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1

Policing Guns and Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY To combat the epidemic of youth gun violence in the 1980s and 1990s, law enforcement agencies across the United States adopted a variety of innovative strategies. This article presents case studies of eight cities' efforts to police gun crime. Some cities emphasized police-citizen partnerships to address youth violence, whereas others focused on aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of even

Jeffrey Fagan

2

Impacting the problem of inner-city youth violence: "Educating Kids About Gun Violence" program.  

PubMed

The Educating Kids Against Gun Violence (EKG) program was developed in response to high levels of gun violence in an urban inner-city county through a partnership between the county prosecutor's office, local law enforcement, and a Level 1 trauma center. This program incorporates short video clips and interactive presentations, which address legal and medical consequences of gun violence. The program was presented to youths varying in age and degree of prior contact with the criminal justice system. Pre and post surveys were used to evaluate the short-term impact of the EKG program on the legal and medical knowledge and attitudes of youth participants. There were 130 pre and post surveys that could be exactly matched. Sixty-three per cent of participants had been arrested and 35 per cent had been convicted of a crime. On the post survey, 79 per cent stated that "the program will help keep me out of trouble" and 69 per cent stated that "in the future because of this program I will be less likely to carry a gun". The EKG program seemed to have positive short-term impacts on youth knowledge of legal and medical consequences and attitudes regarding gun violence. PMID:21679555

Hayward, Thomas Z; Simons, Clark J; St John, Wendy; Waymire, Michelle; Stucky, Thomas D

2011-04-01

3

Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence  

PubMed Central

Objective To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions’ Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Results Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001–2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association “fingerprint” to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Conclusions Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described. PMID:25372864

Ruggles, Kelly V.; Rajan, Sonali

2014-01-01

4

Youth and Gun Violence: The Outstanding Case for Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper was originally written as an invited contribution to the Small Arms Survey, in the preparation of a chapter in their Annual Report, Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business. Chapter 12 of that report 'Few Options but the Gun: Angry Young Men' looks at the role of young men in armed violence. (www.smallarmssurvey.org) The Small Arms Survey is an

Margaret Shaw

5

Gun violence among youth and the pediatrician's role in primary prevention.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a developmental stage characterized by high rates of violent behavior. Increasingly, violent injury is involving preadolescent children. Evidence suggests that the availability of guns increases the lethality of violent acts. Because guns are ubiquitous in the United States and integral to the current epidemic of youth violence, pediatricians should participate in primary prevention of firearm injuries. Efforts should begin long before children reach adolescence. Pediatricians should: (1) Encourage parents to remove guns from the home, or at a minimum to keep guns unloaded and locked up; (2) Advise parents to limit viewing of gun violence in the media, and playing with toy guns and video games that involve shooting; (3) Be alert for early indicators of aggressive behavior; and (4) Become outspoken advocates for laws that restrict gun availability. PMID:7936887

Webster, D W; Wilson, M E

1994-10-01

6

Rethinking Gun Violence  

E-print Network

s recent Guns and Violence. 3 The book attempts to use abook wouldn’t have much relevance to the question of how to reduce violence.Violence and Gun Control" (also posted on SSRN), a short piece commissioned by the London Review of Books.

Greenberg, Mark; Litman, Harry

2010-01-01

7

Youth Violence: Lessons from the Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph summarizes what is known about youth and violence, identifying 10 myths that confound people's understanding of the real causes of youth violence. It focuses on: what contributes to youth violence (e.g., children exposed to domestic violence are at risk of using violence, children and adolescents use guns when they are easily…

Rinehart, P. Mann; Borowsky, I.; Stolz, A.; Latts, E.; Cart, C. U.; Brindis, C. D.

8

Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of Programs and Initiatives. Program Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses a wide array of violence prevention strategies used across the United States, ranging from school-based prevention to gun market interception. Relevant research, evaluation, and legislation are included to ground these programs and provide a context for their successful implementation. The first section of the report is an…

Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

9

Youth Violence, Guns, and Illicit Drug Markets. National Institute of Justice Research Preview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perception that violence is on the rise is supported by data showing a sharp increase in violent crime among juveniles since the mid-1980s. Although the overall national homicide rate has not increased, homicides by youth under the age of 24 have grown significantly in recent years. The rate of arrest of nonwhite juveniles for drug offenses…

Blumstein, Alfred

10

Gun Violence and Gun Control  

E-print Network

police and modern technology, are far more important than the spread of guns,police could convince criminals that it was unnecessary to carry guns. ” (guns would have increased or decreased crime in a society without police,

Greenberg, Mark; Litman, Harry

2009-01-01

11

Youth Violence and the Apocalyptic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a discussion of the apocalyptic themes in contemporary forms of youth violence, especially its totalism and end-of-the-world imagery. At Columbine High, in April 1999, two students chose the apocalyptic date of April 20, Hitler's birthday, to carry out their rampage. That violence connects with a long history of American fascination with the gun, and images of regeneration

Charles B. Strozier

2002-01-01

12

Gun Violence and Gun Control  

E-print Network

contribution to the gun-control debate. Jacobs, a professorgun-control camp, but the project of the book is to sidestep the ideological debategun-control measures in reducing crime. Jacobs sees the rut into which the cultural debate

Greenberg, Mark; Litman, Harry

2009-01-01

13

At Both Ends of the Gun: Testing the Relationship Between Community Violence Exposure and Youth Violent Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much psychological inquiry has focused on understanding the contribution that exposure to urban violence makes to violent behavior among youth. However, other ways in which these variables may be related have been largely overlooked. This study compared four alternative social–ecological models of the link between community violence exposure and violent behavior to determine the degree to which (1) community violence

Colleen A. Halliday-Boykins; Sandra Graham

2001-01-01

14

Rethinking Gun Violence  

E-print Network

London) Metropolitan Police, “only 122 guns and 162 pistolspolice and modern technology, are far more important than the spread of guns,police could convince criminals that it was unnecessary to carry guns. ”

Greenberg, Mark; Litman, Harry

2010-01-01

15

Rethinking Gun Violence  

E-print Network

Wier, Gun Control: Targeting Rationality in a Loaded Debate,Wier, Gun Control: Targeting Rationality in a Loaded Debate,gun-control camp, but the project of the book is to sidestep the ideological debate

Greenberg, Mark; Litman, Harry

2010-01-01

16

The Real Costs of Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the

Cook; Philip J

2001-01-01

17

Youth Violence: False Fears and Hard Truths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Americans view today's youth as menacing. Actually, a small percentage are arrested or incarcerated for violent offenses, only 5% are arrested for anything, adults commit 86% of all crimes, and teenage male violence is a long-standing phenomenon. However, youth homicide is a gun-fueled epidemic. Educators must resist legislators'…

Dohrn, Bernardine

1997-01-01

18

Youth Dating Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines responses to the Youth Dating Violence Survey of 37 adolescents enrolled in an alternative high school program. Many reported psychological victimization in a dating relationship and over half reported perpetrating psychological abuse in a dating relationship. Many participants had also been victims of physical violence while some had…

James, William H.; West, Carolyn; Deters, Karla Ezrre; Armijo, Eduardo

2000-01-01

19

The Real Costs of Gun Violence  

SciTech Connect

I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the form of higher taxes and waiting to go through the airport security checks. But that's just the beginning. The extraordinary reductions in lethal violence that occurred during the 1990s help account for rising property values and urban renewal; further reductions are possible and would do still more to enhance the average standard of living. This talk will explain why the economic perspective provides a fresh, useful point of view on violence, and will discuss the technique used to arrive at an estimate of the magnitude of the burden.

Cook, Philip J. (Duke University) [Duke University

2001-03-14

20

The United States and Gun Violence Americans owned between 220 and 280 million guns in  

E-print Network

% to 50% of all firearms in civilian hands.10 Not surprisingly, death rates from gun violence are far1 Gun Shows in Context The United States and Gun Violence Americans owned between 220 and 280 20099 suggest a downward trend, which would be very good news, but rates of gun-related violence remain

Leistikow, Bruce N.

21

Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

Howell, James C.

22

Youth Homicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young Americans are killed with guns at rates far higher than young people in other countries and than older Americans, with young, urban African-American males being most at risk. This fact sheet presents data on gun-related homicides among teenagers in the United States. The high rate of youth homicide in the United States is unique in the…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

23

Decreasing the supply of and demand for guns: Oakland's Youth Advocacy Project.  

PubMed

This paper is a case study of how Youth ALIVE!, a nonprofit public health organization, blended direct service and policy goals to reduce youth gun violence at a time when guns became the number one killer of children in California. Youth ALIVE! trained young people living in California communities with the highest rates of gun violence to become peer educators and leaders to reduce both the supply of, and demand for, guns. The youth presented health and criminal justice data in the context of their own experiences living in communities endangered by gun violence to help build public policy solutions, contributing to the subsequent drop in gun homicides. Youth ALIVE's vibrant grassroots model provides a real-life tableau of research and direct services working together to yield realistic policy solutions to a lethal public health problem. The youths' successes demonstrate how nonprofit direct service organizations are uniquely positioned to advocate for policy and regulatory changes that can be beneficial to both program participants and society. Direct service organizations' daily exposure to real-life client needs provides valuable insights for developing viable policies-plus highly motivated advocates. When backed by scientific findings on the causes of the problem, this synergy of youth participant engagement in civil society can promote good policy and build healthy communities. PMID:24129810

Calhoun, Deane

2014-02-01

24

Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative: 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Treasury Department's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) recently placed this October, 1998 report online. The report examines the illegal youth firearms market in 27 different communities, based on the results of crime gun traces conducted by the ATF. Part I of the report summarizes the general findings and describes gun tracing efforts and new initiatives by local law enforcement agencies. Part II of the report contains uniform statistical reports for each of the 27 jurisdictions covered, including number and type of guns recovered, crime types associated with recovered firearms, and source states for traced crime guns. Users may download the entire report, the table of contents, highlights, or individual city reports in .pdf format. Additional resources at the site include information briefs on firearms, youth crime, and the core areas of the ATF's mission.

1998-01-01

25

Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective experiences with guns. Common temptations for gun carrying are protection during drug dealing, protection

Sally Black; Alice Hausman

2008-01-01

26

Youth Violence: Prediction and Prevention. Facts You Can Use. Seeds of Help.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The escalation of youth violence is one of the major public health concerns of the United States. Many factors today make juveniles more likely to commit, or to become victims of, violent acts. Drugs, the availability of guns, and the emergence of gang problems in all regions of the country are among the causes of youth violence. Prevention of…

Facts You Can Use--Seeds of Help, 1997

1997-01-01

27

Code Red: A Public Health Approach to School Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this case study (Code Red) is to demonstrate why school gun violence is a public health issue and to draw attention to the need for policy to address it. Traditionally, the concept of \\

Gerard Castro; Suzet M. McKinney; Anne Sobocinski; Sherry E. Weingart

28

Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

2005-01-01

29

77 FR 2731 - Request for Information on Youth Violence  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CDC-2012-0001] Request for Information on Youth Violence AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control...to the public health problem of youth violence. DATES: Individuals and organizations...INFORMATION: Scope of Problem: Youth violence is a significant public health...

2012-01-19

30

Gun Violence and Control in Germany 1880–1911: Scandalizing Gun Violence and Changing Perceptions as Preconditions for Firearm Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a At the end of the nineteenth century, Germany faced a new form of violence based on new gun technologies. Almost uncontrolled\\u000a by social or legal norms, gun violence emerged from the juncture of technological advances in weaponry with historically rooted\\u000a patterns of behavior. It was socially and geographically widespread, but especially strong among young men in urban areas.\\u000a A control

Dagmar Ellerbrock

31

Gun Violence in Toronto: Perspectives from the Police  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This article discusses the ways in which the Toronto Police Service has constructed the problem of gun violence in the city. This violence is commonly associated in the media with young black males. The data for the study derived from semi-structured interviews with police officers and secondary sources, including police public statements, press releases, and official documents. The most

IFEANYI EZEONU

2010-01-01

32

Violence and Today's Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The violent behavior of adolescents in our society is a topic of enormous interest and concern, limited data and knowledge, and, unfortunately, substantial misinforma- tion and distortion. In 1990, some 16.3% (1,749,343) of the total number of arrests in the United States were of youth 17 years of age or younger, and 5.5% (95,677) of these arrests were for violent

Felton J. Earls

1994-01-01

33

Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

2014-01-01

34

Weapon-carrying and youth violence.  

PubMed

Weapons, and firearms in particular, are widely available in the United States and are at the heart of youth violence. Many schools and communities throughout the nation have identified weapon-carrying among youth as a substantial health, educational, and social problem. In fact, one of the national health objectives for the year 2000 is to substantially reduce the incidence of weapon-carrying among adolescents. This paper reviews the prevalence of weapon-carrying by youth, reasons they carry weapons, ways that firearms are obtained, firearms and violence (especially youth violence), and the controlling of weapons in schools. PMID:9360727

Page, R M; Hammermeister, J

1997-01-01

35

In the wake of the Newtown tragedy, Washington is preparing for what may be a major legislative battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence.  

E-print Network

battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence. Research into the causes and correlates of gun violence will undoubtedly play a major role in legislative debates. To contribute to this discussion and showcase the work of Yale scholars and national innovators on issues relating to gun violence

36

Children and Guns. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Law enforcement officials, experts in public health, criminologists, educators, and youth offered testimony intended to help Congress understand the scope of the threat of guns and firearm violence to young people and the strains of the firearm problem on public and community services. A fact sheet points out that: (1) increasing numbers of youth

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

37

Youth Violence as Adaptation? Introduction to the Special Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces the special issue of the journal on the topic of youth violence as adaptation to community violence. Contrary to the predominant perspective that youth violence is a sign of dysfunction or maladaptation, the articles collected here consider whether some youth violence may have positively adaptive consequences in the face of…

Swisher, Raymond R.; Latzman, Robert D.

2008-01-01

38

National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the White House Council on Youth Violence, the National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center is a collaboration between the Council, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other federal agencies. The Resource Center Website is offered as a portal to federal information on youth violence prevention and suicide. The heart of the site is a sizable collection of annotated links, organized alphabetically by topic. The site also explores a number of "Hot Topics," such as Youth Suicide, After School Programs, and Intimate Partner and Family Violence, with background and overviews, publications, and annotated links. Additional content includes a teens-only section, links to related organizations, and an internal search engine.

39

Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization Among Filipino and Samoan Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino youths in Hawai'i. We found that parental role (punishment)

Jane J. Chung-Do; Deborah A. Goebert

2009-01-01

40

African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence.  

PubMed Central

This study examined African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence. Through a mall intercept type study, 347 adults, ages 20 to 75, responded to a 54-item questionnaire. One third of the respondents claimed they owned one or more types of guns, three fourths had personally known someone who had been shot, more than one third had actually seen someone shot, and one third had a gun pulled on them. While the vast majority (84%) believed guns are too easy to obtain, the majority (62%) also believed that having a gun at home would help protect them. There were no significant differences in perceptions of guns based on age, gender, level of education, or socioeconomic status. The results of this study tend to substantiate the concern and fear of personal harm that African Americans have to contend with on a regular basis. The results also suggest the need for some form of educational intervention and gun safety training in order to help reduce the risk of death and injury among African Americans. PMID:8078079

Price, J. H.; Kandakai, T. L.; Casler, S.; Everett, S.; Smith, D.

