and society is high. Homicide is the second leading…

  13. A Preliminary Examination of Emotional and Cognitive Mediators in the Relations between Violence Exposure and Violent Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwood, Maureen A.; Bell, Debora J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the possible mediational roles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and acceptance of violence cognitions in the association between violence exposure and youth violent behaviors. This study also examined whether the strength of the relations between exposure and behavior varied across context of exposure and across…

  14. Gender Patterns in the Contribution of Different Types of Violence to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among South African Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Debra; Hardy, Anneli; Heath, Katherine; Mosdell, Jill; Bawa, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identifying the comparative contributions of different forms of violence exposure to trauma sequelae can help to prioritize interventions for polyvictimized youth living in contexts of limited mental health resources. This study aimed to establish gender patterns in the independent and comparative contributions of five types of violence…

  15. "This Was My Hell": The Violence Experienced by Gender Non-Conforming Youth in US High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Shannon E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of harassment and violence endured by seven gender non-conforming youth in US high schools. Based on a larger research project, it opens an inquiry into the school-based lives of gender-variant teens, a group heretofore ignored by most academics and educators. Breaking violence down into two main types (physical…

  16. Methods for Linking Community Views to Measureable Outcomes in a Youth Violence Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A.; Walker, Alia; Branas, Charles C.; TenHave, Thomas R.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Leff, Stephen S.; Hausman, Alice J.

    2013-01-01

    Background All parties in community–academic partnerships have a vested interest prevention program success. Markers of success that reflect community’s experiences of programmatic prevention success are not always measurable, but critically speak to community-defined needs. Objective The purpose of this manuscript was to (1) describe our systematic process for linking locally relevant community views (community-defined indicators) to measurable outcomes in the context of a youth violence prevention program and (2) discuss lessons learned, next steps, and recommendations for others trying to replicate a similar process. Methods A research team composed of both academic and community researchers conducted a systematic process of matching community-defined indicators of youth violence prevention programmatic success to standardized youth survey items being administered in the course of a program evaluation. The research team of three community partners and Five academic partners considered 43 community-defined indicators and 208 items from the youth surveys being utilized within the context of a community-based aggression prevention program. At the end of the matching process, 92 youth survey items were identified and agreed upon as potential matches to 11 of the community-defined indicators. Conclusions We applied rigorous action steps to match community-defined indicators to survey data collected in the youth violence prevention intervention. We learned important lessons that inform recommendations for others interested in such endeavors. The process used to derive and assess community-defined indicators of success emphasized the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and use of existing and available data to reduce participant burden. PMID:23221296

  17. Getting Teachers in on the Act: Evaluation of a Theater- and Classroom-Based Youth Violence Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph; Pollack, Amie Alley; Pepe, Lauren; Barry, Stephanie; Zhang, Lynda; van der Kolk, Bessel

    2010-01-01

    This study replicated and extended our previous evaluation of Urban Improv (UI), a theater-based youth violence prevention (YVP) program developed for urban youth. It assessed the replicability of positive program impacts when implemented by nonprogram originators, as well as the utility of a comprehensive version of the UI program that included a…

  18. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

  19. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Talk about Experiencing and Coping with School Violence: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Haney, Adam P.; Edwards, Perry; Alessi, Edward J.; Ardon, Maya; Howell, Tamika Jarrett

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative…

  20. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Talk about Experiencing and Coping with School Violence: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Haney, Adam P.; Edwards, Perry; Alessi, Edward J.; Ardon, Maya; Howell, Tamika Jarrett

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative…

  1. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  2. Getting Teachers in on the Act: Evaluation of a Theater- and Classroom-Based Youth Violence Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph; Pollack, Amie Alley; Pepe, Lauren; Barry, Stephanie; Zhang, Lynda; van der Kolk, Bessel

    2010-01-01

    This study replicated and extended our previous evaluation of Urban Improv (UI), a theater-based youth violence prevention (YVP) program developed for urban youth. It assessed the replicability of positive program impacts when implemented by nonprogram originators, as well as the utility of a comprehensive version of the UI program that included a…

  3. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  4. Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. PMID:21491577

  5. Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors. PMID:18855489

  6. The Developmental Ecology of Urban Males' Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolan, Patrick H.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Tested a developmental-ecological model of violence using longitudinal data from poor, urban African American and Latino adolescent boys and caregivers. Found that community structural characteristics significantly predicted neighborhood social processes. Parenting practices partially mediated relationship between neighborhood social processes and…

  7. Youth Exposed to Violence: The Role of Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Budge, Stephanie L.; McKay, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 174 inner-city urban high school students, this study examined the degree to which family and peer support would moderate the negative impact of exposure to violence on academic performance, symptoms of distress, and persistence intentions. Over 94% of the students reported having been exposed to at least one form of community…

  8. The Developmental Ecology of Urban Males' Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolan, Patrick H.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Tested a developmental-ecological model of violence using longitudinal data from poor, urban African American and Latino adolescent boys and caregivers. Found that community structural characteristics significantly predicted neighborhood social processes. Parenting practices partially mediated relationship between neighborhood social processes and…

  9. Prediction of Violence Perpetration Among High-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Skara, Silvana; Weiner, Michelle D.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively examine demographic background, personality, perceived environment, and behavior as violence perpetration predictors in emerging adulthood among high-risk adolescents using problem-behavior theory as a conceptual perspective. Methods: Self-report questionnaires were administered 5 years apart to 676 participants.…

  10. Preventing Youth Violence and Aggression and Promoting Safety in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulhern, Sean; And Others

    Increased violence in schools, represented by possession of weapons, sexual or racial harassment, bullying, verbal intimidation, gang or cult activity, arson, or corporal punishment of students, for example, is a growing concern among students, educators, and communities. Since educators alone cannot ensure safety in schools, collaboration among…

  11. The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Nam Su

    2013-01-01

    School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented. PMID:23390438

  12. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  13. Violence in street culture: cross-cultural comparison of youth groups and criminal gangs.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in Brazil, Russia, and Germany. Focusing on street culture norms and their relevance for youth groups in everyday life, the author shows that there are worldwide similarities, and these are most likely to be seen in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The article deals not only with the question of how people act in conflicts but also focuses on a social order in which the reputation of men is based mainly on questions of masculinity, honor, and power expressed through aggressive behavior. The results are based on more than one hundred semistructured qualitative interviews with street culture youth, prison inmates, adult family members, social workers, police, and researchers that were conducted in recent years in the three countries.The study also describes a typology of conflict behavior among male street culture youth that helps in understanding why even juveniles who were socialized in the milieu of the street culture can reject violence and do not have to turn to violence in all conflicts. The article examines the similarities in the reasons for violence and fear of violence, as well as the differences in frequency and intensity between violent countries (such as Brazil and the Russian Federation) and less violent countries (for example, Germany). PMID:18855319

  14. An emergency department-based program to change attitudes of youth toward violence.

    PubMed

    Zun, Leslie S; Downey, LaVonne; Rosen, Jodi

    2004-02-01

    Interpersonal violence continues to be a problem in the United States with a recurrence rate for repeat violence of 6 to 44%, with a 5-year mortality of 20%. This study describes the attitudinal changes of youth enrolled in a program to reduce violence risk. Patients aged 10 to 24 years at a community, teaching Level 1 trauma center who were victims of interpersonal violence (excluding child abuse, sexual assault, and domestic violence) were randomly enrolled in the study. The control group was simply provided a list of available services, whereas the treatment group received an assessment and case management for 6 months. The study examined the change in attitude and behavior of the youths in the treatment and control groups over time, using a combination of chi-square and ANCOVA. A total of 188 victims, 96 subjects in the treatment group and the 92 in the control group, had an average age of 18.6 years and were mostly (82.5%) males. A majority were African-Americans (65.4%), followed by Hispanic (31.4%). There was no significant difference found in mother involvement, father involvement, mother support, father support, peer support or peer delinquency. There was a decrease in support from both parents over time, which was not affected by the program. There was a decrease in peer delinquency for both the treatment group (67 to.41) and the control group (63 to.50). The results of this study demonstrate a lack of attitudinal changes. This may be attributed to limitations of study design and an inherent difficulty in dealing with high-risk inner city youth. PMID:14980363

  15. [Current Problems Encountered by American Youth: Delinquency, Crime, School Violence, School Discipline, and Related Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnery, Alfred S.

    This paper presents a broad overview of information about delinquency, crime, and school discipline and violence in relation to U.S. youths. Part 1 compares U.S. and West Germany's crime rates for 1980-1985, while part 2 focuses on U.S. juvenile crime facts and on the contribution of the increasing number of U.S. family breakdowns to juvenile…

  16. [Current Problems Encountered by American Youth: Delinquency, Crime, School Violence, School Discipline, and Related Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnery, Alfred S.

    This paper presents a broad overview of information about delinquency, crime, and school discipline and violence in relation to U.S. youths. Part 1 compares U.S. and West Germany's crime rates for 1980-1985, while part 2 focuses on U.S. juvenile crime facts and on the contribution of the increasing number of U.S. family breakdowns to juvenile…

  17. Interpersonal youth violence perpetration and victimization in a diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Chang, Janice Y; Goebert, Deborah A; Helm, Susana; Else, Iwalani R N; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J

    2015-01-01

    This study was the first to examine ethnic, sex, and ethnicity-by-sex differences for under-researched, Asian American and Pacific Islander, adolescent groups on youth violence outcomes other than cyberbullying. This effort included the less researched, emotional violence, and included socioeconomic status (SES) measures as covariates. The sample size from 2 high schools in spring 2007 was 881, using an epidemiologic survey design. The pattern of results was higher rates of violence victimization for ethnic groups, with lower representation in the 2 schools' population, and ethnic groups that more recently moved or immigrated to Hawai'i. For emotional victimization, girls of European American and "other", ethnicities self-reported higher rates than boys. Several implications (e.g., need for ethnically and gender-based approaches) and further research (e.g., ethnocultural identity) are discussed. PMID:25929139

  18. Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence. PMID:24407932

  19. Mother abuse: a matter of youth justice, child welfare or domestic violence?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie

    2010-01-01

    International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence. PMID:20726145

  20. Epidemiology of mixed martial arts and youth violence in an ethnically diverse sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies. PMID:22455184

  1. Adolescent Violence: The Protective Effects of Youth Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; McLeroy, Kenneth; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

    2004-01-01

    The authors explored adolescent physical fighting and weapon carrying, using in-home interviews with 1,098 middle-high school students and their parents. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between youth assets and the risk behaviors while controlling for demographic information. Both demographic factors and assets were…

  2. Adolescent Violence: The Protective Effects of Youth Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; McLeroy, Kenneth; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

    2004-01-01

    The authors explored adolescent physical fighting and weapon carrying, using in-home interviews with 1,098 middle-high school students and their parents. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between youth assets and the risk behaviors while controlling for demographic information. Both demographic factors and assets were…

  3. Narrations of Violence--Strength Approach in Youth Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The case of a delinquent hard-to-reach client shows the possibilities and limits of the strength approach in youth work with delinquent adolescents. Issues such as: "How does information about the delinquency of a client influence social workers before even have started to attend to a case?" or "What is necessary to maintain a…

  4. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and post-traumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children’s self-esteem, and academic achievement, moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Method We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Results Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first two waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child’s initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth’s self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Conclusions Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms. PMID:22594697

  5. The Role of Collaboration in Facilitating Policy Change in Youth Violence Prevention: a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kathryn L.