1994-01-01

41

Assessing Exposure to Violence in Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the development of a structured interview, My Exposure to Violence (My ETV), that was designed to assess child and youth exposure to violence. Eighty participants between the ages of 9 and 24 were assessed. Data from My ETV were fit to a Rasch model for rating scales, a technique that generates interval level measures and allows

Mary Beth Selner-O'Hagan; Daniel J. Kindlon; Stephen L. Buka; Stephen W. Raudenbush; Felton J. Earls

1998-01-01

42

Effects of gun seizures on gun violence: “Hot spots” patrol in Kansas city  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that greater enforcement of existing laws against carrying concealed weapons could reduce firearms violence with a quasi-experimental, target beat\\/comparison beat design. Over a six-month period in a ten-by-eight-block area with a homicide rate 20 times higher than the national average, intensive patrol near gun crime hot spots produced a 65 percent increase in firearms seized by

Lawrence W. Sherman; Dennis P. Rogan

1995-01-01

43

Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers\\u000a and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have\\u000a employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences\\u000a on youth violence such as family

Christopher J. Ferguson

2011-01-01

44

The Concentration and Stability of Gun Violence at Micro Places in Boston, 1980–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boston, like many other major U.S. cities, experienced an epidemic of gun violence during the late 1980s and early 1990s that\\u000a was followed by a sudden large downturn in gun violence in the mid 1990s. The gun violence drop continued until the early\\u000a part of the new millennium. Recent advances in criminological research suggest that there is significant clustering of

Anthony A. Braga; Andrew V. Papachristos; David M. Hureau

2010-01-01

45

Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

46

Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

2009-01-01

47

Reducing Gun Violence: Results from an Intervention in East Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one solve violent crime in big cities? It's a vexing problem, and one that attracted the attention of a group of scholars at the RAND Corporation. This 82-page eBook released in 2010 takes a close look at how the Boston Gun Project might work if applied in East Los Angeles. In Boston, a coalition of researchers, community leaders, clergy, and others, worked together and designed, implemented, and monitored a project to reduce youth violence by reducing gang and gun violence. The program was quite successful, so this led the National Institute of Justice to work with RAND to see if this might work in Los Angeles. Specifically, the intervention included increased police presences, more stringent enforcement of housing codes for properties used by gang members, more stringent enforcement of parole and probation conditions, and referral of gun violations to federal prosecutors. While the program was somewhat successful when applied to this section of Los Angeles, the report recommends, "city leaders should establish processes to support agencies in such collaborations." Both a summary of the report and the eBook in its entirety are available for free download.

Tita, George

48

Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…

Ferguson, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

49

American Youth Violence: Implications for National Juvenile Justice Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the perception of increasing youth violence is based on fiction rather than fact. Provides the facts involved in the juvenile justice policy focusing on the differences between juvenile and adult violence, youth violence trends, population trends, and three legal policy issues toward adolescent violence. Offers juvenile crime…

Zimring, Franklin E.

2000-01-01

50

Neighborhood Violence and Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three quarters of American children have been exposed to neighborhood violence in their lifetimes. Most of the existing research has concluded that exposure to violence leads to restricted emotional development, aggressive behavior and poor school outcomes. However, this literature fails to account for the fact that children exposed to neighborhood violence are highly disadvantaged in other ways: they are more

Anna Aizer

2008-01-01

51

Youth and violence: Phenomena and international data.  

PubMed

The topic of youth, violence, and disintegration needs addressing because young women and men are the world's greatest capital. They have the energy, talent, and creativity for building a future. But this group also suffers grave vulnerabilities. The time of adolescence includes important and difficult periods of life (for example, becoming more independent from the family, finding an adequate position in society, and starting a family of one's own). All of these points are strongly correlated with social integration, employment, and a place in the labor market--important factors in this context.This article gives an overview of the international development and the actual situation of socially harmful behavior among youths--both fatal violence (homicide) and nonfatal violence (such as bullying, fighting, and carrying weapons). The author shows that different kinds of youth violence represent social problems in every society. The data show that youths are not only perpetrators but also the group with the highest risk of becoming victims of violence. Furthermore, the data from around the world show that their vulnerability is not limited to this sphere. It arises also from their social conditions, especially their high risk of being disintegrated from the labor market. The parallels in the data underline the significance of a functioning institutional structure without positing a deterministic relationship between the risk of economic disintegration and violent behavior. PMID:18855318

Legge, Sandra

2008-01-01

52

Youth Violence and Suggestions for Schools To Reduce the Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of schools working to reduce youth violence and creating safe environments for students. Examines the causes of juvenile crime and looks at the juvenile justice system, parental responsibility, and five areas of public school responsibility (parent participation programs, school security procedures, safe school programs,…

Harris, Sandra L.; Harris, Jamey E.

2001-01-01

53

Violence in youth sports: hazing, brawling and foul play  

Microsoft Academic Search

By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognise that their connection to sport binds them together into a cohesive subset of sport injury and youth violence, past research has failed to show how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. The acceptance of violence within the sporting culture may, in part, explain why sports-related violence

S K Fields; C L Collins; R D Comstock

2010-01-01

54

Adolescent males: Predicting attitudes toward guns and violence based on perceived gender stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looked at adolescent males' perceived gender role conflict and their attitudes towards the use of guns and violence to solve problems, as measured by the Attitudes toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire (AGVQ), the Gender Role Conflict Scales - Adolescent Version (GRCS-A), and a demographics form. Forty-six male adolescent students from an urban high school setting in Georgia acted

Aimee E Dukes

2007-01-01

55

Using public health information to inform, build support and implement policies for gun violence prevention: A case study from the gun ban referendum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gun violence is one of the most serious health problems in Brazil. Information on gun deaths and injuries is collected by the Ministry of Health. This data has been used very successfully to inform and design public policies for preventing gun violence. This article analyses the use of public health information by researchers and activists, as well as government officials

Jessica Galeria; Luciano Phebo

2006-01-01

56

School Safety & Youth Violence: A Legal Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This legal primer on violence in schools addresses the responsibility of school officials to respond to undisciplined youths whose behavior threatens the welfare and safety of other children in attendance. It is broken down into sections that provide a brief overview of the key rules and guidelines for school officials and teachers in each topic…

Bailey, Kirk A.; Ross, Catherine J.

57

Youth Violence Syndrome (YVS) and American Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper names and describes a common, growing, and dangerous psychological syndrome: Youth Violence Syndrome (YVS). YVS is characterized by at least nine behaviors: (1) hopelessness; (2) a complete or great disregard for the laws followed by most Americans; (3) a short temper combined with a lack of empathy; (4) a desire for respect from others…

Sigmon, Scott B.

58

Youth and Violence: Phenomena and International Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of youth, violence, and disintegration needs addressing because young women and men are the world's greatest capital. They have the energy, talent, and creativity for building a future. But this group also suffers grave vulnerabilities. The time of adolescence includes important and difficult periods of life (for example, becoming more…

Legge, Sandra

2008-01-01

59

Collective violence: comparisons between youths and chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Patterns of collective violence found among humans include similarities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predominantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that include surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be larger, composed of younger individuals, occupying smaller territories and having a more complex organization. Youth gangs also differ from chimpanzee communities as a result of numerous cultural and environmental influences including complex relations with non-gang society. These relations are governed in important ways by such factors as perceived economic and personal constraints, policing, family structure, and levels of poverty, crime, and racism. Nevertheless, the concepts that sociologists use to account for collective violence in youth gangs are somewhat similar to those applied by anthropologists and biologists to chimpanzees. Thus in both cases collective violence is considered to emerge partly because males are highly motivated to gain personal status, which they do by physical violence. In the case of youth gangs, the reasons for the prevalence of physical violence in status competition compared to non-gang society are clearly context-specific, both culturally and historically. By contrast, among chimpanzees the use of physical violence to settle status competition is universal (in the wild and captivity). The use of physical violence in individual status competition therefore has different sources in youth gangs and chimpanzees. Regardless of its origin, however, its combination with an intense concern for status can explain: (1) why individual males form alliances among each other; and hence (2) how such alliances generate social power, closed groups, and a capacity for defense of territory or pre-emptive attacks on rivals. This comparison suggests that the use of physical violence to resolve individual status competition is an important predictor of collective violence at the gang level. We therefore view the similarities in aggression between humans and chimpanzees that we review here as being adaptive responses to local conditions, predicated on an inherent male concern for social status. PMID:15817741

Wrangham, Richard W; Wilson, Michael L

2004-12-01

60

Youth Violence in Middle America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most of the national concern about violence has focused on major cities, no community is free from violence. Violent acts in suburbs, small towns, and rural areas may not be as severe as in urban areas, yet they exist. The Profiles of Student Life survey of 47,000 students in grades 6-12 included questions about violent behavior. The…

Benson, Peter L.; Roehlkepartain, Eugene

1992-01-01

61

Understanding and informing policy implementation: a case study of the domestic violence provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act.  

PubMed

The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we designed a case study and collected data from in-depth, key informant interviews, court observations, and relevant documents. We present findings from this study and recommend how to increase the likelihood that policies designed to separate batterers and guns are implemented in a way that will result in greater protections for victims of domestic violence. PMID:16679500

Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P

2006-06-01

62

Liminal Lives: South Asian Youth and Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines domestic violence experiences among South Asian youth in the United States. The paper uses a broad definition of violence, a continuum which includes aggression, coercion, control, intimidation, assault, to accommodate the meanings suggested by the youth. The main argument of this paper is that the youth's experiences cannot be adequately explained with reference to individual deviance or

Bandana Purkayastha

2000-01-01

63

"You get caught up": youth decision-making and violence.  

PubMed

Violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. We conducted serial focus groups with 30 youth from a violence prevention program to discuss violence in their community. We identified four recurrent themes characterizing participant experiences regarding peer decision-making related to violence: (1) youth pursue respect, among other typical tasks of adolescence; (2) youth pursue respect as a means to achieve personal safety; (3) youth recognize pervasive risks to their safety, frequently focusing on the prevalence of firearms; and (4) as youth balance achieving respect in an unsafe setting with limited opportunities, they express conflict and frustration. Participants recognize that peers achieve peer-group respect through involvement in unsafe or unhealthy behavior including violence; however they perceive limited alternative opportunities to gain respect. These findings suggest that even very high risk youth may elect safe and healthy alternatives to violence if these opportunities are associated with respect and other adolescent tasks of development. PMID:24141641

Hansen, Luke O; Tinney, Barbara; Asomugha, Chisara N; Barron, Jill L; Rao, Mitesh; Curry, Leslie A; Lucas, Georgina; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

2014-02-01

64

Mapping the use of guns in violence against women: Findings from three studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the role of firearms in acts of violence against women in South Africa, drawing on three datasets: one investigating the implementation of the Domestic Violence Act (DVA), the second exploring gang rapes, and the third documenting intimate femicide. In relation to domestic violence, it was found that while guns were referred to in one in four applications

Lisa Vetten

2006-01-01

65

Gun violence in Nigeria: a focus on ethno-religious conflict in Kano.  

PubMed

We investigated small arms and light weapons (SALW) in Africa by reviewing the situation in Nigeria and conducting a small study in one hospital in the country's north. Published reports about SALW in Nigeria suggest that several social, economic, and political factors have caused a marked increase in gun-related violence, including ethno-religious tensions, the response of security forces to criminal activity, and growing economic disparity. In Kano, a northern city that has been the focal point of communal riots between Christians and Muslims, we found that firearm injuries were linked to these riots. We recommend increased outreach to disenfranchised youth, addressing the use of firearms by security forces, and addressing the political and economic disparity between ethnic and religious groups. PMID:17955007

John, Ime A; Mohammed, Aminu Z; Pinto, Andrew D; Nkanta, Celestine A

2007-12-01

66

Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.  

PubMed

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth. PMID:21161351

Ferguson, Christopher J

2011-04-01

67

The supply and demand for guns to juveniles: Oakland’s gun tracing project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to Oakland, California’s high level of gun violence affecting young people, the East Oakland Partnership to Reduce\\u000a Juvenile Gun Violence, a citywide collaboration, was formed in 1997. In 1999, the Partnership established the Oakland Gun\\u000a Tracing Project to develop evidence-based policy recommendations aimed at reducing the supply of and demand for gun acquisition\\u000a among urban youth. The advocacy

Deane Calhoun; Andrea Craig Dodge; Coraline S. Journel; Elaine Zahnd

2005-01-01

68

What pediatricians can do to further youth violence prevention--a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective—Youth violence is a public health problem world wide. However, the United States has the worst rate of youth violence among industralized countries. This study was conducted to learn what pediatricians, community leaders, and parents think the doctor's role is in youth violence prevention during the well-child examination for children. Methods—Interviews were conducted with pediatricians, community leaders, and parents living or working in Los Angeles, California. Results—All three groups interviewed believed that the physician should incorporate violence prevention counseling as part of the well-child examination. The mechanism of action differed for the three groups. Almost half of pediatricians' statements focused on their role as prevention counselor, with respect to such issues as appropriate discipline and gun safety. One third of community leaders' statements, however, related to physician referral to existing community resources. More than half of parents' statements referred to the pediatrician as someone who can directly educate their child about making positive choices. Conclusions—Although pediatricians cannot solve the problem of youth violence alone, findings from this study suggest that they should address this issue with their patients and should work in tandem with existing community resources to further a solution to this growing epidemic. PMID:10323571

Barkin, S.; Ryan, G.; Gelberg, L.

1999-01-01

69

Youth Collectivities and Adolescent Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several problems confront anyone who has the audacity to tackle the topic of this chapter. The most daunting of these is the\\u000a lack of a theoretically viable typology that situates gangs, or types of gangs, in a larger set of youth collectivities. If\\u000a the variety of terms used by police to describe “gang groups and members” is “bewildering” and “dismaying”

70

Parent Refugee Status, Immigration Stressors, and Southeast Asian Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the effects of parents’ experience of traumatic events on violence among Southeast Asian and Chinese youth. The study examines independent effects of parents’ refugee camp experiences and immigration stress on serious or family\\/partner violence among youth. Findings contribute evidence on the intergenerational effects of community-level trauma that can help policy makers better integrate family and community strategies

James H. Spencer; Thao N. Le

2006-01-01

71

Youth Violence Prevention in Virginia: A Needs Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an overview of youth violence in Virginia and a look at what some communities are doing about it. Although there is no way to measure all acts of youth violence in Virginia, the extent of the problem can be described through juvenile arrest statistics and school discipline reports. In 1997, Virginia law enforcement officials…

Cornell, Dewey G.; Loper, Ann Booker; Atkinson, Anne J.; Sheras, Peter L.

72

The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

73

Animal Abuse and Exposure to Interparental Violence in Italian Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals, with boys more often involved than girls. Almost half of the whole sample has been

Anna C. Baldry

2003-01-01

74

Iraqi American refugee youths' exposure to violence: relationship to attitudes and peers' perpetration of dating violence.  