    2015-01-01

    Youth violence remains a serious public health issue nationally and internationally. The social ecological model has been recommended as a framework to design youth violence prevention initiatives, requiring interventions at the micro-, meso-, exo-, and macro-levels. However, documentation of interventions at the macro-level, particularly those that address policy issues, is limited. This study examines a recommendation in the literature that formalized collaborations play a vital role in stimulating macro-level policy change. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to examine existing youth violence prevention collaborations and evaluate their policy-related outcomes. The search found 23 unique collaborations focused on youth violence prevention. These were organized into three groups based on the “catalyst” for action for the collaboration—internal (momentum began with-in the community), external (sparked by an external agency), or policy (mandated by law). Findings suggest that internally catalyzed collaborations were most successful at changing laws to address youth violence, while both internally and externally catalyzed collaborations successfully attained policy change at the organizational level. A conceptual model is proposed, describing a potential pathway for achieving macro-level change via collaboration. Recommendations for future research and practice are suggested, including expansion of this study to capture additional collaborations, investigation of macro-level changes with a primary prevention focus, and improvement of evaluation, dissemination, and translation of macro-level initiatives. PMID:23430580

  6. Media Violence Research and Youth Violence Data: Why Do They Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cheryl K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Contrary to media headlines and public perceptions, there is little evidence of a substantial link between exposure to violent interactive games and serious real-life violence or crime. Conclusion: Further research is needed on whether violent games may affect less dramatic but real concerns such as bullying, fighting, or attitudes and…

  7. Media Violence Research and Youth Violence Data: Why Do They Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cheryl K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Contrary to media headlines and public perceptions, there is little evidence of a substantial link between exposure to violent interactive games and serious real-life violence or crime. Conclusion: Further research is needed on whether violent games may affect less dramatic but real concerns such as bullying, fighting, or attitudes and…

  8. Youth Violence Prevention. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session (March 31, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    This document presents witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Senate hearing on youth violence, strategies for its prevention, and the appropriate role of the federal government. The hearing stresses the need for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach for youth violence prevention strategies and more coordination by the federal…

  9. Aggressors and resilient youths in Medellin, Colombia: the need for a paradigm shift in order to overcome violence.

    PubMed

    Duque, Luis F; Montoya, Nilton E; Restrepo, Alexandra

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the ratio of resilient youth and compare this to youth with aggressive behavior, and to youth who also exhibit sexually risky behavior and drug use. A cross-section study of a representative sample of people between aged between 12 and 60 who are residents of Medellin, Colombia, and its metropolitan area (N = 4,654) was employed using probabilistic multi-stage sampling. Youth between 14 and 26 years old were selected for the present analysis (n = 1,780). The proportion of resilient youth is 22.9%, of aggressors is 11.3%, and that of youth with other risky conduct is 65.8%. The high ratio of resilient youth calls for a reorientation of public policy toward prevention and control of violence, prioritizing the promotion of resilient behavior instead of continuing with tertiary prevention actions. PMID:24233036

  10. Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  11. African Indigenous Proverbs and the Question of Youth Violence: Making the Case for the Use of the Teachings of Igbo of Nigeria and Kiembu of Kenya Proverbs for Youth Character and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, George Sefa

    2013-01-01

    The historic and contemporary global concern over youth violence and indiscipline/subordination in schools has educators, school administrators and policy makers working hard to ensure that schools are welcoming and safe spaces for learners. Social harmony can only be achieved by understanding and addressing the causes of youth violence and…

  12. African Indigenous Proverbs and the Question of Youth Violence: Making the Case for the Use of the Teachings of Igbo of Nigeria and Kiembu of Kenya Proverbs for Youth Character and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, George Sefa

    2013-01-01

    The historic and contemporary global concern over youth violence and indiscipline/subordination in schools has educators, school administrators and policy makers working hard to ensure that schools are welcoming and safe spaces for learners. Social harmony can only be achieved by understanding and addressing the causes of youth violence and…

  13. Educational Performance and Attitudes toward School as Risk-Protective Factors for Violence: A Study of the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Eldon L.; Garcia-Santiago, Orlando; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether school experiences, school performance, and other risk-protective factors were related to violence among Hawaiian, Filipino, and Samoan youths residing in Hawai'i. This study analyzed survey data (N = 325) collected in three high schools having concentrations of Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan…

  14. Violence Redux: A Brief Legal and Historical Perspective on Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall

    1997-01-01

    Provides a history of youthful offenders and society's efforts at rehabilitation and punishment. Traces the development of correctional institutions from their early days in England to the current efforts involving intervention and prevention. Includes photographs, historical and contemporary statistics, and tabular data. (MJP)

  15. The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard

    Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of…

  16. Effects of Baltimore's Safe Streets Program on gun violence: a replication of Chicago's CeaseFire Program.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Whitehill, Jennifer Mendel; Vernick, Jon S; Curriero, Frank C

    2013-02-01

    Chicago's CeaseFire program is an evidence-based public health approach to preventing gun violence. Baltimore is one of many US cities attempting to replicate the program. We compared changes in the number of homicide and nonfatal shooting incidents per month in four intervention neighborhoods with changes in high-crime comparison areas (police posts) without the intervention, while controlling for several measures of police activity and baseline levels of homicide and nonfatal shootings. In South Baltimore there were large program-related reductions in homicide and nonfatal shooting incidents. Among three East Baltimore program sites, the program was associated with a reduction of homicides in one area, a reduction in nonfatal shootings in another area, and a simultaneous increase in homicides and decrease in nonfatal shootings in another area. In some instances, program effects extended to neighborhoods bordering the intervention areas. Program-related reductions in homicides appear to be linked with conflict mediations conducted by program outreach workers. PMID:22696175

  17. Youth and Violence: The Current Crisis. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document presents the text of a Congressional hearing, chaired by Representative George Miller, on the epidemic of gang warfare and violence among youth. Testimony is presented from these witnesses: (1) James Brown, juvenile court probation officer, Multnomah County Juvenile Justice Department, Portland, Oregon; (2) John A. Calhoun, executive…

  18. Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Lussy Justin, Paluku; Kimona, Christophe; Nyavandu, Kavira; Mukekulu Eugenie, Kamabu; Jonathan, Kasereka Muhindo Lusi; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Hawkes, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. Methods Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤18 yrs) and adult patients. Findings 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6–12], p<0.001), and less frequently by military personnel (13% vs 48%, OR 0.14 [95%CI 0.075–0.26], p<0.001). Delayed presentation for medical care (>72 hours after the assault) was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2–4.0], p = 0.007). Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3–4.4], p = 0.006). Nine (2.9%) pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34). Interpretation World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth. PMID:21267467

  19. Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating victim status in boys. All violence-affected youth exhibited significantly higher rates of cumulative mental health problems. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of violence for the mental health of youth. They reveal a particular vulnerability as a function of gender. Implications for policy making, clinical practice and research are discussed. PMID:23819775

  20. "You Can Try, But You Won't Stop It. It'll Always Be There": Youth Perspectives on Violence and Prevention in Schools.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2016-02-01

    The role of schools in preventing violence among teenagers has been highlighted, as has the development of youth-led prevention initiatives. This article explores how young people's views on violence influence their perceptions of its preventability, drawing on focus group discussions with 14- to 16-year-olds from six schools across the north of England. Young people view violence as a highly individualized phenomenon, and gender norms play an important role in shaping young people's perceptions of the preventability of violence. The findings presented here suggest that school-based violence prevention must fundamentally address gender norms and expectations to challenge young people's acceptance and tolerance of violence. PMID:25480304

  1. Assessing the Impact of Violence and War on Youth in Low-and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Suzan; Shaheen, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to understand the effects of violence and armed conflict in low-and middle-income countries, though there are logistical and ethical concerns that should be taken prior to study design. Objective: This paper provides commentary on some of the challenges inherent in conducting research with youth affected by war in…

  2. Helping Children Exposed to War and Violence: Perspectives from an International Work Group on Interventions for Youth and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kletter, Hilit; Rialon, Rebecca A.; Laor, Nathaniel; Brom, Daniel; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Shaheen, Mohammed; Hamiel, Daniel; Chemtob, Claude; Weems, Carl F.; Feinstein, Carl; Lieberman, Alicia; Reicherter, Daryn; Song, Suzan; Carrion, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper outlines conclusions from a three-day workgroup hosting the eight authors as well as others with expertise in the evaluation and treatment of youth exposed to war and violence. Objective: The purpose of this meeting was to bring multiple perspectives together to identify components that comprise effective psychosocial…

  3. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

  4. Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from…

  5. Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

  6. Assessing the Impact of Violence and War on Youth in Low-and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Suzan; Shaheen, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to understand the effects of violence and armed conflict in low-and middle-income countries, though there are logistical and ethical concerns that should be taken prior to study design. Objective: This paper provides commentary on some of the challenges inherent in conducting research with youth affected by war in…

  7. Helping Children Exposed to War and Violence: Perspectives from an International Work Group on Interventions for Youth and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kletter, Hilit; Rialon, Rebecca A.; Laor, Nathaniel; Brom, Daniel; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Shaheen, Mohammed; Hamiel, Daniel; Chemtob, Claude; Weems, Carl F.; Feinstein, Carl; Lieberman, Alicia; Reicherter, Daryn; Song, Suzan; Carrion, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper outlines conclusions from a three-day workgroup hosting the eight authors as well as others with expertise in the evaluation and treatment of youth exposed to war and violence. Objective: The purpose of this meeting was to bring multiple perspectives together to identify components that comprise effective psychosocial…

  8. Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from…

  9. Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

  10. Community mobilization and community-based participatory research to prevent youth violence among Asian and immigrant populations.