PubMed

This exploratory study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, home and dating relationships among Iraqi American youth. As Iraqi American youth are traditionally not allowed to date, dating violence measures focused on attitudes about and perceptions of abuse occurring in the relationships of friends. The number of friends known who were secretly dating was the most significant predictor of acceptability of dating violence and perceived prevalence of abuse. Youth who experienced child abuse perceived higher rates of dating violence among their peers. Findings highlight the complexities of prevention and intervention of teen dating violence within secretive relationships. PMID:23423847

Black, Beverly M; Chiodo, Lisa M; Weisz, Arlene N; Elias-Lambert, Nada; Kernsmith, Poco D; Yoon, Jina S; Lewandowski, Linda A

2013-02-01

75

Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-Occurrence, and Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This article examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth

Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

2009-01-01

76

Youth experiences of family violence and teen dating violence perpetration: cognitive and emotional mediators.  

PubMed

This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential influences upon one another are described. Theory and research on the role of emotions and emotional processes in the relation between youths' exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration are also reviewed. We present an integrated model that highlights how emotions and emotional processes work in tandem with hypothesized cognitive mediators to predict teen dating violence. PMID:22160838

Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H

2012-03-01

77

States Take a Public Health Approach to Curb Gun Violence Bridget M. Kuehn, MSJ  

E-print Network

States Take a Public Health Approach to Curb Gun Violence Bridget M. Kuehn, MSJ P ublic outcry over legislative efforts to curb firearmviolence,whichresultsinmorethan 30 000 US deaths annually. In April, the US of the Violence Prevention Research Program at the University of California, Davis, and an emergency department

Leistikow, Bruce N.

78

Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

Guterman, Neil B.

2004-01-01

79

Violence in youth sports: hazing, brawling and foul play.  

PubMed

By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognise that their connection to sport binds them together into a cohesive subset of sport injury and youth violence, past research has failed to show how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. The acceptance of violence within the sporting culture may, in part, explain why sports-related violence has not yet been widely recognised as a public health concern. This review shows that sports-related violence, including hazing, brawling and foul play, occurs among youth athletes of all ages and in a variety of different sports. The few studies to address this issue have all acknowledged the dangers of sports-related violence; however, no incident tracking method has been developed. Future research must provide accurate national estimates of the incidence of sports-related violence among youth, identify associated risk factors, evaluate preventive interventions and identify effective methods of distributing and implementing evidence-based interventions. Monitoring the magnitude and distribution of the burden of sports-related violence and building the scientific infrastructure necessary to support the development and widespread application of effective sports-related prevention interventions are essential first steps toward a reduction in the incidence of sports-related violence. PMID:19858113

Fields, S K; Collins, C L; Comstock, R D

2010-01-01

80

Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally commissioned in response to the Columbine High shootings, the Surgeon General's report on youth violence "examines the factors that lead young people to gravitate toward violence, reviews the factors that protect youth from perpetrating violence and identifies effective research-based preventive strategies." While acknowledging that there has been a downward trend in youth violence since 1993, the report concludes that the "epidemic of youth violence is not over." The report identifies 27 specific intervention programs that have shown themselves to be statistically successful as well as debunking several common myths about youth violence. These last include assumptions about early childhood behavior as predictive of later violence, about the racial make-up of violent offenders, and the myth of the young "super-predator." From the above URL, visitors can access the full report, an executive summary, the January 17th press release (all in .pdf format), an archived Webcast of the surgeon general discussing the report (requires Windows Media Player), and some relevant links.

2001-01-01

81

The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many concerned individuals and community-based organizations want to reduce violence and prevent injuries and deaths from violence among youths in their community. This manual is designed to help. It includes a menu of specific activities for communities to undertake plus a framework for putting those activities effectively into place. The manual…

Fenley, Mary Ann; And Others

82

The Discrete Character of High-Lethality Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to derive lessons about high-lethality adolescent violence from study of the extraordinary increase, and then decrease, in youth homicide arrests over the period 1985-2001 in the United States. This effort continues a long tradition of exploring the possible causes of shifts in homicide rates by examining patterns of violence to see whether there are

Franklin E. Zimring

2005-01-01

83

The Discrete Character of High-Lethality Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to derive lessons about high-lethality adolescent violence from study of the extraordinary increase, and then decrease, in youth homicide arrests over the period 1985-2001 in the United States. This effort continues a long tradition of exploring the possible causes of shifts in homicide rates by examining patterns of violence to see whether there are

Franklin E. Zimring

2004-01-01

84

Youth Violence: Gangs on Main Street, USA. Issues in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report profiles the issue of youth violence: the history of its appearance in U.S. culture, the recent escalation of gang activity in U.S. communities, and the strategies put forth in smaller cities to meet this challenge. The report notes that there has been an explosion of gang violence in the United States that has been fostered by a…

Hamner, Carole J.

85

In The Crossfire: The Impact of Gun Violence on Public Housing Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on February 18, this 50-page report from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the first-ever comprehensive analysis of gun-related violence in public housing communities. Based on new data from HUD and the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the report reveals that, while crime in public housing developments is falling, residents of public housing are more than twice as likely to become victims of gun violence as the rest of the population, regardless of city size. The full text of the report is offered in .pdf format with five appendixes.

86

What We Know About Gun Use Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current generation of American teenagers has grown up surrounded by gun violence. Guns have played a significant role in shaping the developmental trajectories and behaviors of many inner-city youths. In this essay, we examine the role of guns in the lives of young people, and especially in the social and symbolic construction of violent events among adolescents, primarily focusing

Deanna L. Wilkinson; Jeffrey Fagan

2001-01-01

87

Risk of Crime Victimization Among Youth Exposed to Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the degree to which youth are at higher risk of crime victimization when they live in a household with an adult who has been the victim of domestic violence or another violent crime. Combined data from the 1996, 1997, and 1998 National Crime Victimization Surveys show a generally higher victimization risk for youth who live in households

KIMBERLY J. MITCHELL; DAVID FINKELHOR

2001-01-01

88

Finding Common Ground in the Study of Child Maltreatment, Youth Violence, and Adult Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several decades, we have witnessed a surge in public policies aimed at ending child maltreatment, youth violence, and adult domestic violence. Commensurate with this increased interest has been a growing body of research on each issue’s etiology, affected population, and the public policy and prevention impacts. Even a cursory review of the literature suggests a number of commonalities across

Deborah Daro; Jeffrey L. Edleson; Howard Pinderhughes

2004-01-01

89

Youth Violence and the Health Professions: Core Competencies for Effective Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern California Developing Center on Youth Violence Prevention, in conjunction with the Department of Family Medicine of the University of Southern California, convened a working group to identify core competencies in youth violence prevention for health professionals. Experts in youth violence prevention and health professional education…

Knox, Lyndee, Ed.

90

Prevalence of youth access to alcohol or a gun in the home  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the national prevalence of youth access to alcohol, a gun, or both alcohol and a gun, in their home and to describe the demographic characteristics associated with access to either alcohol or a gun. Methods: Cross sectional data from the 1995 in-home survey of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which used a nationally representative randomly selected school based sample (n=18 924) of adolescents in grades 7–12, were analyzed. The current analyses were restricted to those adolescents 12–18 years of age (n=18 454). Crude logistic regression analyses was used to determine the demographic characteristics associated with access to alcohol or a gun in the home. Results: Overall, 28.7% of US adolescents reported having easy access to alcohol in the home. Availability of alcohol was associated with race/ethnicity, mother's education, family structure, and welfare status. Similarly, 24.3% of US adolescents reported easy access to a gun in the home. Availability of a gun in the home was associated with gender, race/ethnicity, mother's education, family structure, and welfare status. Among those that reported that a gun was available in their home, most reported availability of a shotgun (63.0%) followed by a rifle (61.3%), handgun (57.3%), and other gun (16.4%). Ten per cent of adolescents reported availability of both alcohol and a gun in their home. Conclusions: One quarter of US adolescents reported easy access to either alcohol or a gun in their home. Given the risks associated with the misuse of alcohol and guns among adolescents, efforts to increase public awareness of the availability of alcohol and guns in the home are needed. PMID:12226121

Swahn, M; Hammig, B; Ikeda, R

2002-01-01

91

Gangs in Garden City: How Immigration, Segregation, and Youth Violence Are Changing America’s Suburbs By Sarah Garland  

E-print Network

violence). The book’s humanization of gang violence and theBOOK REVIEW Gangs in Garden City: How Immigration, Segregation, and Youth Violencebook Gangs in the Garden City: How Immigration, Segregation and Youth Violence

Riggs, William

2011-01-01

92

Violence Against Lesbian and Gay Male Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article documents the incidence of violent assaults toward lesbian and gay male youths and those youths' suicidal behavior. Data were obtained by reviewing charts for the first 500 youths seeking services in 1988 at the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a community-based agency serving lesbian and gay male adolescents in New York City. The adolescents, who ranged in age from 14 to

JOYCE HUNTER

1990-01-01

93

Advancing prevention research on child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence: emerging strategies and issues.  

PubMed

Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent methodological issues in these areas and points out emerging research strategies that are forging advances in garnering valid, rigorous, and useful knowledge to prevent interpersonal violence. Research issues and emerging strategies in three key domains of prevention research are considered, including complexities in validly conceptualizing and measuring varying forms of violence as specific targets for preventive intervention, research issues and strategies designed to reliably predict and identify future violence risk to be targeted by preventive intervention, and research issues and emerging strategies in the application of empirical methods to forge specific advances in preventive intervention strategies themselves. PMID:15005994

Guterman, Neil B

2004-03-01

94

Dating Violence Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth  

E-print Network

conclusions and recommendations expressed in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Justice, or of the Urban Institute, its trustees, or its funders. Elements of this paper were reported to the National Institute of Justice in the form of a final technical report as per grant obligations. The authors would like to thank: (1) the administrators, faculty, and staff of schools who assisted us in collecting the data documented in this report, (2) CJ Pascoe of Colorado College and Cindy Southworth, Erica Olsen, and Sarah Tucker of the National Network to End Domestic Violence for their input on survey measures, and (3) the National Institute of Justice and Dr. Nancy La Vigne, Director of the Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center, for their careful review of project findings. Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth—as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations

Meredith Dank; Pamela Lachman; Janine M. Zweig; Jennifer Yahner

95

In Harm’s Way in America: The Burden of Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gun violence in the USA annually accounts for vast suffering and death, yet many of us have become so habituated to it that\\u000a we fail to grasp its scale or impact. It takes a heavy toll on American children, especially children in America’s inner cities.\\u000a While its direct carnage is quite massive, its indirect impacts are quite pervasive as well.

William French

96

Dudes, Let’s Talk About Us: the Black “Community” Construction of Gun Violence in Toronto  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the ways different sections of Toronto’s black community construct the problem of gun violence commonly\\u000a associated with young black males in the city. Recognising that social policies are often products of contestations among\\u000a different claims makers trying to dominate the definition of particular social problems and the policy initiatives for their\\u000a control, the paper documents the marginalized

Ifeanyi Ezeonu

2008-01-01

97

The relationship among violence victimization, witnessing violence, and youth distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo explore whether violence victimization and witness experiences of predominantly African-American, low-income, urban adolescents were associated with distress and whether psychosocial factors contributed to symptomatology.

Donna E Howard; Susan Feigelman; Xiaoming Li; Sheila Cross; Laura Rachuba

2002-01-01

98

Predictive Validity of the Structured Assessment for Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) With Juvenile Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence is a serious social problem that is often encountered in the youth justice system. Identifying those adolescents who are at the highest risk for future violence is an important step toward effective rehabilitation. The current study examined the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment for Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), a structured professional judgment risk tool, in a sample

Joanna R. Meyers; Fred Schmidt

2008-01-01

99

Empowering Peers To Prevent Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of peer-on-peer abuse (e.g., bullying, harassment) and peer-on-self abuse (e.g., suicide, self-mutilation) prevention programs identified more effective ways to involve youth in similar programs. Stronger programs emphasized youth empowerment through active roles in program development and reaching out with understanding and support…

Hazler, Richard J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

2002-01-01

100

Engaging health professionals in advocacy against gun violence.  

PubMed

Health professionals have long been involved with advocacy around the social determinants of health, including protesting against war and mitigating the production, trade and use of specific weapon systems. Small arms and light weapons are a key area on which to focus, as they are responsible for the majority of injuries and deaths in war and their availability is related to increased levels of crime and suicide. Challenges for health professionals hoping to engage in such advocacy include a lack of adequate data, the need to confront political questions and the gun-lobby, and difficulty in measuring the effectiveness of campaigns. This article discusses some examples of successful advocacy and suggests future directions for health professionals in this area. PMID:19065869

Pinto, Andrew D

2008-01-01

101

Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

2012-01-01

102

Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Injury Prevention & Control Share Compartir Electronic Aggression On this Page Publications Additional CDC Resources Additional ... used to describe this type of violence, electronic aggression is the term that most accurately captures all ...

103

DISASTER AND YOUTH VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL ATTENDING YOUTH IN NEW ORLEANS  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. PMID:21783056

Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne

2013-01-01

104

Connecting Youth Violence Prevention, Positive Youth Development, and Community Mobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several disconnects serve to weaken the use of evidence based programming in community settings. Communities face the need\\u000a to address the challenges of multiple risk behaviors faced by adolescents in their communities, but must also work to support\\u000a successful transitions to adulthood and the broader positive development of their youth. The stronger integration of positive\\u000a youth development and prevention of

Kevin W. Allison; Torey Edmonds; Karen Wilson; Michell Pope; Albert D. Farrell

105

A Multivariate Analysis of Youth Violence and Aggression: The Influence of Family, Peers, Depression, and Media Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the multivariate nature of risk factors for youth violence including delinquent peer associ- ations, exposure to domestic violence in the home, family conflict, neighborhood stress, antisocial personality traits, depression level, and exposure to television and video game violence. Study design A population of 603 predominantly Hispanic children (ages 10-14 years) and their parents or guard- ians responded

Christopher J. Ferguson; Claudia San Miguel; Richard D. Hartley

2009-01-01

106

Respect: Interpersonal Violence Prevention Resource Guide, "Stopping Youth Violence before It Begins."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes a series of ways to translate research findings and general ideas on youth violence into day-to-day teaching and learning in homes and schools. Five sections include: (1) "Teaching and Learning Core Social Emotional Competencies" (e.g., what educators, counselors, and parents can do, and promoting core social and emotional…

Nadeau, Debra Fuchs; LaRue, Candace Mayer; Allen, Jennifer; Cohen, Jonathan; Hyman, Lauren

107

Warning Signs of Youth Violence. Just the Facts: Answers to Your Questions about Psychological Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence. It's the act of purposefully hurting someone. And it's a major issue facing today's young adults. This fact sheet answers questions that those aged 12-24 might ask about violence. This age group faces the highest risk of being the victim of violence. Questions regard the causes of youth violence, warning signs, what to do if someone…

American Psychological Association (APA), 2002

2002-01-01

108

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite declines in youth violence nationally in the past decade, incidence of youth violence and victimization--from assaults to homicide--continue to be pressing concerns in public safety and public health. Youth violence is also a particular concern for low-income, minority communities, where poverty, family instability, and unemployment…

MacDonald, John; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kofner, Aaron; Stokes, Robert J.; Sehgal, Amber; Fain, Terry; Beletsky, Leo

2009-01-01

109

Domestic Violence, Gun Ownership, and Parental Educational Attainment: How do They Affect the Aggressive Beliefs and Behaviors of Children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between and effects of domestic violence, rates of gun ownership, and parental educational\\u000a attainment on the aggressive beliefs and behaviors of elementary and middle school children in the state of South Carolina.\\u000a The results of the current study’s statistical analyses are interpreted using a multi-theoretical framework. Recommendations\\u000a to decrease rates of domestic violence and firearm

Julie E. Sprinkle

2007-01-01

110

"If They Could Make Us Disappear, They Would!" Youth and Violence in Cite Soleil, Haiti  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores community-level risk and protective factors for youth violence in Cite Soleil, Port-au-Prince's most violent slum. The youth of Cite Soleil have often been mobilized to violence by powerful actors as tools for achieving political or financial gain. Drawing on a formal survey (N=1,575) and ethnographic data collected between…

Willman, Alys; Marcelin, Louis Herns

2010-01-01

111

The Role of Families and Care Givers as Risk and Protective Factors in Preventing Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research which discusses the risk and protective functions that families and other caregivers provide in influencing the development of aggressive behavior in youth. Currently, there is an emphasis on providing violence prevention programs in the school environment, typically with little parental or caregiver involvement. By enhancing the role of families and caregivers in youth violence prevention programs,

Le'Roy E. Reese; Elizabeth M. Vera; Thomas R. Simon; Robin M. Ikeda

2000-01-01

112

From Pennsylvania's Front Line against Crime: A School and Youth Violence Prevention Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on findings that high-quality early care and education, youth development programs for after-school and summer hours, child abuse and neglect prevention, and intervention programs can help to prevent violence crime, this document presents a violence prevention plan for the schools and youth of Pennsylvania. Four actions are proposed to…

2002

113

Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and after migration, immigrant youth might be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental…

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2011-01-01

114

Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

2007-01-01

115

Youth Violence Prevention Comes of Age: Research, Training and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent be- havior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the in- dividual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work

Kara Williams; Lourdes Rivera; Robert Neighbours; Vivian Reznik

2007-01-01

116

A culturally sensitive approach to the prevention of interpersonal violence among urban black youth.  