    PubMed

    Le, Thao N; Arifuku, Isami; Vuong, Linh; Tran, Gianna; Lustig, Deborah F; Zimring, Franklin

    2011-09-01

    Many community mobilization activities for youth violence prevention involve the researchers assisting communities in identifying, adapting, and/or tailoring evidence-based programs to fit the community needs, population, and cultural and social contexts. This article describes a slightly different framework in which the collaborative research/evaluation project emerged from the community mobilization activities. As will be discussed, this collaborative, sustained partnership was possible in the context of the Center on Culture, Immigration and Youth Violence Prevention's (UC Berkeley ACE) community mobilization activities that brought the issue of youth violence, particularly among immigrant and minority populations, to the forefront of many of the community partners' agendas. The East Bay Asian Youth Center (EBAYC) was one of the partners that came to the table, which facilitated the community-based engagement/mobilization. UC Berkeley ACE collaborated with EBAYC to evaluate an after-school program and an alternative probation program serving a diverse youth and immigrant population, including African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics. This article describes UC Berkeley ACE's community mobilization activity and the collaborative partnership with EBAYC, discusses how the evaluations incorporated community-based principles in design and practice, and presents some findings from the evaluations. PMID:21210205

  11. The Effects of Mediated Exposure to Ethnic-Political Violence on Middle East Youth’s Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Shikaki, Khalil; Boxer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence and investigates its effects on aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in young viewers. Embracing the risk-matrix approach, these effects are studied alongside other childhood risk factors that influence maladjustment. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of youth who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). As hypothesized, higher levels of chronic mediated exposure were longitudinally related to higher levels of PTS symptoms and aggression at peers independently of exposure to violence in other contexts. In the case of aggressive behavior, structural equation analysis (SEM) analyses suggest that, while it is likely there are causal effects in both directions, the bigger effect is probably for exposure to violence stimulating aggression than for aggression stimulating exposure to violence. Both the longitudinal effects on aggression and PTS symptoms were especially strong among youth who demonstrated initially higher levels of the same type of maladjustment. These results support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as “reciprocally determined” or “downward spirals” and highlight the contribution of the risk-matrix approach to the analysis of childhood maladjustment. PMID:26456988

  12. Education policy implications from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence.

    PubMed

    Worthen, Maria R

    2007-12-01

    The research from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence makes a compelling case for why educators and education policymakers should care about the effects of media on youth behavior, and the growing phenomenon of Internet bullying and harassment. The ability of the U.S. education system to respond is limited not only by competing instructional priorities but also by the governance structure of the education system itself. The federal role is limited to a proportionally small amount of funding for states and schools, to raising public awareness, and to providing research and data. States can set priorities, make requirements, and direct funding. Districts and schools ultimately have the most control over prevention program selection and setting social and behavioral norms. Key implications of the panel's research for educators and education policymakers include: Internet bullying is correlated with school behavior problems; Internet bullying behavior may peak in middle school; Internet bullying shares common predictors with verbal and, to some extent, physical bullying; Media literacy programs may mitigate the negative effects of electronic media on youth. Specific recommendations based on these conclusions are discussed, and research priorities for the prevention and education fields are identified. PMID:18047948

  13. Youth Violence: Developing Local and State Solutions. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State Solutions (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state solutions. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…

  14. Identification, treatment, and prevention of homicide: fallacies in research, treatment, and policy--a postscript on youth violence.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Robert John

    2009-02-01

    This postscript conveys lessons learned from the 5 studies by Zagar and colleagues which examined risks for later commission of violence and homicide among abused, violent, and homicidal youth and adults. This set of studies is the first longitudinal data on risks for extreme violence from infancy to adulthood. The 5 articles following these studies consist of a developmental context for risks, historical comparisons of risks for delinquency, analyses of the costs and benefits of actuarial testing and treatment, and a general discussion of the legal issues related to application of testing and treatments. A review of the state of research on homicide acknowledges the many contributors to the literature and ideas underlying this overall work. Then, a set of 12 "fallacies" about violence that prevent or inhibit adoption of realistic, empirically sound approaches to the reduction of violence in society are addressed. PMID:19480220

  15. Modifiable determinants of youth violence in Australia and the United States: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Smith, Rachel; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Romaniuk, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Youth violence is a global problem. The major research into youth violence has been conducted in the United States (U.S.) and there has been little research to investigate whether the prevalence or predictors are similar in comparable Western countries like Australia. In the current paper, analyses are conducted using two waves of data collected as part of a cross-national longitudinal study of adolescent development in approximately 4000 students aged 12 to 16 years in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, U.S.. Students completed a self-report survey of problem behaviours including violent behaviour, as well as risk and protective factors across five domains (individual, family, peer, school, community). Compared to Washington State, rates of attacking or beating another over the past 12-months were lower in Victoria for females in the first survey and higher for Victorian males in the follow-up survey. Preliminary analyses did not show state-specific predictors of violent behaviour. Therefore, the final multivariate model included the combined Washington State and Victorian samples. In the multivariate model, protective factors were being female and student emotion control. Risk factors were prior violent behaviour, family conflict, association with violent peers, community disorganisation, community norms favourable to drug use, school suspensions, and arrests. A major implication of these findings is that the range of factors that influence violent behaviour in North America may also apply in Australia. Hence, the application of U.S. early intervention and prevention programs may be warranted, with some tailoring to the Australian context. PMID:20204170

  16. Hui Malama o ke Kai: mobilizing to prevent youth violence and substance use with passion, common goals, and culture.

    PubMed

    Akeo, Nani P; Bunyan, Eric S; Burgess, Kaui N; Eckart, David R; Evensen, Shirley L; Hirose-Wong, Shannon M; Majit-Gorion, Sharon S; Takeshita, Carl K; Takeshita, Irene K; Vasconcellos, Carl G

    2008-03-01

    The goal of the Hui Malama o ke Kai project was the development of a community-based youth program that supported the prevention of youth violence and substance use among 5th- and 6th-grade students from a predominantly Hawaiian community. This program's development included engaging with a variety of community partners and mobilizing parents through the youths' cultural development. Recommendations for working with Hawaiians and other indigenous peoples include having program evaluators work more intimately with program participants and developing program components that address ethnic identity and family engagement. In doing so, youth programs with indigenous peoples can also galvanize small communities that are coping with destructive social concerns. PMID:18267204

  17. The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew's general strain theory (GST) give…

  18. The impact of neighborhood disorganization on neighborhood exposure to violence, trauma symptoms, and social relationships among at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Fredrick; Galanek, Joseph D; Kretschmar, Jeff M; Flannery, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to violence (ETV) is a serious concern across the north-south socioeconomic divide. While studies have found that social support is a protective factor for youth exposed to violence and trauma, little is known about the impact of trauma symptoms on forming and maintaining social relationships which are key to accessing a vital social resource that fosters resilience in youth experiencing trauma symptomatology. Building on previous models that examine the impact of neighborhoods on exposure to violence and trauma, the current study examines the impact of neighborhood disorganization on ETV among youth and ETV's effects on trauma symptoms and social relationships. Data were collected on 2242 juvenile justice-involved youth with behavioral health issues in 11 urban and rural counties in the Midwestern United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), our data demonstrated that living in highly disorganized neighborhoods was associated with higher levels of ETV and that ETV was positively associated with trauma symptoms. Mediational analysis showed that trauma symptoms strongly mediated the effect of ETV on social relationships. Freely estimating structural paths by gender revealed that hypothesized associations between these variables were stronger for females than males. Findings here highlight the need to provide trauma-informed care to help youth to build and maintain social relationships. Identification and treatment of trauma symptoms that is culturally informed is a critical first step in ensuring that identified protective factors in local contexts, such as social relations and social support, have opportunities to minimize the impact of ETV among youth across northern and southern nations. PMID:26477854

  19. Group Violence and Migration Experience among Latin American Youths in Justice Enforcement Centers (Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez García, José Manuel; Martín López, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one's relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support. PMID:26514376

  20. Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City's Youth: A Matter of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…

  1. Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City's Youth: A Matter of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…

  2. Effects of the It’s Your Game . . . Keep It Real Program on Dating Violence in Ethnic-Minority Middle School Youths: A Group Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Christine M.; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Addy, Robert C.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether It’s Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. Methods. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Results. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusions. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior. PMID:24922162

  3. Youth Empowerment Solutions for Peaceful Communities: combining theory and practice in a community-level violence prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Marc A; Stewart, Sarah E; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan; Reischl, Thomas M

    2011-05-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an after-school curriculum designed to prepare adolescents to prevent violence through community change. This curriculum, part of the Youth Empowerment Solutions for Peaceful Communities (YES) program, is guided by empowerment and ecological theories within a positive youth development context. YES is designed to enhance the capacity of adolescents and adults to work together to plan and implement community change projects. The youth curriculum is organized around six themed units: (a) Youth as Leaders, (b) Learning about Our Community, (c) Improving Our Community, (d) Building Intergenerational Partnerships, (e) Planning for Change, and (f) Action and Reflection. The curriculum was developed through an iterative process. Initially, program staff members documented their activities with youth. These outlines were formalized as curriculum sessions. Each session was reviewed by the program and research staff and revised based on underlying theory and practical application. The curriculum process evaluation includes staff and youth feedback. This theoretically based, field-tested curriculum is designed to be easily adapted and implemented in a diverse range of communities. PMID:21059871

  4. Characteristics of Youth Seeking Emergency Care for Assault Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan; Newton, Manya; Woodhull, Whitney; Zimmerman, Marc; Walton, Maureen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize youth seeking care for assault injuries, the context of violence, and previous emergency department (ED) service utilization to inform ED-based injury prevention. METHODS: A consecutive sample of youth (14–24) presenting to an urban ED with an assault injury completed a survey of partner violence, gun/knife victimization, gang membership, and context of the fight. RESULTS: A total of 925 youth entered the ED with an assault injury; 718 completed the survey (15.4% refused); 730 comparison youth were sampled. The fights leading to the ED visit occurred at home (37.6%) or on streets (30.4%), and were commonly with a known person (68.3%). Fights were caused by issues of territory (23.3%) and retaliation (8.9%); 20.8% of youth reported substance use before the fight. The assault-injured group reported more peer/partner violence and more gun experiences. Assault-injured youth reported higher past ED utilization for assault (odds ratio [OR]: 2.16) or mental health reasons (OR: 7.98). Regression analysis found the assault-injured youth had more frequent weapon use (OR: 1.25) and substance misuse (OR: 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: Assault-injured youth seeking ED care report higher levels of previous violence, weapon experience, and substance use compared with a comparison group seeking care for other complaints. Almost 10% of assault-injured youth had another fight-related ED visit in the previous year, and ∼5% had an ED visit for mental health. Most fights were with people known to them and for well-defined reasons, and were therefore likely preventable. The ED is a critical time to interact with youth to prevent future morbidity. PMID:24323994

  5. Ecological contexts in the development of coalitions for youth violence prevention: an organizational network analysis.

    PubMed

    Bess, Kimberly D; Speer, Paul W; Perkins, Douglas D

    2012-10-01

    Community coalitions are a recognized strategy for addressing pressing public health problems. Despite the promise of coalitions as an effective prevention strategy, results linking coalition efforts to positive community outcomes are mixed. To date, research has primarily focused on determining organizational attributes related to successful internal coalition functioning. The authors' research complements and adds to this literature by offering a network conceptualization of coalition formation in which coalition participation is studied within the broader context of local organizational networks both within and beyond a coalition. The authors examine participation in the first year of a youth violence prevention coalition exploring both differences between participating and nonparticipating organizations and levels of participation. Each network variable, reflecting prior collaboration and being viewed by other organizations as a local leader, approximately doubled the explained variance in coalition participation beyond the predictive power of all available organizational attributes combined. Results suggest that initial coalition participation emerged out of a preexisting network of interorganizational relations and provide an alternative perspective on coalition formation that goes beyond conceptual orientations that treat coalitions as bounded organizational entities that exist apart from the communities in which they are embedded. PMID:22002248

  6. The SURVIVE Community Project: A Family-Based Intervention to Reduce the Impact of Violence Exposures in Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Dean, Kara; Traube, Dorian; McKay, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a family-based intervention designed to target the harmful effects of exposure to family and community violence on urban youth and their parents. The program, “Supporting Urban Residents to be Violence-Free in a Violent Environment (SURVIVE),” is a 12-week multiple family group (MEG) intervention modeled upon similar children’s mental health programs implemented with urban youth of color and their families in several major U.S. cities. The design and implementation of the SURVIVE Community Project were guided by a collaborative partnership between community members, including mental health professionals, teachers, and parents from the Bronx, and an interdisciplinary team of university-based researchers. In order to establish the feasibility and relevance of the program for urban communities, 25 families with children ages 7–11 participated in a pilot test of the curriculum. The description of the SURVIVE Community Project provided here is based on this work, and includes a discussion of facilitation issues. Implications for family-based intervention targeting urban children and families affected by violence are highlighted. PMID:21369343

  7. Granny, (don't) get your gun: competency issues in gun ownership by older adults.

    PubMed

    Greene, Edith; Bornstein, Brian H; Dietrich, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible risks associated with gun ownership by older adults. We summarize existing regulations on who may own firearms, especially with respect to age. We then present data on older gun owners and violence committed by older adults in general, followed by a discussion of gun violence perpetrated by gun owners whose functional and cognitive abilities have declined, perhaps as a result of dementia. For comparison purposes, we review regulations on driving among older adults, drawing parallels to gun ownership. The paper concludes with recommendations for ensuring the safety of older gun owners and others, balanced against citizens' right to bear arms, and with some directions for research. PMID:17559168

  8. Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization. PMID:24364129

  9. Depressive Symptoms, Social Support, and Violence Exposure among Urban Youth: A Longitudinal Study of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisman, Andria B.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Heinze, Justin; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious mental health concern among adolescents. Violence exposure is a potent risk factor for depression. Social support may help reduce depression risk, even when adolescents are exposed to violence. Using a compensatory model of resilience, we investigate the influence of violence exposure and social support on depression over…

  10. When Prohibition Works: Alternatives to Violence in the Odyssey House Youth Program and in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David F.; Straus, Murray A.

    Physical violence, a factor often associated with drug addiction, must be reduced or eliminated in order for drug dependent individuals to reenter society. To examine the extent to which individual violence associated with drug addiction was controllable by the Odyssey House drug addiction rehabilitation program, the violence potential of 47…

  11. Dealing with Youth Violence. What Schools and Communities Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhon-Sells, Rose, Ed.

    This publication addresses many of the complexities of violence, and provides information to prepare educators and parents to combat violence in schools and communities. The chapters are: (1) "How Educators, Students, Parents, and Law Enforcement Officials See School Violence" (Rose M. Duhon-Sells and Halloway C. Sells); (2) "Addressing School…

  12. What Works in Youth Violence Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Given the high rates at which adolescents engage in violence, the strong link between adolescent and adult violence, and the financial and social costs of violence, the prevention of violent behavior is a national priority. Methods: The authors conducted a comprehensive review of evaluations utilizing quasi-experimental or experimental…

  13. Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence

  14. What Works in Youth Violence Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Given the high rates at which adolescents engage in violence, the strong link between adolescent and adult violence, and the financial and social costs of violence, the prevention of violent behavior is a national priority. Methods: The authors conducted a comprehensive review of evaluations utilizing quasi-experimental or experimental…

  15. Dealing with Youth Violence. What Schools and Communities Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhon-Sells, Rose, Ed.

    This publication addresses many of the complexities of violence, and provides information to prepare educators and parents to combat violence in schools and communities. The chapters are: (1) "How Educators, Students, Parents, and Law Enforcement Officials See School Violence" (Rose M. Duhon-Sells and Halloway C. Sells); (2) "Addressing School…

  16. Depressive Symptoms, Social Support, and Violence Exposure among Urban Youth: A Longitudinal Study of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisman, Andria B.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Heinze, Justin; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious mental health concern among adolescents. Violence exposure is a potent risk factor for depression. Social support may help reduce depression risk, even when adolescents are exposed to violence. Using a compensatory model of resilience, we investigate the influence of violence exposure and social support on depression over…

  17. Resilience in young people living with violence and self-harm: evidence from a Norwegian national youth survey

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihong; Mossige, Svein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between resilience and the psychological problems of young people who reported being victims of violence and who engaged in self-harm. We used data from a national survey conducted in 2007 asking young people in Norway (N=6,034; ages 18–19 years) about their experiences with violence during their childhood and during the past 12 months, and also about their mental health and experiences of self-harm. Our analyses revealed that resilience, as measured by the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, correlates significantly and negatively with psychological problems among all young people, and that this correlation is substantially stronger for those youths who reported violent experiences and those who engaged in self-harm. PMID:26316830

  18. Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

  19. Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

  20. Perpetrator and victim gender patterns for 21 forms of youth victimization in the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Most interest in violence and gender has focused on certain types of victimization such as sex offenses and relational aggression. This study examined gender patterns across numerous forms of youth victimization. The data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative U.S. sample of 4,549 children ages 1 month to 17 years obtained through a telephone survey of caregivers and youth. For 18 of 21 victimization types, male perpetration was significantly more common than female perpetration. Perpetrator-victim patterns revealed that most forms of physical assault and bullying showed a predominantly male-on-male pattern. All forms of sexual assault, plus kidnapping, showed a predominantly male-on-female pattern. Nonphysical maltreatment showed a mixed pattern, with fairly similar rates across all four gender configurations. Many violence types were more severe when perpetrated by males versus females as indicated by higher injury rates and greater victim fear. Higher order analyses by victimization type indicated, among other findings, that victimization types with more stranger perpetrators had more male perpetrators, victimizations with higher percentages of male-on-female and female-on-male incidents were more likely to be sexual offenses, and higher percentages of female-on-female incidents were associated with verbal victimizations. Results also suggest that males are more likely to aggress in more impersonal contexts compared to females. Gender socialization, physical power, and social power appear to intersect in ways that create gendered patterns of violence. These factors, versus a focus on skills deficits, need more attention in prevention and intervention. PMID:24547672

  1. Coping resources and extra-curricular activity as explanatory factors of exposure to violence: comparing Jewish and Arab youth in Israel.

    PubMed

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Alziadana, Sliman; Eisha, Hagit

    2015-06-01

    Violent behavior is a well-known social phenomenon among youth around the world including Israel. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period in which youth experience various developmental tasks while being exposed to many risks. Previous studies have shown that community involvement could be an asset for reduced violence among youth. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the level of participation in extra-curricular activities as well as individual and community coherence and exposure to or victimization by violence among Jewish and Arab youth living in southern Israel. The links between these variable were explored as well. Six-hundred-and-twenty-two adolescents (265-Jews; 357-Arabs) completed self-reported questionnaires which investigated demographics, sense of coherence, sense of community coherence, participation in extra-curricular activities, and exposure to violence. Results show that Jewish adolescents report a significantly stronger sense of coherence and sense of community coherence, they participate more in extra-curricular activities and they are more exposed to and victimized by violence. Moreover, while sense of coherence is reported to be an asset in both groups, participating in extra-curricular activities is an asset only for the Arab youth. Results will be discussed with regard to the salutogenic theoretical foundation as well as the different cultural backgrounds of the groups. PMID:25673093

  2. Youth Summits: Engaging Young People in Violence Prevention. Technical Assistance Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiterman, Hannah, Ed.

    This Technical Assistance Bulletin addresses the youth summit component of the Youth for Justice program. The Youth for Justice program of the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is a national law-related education (LRE) initiative designed to give young people a better understanding of the law and equip them with…

  3. Dating Violence among Youth Couples: Dyadic Analysis of the Prevalence and Agreement.

    PubMed

    Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; Fuertes Martín, Antonio; González Ortega, Eva; Martínez Álvarez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Although dating violence takes place within the context of a couple, there are few studies exploring how the prevalence data change when violence is reported by one partner or both, and to what extent partners agree about the existence of violence. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze and compare the reports about the prevalence of violence obtained from participants and their partners, together with interpartner agreement concerning victimization and perpetration of threats, physical, verbal-emotional and sexual violence. A total of 105 young heterosexual couples answered a questionnaire about victimization and the perpetration of violence in their relationship during the previous year. The results indicated that prevalence rates varied, depending on who reported the violence -the man, the woman or the couple- perhaps because interpartner agreement was low, except for the occurrence of verbal-emotional violence and the absence of physical violence. These findings suggest the need to develop more systematic research, especially through the use of reports from both members of the couple. PMID:26073572

  4. Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

    2006-01-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

  5. Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

    2006-01-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

  6. Gene by Social-Environment Interaction for Youth Delinquency and Violence: Thirty-Nine Aggression-related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hexuan; Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Complex human traits are likely to be affected by many environmental and genetic factors, and the interactions among them. However, previous gene-environment interaction (G×E) studies have typically focused on one or only a few genetic variants at a time. To provide a broader view of G×E, this study examines the relationship between 403 genetic variants from 39 genes and youth delinquency and violence. We find evidence that low social control is associated with greater genetic risk for delinquency and violence and high/moderate social control with smaller genetic risk for delinquency and violence. Our findings are consistent with prior G×E studies based on a small number of genetic variants, and, more importantly, we show that these findings still hold when a large number of genetic variants are considered simultaneously. A key implication of these findings is that the expression of multiple genes related to delinquency depends on the social environment: gene expression is likely to be amplified in low-social-control environments but, tends to be suppressed in high/moderate-social-control environments. This study not only deepens our understanding of how the social environment shapes individual behavior, but also provides important conceptual and methodological insights for future G×E research on complex human traits. PMID:25755300

  7. Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.