PubMed Central

Black-on-black interpersonal violence is a major problem for black youth living in poor urban areas. Diverse lines of research converge to suggest that interpersonal violence among inner-city black youth may result from a combination of environmental stressors, racial identity problems, and health and mental health problems. A culturally sensitive approach to the prevention of interpersonal violence among black youth is described. It is concluded that insensitivity to the significant role of racial or cultural factors in black-on-black violence contributes to the relative inattention to the problem. PMID:1629922

Whaley, A. L.

1992-01-01

117

Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and following migration, immigrant youth may be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental separations). Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, we assessed exposure to violence and immigrant stressors and examined their relative impact on psychopathology in a sample of 164 Latino youth. Immigrant youth reported greater exposure to immigrant stressors relative to native-born peers, but few differences in rates of exposure to violence emerged. When considered alongside relevant immigration stressors, exposure to violence emerged as the strongest predictor of youth psychopathology. Results suggest that some types of stressors have more consistently deleterious effects on mental health and understanding resilient outcomes may entail considering the meaning attributed to stressors and the resources available to cope with stressors. PMID:24465062

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2013-01-01

118

Parent-youth discordance about youth-witnessed violence: Associations with trauma symptoms and service use in an at-risk sample  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth and parents about youth witnessed violence, and determine whether concordance predicted trauma symptoms and recognition of need and receipt of counseling services. Methods Concordance about youth-witnessed violence was examined in 766 dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Youth participants self-reported trauma symptoms, caregivers indicated youth need for and receipt of services. Both youth and parents provided information about youth-witnessed violence exposure in the last year. Results Results showed youth and caregivers differed significantly about youth-witnessed violence. Specifically, 42% of youth reported youth-witnessed violence, compared to only 15% of parents. For those parents who reported youth-witnessed violence, only 29% reported an identified need for services and only 17% reported the youth had received any mental health services. Concordance between parent-youth dyads was associated with greater identified need for services but was not associated with the use of counseling services or trauma symptoms. Conclusions Youth who reported witnessing violence reported more frequent trauma symptoms regardless of concordance. Parents from dyads in which both informants reported youth-witnessed violence were more likely to endorse need for, but not receipt of counseling services. Given this association between youth-witnessed violence and mental health problems, more work is needed to identify barriers to concordance as well as service utilization. PMID:23153569

Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R.; Dubowitz, Howard

2013-01-01

119

The Nature and Correlates of Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youths in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to assess the prevalence and severity of dating violence among Jewish and Arab, male\\u000a and female Israeli youths, to examine the sociodemographic variables related to dating violence among Israeli adolescents,\\u000a and to assess whether the variables correlated with dating violence differ among Jewish and Arab, male and female youths.\\u000a The random sample consisted of

Moshe Sherer

2009-01-01

120

Achieving Public Health Impact in Youth Violence Prevention Through Community–Research Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Problem: Violence is a leading cause of death and disability for U.S. youth. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) is committed to developing communities' capacity to engage in evidence-based youth violence (YV) prevention.Purpose: We discuss the characteristics of communities that exert influence on the development and epidemiology of YV, and discuss opportunities

Greta M. Massetti; Alana M. Vivolo

2010-01-01

121

Early Adolescent Predictors of Youth Violence as Mediators of Childhood Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed whether risk factors for youth violence measured at 10 years influenced later violence directly or indirectly through predictors measured at 14 years. Found that many childhood risks had strong and persistent effects on later violence. Mediation effects were noted for most factors. School and peer predictors at 14 years were the strongest…

Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Guo, Jie; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Smith, Brian H.

2001-01-01

122

Youth Violence and Aggression: "Why?" or, Should We Be Asking, "Why Not?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the roots of youth violence and aggression suggest that long-term solutions will be complex and require significant changes in the conditions that contribute to violence, not merely adding more security and swifter or harsher punishments. Questions are posed concerning causes of violence as well as our culture's fundamental…

Braaten, Sheldon

1999-01-01

123

Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.  

PubMed

Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals. PMID:17367286

Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

2007-01-01

124

"There's so much at stake": sexual minority youth discuss dating violence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating violence among a sample of sexual minority youth. Focus groups were conducted as part of a larger study that surveyed 109 sexual minority youth between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Participants identified four main themes contributing to dating violence among same-sex couples: homophobia (societal and internalized); negotiating socially prescribed gender roles; assumed female connection; and other relationship issues. Such information is essential for determining the need for and content of dating violence services, including education, safety planning, and referrals for mental and physical health services for sexual minority youth. PMID:22831848

Gillum, Tameka L; DiFulvio, Gloria

2012-07-01

125

Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported violence of osaka and Seattle male youths.  

PubMed

Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non-Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769

Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G

2014-12-01

126

Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

2011-01-01

127

Youth Perspectives on the Intersections of Violence, Gender, and Hip-Hop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth's perceptions of violence within their social environments can provide relevant insights into the gender-based interpersonal violence epidemic in inner-city communities. To explore this issue, we examined two sets of narratives with young men and women, aged 15 to 21, involved in hip-hop culture in New York City. In the analysis, we reveal…

Hernandez, Diana; Weinstein, Hannah; Munoz-Laboy, Miguel

2012-01-01

128

The predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) among institutionalised adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the short-term predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) in a sample of institutionalised adolescents. Subjects were 208 adolescents in general residential adolescent psychiatry, correctional schools, or adolescent forensic units. Demographic features and the information needed to assess violence risk with SAVRY were retrieved from medical files

Monica Gammelgĺrd; Anna-Maija Koivisto; Markku Eronen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

2008-01-01

129

Player Violence in Sport: Consequences for Youth Cross-Nationally (Part 2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual athletes are not primarily responsible for violence in sports. It is a product of the system. Sports leaders are responsible for allowing it and for curbing it. Contributing factors and consequences are outlined, together with recommendations for overcoming violence in youth sports. (IAH)

Pooley, John C.

1989-01-01

130

The Protective Influence of Parents and Peers in Violence Avoidance Among African-American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study attempted to provide further insight into the roles of parents and peers as they influence youth involvement with violence. Specifically, this paper considers whether parents who are close to their children have children who affiliate with prosocial friends who may in turn serve as a buffer against violence. This study also considers how parent and peer influences

Paula Smith; Brian R. Flay; Carl C. Bell; Roger P. Weissberg

2001-01-01

131

Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban…

Ruchkin, Vladislav; Henrich, Christopher C.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

2007-01-01

132

Youth Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Adjustment: The Role of Cognitive Appraisals  

E-print Network

, knives, and random violence” (p. 782). Violent events in the community can occur in youth's neighborhood and school and include events such as robbery, murder, physical and sexual assault, and peer victimization (i.e., bullying and gangs; Richters... that reflected hearing about violence were excluded. Finally, the author expanded upon existing measures to include bullying and dating violence, because these events occur in the context of one’s school and community and can be a relatively common experience...

Drerup, Lauren

2012-08-31

133

Contrasting Portraits of War: Youths' Varied Experiences with Political Violence in Bosnia and Palestine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates some of the complexity of youths' experience with political violence as a means of cautioning researchers, applied professionals and policy makers against overly-simplistic conclusions and interventions when attempting to understand and serve the large populations of the world's youth who endure conflict. A variety of…

Barber, Brian K.

2008-01-01

134

The Challenge of Youth Violence: Finding Our Role, Doing Our Part.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines factors contributing to youth violence and suggests ways that service learning can mitigate their influence. Community-based programs can fill the void of unstructured, unsupervised time tempting many youth. Peer education and cross-age teaching can help create positive attitudes towards cooperation and responsible behavior. (MJP)

Sausjord, Ingrid; Friedman, Lisa

1997-01-01

135

Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

Lai, Mary H.

2005-01-01

136

Chronic Exposure to Violence and Poverty: Interventions That Work for Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents who are chronically exposed to violence and poverty respond with rage, distrust, and hopelessness. Successful programs for these youth include nine essential elements: street outreach and referral; needs and interest assessments; provisions for supportive, personal relationships with adults; availability of role models; peer group discussions; family interventions; neighborhood projects; education and job preparedness training; and program objectives. Neighborhood youth

Michael B. Greene

1993-01-01

137

Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCD's Research-Based Programs Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

2007-01-01

138

Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCDs Research-Based Programs Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

2007-01-01

139

Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Homeless Youth in Columbus, Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and…

Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Collins, Jennifer; Patton, Rikki; Buettner, Cynthia

2010-01-01

140

Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Homeless Youth in Columbus, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and gender, race, age, and history of childhood

Natasha Slesnick; Gizem Erdem; Jennifer Collins; Rikki Patton; Cynthia Buettner

2010-01-01

141

Does social capital deter youth from cheating, alcohol use, and violence in Turkey?: Bringing torpil in  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to explore the link between social capital and cheating, alcohol use, and violence using a self-reported survey involving a sample of Turkish university students. The relatively comprehensive measures of social capital included both parental social capital (membership in organizations, political engagement, book\\/newspaper readership, parental control over the youth's social network, and religion) and youth

Özden Özbay

2008-01-01

142

An Ecological Approach to Understanding Youth Violence: The Mediating Role of Substance Use  

PubMed Central

The authors tested an ecological model that posits mediating variables (substance use and mental health) in the association between ecological factors (family closeness, school closeness, and peer closeness) and youth violence in a sample of 4,783 adolescents. Model including substance use present significantly less total effect between ecological factors and youth violence than do models without substance use. Additional probing of significant mediation effect using the Sobel test was performed and suggested that substance use did function as a mediator in the hypothesized path. Considerations of adolescent violence should recognize the possible role of ecological factors and how their influence may vary by substance use. PMID:21423847

Moon, Sung Seek; Patton, Joy; Rao, Uma

2010-01-01

143

Disentangling the Effects of Violent Victimization, Violent Behavior, and Gun Carrying for Minority Inner-City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two waves of longitudinal data were used to examine the sequencing between violent victimization, violent behavior, and gun carrying in a high-poverty sample of African American youth. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that violent victimization T1 and violent behavior T1 increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying T2…

Spano, Richard; Bolland, John

2013-01-01

144

American as apple pie; guns in the lives of US children and youth.  

PubMed

In the US in the current era, morbidity and mortality due to gun-related injuries constitute a major public health problem. Children are affected by the gun hazard as survivors of gun victims and as victims of gun homicides, suicides and unintentional injuries. US boys also are involved with guns in childhood play: toy guns early and non-powder firearms later. Toy guns cause some injuries to very young boys, are more dangerous than is generally recognized, and promote aggressive play. Non-powder firearms cause numerous injuries, including severe ones, to school-aged boys. Neither type of 'gun' is regulated. The possible developmental effects of gunplay in childhood are discussed. It is hypothesized that boys in the US develop a reliance on guns in part as a result of childhood gunplay, and that alterations in patterns of childhood gunplay might help to reduce the US gun hazard. There is need for research and debate concerning this possibility. PMID:6400046

Christoffel, K K

145

Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Introduction Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences. Methods We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N=457) of urban youth, 14–24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration. Results The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls) reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR=2.28;95%CI: 1.12—4.62) and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81—10.53) were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reporting hunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30—6.33), any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12—4.92) and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16—7.82) were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization. Conclusion The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In particular, reporting hunger, drunkenness and drug use were specifically associated with victimization and perpetration. These are all modifiable risk factors that can be prevented. It is clear that these vulnerable youth are in need of additional services and guidance to ameliorate their adverse childhood experiences, current health risk behaviors and disadvantaged living context. PMID:22900123

Swahn, Monica H; Gressard, Lindsay; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Lynch, Catherine; Yao, Huang

2012-01-01

146

Risk and Protective Profiles Among Never Exposed, Single Form, and Multiple Form Violence Exposed Youth.  

PubMed

This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth, and that multiple-form victimization held the greatest jeopardy to development. Youth with multiple-form victimization reported significantly elevated risk factors (emotional distress, life stress, suicide risk, risky behaviors) and lower protective factors (social support, school engagement, family structure) than both single-form and never-exposed youth. Implications are discussed for preventive and early intervention programming and for examining the transition of at-risk youth into young adulthood. PMID:21494415

Nurius, Paula S; Russell, Patricia L; Herting, Jerald R; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A

2009-04-01

147

Parent-Youth Discordance about Youth-Witnessed Violence: Associations with Trauma Symptoms and Service Use in an At-Risk Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth

Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.; Dubowitz, Howard

2012-01-01

148

Exposure to political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress in Middle East youth: protective factors.  

PubMed

We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic achievement moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first 2 waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child's initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth's self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms. PMID:22594697

Dubow, Eric F; Huesmann, L Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

149

GUN VIOLENCE & SMALL ARMS PROLIFERATION "Whenever arms flow, violence follows", UN Messenger of Peace, actor Michael Douglas  

E-print Network

and crime, we must stop such purveyors of death". It is estimated that each year several hundred thousand on the streets illegally to criminals and juveniles. Locally Philadelphia is suffering an epidemic of gun

Plotkin, Joshua B.

150

What's happening to our kids? Almost all of us have read about or experienced an incident of bullying or violence directed toward youth in our communities or neighborhood schools.  