    2007-01-01

    Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which were…

  8. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  9. Gun Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Biology and the particular gun culture of the United States come together to explain the persistent and powerful attraction of American boys to both real guns and toy guns. The 1990s saw adults begin to conflate "the gun problem" with "the boy problem," sparking attempts (largely failed) to banish toy guns from homes and…

  10. The Consequences of Parental Underestimation and Overestimation of Youth Exposure to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Pogarsky, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in parent and child estimates of the child's exposure to violence. Using data (N = 1,517) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, analyses related differences between parent and child reports of the child's exposure to violence to the child's psychosocial functioning. Most parents (66%)…

  11. The Effects of Family and Community Violence Exposure among Youth: Recommendations for Practice and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.

    2007-01-01

    Compared with other segments of the population, adolescents and, in particular, African Americans are disproportionately exposed to family and community violence. Research has consistently documented that exposure to such violence is often associated with psychological difficulties, poor educational and behavioral outcomes, and juvenile justice…

  12. Anger, Violence, and Academic Performance: A Study of Troubled Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jacqueline; Barner, Celious III; Hudson, Betsy; Rosignon-Carmouche, Lee A.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationship between anger, violence, and academic performance among troubled adolescents participating in a risk reduction intervention that stressed emotional confrontation and behavior change support. Surveys indicated that anger management was unrelated to violence or academic performance. Loss of control over time, concentration,…

  13. A Guide to Community Programs To Prevent Youth Violence. For Parents/about Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Although learning the value of being nonviolent at home is very important, school and community programs are also valuable, because participants can work together to prevent violence in their neighborhoods and can help each other avoid violence. Education programs can include conflict resolution and mediation training as school courses. Crime…

  14. Combating Youth Violence: An All Hands on Deck Approach to Making Schools Safe Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article first delineates observations and recommendations of an interdisciplinary group that addressed the issue of school aggression and violence; and then presents recommendations for developing and implementing a systematic response to aggression and violence in schools. Also provided is a list of resources on effective practices in…

  15. Risk Factors for Severe Inter-Sibling Violence: A Preliminary Study of a Youth Forensic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Roxanne; Cooke, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The perpetration of severe inter-sibling violence (SISV) remains a largely unexplored area of family violence. This article describes an investigation of risk factors for intentional SISV perpetration. A sample of 111 young people under the care of the Scottish criminal justice or welfare systems was studied. A SISV perpetration interview schedule…

  16. Risk Factors for Severe Inter-Sibling Violence: A Preliminary Study of a Youth Forensic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Roxanne; Cooke, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The perpetration of severe inter-sibling violence (SISV) remains a largely unexplored area of family violence. This article describes an investigation of risk factors for intentional SISV perpetration. A sample of 111 young people under the care of the Scottish criminal justice or welfare systems was studied. A SISV perpetration interview schedule…

  17. The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; Schwebel, David C; Elliott, Marc N; Visser, Susanna N; Toomey, Sara L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Banspach, Stephen W; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls. PMID:26460708

  18. The Association Between Youth Violence Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in a Sample of Fifth-Graders

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Terri; Elliott, Marc N.; Toomey, Sara L.; Cuccaro, Paula; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Schwebel, David C.; Visser, Susanna N.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls. PMID:26460708

  19. Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

  20. Teen Dating Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: School Violence Data & Statistics Risk & Protective Factors Prevention Prevention Tools & ... suicide Additionally, youth who are victims of dating violence in high school are at higher risk for victimization during college. ...

  1. Are movies with tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sex, and violence rated for youth?: A comparison of rating systems in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Vargas, Rosa; Braun, Sandra; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Sevigny, Eric L.; Billings, Deborah L.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Navarro, Ashley; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine between-country differences and changes over time in the portrayal of youth risk behaviors in films rated for youth in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the United States. Methods Content and ratings were analyzed for 362 films that were popular across all four countries from 2002–2009. Country-specific ratings were classified as either youth or adult, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to determine between-country differences in the presence of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sexual content, and violence in youth-rated films. Within-country differences in this content over time were also assessed, comparing films released from 2002–2005 with those released from 2006–2009. Results In the US, films rated for youth were less likely to contain all five risk behaviors than in youth-rated films in Argentina, Brazil, and, when the “15 and older” rating was considered a youth rating, in Mexico. All three Latin American countries “downrated” films that received an adult rating in the US. Nevertheless, tobacco and drug use in youth-rated films declined over time in all countries, whereas moderate to extreme alcohol use and violence involving children or youth increased in all countries. Conclusions Tobacco and drug use have declined in popular US films, but these behaviors are still prevalent in films rated for youth across the Americas. The apparent success of advocacy efforts to reduce tobacco and other drugs in films suggests that similar efforts be directed to reduce alcohol portrayals. PMID:24316001

  2. 75 FR 42126 - Office on Violence Against Women

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... to Advocate for and Respond to Youth Program. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against... youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. Overall, the purpose... health services for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking,...

  3. Dating Violence Among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence, sexual, and substance use behaviors. METHODS Logistic regression models for clustered data from 7th grade students attending 10 Texas urban middle schools were used to examine cross-sectional associations between dating violence victimization and risk behaviors. RESULTS The sample (N = 950) was 48.5% African American, 36.0% Hispanic, 55.7% female, mean age 13.1 years (SD 0.64). About 1 in 5 reported physical dating violence victimization, 48.1% reported nonphysical victimization, and 52.6% reported any victimization. Adjusted logistic regression analyses indicated that physical, nonphysical, and any victimization was associated with ever having sex, ever using alcohol, and ever using drugs. CONCLUSIONS Over 50% of sampled middle school students had experienced dating violence, which may be associated with early sexual initiation and substance use. Middle school interventions that prevent dating violence are needed. PMID:23586886

  4. Service Without Guns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberly, Donald J.; Gal, Reuven

    2006-01-01

    "Service Without Guns"--by Donald J. Eberly and Reuven Gal with a guest chapter by Michael Sherraden--notes the many similarities between military service and civilian National Youth Service (NYS) and concludes that NYS can and should become as large and influential in the 21st Century as military service was in the 20th. The book examines the…

  5. Youth Violence and Illicit Drug Use. The NSDUH Report. Issue 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks youths aged 12 to 17 to report on their involvement in violent behaviors during the 12 months before the survey. This report presents the estimated number and percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who engaged in violent behavior in the past year. It further compares rates of violent behavior for…

  6. High School Youths, Weapons, and Violence: A National Survey. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheley, Joseph F.; Wright, James D.

    Previous studies have yielded little knowledge about firearm-related behavior applicable to the "average" youth, either because the research focused on select populations, or because only the most general of weapon-related questions were asked. To fill this void, a study was conducted on the firearm experience of average youths based on results…

  7. Preventing youth violence and delinquency through a universal school-based prevention approach.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Gilbert J; Griffin, Kenneth W; Nichols, Tracy Diaz

    2006-12-01

    Violence is an important public health problem among adolescents in the United States. Substance use and violence tend to co-occur among adolescents and appear to have similar etiologies. The present study examined the extent to which a comprehensive prevention approach targeting an array of individual-level risk and protective factors and previously found effective in preventing tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use is capable of decreasing violence and delinquency. Schools (N=41) were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Participants in the 20 intervention schools received the Life Skills Training prevention program including material focusing on violence and the media, anger management, and conflict resolution skills. Survey data were collected from 4,858 sixth grade students prior to the intervention and three months later after the intervention. Findings showed significant reductions in violence and delinquency for intervention participants relative to controls. Stronger prevention effects were found for students who received at least half of the preventive intervention. These effects include less verbal and physical aggression, fighting, and delinquency. The results of this study indicate that a school-based prevention approach previously found to prevent tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use can also prevent violence and delinquency. PMID:17136462

  8. Are Risky Youth Less Protectable As They Age? The Dynamics of Protection During Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bushway, Shawn D; Krohn, Marvin D; Lizotte, Alan J; Phillips, Matthew D; Schmidt, Nicole M

    2013-02-01

    Research on recidivism in criminal justice and desistance in criminology are not integrated. Yet, both fields seem to be moving towards models that look at how positive elements in a person's environment can impact a person's behavior, conditional on different levels of risk. This study builds on this observation by applying interactional theory and the concept of Risk-Needs-Responsivity to theorize that both Needs and Responsivity will change over time in predictable ways. We then use a novel empirical approach with the Rochester Youth Development Study to show that even in late adolescence, individuals who are at risk for violence can be protected from future violence and risky behavior like gun carrying with positive events in their environment and personal life. In young adulthood, fewer people are still at risk for violence, and those who are at risk are harder to protect from future violence and gun carrying. PMID:24363492

  9. Prevalence of youth violence in the U.S., 1999-2009: ethnic comparisons and disaggregating Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle; Hishinuma, Earl; Chang, Janice

    2013-12-01

    This study examined ethnic and gender differences in youth violence in the U.S. across time, especially when disaggregating Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and examining adolescents with mixed ancestry. National data from 1999 to 2009 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System were analyzed. The analyses were performed on individual items and three factors (i.e., carry weapon, felt unsafe, fights). Overall, 43.9 % responded to at least one indicator of violence. In general, males reported higher rates than females. American Indians/Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders tended to have the highest rates, while Asians and Whites tended to have the lowest rates. However, significant interaction effects between ethnicity and sex indicated a more complex relationship. The findings highlight the (1) parsimony in utilizing the three factors; (2) importance of disaggregating the heterogeneous "Asian/Pacific Islander" population; and (3) need to conduct more research on youth of mixed ancestry. These findings better inform program design and implementation, as well as policy making in youth violence prevention. PMID:23292802

  10. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  11. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  12. Effectiveness of a Mentor-Implemented Violence Prevention Intervention for Assault-Injured Youth Presenting to the Emergency Department: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tina L.; Haynie, Denise; Brenner, Ruth; Wright, Joseph L.; Chung, Shang-en; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Context The emergency department has been described as a promising setting to initiate interventions with assault-injured youth to reduce the risk of re-injury and reactive perpetration. Efforts to intervene have received little study. Objective To assess the impact of a mentor-implemented violence prevention intervention on reducing aggression, fighting and re-injury among assault-injured youth. Design Randomized controlled trial Setting Two large urban hospital emergency departments Participants Youth age 10–15 presenting with peer assault injury were recruited and randomly assigned to intervention and comparison groups. Intervention Intervention youth received a mentor who implemented a 6 session problem-solving curriculum while parents received 3 home visits with a health educator to discuss family needs and facilitate service use and parental monitoring. The comparison group received a list of community resources with 2 follow-up phone calls to facilitate service use. Main Outcome Measures Youth and parents were interviewed at baseline and 6 months to assess attitudes about violence, risk factors, fighting and repeat injury. Results 227 families were recruited with 23% refusing participation and 4% partial interview completion. 166 families were enrolled with 87 randomized to the intervention group and 79 in the comparison group; 118 (71%) completed both youth and parent follow-up interviews and 113 had usable data. Intervention and comparison groups were not significantly different at baseline on demographics or risk factors except for increased knife carrying and less deviant peers in the intervention group. After adjustment for baseline differences, there was a trend toward significant program effect including reducing misdemeanor activity (rate ratio 0.29, confidence interval 0.08–0.98), youth-reported aggression scores (rate ratio .63, 0.4–1.00) and increasing youth self efficacy (beta=2.28, p<.05). Program impact was associated with number of intervention sessions received. Conclusions A community-based, mentor-implemented program with assault-injured youth presenting to the ED trended in the direction of decreased violence with reduced misdemeanors and increased self efficacy. The ED may be an important contact location, and injuries an important context, for augmenting self efficacy for violence prevention. PMID:18977971

  13. Reducing Youth Violence. Coordinated Federal Efforts and Early Intervention Strategies Could Help. Statement of Gregory J. McDonald, Director of Human Services, Policy and Management Issues, Human Resources Division. Testimony before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The testimony presented in this document discusses the extent of the problem of youth violence, risk factors, type of approach required, federal prevention efforts, and conclusions. It is suggested that young people at risk of later violence tend to: come from families that are abusive, neglectful, and otherwise dysfunctional; show an early…

  14. Investigating the Role of Gender and Delinquency in Exposure to Violence Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2013-01-01

    Using a longitudinal sample of Puerto Rican adolescents living in the Bronx, New York, this study examines the predictors of exposure to violence within gender. Results from a series of negative binomial regressions suggested (a) sensation seeking, peer delinquency, coercive discipline, and initial delinquency increased the likelihood of exposure to violence for both males and females at multiple time points and (b) initial delinquency was the only consistent predictor of exposure to violence at all time points. Regarding the role of gender, the results indicated that some risk factors were similar across genders (e.g., sensation seeking, coercive discipline, peer delinquency, and delinquent behavior), whereas other risk factors differed across gender (e.g., age and welfare among males and school environment for females). Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23914125

  15. Attitudes toward Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youth in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the attitudes toward dating violence among Jewish and Arab male and female adolescents in Israel. The random sample consisted of 1,357 participants from among 9th to 12th grade pupils enrolled in eight Arab and eight Jewish junior and senior high schools. The study assessed attitudes toward…

  16. Risks for Religiously Infused Violence in Muslim Youth and Successful Antidotes through Correct Islamic Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harun, Sahmuddeen Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to change corrupt mindsets in my community. Working on this project has enhanced my ability to lead my community by example, to employ a pragmatic approach, to demonstrate my teaching skills, and to assert my commitment to pedagogy. This project introduces correct Islamic teachings that can deal with religiously infused violence

  17. Educating Youth for a World beyond Violence: A Pedagogy for Peace. Education, Politics and Public Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, H. Svi

    2010-01-01

    In a time of unprecedented social and economic crisis, this book represents a challenge to the orthodoxy that shapes the vision of educational purpose. It argues that now, more than ever, there is a moral imperative for educators to assume responsibility for helping to bring about a culture of peace and non-violence in both the nation and…

  18. Preventing Interpersonal Violence among Youth: An Introduction to School, Community, and Mass Media Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    The United States is a violent nation. This report reviews current school, community, and mass media strategies; describes promising programs now in operation; and offers recommendations for how police and other criminal justice professionals can get involved. By introducing the basic concepts and strategies of violence prevention, the report…

  19. How Communities Can Bring Up Youth Free from Fear and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    This document describes the extent of the violence problem, names some key causes, presents some successful strategies, and outlines how a number of communities have developed and carried out thoughtful, coordinated game plans. Part 1 frames the problem, presenting facts, causes, and costs, and explaining the value of prevention. Part 2…

  20. A Delphi Approach to Reach Consensus on Primary Care Guidelines regarding Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vos, Edward; Spivak, Howard; Hatmaker-Flanigan, Elizabeth; Sege, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anticipatory guidance is a cornerstone of modern pediatric practice. In recognition of its importance for child well being, injury prevention counseling is a standard element of that guidance. Over the last 20 years, there has been growing recognition that intentional injury or violence is one of the leading causes of morbidity and…

  1. Attitudes toward Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youth in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the attitudes toward dating violence among Jewish and Arab male and female adolescents in Israel. The random sample consisted of 1,357 participants from among 9th to 12th grade pupils enrolled in eight Arab and eight Jewish junior and senior high schools. The study assessed attitudes toward…

  2. A Delphi Approach to Reach Consensus on Primary Care Guidelines regarding Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vos, Edward; Spivak, Howard; Hatmaker-Flanigan, Elizabeth; Sege, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anticipatory guidance is a cornerstone of modern pediatric practice. In recognition of its importance for child well being, injury prevention counseling is a standard element of that guidance. Over the last 20 years, there has been growing recognition that intentional injury or violence is one of the leading causes of morbidity and…

  3. Risks for Religiously Infused Violence in Muslim Youth and Successful Antidotes through Correct Islamic Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harun, Sahmuddeen Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to change corrupt mindsets in my community. Working on this project has enhanced my ability to lead my community by example, to employ a pragmatic approach, to demonstrate my teaching skills, and to assert my commitment to pedagogy. This project introduces correct Islamic teachings that can deal with religiously infused violence.…

  4. Punishing Youth and Saturated Violence in the Era of Casino Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This essay powerfully describes the rise of a neoliberal or "casino capitalism" as a punishing state that has been largely ignored by the mainstream media but is actively resisted by young people around the world. I highlight the pervasive use of violence and the celebration of war-like values that are no longer restricted to a…

  5. Violence in Street Culture: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Youth Groups and Criminal Gangs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdun, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in…

  6. Pacific Youth and Shifting Thresholds: Understanding Teen Dating Violence in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Charlene K.; Helm, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of teen dating violence (TDV) nationally suggests that it is a public health problem in need of intervention. However, there is limited information about what constitutes TDV in the eyes of teens. Equally limited is an understanding of these parameters among diverse cultures. To fill these gaps, the current study conducted…

  7. Examining the validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) for predicting probation outcomes among adjudicated juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Childs, Kristina K; Ryals, John; Frick, Paul J; Lawing, Kathryn; Phillippi, Stephen W; Deprato, Debra K

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the ability of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk for Youth (SAVRY), a standardized risk assessment instrument, to predict probation outcomes among a sample of 158 adjudicated juvenile offenders placed on probation. Traditionally, the SAVRY has been used to measure violence risk among adolescents after release from custody. More recently, a delinquency risk measure based on SAVRY responses was developed, which could be useful for other types of outcome. This study examined the predictive validity of both summary risk ratings (SRR) for probation outcomes, including the reason for terminating probation and length of time on probation. A number of bivariate analyses and Cox regression models provided preliminary support for the ability of the nonviolent delinquency SRR, and modest support for the violence SRR, to predict probation outcomes. The implications for use of the SAVRY SRRs during juvenile justice system decision-making and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23606362

  8. Separating batterers and guns: a review and analysis of gun removal laws in 50 States.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S

    2006-06-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers through a protective order ("court-ordered removal laws"). As of April 2004, 18 states had police gun removal laws; 16 states had court-ordered removal laws. The authors examine relevant characteristics of the laws and recommend that these laws be mandatory, apply to all guns and ammunition possessed by an abuser, and include clear procedures to enhance implementation. PMID:16679498

  9. Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

    2011-01-01

    Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female)…

  10. Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

    2011-01-01

    Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female)…

  11. Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

  12. A Nation of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Richard M.; Chalker, Donald M.

    1999-01-01

    The United States leads the developed world in youth violence, with the highest homicide and suicide rates among young people. Exposure starts early. To reduce violence in U.S. schools, we must control handguns, abolish television violence, isolate violent students, and change the ways that juvenile offenders are punished. (MLH)

  13. Morphology of School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Irene

    This paper discusses school violence, examining pertinent research, media, and policy documents. Section 1 examines the evolution of terminologies related to youth violence. Section 2 explains that when reviewing researchers' conclusions on school violence, it is important to consider the role perception had in determining those views. Section 3…

  14. School Violence: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper

    2002-01-01

    Examines the school nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and development of violence prevention strategies in the school and community, offering an overview of school violence; risk factors for youth violence (gender, age, race, ethnicity, behavior, family, school, and community); risk factors for school shootings; and implications for…

  15. Gun Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

  16. Violence in America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet is concerned with the issue of school violence. The introductory section provides examples of violence in schools and notes that the Centers for Disease Control state that 1 student in 5 takes a weapon to school and 1 in 20 carries a gun. It is further noted that urban schools in the major metropolitan areas have the greatest risk of…

  17. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  18. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  19. Violence in America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet is concerned with the issue of school violence. The introductory section provides examples of violence in schools and notes that the Centers for Disease Control state that 1 student in 5 takes a weapon to school and 1 in 20 carries a gun. It is further noted that urban schools in the major metropolitan areas have the greatest risk of…

  20. The Anatomy of School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canady, Linda

    To stop violence, school professionals should apply both reactive and proactive methods. Schools that focus on the psychological and sociological causes of youth violence have greater chances of success. This document presents the different aspects of school violence in order to bring about a better understanding of the violence and in turn…

  1. Preventing School Violence: What Schools Can Do. Hot Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris, Ed.

    This collection of papers provide a range of data on dealing with violence in the schools and communities, focusing on risk factors and correlates of youth violence, how violence affects young people, and how schools can help students avoid violence. The papers include: "Youth Violence in the United States: Major Trends, Risk Factors, and…

  2. Preventing School Violence: What Schools Can Do. Hot Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris, Ed.

    This collection of papers provide a range of data on dealing with violence in the schools and communities, focusing on risk factors and correlates of youth violence, how violence affects young people, and how schools can help students avoid violence. The papers include: "Youth Violence in the United States: Major Trends, Risk Factors, and…

  3. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  4. 75 FR 27820 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... for and Respond to Youth Program. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW... youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. Overall, the purpose... health services for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking,...