E-print Network

of bullying or violence directed toward youth in our communities or neighborhood schools. Youth violence Zimmerman Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids and the Arts Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids

Shyy, Wei

151

Enabling Prosecutors To Address Drug, Gang, and Youth Violence. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin offers data on recent trends in juvenile violence, juvenile drug offenses, and gang-related juvenile offending, and describes prosecutorial responses to such offenses. Examples of promising prosecutor-led programs combating the illicit use of guns, violence, drugs, and gangs are also provided. These examples provide a range of ideas…

Gramckow, Heike P.; Tompkins, Elena

152

Peer youth physical violence among secondary schools students in south west Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundYouth violence has been associated with adverse health behaviours and health outcomes in developed countries. However, there is limited information on the prevalence and factors associated with violence among adolescents in schools in Africa.MethodsA cross sectional survey of 516 adolescents aged 13–15 years in six public secondary schools, in Ogun State located in south west Nigeria, was conducted using the

E T Owoaje; N M Ndubusi

2010-01-01

153

The Development of Youth Violence: An Old Story with New Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence is a major public concern in all modern societies. To prevent this violence, we need to understand how innocent\\u000a young children grow into violent adolescents. Longitudinal studies of large samples of children from infancy to adulthood\\u000a indicate that the peak age for physical aggression is between the end of the second and the end of the fourth year

Richard E. Tremblay

2007-01-01

154

The Relationship Between Life Satisfaction, Risk-Taking Behaviors, and Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study builds on existing criminological theories and examines the role of life satisfaction and self-control in explaining youth violence. Using data from a stratified cluster sample of 5,414 public high school students who responded to the South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the study examines the relationship between adolescents'perceptions of life satisfaction, behavioral risky acts, and self-reported acts of

John M. MacDonald; Alex R. Piquero; Robert F. Valois; Keith J. Zullig

2005-01-01

155

Frenzied attacks. A micro-sociological analysis of the emotional dynamics of extreme youth violence.  

PubMed

Inspired by phenomenological and interactionist studies of youth violence, this article offers an empirical evaluation of Collins's micro-sociological theory of violence. The main question is whether situations of extreme violence have distinct situational dynamics. Based on analyses of 159 interactions taken from judicial case files, situations of extreme youth violence, here called frenzied attacks, were identified on the basis of the state of encapsulation of the attackers (absorbed in the violence, their sole focus is the destruction of the victim) and the disproportionateness of the violence (the attackers continue to hurt the victims even though they do not pose a threat or a challenge to them). Qualitative and statistical analyses revealed that this emotional state results from a social figuration in which the emotional balance shifts toward complete dominance of the attackers. Thus, the occurrence of frenzied attacks is associated with the moment victims hit the ground, paralyse and start to apologize, with the numerical dominance of the attackers' supportive group and with feelings of group membership, in the form of solidarity excitement and family ties in the attackers' group. Alcohol intoxication is of influence as well, but contrary to the expectation, this effect was independent from solidarity excitement. The article concludes that Collins's theory on the emotional dynamics of violence adds a new dimension to the phenomenological and interactionist traditions of research. PMID:25251138

Weenink, Don

2014-09-01

156

Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence.  

PubMed

We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic-White gap (33%) and the Black-White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences. PMID:23327266

Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

2013-03-01

157

Screen time and physical violence in 10 to 16-year-old Canadian youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To examine the independent associations between television, computer, and video game use with physical violence in youth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study population consisted of a representative cross-sectional sample of 9,672 Canadian youth in grades 6–10 and a 1-year\\u000a longitudinal sample of 1,861 youth in grades 9–10. The number of weekly hours watching television, playing video games, and\\u000a using a computer was determined.

Ian JanssenWilliam; William F. Boyce; William Pickett

158

Community Violence and Youth: Affect, Behavior, Substance Use, and Academics  

E-print Network

emotional distress among urban adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology,Emotional and psychophysiological impact of exposure to community violence in urban adolescents. Journal of Child Clinical Psychology.

Cooley-Strickland, Michele; Quille, Tanya J.; Griffin, Robert S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Furr-Holden, Debra

2009-01-01

159

Violent Youth Culture in Northern Ireland: Young Men, Violence, and the Challenges of Peacebuilding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses violent male youth culture in Northern Ireland within the context of a society emerging from a prolonged period of political violence toward peacebuilding. Specifically, the article focuses on the findings from a qualitative study carried out by the Centre for Young Men's Studies with 130 marginalized young men aged 13 to 16…

Harland, Ken

2011-01-01

160

Dating Violence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in a Sample of At-Risk Israeli Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This exploratory study examines the reported dating violence and its association with sexual risk behavior among Israeli adolescents, who are at risk for dropping out of school. Methodology: A convenience sample of 105 at-risk youth (51 boys and 54 girls) completed self-administered anonymous, questionnaires in small same-gender groups.…

Schiff, Miriam; Zeira, Anat

2005-01-01

161

Resilience Moderates the Relationship between Exposure to Violence and Posttraumatic Reexperiencing in Mi'kmaq Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Nova Scotian Mi'kmaq community that hopes to shed light on the relationship between exposure to violence and mental health in First Nations youth. This particular study sought to examine how the multifaceted construct of resilience might act as a protective factor,…

Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H.; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Stevens, Doreen; Ungar, Michael; Wekerle, Christine

2010-01-01

162

The Rise and Fall of American Youth Violence: 1980 to 2000. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines trends in violent crime from 1980-2000, analyzing what portion of the recent crime drop can be attributed to juveniles (under age 18 years) and young adults (ages 18-24 years). Data come from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Results indicate that the decline in youth violence, as…

Butts, Jeffrey; Travis, Jeremy

163

Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

164

A Challenging Job: Physical and Sexual Violence towards Group Workers in Youth Residential Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…

Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

2014-01-01

165

Predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) during residential treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study examines the predictive validity of the Dutch version of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) by examining relationships between SAVRY scores and various types of disruptive behavior during residential treatment. The SAVRY, a risk assessment instrument, was coded for 66 male adolescents on the basis of file information and interviews. The adolescents were referred

Henny P. B. Lodewijks; Theo A. H. Doreleijers; Corine de Ruiter; Randy Borum

2008-01-01

166

Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

167

The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

2010-01-01

168

Community Violence, School-Related Protective Factors, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of two putative school-based protective factors--student identification with school and perceived teacher support--to psychosocial outcomes in a sample of urban youth exposed to community violence. Participants were 175 high school students ages 14-19 in grades 9-12 from a large urban school district. Results…

Ludwig, Kristy A.; Warren, Jared S.

2009-01-01

169

Gun Control Debate in US Senate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News targets recent developments in federal gun control legislation. Last week, in a contentious and often contradictory debate, the Republican-led US Senate approved several gun control amendments adjoined to a juvenile crime bill chiefly sponsored by Sen. Orrin G. Hatch, R-Utah. Despite the ostensible Republican concessions on gun control policy in the wake of recent youth gun violence, Democrats did not support some of the measures because they believe them to be "riddled with high-caliber loopholes" exhorted by the powerful gun lobby. On Friday, the Senate voted 48-47 for an amendment that would require compulsory background checks of buyers at gun shows. Opponents cited various loopholes in the amendment, including provisions that decrease the wait for negative background checks at gun shows (a 24-hour deadline instead of the three-day limit required with other gun sales) and permit people to hock a gun at a pawnshop and reclaim it without a check. Other gun control amendments to the bill passed earlier last week include the restriction of access to semiautomatic assault weapons for juveniles and a ban on the importation of high-capacity ammunition clips. Today the Senate plans to vote on another amendment that would mandate licensed gun dealers to include a child safety lock with the sale of any handgun. The omnibus juvenile justice bill still has more than 80 amendments awaiting action, which presumably will be tabled at least until after Memorial Day, and ultimately may perish if the partisan bickering in the Senate over gun control policy cannot be resolved before they must move on to other business.

Osmond, Andrew.

170

Dating Violence: Youth at Risk. The Family Forum Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence can be described as a pattern of repeated threats or acts of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse by a member of an unmarried, noncohabitating couple. Dating violence is most often a pattern of behavior that begins with verbal and emotional abuse and eventually escalates into physical battering. Teens are particularly at risk…

Sculli, Joan G.

171

The SAFER Latinos project: Addressing a community ecology underlying Latino youth violence.  

PubMed

This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of Central American immigrants. Specific circumstances targeted in this intervention are decreased family cohesion as a result of sequential immigration (i.e., parents arriving first and bringing their children years later or youth arriving without parents); multiple school barriers; community disorganization and low community efficacy; limited access to services; and a social context (including gang presence) that is linked to youth norms supporting violence. In its implementation, the initial intervention model was adapted to address barriers and challenges. These are described, along with lessons learned and the ongoing evaluation. PMID:20607409

Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

2010-08-01

172

Boys and Violence: A Gender-Informed Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the phenomenon of youth violence from a psychology of gender perspective. Although other factors are discussed—including gun availability, violence-related media influence, family and caretaker factors, and effects of teasing and bullying—the intention is to highlight new thinking on the potential relationship between boys' traditional masculine socialization experiences and violence. In this new perspective, traditional masculine socialization estranges

June Feder; Ronald F. Levant; James Dean

2007-01-01

173

Boys and Violence: A Gender-Informed Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the phenomenon of youth violence from a psychology of gender perspective. Although other factors are discussed—including gun availability, violence-related media influence, family and caretaker factors, and effects of teasing and bullying—the intention is to highlight new thinking on the potential relationship between boys' traditional masculine socialization experiences and violence. In this new perspective, traditional masculine socialization estranges

June Feder; Ronald F. Levant; James Dean

2010-01-01

174

Practicas optimas para la prevencion de la violencia juvenil: Libro de referencia para la accion comunitaria (Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Spanish-language version of this best practices sourcebook builds on a 1993 publication, "The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action." It offers insight into tested strategies to prevent violence by children and adolescents. It was developed with input from people working to prevent youth violence and people whose…

Thornton, Timothy N., Comp.; Craft, Carole A., Comp.; Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Lynch, Barbara S., Comp.; Baer, Katie, Comp.

175

Cultural–Societal Roots of Violence: The Examples of Genocidal Violence and of Contemporary Youth Violence in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread violence in a society must have its origins in cultural characteristics, current societal conditions, or both. In this article, the cultural, societal, and psychological origins of two very different forms of violence are examined. A conception of the origins of genocide and mass killing is briefly presented, with the Holocaust and the violence in the former Yugoslavia as supporting

Ervin Staub

1996-01-01

176

GUN PRICE REGULATION AND THE GUN CONTROL DEBATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies gun control as price regulations on gun sales. In the gun control debate there are two opposing sides: pro-control advo- cates argue that restricting the amount of guns inevitably reduces gun violence while anti-control advocates argue that gun control disarms law-abiding citi- zens rather than criminals. A model is constructed which explains the basis for either argument.

Edgar Villa

177

The relationship between violence and youth suicide indicators among Asian American and Pacific Islander youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature documents a relationship between interpersonal violence and suicide. One tool used to understand interpersonal violence is the Power Wheel, developed from clinical experience and originally used in domestic violence education. We examine the relationship between Teen Power and Control Wheel domains and suicidal indicators (seriously considered suicide, made a suicide plan, and attempted suicide) among Asian American and

Deborah A. Goebert; Cathy K. Bell; Barry Carlton; Michael Fukuda

2009-01-01

178

Perceptions of gender-based violence among South African youth: implications for health promotion interventions  

PubMed Central

Gender-based violence is a widespread problem in South Africa. Past structural inequities have created a climate conducive to violence against women. As an initial step toward developing a health promotion program, we conducted exploratory formative research to examine the barriers that affect the health and well-being of youth. Fourteen focus groups (nine with girls and five with boys) were conducted with 112 adolescents in a racially mixed community on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. We utilized grounded theory and thematic analysis to examine the data. The impact of poverty, ubiquitous gendered violence, transactional sex and unsafe recreational spaces emerged as the major themes. The experiences of youth were consumed by issues of safety rather than the pursuit of other developmentally appropriate markers. Our findings suggest that health promotion programs should create safe spaces for youth and opportunities to critically question the assumptions and manifestations of a patriarchal society. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a strong need for multi-sectorial interventions directed at many levels to prevent gender-based violence. PMID:21733916

Mosavel, M.; Ahmed, R.; Simon, C.

2012-01-01

179

The supply and demand for guns to juveniles: Oakland's gun tracing project.  

PubMed

In response to Oakland, California's high level of gun violence affecting young people, the East Oakland Partnership to Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence, a citywide collaboration, was formed in 1997. In 1999, the Partnership established the Oakland Gun Tracing Project to develop evidence-based policy recommendations aimed at reducing the supply of and demand for gun acquisition among urban youth. The advocacy project involved gathering, analyzing, and using police record and gun sale/registration data to inform policy and practice. Such data were collected for all gun crimes committed in Oakland, California between 1998 and 1999 in which a juvenile was either the suspect or the victim. The 213 cases involved 263 juveniles of which 170 were suspects/perpetrators and 93 were victims. Suspects as well as victims were predominantly male and African American. The 213 cases involved 132 recovered guns. Only 55% of the cases were traced to a federally licensed dealer. Three-quarters of the guns were purchased near Oakland, California. Successful traces, defined as the ability to identify federally licensed dealers and initial purchasers, were completed on only 52 of the 132 guns, demonstrating systemic tracing difficulties. Data gathered for the project was used to advocate for numerous policy changes. Recommended policy strategies include initiating a comprehensive gun tracing program so police can track all secondary sales, new laws requiring federal handgun registration which would track ownership changes, required reporting of stolen firearms, and providing effective intervention services to all juveniles the first time they enter the criminal justice system. PMID:16269532

Calhoun, Deane; Dodge, Andrea Craig; Journel, Coraline S; Zahnd, Elaine

2005-12-01

180

Solving Youth Violence: Partnerships That Work: National Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., August 15-17, 1994). Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a period of several months, seven Federal agencies met to study and discuss the national problem of violence, especially youth violence, and to determine how best to assist states and communities in dealing with this volatile subject. One result of these discussions was a national conference to focus attention on the many programs being tried…

Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

181

Gender Patterns in the Contribution of Different Types of Violence to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among South African Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Identifying the comparative contributions of different forms of violence exposure to trauma sequelae can help to prioritize interventions for polyvictimized youth living in contexts of limited mental health resources. This study aimed to establish gender patterns in the independent and comparative contributions of five types of violence

Kaminer, Debra; Hardy, Anneli; Heath, Katherine; Mosdell, Jill; Bawa, Umesh

2013-01-01

182

The Overlap of Witnessing Partner Violence with Child Maltreatment and Other Victimizations in a Nationally Representative Survey of Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the co-occurrence of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other forms of victimization. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 4,549 youth aged 0-17. Results: Witnessing partner…

Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard

2010-01-01

183

Does the alcohol make them do it? Dating violence perpetration and drinking among youth.  