  5. Child and adolescent violence.

    PubMed

    Daane, Diane M

    2003-01-01

    Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important. PMID:12640949

  6. Sexual Violence Among Youth in New Mexico: Risk and Resiliency Factors That Impact Behavioral Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reed, Danielle; Reno, Jessica; Green, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between history of forced sex and poor behavioral health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe this relationship among high school students and to explore the impact of resiliency factors. Using data from the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey, we found that history of forced sex was associated with negative behavioral health outcomes for males and females, regardless of sexual orientation and disability status. Furthermore, the presence of a caring adult at home appeared to reduce the risk of substance abuse and suicidality among students with and without a history of forced sex. PMID:26882412

  7. A Community's Answer to Teen Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourdan, Jeanne

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of the "This Is My Neighborhood: No Shooting Allowed" teenage violence prevention program in South Bend, Indiana. The program is designed to increase community awareness of gun violence, increase neighborhood pride, deglamourize guns, and educate children about the criminal justice system. (MDM)

  8. A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Krithika; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Mitchell, Emma M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens. PMID:25062778

  9. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Additional Resources Data & Statistics Featured Topic: WHO Report Youth Violence Definitions Data Sources Risk and Protective Factors Consequences ... Essentials for Childhood National Centers for Excellence on Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) Goals YVPC Network Prevention Strategies Program ...

  10. Fear of the Loss of Honor: Implications of Honor-Based Violence for the Development of Youth and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedem, Mina; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence committed against young women, and in some cases young men, who are considered to have violated honor-based norms are reported in several countries, making honor-based violence (HBV) a global concern. This article is an overview of research in this area and summarizes key findings from a Swedish program of research dedicated…

  11. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. PMID:26452379

  12. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? PMID:25874748

  13. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  14. At-School Victimization and Violence Exposure Assessed in a National Household Survey of Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    This national household telephone survey of youth and parents assessed exposure to a broad range of at-school victimizations among a representative sample of 3,391 children and youth ages 5 to 17. Nearly half the sample (48%) had been exposed to at least one form of victimization at school during the past year (in 2011), most of which was…

  15. At-School Victimization and Violence Exposure Assessed in a National Household Survey of Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    This national household telephone survey of youth and parents assessed exposure to a broad range of at-school victimizations among a representative sample of 3,391 children and youth ages 5 to 17. Nearly half the sample (48%) had been exposed to at least one form of victimization at school during the past year (in 2011), most of which was…

  16. Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level…

  17. Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level…

  18. Victimization and Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, Christine

    2007-01-01

    There is a significant connection between violent victimization and juvenile offending. This article explores this connection then provides judges, teachers, counselors, juvenile justice personnel, and others strategies for helping victimized adolescents heal and steering them away from lives of repeated victimization and offending.

  19. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use,…

  20. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use,…

  1. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  2. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  3. Mediation by Peer Violence Victimization of Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

  4. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  5. The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Guang; Roettger, Michael E.; Cai, Tianji

    2008-01-01

    This study, drawing on approximately 1,100 males from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, demonstrates the importance of genetics, and genetic-environmental interactions, for understanding adolescent delinquency and violence. Our analyses show that three genetic polymorphisms--specifically, the 30-bp promoter-region variable…

  6. Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

  7. The Effects of Dating Violence, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among a Diverse Sample of Illinois Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A.; Vines, Linda N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active adolescents…

  8. The Effects of Dating Violence, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among a Diverse Sample of Illinois Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A.; Vines, Linda N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active adolescents…

  9. The discourse on violence prevention: what are the implications for smaller schools?

    PubMed

    Devine, John

    2004-12-01

    A seemingly rigorous positivistic scientific research that claims only to record the "objective facts" about school violence (e.g., by identifying "persistently dangerous schools" or recording the numbers of "violent incidents" in a particular school) in fact constructs the very subject (the violent student) that it purports to describe. This dominant discourse, reinforced by funding agencies that insist on "evidenced-based" results and randomized controlled trials (said to be the "gold standard" for establishing "what works"), have reduced the unit of analysis to the individual adolescent (who finally becomes defined as the "perpetrator") instead of investigating the societal institutions (e.g., large overcrowded schools, the prevalence of guns, violent films) which undergird the violence. This paper rejects such simplistic and reductionistic explanations for youth violence and argues that psychoanalysis, ethnography, and social interactionist disciplines reveal a much more complex picture of the contexts in which youth violence occurs. The small school movement in conjunction with the appearance of the initiative known as social and emotional education are two hopeful phenomena that have emerged to address some of these social inequities and injustices. PMID:15817731

  10. Can we immunize children against violence?

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M

    2007-02-01

    Psychiatric nurses should support best practices to prevent youth violence. The magnitude and significance of youth violence gives us both social and moral mandates to proceed. Health care professionals have made giant strides in sparing our children from the ravages of childhood diseases. Let us try to do the same by preventing the development of violent behaviors. PMID:17334199

  11. Gun Safety (For Kids)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Gun Safety KidsHealth > For Kids > Gun Safety Print A ... or on a farm, it could happen. Why Guns Aren't Fun Even though you've seen ...

  12. Building community capacity for violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Sabol, William J; Coulton, Claudia J; Korbin, Jill E

    2004-03-01

    The capacity of communities to prevent violence is examined from three perspectives: youth violence, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence. The analysis suggests that community social control and collective efficacy are significant protective factors for all three types of violence, but these need to be further distinguished for their relationships to private, parochial, and state controls. It is argued that strong interpersonal ties are not the only contributor to collective efficacy and violence prevention. Weak ties, including those outside the community, and organizational ties are also seen as necessary. Violence prevention programs should be structured in ways that contribute to the communities' own capacity to prevent violence. PMID:15005995

  13. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths and finds the statistics alarming, despite recent decline. The first of three tables in the report delineates 1979-1999…

  14. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths and finds the statistics alarming, despite recent decline. The first of three tables in the report delineates 1979-1999…

  15. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths from 1994 and 1999 and comparisons of U.S. data to those of other industrialized countries. A table delineates 1996-1998…

  16. ELECTRON GUN

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  17. Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, John

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on forty years of distinguished service in delinquency prevention, John Calhoun, founder of the National Crime Prevention Council, lays out the essential ingredients for preventing violence. These include strategies for connecting with alienated youth, building community norms of caring, reducing access of weapons of violence, and claiming…

  18. Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, John

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on forty years of distinguished service in delinquency prevention, John Calhoun, founder of the National Crime Prevention Council, lays out the essential ingredients for preventing violence. These include strategies for connecting with alienated youth, building community norms of caring, reducing access of weapons of violence, and claiming…

  19. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  20. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  1. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  2. Holocaust Youth and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Joanna

    As Holocaust study for youth becomes integrated into the U.S. educational structure, educators throughout the country are going to need resources that combine history and humanity to convey to young people the impact of tragedy and violence that World War II and the Holocaust had on the youth of a particular time in the 20th century. This paper…

  3. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

    1999-01-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  4. Hidden Casualties: The Relationship between Violence and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prothrow-Stith, Deborah; Quaday, Sher

    This report is intended to support the goal of primary prevention of violence. The report examines how violence affects the development and learning abilities of children and youth. Seeing family violence, living in unsafe neighborhoods, witnessing violence, and being exposed to the harsh lives often faced by immigrants and refugees places…

  5. Dating Violence among High School Students in Southeastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; McCuiston, Ashley M.; Fox, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are a high-risk group for dating violence. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, this study examined the associations among dating violence (including physical dating violence [PDV] and sexual dating violence [SDV]) and selected health risk behaviors among 375 and 372 high school students, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, in…

  6. Dating Violence among High School Students in Southeastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; McCuiston, Ashley M.; Fox, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are a high-risk group for dating violence. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, this study examined the associations among dating violence (including physical dating violence [PDV] and sexual dating violence [SDV]) and selected health risk behaviors among 375 and 372 high school students, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, in…

  7. Reframing coalitions as systems interventions: a network study exploring the contribution of a youth violence prevention coalition to broader system capacity.

    PubMed

    Bess, Kimberly D

    2015-06-01

    This longitudinal research conceptualizes community coalitions as events in local intervention systems (Hawe et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 43(3-4):267-276, 2009). It explores the potential contribution coalitions make, through the collaborative activities of their members, to the broader intervention systems in which they are embedded. Using social network analysis, it examines patterns of structural change in a network of 99 organizations focused on youth violence prevention (YVP) over a 5-year period in which 30 of the 99 organizations were involved in a local YVP Coalition. Both longitudinal modeling and cross sectional analyses are used to examine change in system capacity-strong interorganizational networks-related to patterns of network density, centralization, and hierarchy. Somewhat surprisingly, the study found that capacity in the broader YVP Intervention System actually diminished during the 5-year period of the coalition's operation, though part of the system-the sub-network that made up the YVP Coalition-was marginally strengthened. In this case, therefore, the evidence suggests that power and relational resources in the broader YVP Intervention System were redistributed. The article explores how the definition of capacity related to density and hierarchy may be contextually dependent. Implications for the role of coalitions in building system capacity are discussed. PMID:25828646

  8. The Gun Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)

  9. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  10. Effects on violence of laws and policies facilitating the transfer of youth from the juvenile to the adult justice system: a report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Robert; McGowan, Angela; Liberman, Akiva; Crosby, Alex; Fullilove, Mindy; Johnson, Robert; Moscicki, Eve; Price, LeShawndra; Snyder, Susan; Tuma, Farris; Lowy, Jessica; Briss, Peter; Cory, Stella; Stone, Glenda

    2007-11-30

    The independent, nonfederal Task Force on Community Preventive Services (Task Force), which directs the development of the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide), conducted a systematic review of published scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness of laws and policies that facilitate the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system to determine whether these transfers prevent or reduce violence among youth who have been transferred and among the juvenile population as a whole. For this review, transfer is defined as placing juveniles aged <18 years under the jurisdiction of the adult criminal justice system. The review followed Community Guide methods for conducting a systematic review of literature and for providing recommendations to public health decision makers. Available evidence indicates that transfer to the adult criminal justice system typically increases rather than decreases rates of violence among transferred youth. Available evidence was insufficient to determine the effect of transfer laws and policies on levels of violent crime in the overall juvenile population. On the basis of these findings, the Task Force recommends against laws or policies facilitating the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system for the purpose of reducing violence. PMID:18046302

  11. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16-17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  12. Sources of guns to dangerous people: what we learn by asking them.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Parker, Susan T; Pollack, Harold A

    2015-10-01

    Gun violence exacts a lethal toll on public health. This paper focuses on reducing access to firearms by dangerous offenders, contributing original empirical data on the gun transactions that arm offenders in Chicago. Conducted in the fall of 2013, analysis of an open-ended survey of 99 inmates of Cook County Jail focuses on a subset of violence-prone individuals with the goal of improving law enforcement actions. Among our principal findings: *Our respondents (adult offenders living in Chicago or nearby) obtain most of their guns from their social network of personal connections. Rarely is the proximate source either direct purchase from a gun store, or theft. *Only about 60% of guns in the possession of respondents were obtained by purchase or trade. Other common arrangements include sharing guns and holding guns for others. *About one in seven respondents report selling guns, but in only a few cases as a regular source of income. *Gangs continue to play some role in Chicago in organizing gun buys and in distributing guns to members as needed. *The Chicago Police Department has a considerable effect on the workings of the underground gun market through deterrence. Transactions with strangers and less-trusted associates are limited by concerns over arrest risk (if the buyer should happen to be an undercover officer or a snitch), and about being caught with a "dirty" gun (one that has been fired in a crime). PMID:25937592

  13. Youth's Strategies for Staying Safe and Coping with the Stress of Living in Violent Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne; McDonald, Catherine C.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

    2010-01-01

    Youth living in urban environments of pervasive violence are exposed to a variety of violence-related stressors. This qualitative descriptive study sought to ascertain how community-dwelling youth perceived exposure to violence and how these youth identified and used available resources. The intent of this community-based participatory research…

  14. Youth's Strategies for Staying Safe and Coping with the Stress of Living in Violent Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne; McDonald, Catherine C.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

    2010-01-01

    Youth living in urban environments of pervasive violence are exposed to a variety of violence-related stressors. This qualitative descriptive study sought to ascertain how community-dwelling youth perceived exposure to violence and how these youth identified and used available resources. The intent of this community-based participatory research…

  15. Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

  16. Perspectives on School Aggression and Violence. Highlights from the Working Forum on Children and Youth Who Have Aggressive and Violent Behaviors (Tampa, Florida, February 2-3, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.

    This monograph presents papers and dialogue group highlights from a symposium on the growing challenge of school aggression and violence, strategies to combat this aggression and violence, and ways to make schools safe again. An introductory paper by Cynthia L. Warger is titled "Responding to School Violence within an Educational Framework."…

  17. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Silverstein, Rustin

    This report describes seven categories of violent crime in Phoenix, Arizona, and provides causes, facts, preventative programs, and lessons learned pertaining to each category of violence. The categories are: (1) prenatal and early childhood; (2) families; (3) individual youth; (4) schools; (5) neighborhood and community; (6) workplace; and (7)…

  18. Guns in the home: nurses' roles.

    PubMed

    Ahmann, E

    2001-01-01

    Firearms in the home are an increasing concern for parents and health professionals alike. A number of professional groups have begun to speak out about firearm safety and children. Both the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Society of Pediatric Nurses (SPN) have position statements on the issue. The AAP recommends that pediatricians incorporate questions about guns into patient histories and also urge parents who possess guns, especially handguns, to remove them from the home. The SPN (1998) says that "[p]ediatric nurses, employed in a variety of settings, have the opportunity to educate parents and children about gun violence and prevention of firearm injuries." Nurses and other professionals can easily access information and strategies to address firearm safety with families. See Table 1 for a list of resources that are available online. PMID:12024531

  19. Illinois Youth Summit, 2001. Resource Guide for Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    Now in its seventh year, the Illinois Youth Summit focuses on issues of violence affecting youth. On December 5, 2000, representatives from 21 high school classrooms across Illinois met to determine youth safety issues of greatest relevance to students across the state. These students identified three sources of violence to address at the 2001…

  20. Adolescent violence: concepts for a new millennium.

    PubMed

    Pratt, H D; Greydanus, D E

    2000-02-01

    Violence is a form of aggressive behavior that has a debilitating effect on the optimal growth and development of our youth. Violence pervades the lives of a significant proportion of all adolescents in the U.S., but has a particularly devastating impact on males and minority youth. Adolescent males are more likely to be victimizers and victims of violence and aggression, except in cases of sexual victimization and suicide attempts. For all adolescents, exposure to violence at home, school, or in the community is associated with aggression later in life, the development of supportive attitudes toward aggression and violence, psychological distress, school absenteeism, academic dysfunction, and subsequent injury. Violence has historical, cultural, and societal roots in our world. Until and unless we begin to understand where violence fits on the continuum of aggressive behavior and until we address the politics of violence, we will remain conflicted and paralyzed by the dangers our youth face. By understanding the social, political, and developmental aspects of violence and understanding the nature and characteristics of resilient children, we can better prepare our youth for life. We may not be able to protect our adolescents from exposure to violence, but we most certainly can help them develop the necessary skills to survive such exposure and work to enhance and strengthen their access to protective factors so that they can experience a healthy transition from adolescence to adulthood in this new millennium. PMID:10640341

  1. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence

    PubMed Central

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists. PMID:25641992

  2. Family and Youth Services Bureau

    MedlinePLUS

    ... FYSB to Co-Host Twitter Chat on Youth-Led Dating Violence Prevention February 25, 2016 More News > Quick Fact who participated in a study of the Home Free program ran away again after discussing their ...

  3. Gun Safety (For Kids)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Gun Safety KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Safe > Learning About Emergencies & ... or on a farm, it could happen. Why Guns Aren't Fun Even though you've seen ...

  4. Violence against surgical residents.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, C B; Rizzo, A G

    1997-01-01

    Violence against hospital personnel is underreported (less than one in five assaults), and accurate statistics as to the rate of violence against hospital personnel are thus difficult to establish. In the psychiatric discipline, an abundance of information has been published regarding violence in the health care setting, but few studies have examined violence outside psychiatric hospitals or by patients not diagnosed with psychiatric ailments. Using a survey that elicits information about workplace violence, we sought to gauge the prevalence of violent acts affecting general hospital workers who treat victims of violence on a daily basis. The survey was completed by a cohort of surgical staff nationwide (475 responses from 57 residency programs). Two hundred and eighty residents reported having witnessed one or more physical attacks, and 179 reported having been attacked. Violent acts were more likely to be committed in a public hospital than a private institution (P = 0.05). As shown in previous research, most attacks occurred in the emergency room (P = 0.01); the wards and parking lot were next in frequency. Women residents were more likely than men to call hospital security to intervene in a potentially violent situation (P = 0.04), and junior residents (postgraduate years 1-4) were more likely to be attacked than senior residents (> or = 5 years) (P = 0.04). The attacker was most likely to be a young black male between ages 19 and 30 (P = 0.01). We found no statistical relationship between the attacker and the victim regarding sex or race. Of the 475 respondents, 470 reported that they carry a gun themselves or know someone in the hospital environment who carries a gun. Images Figure 1. PMID:9291743

  5. Violence in the Schools: Programs and Policies for Prevention. A Report from the Canadian Education Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDougall, Jyl

    This publication offers some insight into the problem of violence in Canadian schools and provides examples of ways to reduce it. The forms of violent activities examined include youth/youth-gang violence, violence against teachers, bullying, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Each chapter presents research findings and examples of programs…

  6. Attitudes toward Violence Scale: Psychometric Properties with a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, M. Meghan; Canivez, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Youth violence represents a serious problem affecting individuals, communities, and the larger society. Greater efforts aimed at the eradication of youth violence are necessary, and work in this field could be enhanced by psychometrically strong measures. The present study examined the factor structure of the Attitudes Toward Violence Scale (ATV)…

  7. 75 FR 42128 - Office on Violence Against Women: Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Engaging Men and Youth Program. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), will be... develop or enhance new or existing efforts to engage men and youth in preventing crimes of violence... on Violence Against Women: Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection ACTION:...

  8. 75 FR 27818 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Youth Program. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting the... and youth in preventing crimes of violence against women with the goal of developing mutually... on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection ACTION:...

  9. Attitudes toward Violence Scale: Psychometric Properties with a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, M. Meghan; Canivez, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Youth violence represents a serious problem affecting individuals, communities, and the larger society. Greater efforts aimed at the eradication of youth violence are necessary, and work in this field could be enhanced by psychometrically strong measures. The present study examined the factor structure of the Attitudes Toward Violence Scale (ATV)…

  10. Rail gun program

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.

    1980-12-01

    Rail guns are devices that drive projectiles by electromagnetic forces. Ultimate projectile speeds therefore are not limited by hydrodynamic velocities, as is the case with conventional guns. The two-phase rail gun program is described. In both phases, explosively driven flux compression generators (FCGs) are used to supply power to the guns. In the Los Alamos phase, part of the gun itself is explosively compressed and thus serves as a second-stage FCG. Factors affecting gun performance and projectile acceleration and integrity are discussed. The first experiment in the joint phase of the programs is described. Here, a 12.7-mm lexan cube was accelerated to speed about 3 km/s in a 0.9-m-long gun by currents reaching nearly 600 kA over a time of several hundred microseconds. Although the projectile was stressed to several times its static yield strength during acceleration, it was recovered intact.

  11. Is Youth Violence Just Another Fact of Life? Some Kids Resilient; Some Kids at Risk. Clarifying the Debate: Psychology Exmaines the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

    Psychological research has demonstrated that violence is learned, and it has identified some factors that put children at risk of perpetrating or being victimized by violence. Because aggression is often learned at an early age, prevention programs that start early in childhood and continue throughout adolescence have the best chance for success.…

  12. Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

    2015-03-18

    Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners. PMID:25494051

  13. 78 FR 27240 - Announcing the Award of a New Single-Source Award to the National Council on Family Violence in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Award to the National Council on Family Violence in Austin, TX AGENCY: Family and Youth Services Bureau... Youth Services Bureau (FYSB), Division of Family Violence and Prevention Services (DFVPS) announces the... Council on Family Violence to support the National Domestic Violence Hotline (Hotline). SUMMARY:...

  14. Survey of SRF guns

    SciTech Connect

    Belomestnykh, S.

    2011-07-25

    Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

  15. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  16. Violence in America: An Integrated Approach to Understanding and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses ways of reducing violence in America involving the integration of scientific approaches and youth violence intervention and community programs that address both family and social environments. The paper argues that these efforts exemplify the notion that violence is more a product of racism and poverty than of race. (GR)

  17. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…

  18. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  19. Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…

  20. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…