PubMed

Strong evidence links alcohol use to partner violence perpetration among adults, but the relation between youth alcohol use and dating violence perpetration (DVP) is not as well studied. The authors used meta-analytic procedures to evaluate current knowledge on the association between alcohol use and DVP among youth. The authors reviewed 28 studies published in 1985-2010; most (82%) were cross-sectional. Alcohol use was measured in 3 main ways: 1) frequency or quantity of use, 2) frequency of heavy episodic drinking, or 3) problem use. Collectively, results support the conclusion that higher levels of alcohol use are positively associated with youth DVP. With fixed-effects models, the combined odds ratios for DVP for frequency/quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and problem use were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.31), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.85), and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.94, 2.80), respectively. This association persisted even after accounting for heterogeneity and publication bias. No studies were designed to assess the immediate temporal association between drinking and DVP. Future research should assess whether there are acute or pharmacologic effects of alcohol use on youth DVP. Furthermore, few studies have been hypothesis driven, controlled for potential confounding, or examined potential effect measure modification. Studies designed to investigate the youth alcohol-DVP link specifically, and whether results vary by individuals' gender, developmental stage, or culture, are needed. PMID:22128086

Rothman, Emily F; McNaughton Reyes, Luz; Johnson, Renee M; LaValley, Michael

2012-01-01

184

Does the Alcohol Make Them Do It? Dating Violence Perpetration and Drinking Among Youth  

PubMed Central

Strong evidence links alcohol use to partner violence perpetration among adults, but the relation between youth alcohol use and dating violence perpetration (DVP) is not as well studied. The authors used meta-analytic procedures to evaluate current knowledge on the association between alcohol use and DVP among youth. The authors reviewed 28 studies published in 1985–2010; most (82%) were cross-sectional. Alcohol use was measured in 3 main ways: 1) frequency or quantity of use, 2) frequency of heavy episodic drinking, or 3) problem use. Collectively, results support the conclusion that higher levels of alcohol use are positively associated with youth DVP. With fixed-effects models, the combined odds ratios for DVP for frequency/quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and problem use were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.31), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.85), and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.94, 2.80), respectively. This association persisted even after accounting for heterogeneity and publication bias. No studies were designed to assess the immediate temporal association between drinking and DVP. Future research should assess whether there are acute or pharmacologic effects of alcohol use on youth DVP. Furthermore, few studies have been hypothesis driven, controlled for potential confounding, or examined potential effect measure modification. Studies designed to investigate the youth alcohol–DVP link specifically, and whether results vary by individuals’ gender, developmental stage, or culture, are needed. PMID:22128086

Rothman, Emily F.; McNaughton Reyes, Luz; Johnson, Renee M.; LaValley, Michael

2012-01-01

185

Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

2014-01-01

186

Invest in Kids--Californians Support New Approach To Prevent Youth Violence. Living Well, Spending for Health. Policy Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Policy Note" highlights new information about youth crime and prevention that suggest that California has a unique opportunity over the next several years to invest in new preventive approaches for reducing youth violence. Several surveys by the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) have documented that Californians share a vision…

California Center for Health Improvement, Sacramento.

187

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2012-01-01

188

Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.  

PubMed

Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. PMID:21491577

Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

2011-01-01

189

Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths  

PubMed Central

Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors. PMID:18855489

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

190

The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.  

PubMed

School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented. PMID:23390438

Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Nam Su

2013-01-01

191

Understanding and Responding to Youth Violence in North Minneapolis Using  

E-print Network

Disparities Research, and the University of Minnesota Center for health Equity. The project plan- ning Center for Health Equity) Mr. Michael Golden (University of Minnesota Program in Health Disparities on Domestic Violence in the African American Community, Phyllis Wheatley Community Center, and the University

Amin, S. Massoud

192

Hopelessness and Violence Among Inner-City Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Ethnographic literature on inner-city life argues that adolescents react to their uncertain (and objectively bleak) future by abandoning hope; this, in turn, leads them to engage in risk behaviors, including violence, with considerable frequency. This study empirically measures the pervasiveness of hopelessness and uncertainty about the future among inner-city adolescents and documents the link between hopelessness, uncertainty, and risk

John M. Bolland; Debra Moehle McCallum; Brad Lian; Carolyn J. Bailey; Paul Rowan

2001-01-01

193

The Developmental Ecology of Urban Males' Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested a developmental-ecological model of violence using longitudinal data from poor, urban African American and Latino adolescent boys and caregivers. Found that community structural characteristics significantly predicted neighborhood social processes. Parenting practices partially mediated relationship between neighborhood social processes and…

Tolan, Patrick H.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.

2003-01-01

194

Preventing Youth Violence and Aggression and Promoting Safety in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased violence in schools, represented by possession of weapons, sexual or racial harassment, bullying, verbal intimidation, gang or cult activity, arson, or corporal punishment of students, for example, is a growing concern among students, educators, and communities. Since educators alone cannot ensure safety in schools, collaboration among…

Mulhern, Sean; And Others

195

Building Community Connections for Youth To Reduce Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative in Morton High School District 201, Cicero, IL, which used a social ecological systems perspective to implement its goals. Social-emotional learning and violence-prevention strategies were provided at the levels of the community, school, and individual. Creation of a safe school environment…

Telleen, Sharon; Maher, Susan; Pesce, Rosario C.

2003-01-01

196

The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention  

PubMed Central

School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented. PMID:23390438

Kim, Nam Su

2013-01-01

197

Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

Ascione, Frank R.

198

Resilience Moderates the Relationship Between Exposure to Violence and Posttraumatic Reexperiencing in Mi’kmaq Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Nova Scotian Mi’kmaq community that hopes to shed\\u000a light on the relationship between exposure to violence and mental health in First Nations youth. This particular study sought\\u000a to examine how the multifaceted construct of resilience might act as a protective factor, buffering some students from the\\u000a negative mental

Marc Zahradnik; Sherry H. Stewart; Roisin M. O’Connor; Doreen Stevens; Michael Ungar; Christine Wekerle

2010-01-01

199

Computer-mediated intervention to prevent drug abuse and violence among high-risk youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluated a computer-mediated intervention for preventing drug abuse and violence. Research participants were economically disadvantaged youth, defined as early adolescents from households with family incomes below the Federal poverty line. Based on cognitive–behavioral skills approaches shown effective in past research, computer intervention was compared with conventionally delivered intervention in a pretest–posttest, control group design. Outcome findings revealed that

Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer Di Noia; Jill R. Glassman

2004-01-01

200

An emergency department-based program to change attitudes of youth toward violence.  

PubMed

Interpersonal violence continues to be a problem in the United States with a recurrence rate for repeat violence of 6 to 44%, with a 5-year mortality of 20%. This study describes the attitudinal changes of youth enrolled in a program to reduce violence risk. Patients aged 10 to 24 years at a community, teaching Level 1 trauma center who were victims of interpersonal violence (excluding child abuse, sexual assault, and domestic violence) were randomly enrolled in the study. The control group was simply provided a list of available services, whereas the treatment group received an assessment and case management for 6 months. The study examined the change in attitude and behavior of the youths in the treatment and control groups over time, using a combination of chi-square and ANCOVA. A total of 188 victims, 96 subjects in the treatment group and the 92 in the control group, had an average age of 18.6 years and were mostly (82.5%) males. A majority were African-Americans (65.4%), followed by Hispanic (31.4%). There was no significant difference found in mother involvement, father involvement, mother support, father support, peer support or peer delinquency. There was a decrease in support from both parents over time, which was not affected by the program. There was a decrease in peer delinquency for both the treatment group (67 to.41) and the control group (63 to.50). The results of this study demonstrate a lack of attitudinal changes. This may be attributed to limitations of study design and an inherent difficulty in dealing with high-risk inner city youth. PMID:14980363

Zun, Leslie S; Downey, LaVonne; Rosen, Jodi

2004-02-01

201

Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among Youth in Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among teens in Hawai‘i. Methods Youth from two O‘ahu high schools (N = 623) were asked to complete a quantitative survey about their experiences, as victims and perpetrators, of IPV. Results The most frequently reported type of violence was monitoring/controlling behaviors. Girls reported higher rates of victimization and perpetration than boys for most violence types. Conclusions Future research should examine the contexts in which teen IPV occurs. It will also be important to engage community-based organizations in prevention efforts. Therefore, a train-the-trainer curriculum for IPV prevention and intervention is proposed. PMID:21857738

Helm, Susana

2011-01-01

202

Guns, Alcohol, and Intimate Partner Violence: The Epidemiology of Female Suicide in New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide is among the leading causes of death in the United States, and in women the second leading cause of injury death overall. Previous studies have suggested links between intimate partner violence and suicide in women. We examined female suicide deaths to identify and describe associated risk factors. We reviewed all reports from the New Mexico Office of the Medical

Lenora Olson; Frank Huyler; Arthur W Lynch; Lynne Fullerton; Deborah Werenko; David Sklar; Ross Zumwalt

1999-01-01

203

Aiming for Prevention: Medical and Public Health Approaches to Small Arms, Gun Violence, and Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of global small arms violence is enormous and the scale of human suffering it causes is immense, although poorly counted. It causes at least hundreds of thousands of deaths and more than a million injuries each year, as well as permanent physical and psychological damage, destruction of families, lost productivity, and diversion of resources from basic health services.

Brian Rawson

204

Drugs, guns, and kids: The association between substance use and injury caused by interpersonal violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drug and alcohol uses have been linked to the frequency of injury events, recurrent hospital admission for injury, and interpersonal violence. Data regarding the association of recent substance use and injury type and frequency in children and young adults are not available. Such data probably would be valuable in planning interventions to prevent substance use and reduce the risks

Atul Madan; Derrick J. Beech; Lewis Flint

2001-01-01

205

Mother abuse: a matter of youth justice, child welfare or domestic violence?  

PubMed

International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence. PMID:20726145

Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie

2010-01-01

206

Epidemiology of mixed martial arts and youth violence in an ethnically diverse sample.  

PubMed

Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies. PMID:22455184

Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M

2012-01-01

207

Children, adolescents, and war: the systematic engagement of youth in collective violence.  

PubMed

Increasingly health personnel are called on to address the needs of adolescents affected by armed conflict. Adolescents suffer as combatants, direct and indirect casualties, as dependents of combatants, and as citizens of countries whose resources are destroyed and/or consumed by war and other forms of organized violence. Survivors of war, ex-child soldiers, refugees, and others are found today in cities on all continents. This paper will review the epidemiology of armed conflict, especially with respect to children and youth, examine the etiology of youth involvement in armed conflict including social risk factors and developmental vulnerabilities, and review the peace-building efforts of the United Nations, communities, and youth themselves. Finally we will briefly review the efforts of those committed to the well-being of adolescents in the areas of advocacy and treatment. PMID:20653212

Warf, Curren; Eisenstein, Evelyn; Stahl, Christiane

2009-12-01

208

Race, youth violence, and the changing jurisprudence of waiver.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the legal history and jurisprudential theory of legislative offense-exclusion and prosecutorial waiver laws over the past quarter-century. Initially concerns about racial discrimination and civil rights motivated the Supreme Court in Kent v. United States to require due process in judicial waiver hearings. Offense-exclusion and "direct file" laws evolved and expanded in direct reaction to Kent as lawmakers sought simple and expedient alternatives to judicial waiver hearings. The "just deserts" sentencing movement of the 1970s, which advocated determinate and presumptive offense-based sentences, provided a conceptual alternative to judicial discretion and a jurisprudential rationale for offense exclusion laws. Research on delinquent and criminal careers in the 1970s, which initially promised empirically grounded selective incapacitation sentencing strategies, provided another conceptual foundation for offense-based waiver laws that focused on youths' prior records. Finally, offense exclusion provided a politically attractive strategy for "get tough" public officials who proposed to "crack down" on "baby boom" increases in youth crime. The jurisprudential shift in sentencing emphases from considerations of the offender to characteristics of the offense relocated waiver and sentencing discretion from judges to prosecutors. By the early 1990s, as a result of political "crack-downs" on youth crime, the scope of excluded offense legislation increased substantially, became overly inclusive and excessively rigid, and exhibited many of the negative features associated with mandatory sentencing laws. PMID:11241678

Feld, B C

2001-01-01

209

The role of collaboration in facilitating policy change in youth violence prevention: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Youth violence remains a serious public health issue nationally and internationally. The social ecological model has been recommended as a framework to design youth violence prevention initiatives, requiring interventions at the micro-, meso-, exo-, and macro-levels. However, documentation of interventions at the macro-level, particularly those that address policy issues, is limited. This study examines a recommendation in the literature that formalized collaborations play a vital role in stimulating macro-level policy change. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to examine existing youth violence prevention collaborations and evaluate their policy-related outcomes. The search found 23 unique collaborations focused on youth violence prevention. These were organized into three groups based on the "catalyst" for action for the collaboration-internal (momentum began within the community), external (sparked by an external agency), or policy (mandated by law). Findings suggest that internally catalyzed collaborations were most successful at changing laws to address youth violence, while both internally and externally catalyzed collaborations successfully attained policy change at the organizational level. A conceptual model is proposed, describing a potential pathway for achieving macro-level change via collaboration. Recommendations for future research and practice are suggested, including expansion of this study to capture additional collaborations, investigation of macro-level changes with a primary prevention focus, and improvement of evaluation, dissemination, and translation of macro-level initiatives. PMID:23430580

Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Braun, Kathryn L

2014-04-01

210

FBI Reports Drop in Crime Due to Gun Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a report released Sunday, the FBI found that a seven percent drop in homicides was entirely attributable to a decrease in killings committed with guns. The report also linked a drop in the rate of robbery involving guns to a ten percent drop in overall robberies nationwide. The decline in crime remained consistent in other categories as well, including property crimes, homicide against women, and random violent crimes. Surprisingly, in the wake of certain highly publicized acts of youth violence, the rate of violent juvenile crime has also dropped. This marks the seventh straight year that crime has declined in America. While both the report and many experts see a direct link between declining crime and tougher gun control, there continue to be dissenters -- one might ask if there isn't a certain circularity to the FBI's conclusions, and it remains to be seen if the current Congress will be swayed to retake up the gun legislation defeated this past summer.

Charbonneau, David D.

211

Media Violence Research and Youth Violence Data: Why Do They Conflict?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Contrary to media headlines and public perceptions, there is little evidence of a substantial link between exposure to violent interactive games and serious real-life violence or crime. Conclusion: Further research is needed on whether violent games may affect less dramatic but real concerns such as bullying, fighting, or attitudes and…

Olson, Cheryl K.

2004-01-01

212

Cue-centered treatment for youth exposed to interpersonal violence: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study provides preliminary evidence of the feasibility and efficacy of the Stanford cue-centered treatment for reducing posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety in children chronically exposed to violence. Sixty-five youth aged 8–17 years were recruited from 13 schools. Participants were randomly assigned to cue-centered treatment or a waitlist control group. Assessments were conducted at 4 discrete time points. Self-report measures assessed youth symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression.Self-report ratings of caregiver anxiety and depression as well as caregiver report of child PTSD were also obtained. Therapists evaluated participants’ overall symptom improvement across treatment sessions. Hierarchal linear modeling analyses showed that compared to the waitlist group, the cue-centered treatment group had greater reductions in PTSD symptoms both by caregiver and child report, as well as caregiver anxiety. Cue-centered treatment, a hybrid trauma intervention merging diverse theoretical approaches, demonstrated feasibility,adherence, and efficacy in treating youth with a history of interpersonal violence. PMID:24490236

Carrion, Victor G; Kletter, Hilit; Weems, Carl F; Berry, Rebecca Rialon; Rettger, John P

2013-12-01

213

Teaching Chicano Youth the Sociology of Barrio Social Problems with the Aid of Small Airplane Flights. (An Experiment to Help Reduce Chicano Youth Violence).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chicano youth violence (CYV) is a serious problem, progressively more generalized and vicious and increasingly involving girls and children as assailants and also attacks on old people, whites and Mexican nationals. Becoming romanticized and institutionalized into a subculture, CYV is an important factor in the destruction of authentic Chicano…

Jorquez, Jaime S.

214

A Community-based Approach to Preventing Youth Violence: What Can We Learn from the Playground?  

PubMed Central

Background Aggression, bullying, and victimization represent tremendous public health concerns among youth. These behaviors occur frequently in unstructured settings, such as the playground. Direct observations of the playground permit examination of these peer processes and are readily accomplished using community-based participatory research. Objectives To present alternative viewpoints regarding the use of playground observations to evaluate peer aggression, bullying, and victimization. Methods We used (a) a child-specific observational coding system and (b) naturalistic observation of the playground to examine playground behaviors. Results Peer-child processes have differential associations with conduct disorder and depression symptoms. Group-based observations suggested a number of strengths and some areas that would be amenable to intervention. Conclusions A community-based participatory research framework is useful for identifying youth involved in bullying and victimization; providing immediate support, interventions, and problem-solving strategies; and predicting potential negative outcomes, which can inform violence prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:20729609

Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Baugh, David

2010-01-01

215

Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. Methods Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (?18 yrs) and adult patients. Findings 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6–12], p<0.001), and less frequently by military personnel (13% vs 48%, OR 0.14 [95%CI 0.075–0.26], p<0.001). Delayed presentation for medical care (>72 hours after the assault) was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2–4.0], p?=?0.007). Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3–4.4], p?=?0.006). Nine (2.9%) pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p?=?0.34). Interpretation World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth. PMID:21267467

Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Lussy Justin, Paluku; Kimona, Christophe; Nyavandu, Kavira; Mukekulu Eugenie, Kamabu; Jonathan, Kasereka Muhindo Lusi; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Hawkes, Michael

2011-01-01

216

Disintegration and Violence among Migrants in Germany: Turkish and Russian Youths versus German Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turkish and Russian immigrants are the two largest groups of immigrants in Germany, but there are some important differences regarding their legal status. Although most of the Turkish adolescents were born in Germany, few of them have German citizenship. In contrast, most of the Russian youths were born outside Germany, but they mostly possess…

Baier, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Christian

2008-01-01

217

Psychosocial Consequences of Caregiver Transitions for Maltreated Youth Entering Foster Care: The Moderating Impact of Community Violence Exposure  

PubMed Central

Youth who experience a greater number of caregiver transitions during childhood are at risk for developing a host of psychosocial problems. Although researchers have examined individual-level factors that may moderate this association, no known studies have examined the impact of community-level factors. The current study investigated whether community violence exposure moderated the association between number of prior caregiver transitions and increases in levels of externalizing and internalizing problems for a sample of youth entering foster care. Participants included 156 youth (age 9 to 11 at first assessment) removed from their homes because of maltreatment. Youth provided reports of caregiver transitions and community violence exposure at baseline, and caregivers, teachers, and youth reported on externalizing and internalizing problems 18–22 months later. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that youth with a greater number of caregiver transitions and higher levels of community violence exposure evidenced significant increases in levels of psychosocial problems. The results of the study are discussed in terms of their implications for child welfare services. PMID:21729018

Garrido, Edward F.; Culhane, Sara E.; Petrenko, Christie L. M.; Taussig, Heather N.

2011-01-01

218

Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study  

PubMed Central

Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating victim status in boys. All violence-affected youth exhibited significantly higher rates of cumulative mental health problems. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of violence for the mental health of youth. They reveal a particular vulnerability as a function of gender. Implications for policy making, clinical practice and research are discussed. PMID:23819775

2013-01-01

219

Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

Council of Europe Forum, 1985

1985-01-01

220

Assessing the Impact of Violence and War on Youth in Low-and Middle-Income Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research is needed to understand the effects of violence and armed conflict in low-and middle-income countries, though there are logistical and ethical concerns that should be taken prior to study design. Objective: This paper provides commentary on some of the challenges inherent in conducting research with youth affected by war in…

Song, Suzan; Shaheen, Mohammed

2013-01-01

221

Helping Children Exposed to War and Violence: Perspectives from an International Work Group on Interventions for Youth and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This paper outlines conclusions from a three-day workgroup hosting the eight authors as well as others with expertise in the evaluation and treatment of youth exposed to war and violence. Objective: The purpose of this meeting was to bring multiple perspectives together to identify components that comprise effective psychosocial…

Kletter, Hilit; Rialon, Rebecca A.; Laor, Nathaniel; Brom, Daniel; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Shaheen, Mohammed; Hamiel, Daniel; Chemtob, Claude; Weems, Carl F.; Feinstein, Carl; Lieberman, Alicia; Reicherter, Daryn; Song, Suzan; Carrion, Victor G.

2013-01-01

222

Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

223

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Preface Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching #12;#12;Inside Gun-Violence Effort. She put gun shows on my radar and is an ace straw-purchase spotter. Thanks also to Barbara Claire a great public institution. He was right. #12;Contents Preface Executive Summary Gun Shows in Context How

Leistikow, Bruce N.

224

"I Live by Shooting Hill" - A Qualitative Exploration of Conflict and Violence among Urban Youth in New Haven, Connecticut  

PubMed Central

To elucidate urban youths’ perceptions of conflict and violence we conducted a qualitative study among minority urban youths in New Haven, Connecticut. We utilized the ecological framework to explore the multilevel nature of the findings, and triangulated results with a parallel quantitative study. We found risk factors for violence at multiple levels including lack of interpersonal anger management skills (individual level); parents not physically present in the household (relationship level); residence in crime and gang-ridden neighborhoods (community level); and socioeconomic inequalities between neighborhoods, as reflected by participants’ perception of the inadequacy of neighborhood resources to provide safety (societal level). Neighborhood resources were perceived as sparse, and police were not regarded as a protective factor (sometimes rather as racially discriminatory). Participants’ statements pertaining to feelings of isolation, racism, and violence without strong parental, neighborhood, and school support may impede prosocial attitudes and behaviors throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22643467

Shuval, Kerem; Massey, Zohar; O Caughy, Margaret; Cavanaugh, Brenda; Pillsbury, Charles A; Groce, Nora

2013-01-01

225

Breaking the cycle of violence among youth living in metropolitan Atlanta: a case history of kids alive and loved.  

PubMed

More teenagers in the United States die from gunshot wounds than from all natural causes of disease combined. Firearm-related mortality accounts for almost half of all deaths among African American teens. Residents of central cities have the highest probability of experiencing violent crimes. This article describes an innovative community-based intervention designed to break the cycle of violence among youth in metropolitan Atlanta. The intervention, Kids Alive and Loved (KAL), emerged from the African American community as one mother's response to the violent death of her 17-year-old son. The authors describe how her response to tragedy gave birth to a culturally appropriate intervention for youth exposed to violence. This article delineates the evolution of KAL, the role of community partners in the design of the intervention, and how diffusion of innovation theory has implications for understanding the KAL approach to breaking the cycle of violence. PMID:9548058

Thomas, S B; Leite, B; Duncan, T

1998-04-01

226

Community mobilization and community-based participatory research to prevent youth violence among Asian and immigrant populations.  

PubMed

Many community mobilization activities for youth violence prevention involve the researchers assisting communities in identifying, adapting, and/or tailoring evidence-based programs to fit the community needs, population, and cultural and social contexts. This article describes a slightly different framework in which the collaborative research/evaluation project emerged from the community mobilization activities. As will be discussed, this collaborative, sustained partnership was possible in the context of the Center on Culture, Immigration and Youth Violence Prevention's (UC Berkeley ACE) community mobilization activities that brought the issue of youth violence, particularly among immigrant and minority populations, to the forefront of many of the community partners' agendas. The East Bay Asian Youth Center (EBAYC) was one of the partners that came to the table, which facilitated the community-based engagement/mobilization. UC Berkeley ACE collaborated with EBAYC to evaluate an after-school program and an alternative probation program serving a diverse youth and immigrant population, including African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics. This article describes UC Berkeley ACE's community mobilization activity and the collaborative partnership with EBAYC, discusses how the evaluations incorporated community-based principles in design and practice, and presents some findings from the evaluations. PMID:21210205

Le, Thao N; Arifuku, Isami; Vuong, Linh; Tran, Gianna; Lustig, Deborah F; Zimring, Franklin

2011-09-01

227

Education policy implications from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence.  

PubMed

The research from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence makes a compelling case for why educators and education policymakers should care about the effects of media on youth behavior, and the growing phenomenon of Internet bullying and harassment. The ability of the U.S. education system to respond is limited not only by competing instructional priorities but also by the governance structure of the education system itself. The federal role is limited to a proportionally small amount of funding for states and schools, to raising public awareness, and to providing research and data. States can set priorities, make requirements, and direct funding. Districts and schools ultimately have the most control over prevention program selection and setting social and behavioral norms. Key implications of the panel's research for educators and education policymakers include: Internet bullying is correlated with school behavior problems; Internet bullying behavior may peak in middle school; Internet bullying shares common predictors with verbal and, to some extent, physical bullying; Media literacy programs may mitigate the negative effects of electronic media on youth. Specific recommendations based on these conclusions are discussed, and research priorities for the prevention and education fields are identified. PMID:18047948

Worthen, Maria R

2007-12-01

228

Examining Space–Time Interaction in City-Level Homicide Data: Crack Markets and the Diffusion of Guns Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the linkage between crack market activity and gunhomicide suggested by Blumstein (1995), who argues that the arrival ofcrack stimulated an increased availability of guns among juveniles. Thisgreater availability of guns, the argument continues, is responsible for thesharp upswing in juvenile homicide experienced in the United States in themid-1980s. Using city-level data on crack arrests and gun-related juvenilehomicide,

Daniel Cork

1999-01-01

229

doi:10.1155/2011/909076 Research Article Exposure to Community Violence, Psychopathology, and Personality Traits in Russian Youth  

E-print Network

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Previous research with the US inner-city youth demonstrated the hazardous effects of community violence exposure. It remains unclear, however, whether these findings are generalizable to other cultures and populations. Furthermore, the role of factors influencing the processing of traumatic events such as personality has not been investigated. Two groups of Russian adolescents (community youth (N = 546) and male delinquents (N = 352)) completed questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, conduct problems, internalizing psychopathology and personality. The study demonstrates that the relationships between exposure to violence and psychopathology are similar across different populations within the same culture (community youth and juvenile delinquents), suggesting similar mechanisms behind this phenomenon. The patterns of these relationships were also similar for boys and girls, suggesting similarities in the mechanisms across gender. Hence, the effects of community violence exposure are generalizable to other cultures outside the US. The associations between personality traits and specific types of behaviors also tend to be similar across different populations. Higher levels of novelty seeking were related to more severe problem

Roman Koposov; Vladislav Ruchkin

230

Effectiveness of school-based violence prevention for children and youth: a research report.  

PubMed

Aggression, bullying and violence in children and youth are prevalent in Canada (18%) and internationally. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Roots of Empathy (ROE), a school-based mental health promotion and violence prevention program for children that has been widely implemented but rarely evaluated. Eight school divisions were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received ROE in 2002-2003 (445 students) or a wait-list control group (315 students). These were compared on three child mental health outcomes (physical aggression, indirect aggression and pro-social behaviour), rated by teachers and students (self-rated). The three wait-list school divisions received ROE in 2003-2004 (new cohort of 265 students) and were compared with the control group from 2002-2003 on the three outcomes, for replication purposes. For both comparisons, the authors report multi-level modelling analyses regarding (1) immediate effects after ROE completion at the end of the school year (pretest to post-test) and (2) long-term ROE effects up to three years after post-test. ROE had replicated, beneficial effects on all teacher-rated outcomes, which were generally maintained or further improved across follow-up. However, ROE had almost no statistically significant or replicated effects on student-rated outcomes. This is the first evaluation to suggest that ROE appears effective when implemented on a large scale under real-world delivery conditions. PMID:24956430

Santos, Robert G; Chartier, Mariette J; Whalen, Jeanne C; Chateau, Dan; Boyd, Leanne

2011-04-01

231

Firearms and family violence.  

PubMed

Firearms contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in family violence. This article discusses the debate on gun use for protection and guns in the home. Weapons-related risks in the setting of intimate partner violence are closely reviewed. Recommendations for physicians are discussed in the context of firearms and family violence. PMID:10516848

Kellermann, A; Heron, S

1999-08-01

232

Correlates of gun-carrying among adolescents in south Louisiana.  

PubMed

In the majority of episodes of fatal interpersonal violence, the weapon used is a firearm. Amid frequent reports of youths carrying weapons, including firearms, we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for being charged with gun-carrying and gun-carrying, per se, among adolescents in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. Cases were defined as incidents of gun-carrying among adolescents < 19 years of age, legally charged in the Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, juvenile court from January 1, 1992, through April 15, 1993. For each case, we randomly drew three age-, gender-, and school-matched control subjects from the enrollment rosters of the Jefferson Parish public schools and administered a questionnaire. The data set comprised 38 case subjects and 103 matched control subjects. Thirty (29%) control subjects reported gun-carrying. Both case subjects and gun-carrying control subjects reported self-defense (40%) as the main reason for gun-carrying. Most case subjects (25 [66%]) were African Americans, but only 8 (27%) gun-carrying and 27 (37%) non-gun-carrying control subjects were African Americans. Case subjects were significantly more likely than gun-carrying control subjects to report being African American (odds ratio [OR] = 5.3, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.6, 17.5). In crude analyses, case subjects were more likely than non-gun-carrying control subjects to report adult-male unemployment among households with adult men, to foresee a likelihood to be shot in school, to have seen a shooting, to use marijuana, to watch television > 6 hours per day, and to be African American. After the effect estimates were adjusted in conditional logistic regression modeling, case subjects were more likely than non-gun-carrying control subjects to report adult-male unemployment among households with adult men, using marijuana, and watching television > 6 hours per day (OR = 8.6, 95% CI = 1.2, 61,2; OR = 11.7, 95% CI = 2, 70.2; and OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 51.9, respectively). Gun-carrying control subjects were significantly more likely than non-gun-carrying control subjects to report their school not safe, having seen a shooting, using marijuana, and having fired a gun (OR = 9, 95% CI = 1, 82.1; OR = 7, 95% CI = 1.3, 38.2; OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 1.8, 25.5; and OR = 17, 95% CI = 1.8, 156.6, respectively). We found that gun-carrying was very common, and that adolescent youths who carry guns were more likely to have familiarity with guns and experience with or perception of an unsafe environment. Together, these lead to the conclusion that gun-carrying is a common response of youths who live in a risky environment, who do not have the social support to learn how to deal effectively with that risk, and who have access to guns, which they think may provide them with some protection. PMID:8777074

McNabb, S J; Farley, T A; Powell, K E; Rolka, H R; Horan, J M

1996-01-01

233

The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew's general strain theory (GST) give…

Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John

2006-01-01

234

LA INTERACCIÓN TRANSNACIONAL DE LA SOCIEDAD CIVIL CENTROAMERICANA FRENTE A LA VIOLENCIA JUVENIL Transnational interaction of the Central American civil society before the youth violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence is one of the most important social problems in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. The expansion of the youth gangs has been confronted by the governments of these nations through the adoption of repressive measures. Massive police operations and anti-gang legislation have been the main tools used in the three countries to try to stop the rise of

Alberto MARTÍN ÁLVAREZ; TORRE OROPEZA

2008-01-01

235

Youth Empowerment Solutions for Peaceful Communities: combining theory and practice in a community-level violence prevention curriculum.  

PubMed

This article describes the development and evaluation of an after-school curriculum designed to prepare adolescents to prevent violence through community change. This curriculum, part of the Youth Empowerment Solutions for Peaceful Communities (YES) program, is guided by empowerment and ecological theories within a positive youth development context. YES is designed to enhance the capacity of adolescents and adults to work together to plan and implement community change projects. The youth curriculum is organized around six themed units: (a) Youth as Leaders, (b) Learning about Our Community, (c) Improving Our Community, (d) Building Intergenerational Partnerships, (e) Planning for Change, and (f) Action and Reflection. The curriculum was developed through an iterative process. Initially, program staff members documented their activities with youth. These outlines were formalized as curriculum sessions. Each session was reviewed by the program and research staff and revised based on underlying theory and practical application. The curriculum process evaluation includes staff and youth feedback. This theoretically based, field-tested curriculum is designed to be easily adapted and implemented in a diverse range of communities. PMID:21059871

Zimmerman, Marc A; Stewart, Sarah E; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan; Reischl, Thomas M

2011-05-01

236

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Executive Summary #12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence;Executive Summary Gun shows are surrounded by controversy. On the one hand, they are important economic

Nguyen, Danh

237

Gun Laws and Policies: A Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

I would like to begin by asking you to talk about the place of guns in American culture... Guns do represent a special problem in our society. The level of gun violence in the United States is much higher than in our peer nations...

Gregg Lee Carter

2003-01-01

238

Adolescents at risk for violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpersonal violence among youth is a growing problem in many communities and schools across the nation. The causes of violence are multiple and complex. This paper examines the extent and nature of interpersonal violence among youth as well as the individual and societal factors which contribute to youth violence. Adolescents are disproportionately represented as both victims and perpetrators of fatal

Richard Lowry; David Sleet; Carlton Duncan; Ken Powell; Lloyd Kolbe

1995-01-01

239

Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?  

PubMed

Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization. PMID:24364129

McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

2013-01-01

240

Alcoholism and gun control.  

PubMed

The recurring dilemma of having to deal with an intoxicated person in possession of a gun uttering homicidal or suicidal threats along with the current debate on gun control prompted this controlled survey of the characteristics of individuals with problems arising from the joint abuse of alcohol and possession of a gun. A comparison of the data point to violence as being the most significant differentiating variable involved. This violent potential was reflected by the presence among the alcoholics involved of more past and present antisocial traits, a higher rating on the Nicol's scale of violence, more offences committed against the person and homicidal behaviour. The availability of a gun was a significant factor. No correlation was found between the severity of the drinking problem and the risk of dangerous handling of a gun. The need for more stringent gun controls is supported but their implications to the physician and especially the psychiatrist as a potential guarantor for a licence application ought to be further explored by the professional bodies involved. PMID:890644

el-Guebaly, N; Lee, M

1977-08-01

241

Violence risk and gang affiliation in youth offenders: a recidivism study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs are ubiquitous around the world and have been problematic for the social and criminal justice agencies. Despite widespread public concern, there has been relatively scarce empirical scrutiny of youth gangs internationally and little outside of America and Europe. In particular, the activities of youth gangs, the function of gang membership, the criminogenic needs of gang-affiliated youth, and the

Chi Meng Chu; Michael Daffern; Stuart Thomas; Jia Ying Lim

2010-01-01

242

77 FR 14393 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants to State Domestic Violence Coalitions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Violence Prevention and Services/Grants to State Domestic Violence Coalitions AGENCY: Family and Youth Services...confirm a Federal commitment to reducing family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence; to provide for...

2012-03-09

243

75 FR 42126 - Office on Violence Against Women  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...assistance for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. Overall, the purpose of the...services for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking, as well...

2010-07-20

244

U.S. Gun Deaths Lowest in Hawaii, Highest in D.C.  

MedlinePLUS

... gun-related deaths increased in both Florida and Massachusetts. In these states, there were more gun deaths ... the Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence ranked Massachusetts the third most restrictive state for firearm legislation ...

245

Pathways from childhood maltreatment to emerging adulthood: investigating trauma-mediated substance use and dating violence outcomes among child protective services-involved youth.  

PubMed

Longitudinal survey data were used to examine the relationship between two types of childhood maltreatment, abuse/neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and two outcomes, substance use and dating violence, within the past year. Participants were youth (N = 158, aged 16-19 at Time 3) involved with child protective services (CPS). A parallel multiple mediator model was used to test the hypothesis that trauma symptoms would mediate the relationship between both types of maltreatment and dating violence, marijuana, and alcohol use outcomes. Although both types of maltreatment were not directly associated with dating violence and substance use outcomes, the indirect effects of anxiety, anger, and dissociation on the relationship between maltreatment and substance use/dating violence were significant. Direct effects of both types of maltreatment on past year use of dating violence + alcohol use and dating violence + marijuana use were not significant, but results demonstrated a significant indirect effect for anger on the relationship between exposure to IPV and past year dating violence + marijuana use. No other indirect effects were significant. Findings highlight the negative effects of exposure to IPV and have implications for the development of prevention programming for youth transitioning out of CPS. PMID:25287053

Faulkner, Breanne; Goldstein, Abby L; Wekerle, Christine

2014-08-01

246

Exploring Violence Exposure, Stress, Protective Factors and Behavioral Problems Among Inner-City Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relationships between violence exposure, other stressors, family support, and self-concept on self-reported behavioral problems among 320 urban adolescents (aged 11–18) referred for mental health treatment. Overall, participants reported high levels of violence exposure, with a median of six past encounters with violence as a witness, victim, or through the experiences of associates. All forms of violence exposure

Eric Youngstrom; Mark D. Weist; Kathleen E. Albus

2003-01-01

247

Dealing with Youth Violence. What Schools and Communities Need To Know.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication addresses many of the complexities of violence, and provides information to prepare educators and parents to combat violence in schools and communities. The chapters are: (1) "How Educators, Students, Parents, and Law Enforcement Officials See School Violence" (Rose M. Duhon-Sells and Halloway C. Sells); (2) "Addressing School…

Duhon-Sells, Rose, Ed.

248

Separating Batterers and GunsA Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint (“police gun removal laws”) and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers through a protective order (“court-ordered removal laws”). As of April

Shannon Frattaroli; Jon S. Vernick

2006-01-01

249

Perpetrator and victim gender patterns for 21 forms of youth victimization in the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence.  

PubMed

Most interest in violence and gender has focused on certain types of victimization such as sex offenses and relational aggression. This study examined gender patterns across numerous forms of youth victimization. The data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative U.S. sample of 4,549 children ages 1 month to 17 years obtained through a telephone survey of caregivers and youth. For 18 of 21 victimization types, male perpetration was significantly more common than female perpetration. Perpetrator-victim patterns revealed that most forms of physical assault and bullying showed a predominantly male-on-male pattern. All forms of sexual assault, plus kidnapping, showed a predominantly male-on-female pattern. Nonphysical maltreatment showed a mixed pattern, with fairly similar rates across all four gender configurations. Many violence types were more severe when perpetrated by males versus females as indicated by higher injury rates and greater victim fear. Higher order analyses by victimization type indicated, among other findings, that victimization types with more stranger perpetrators had more male perpetrators, victimizations with higher percentages of male-on-female and female-on-male incidents were more likely to be sexual offenses, and higher percentages of female-on-female incidents were associated with verbal victimizations. Results also suggest that males are more likely to aggress in more impersonal contexts compared to females. Gender socialization, physical power, and social power appear to intersect in ways that create gendered patterns of violence. These factors, versus a focus on skills deficits, need more attention in prevention and intervention. PMID:24547672

Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

2013-01-01

250

Drinking Style and Dating Violence in a Sample of Urban, Alcohol-Using Youth*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study examined childhood abuse, problem behavior, drinking style, and dating violence (DV). Our goal was to assess whether (a) alcohol use—related beliefs and behaviors (“drinking style”) would be associated with DV perpetration and victimization, (b) drinking style would mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and DV, and (c) the drinking style—DV relationship would be attributable to propensity for problem behavior. Method: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 456 youth ages 14—21 years who were patients in an urban emergency department. Participants were eligible if they were unmarried and reported past-month alcohol use and dating in the past year. By design, the sample was 50% female. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results: For both males and females, past-year DV was associated with a more risky drinking style, characterized by more frequent alcohol use, alcohol-aggression expectancies, drinking to cope, and beliefs that alcohol is disinhibiting and that being drunk provides a “time-out” from behavioral expectations. Drinking style mediated the childhood victimization—DV relationship for males and females. However, when propensity for problem behavior was included in the model, the effect of drinking style on DV was no longer significant. Substantial path differences for males and females were observed. Conclusions: The current study examined adolescent drinking style as a potential mediator between childhood victimization and DV. Drinking style was associated with DV for males and females and mediated the relationship between childhood victimization and DV. The relationship between drinking style and DV appeared to reflect adolescents' propensity for problem behavior. Variations in males' and females' pathways to DV were observed. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21683037

Rothman, Emily F.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Heeren, Timothy; Bowen, Deborah J.; Vinci, Robert; Baughman, Allyson L.; Bernstein, Judith

2011-01-01

251

Youth Bulges, Busts, and Doing Business in Violence-Prone Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ascertain whether youth bulges are related to violent conflict and whether violent conflict falls off when youth bulges are followed by busts, we analyzed data from 1998-2005 covering 127 nations. Controlling for variables representing such factors as socio-development, macroeconomics, technology advancement, government capacity, and geo-politics, we find that youth bulges are related to violent conflict, but when youth bulges

Alfred A. Marcus; Mazhar Islam; John Moloney

2009-01-01

252

Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health  

PubMed Central

Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

2012-01-01

253

Removing guns from batterers: findings from a pilot survey of domestic violence restraining order recipients in California.  

PubMed

Persons under certain domestic violence restraining orders in California are required to surrender any firearms in their possession within 24 hours of service. The California Department of Justice funded a pilot program in which Sheriff's Offices in two counties developed a system for better enforcing the firearm surrender requirement. As part of a larger process evaluation, 17 restraining order recipients were interviewed about their experiences with and feelings about the removal of firearms from their abusers. Most women surveyed wanted firearms removed and felt safer as a result of their removal. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23759665

Vittes, Katherine A; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Claire, Barbara E; Wintemute, Garen J

2013-05-01

254

Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2013-01-01

255

An Analysis of Violence Exposure and Response among Youth in the West Jackson Community as a Correlate of At-Risk Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing rate of violence and aggression among children in the West Jackson Community continues to perpetuate a cycle of at-risk behavior. This cycle has contributed to an increase in chronic behavior patterns such as delinquency, depression, drug and alcohol abuse, school failure and incarceration. High levels of exposure to violent and aggressive behavior often characterize youth in this community's

Rodney Washington; Ruth Searcy

256

Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which were…

Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.

2007-01-01

257

Evaluation of the Effects of the Aban Aya Youth Project in Reducing Violence among African American Adolescent Males Using Latent Class Growth Mixture Modeling Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employs growth mixture modeling techniques to evaluate the preventive effects of the Aban Aya Youth Project in reducing the rate of growth of violence among African American adolescent males (N = 552). Results suggest three distinct classes of participants: high risk (34%), medium risk (54%), and low risk (12%) based on both the…

Segawa, Eisuke; Ngwe, Job E.; Li, Yanhong; Flay, Brian R.

2005-01-01

258

Gender differences in the risk for delinquency among youth exposed to family violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this research was to illuminate gender differences in adolescent delinquency against a backdrop of childhood exposure to both marital violence and physical child abuse. Specifically, analyses were performed to trace the unique effects of exposure to either form of family violence (marital or child) on the violent and nonviolent delinquency of boys and girls.Method: This is

Veronica M Herrera; Laura Ann McCloskey

2001-01-01

259

Violent backgrounds of economically disadvantaged youth: Risk factors for perpetrating violence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent Job Corps residents (n=474) reported the violence they had experienced, witnessed, and perpetrated with regards to parents, siblings, friends, and strangers. Results indicated that there was a high prevalence of all types of violence in this atrisk adolescent sample. Moreover, the majority of adolescents who reported violent experiences indicated threat or use of a weapon was involved. Gender differences

Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling; Peter Neidig

1995-01-01

260

Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent\\u000a behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories,\\u000a and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female) African American youth living in\\u000a impoverished urban neighborhoods who participated in the Mobile Youth

Sarah A. StoddardSusan; Susan J. Henly; Renee E. Sieving; John Bolland

2011-01-01

261

Gun Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... though guns are featured in many television shows, video games, computer games, and movies, it's important to know ... could only happen on TV, in movies, or video games. A real gun is never a toy, and ...

262

Nonreciprocal and Reciprocal Dating Violence and Injury Occurrence among Urban Youth  

E-print Network

of violent adolescent relationships, in which there wasRelationships: Findings From a National Study of Adolescents.relationships (10.1% versus Conclusion: Reciprocal dating violence is common among adolescents and

Swahn, Monica H; Alemdar, Meltem; Whitaker, Daniel J

2010-01-01

263

Separating batterers and guns: a review and analysis of gun removal laws in 50 States.  

PubMed

Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers through a protective order ("court-ordered removal laws"). As of April 2004, 18 states had police gun removal laws; 16 states had court-ordered removal laws. The authors examine relevant characteristics of the laws and recommend that these laws be mandatory, apply to all guns and ammunition possessed by an abuser, and include clear procedures to enhance implementation. PMID:16679498

Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S

2006-06-01

264

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles [pdf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Business improvement districts (BIDs) are a tool used by concerned members of the business community and politicians to enhance a commercial retail area's economic fortunes. As it turns out, they may also improve the social environment of their neighborhoods as well. Published in 2009, this study commissioned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was completed by the RAND Corporation. Throughout its 139-pages the study takes a critical look at how these BIDs have the potential "to reduce a youth's risk to neighborhood violence" and generally improve the social environment. The study was based on research performed in Los Angeles and the report itself is divided into six chapters. The study notes that the activities of BIDs can help increase informal social control, reducing visible signs of disorder and blight, and provide enriched employment opportunities.

MacDonald, John M. (John Michael), 1972-

265

75 FR 27820 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...assistance for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. Overall, the purpose of the...services for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking, as well...

2010-05-18

266

Youth, violence and non-injection drug use: nexus of vulnerabilities among lesbian and bisexual sex workers.  

PubMed

Despite increasing evidence of enhanced HIV risk among sexual minority populations, and sex workers (SWs) in particular, there remains a paucity of epidemiological data on the risk environments of SWs who identify as lesbian or bisexual. Therefore, this short report describes a study that examined the individual, interpersonal and structural associations with lesbian or bisexual identity among SWs in Vancouver, Canada. Analysis drew on data from an open prospective cohort of street and hidden off-street SWs in Vancouver. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the independent relationships between individual, interpersonal, work environment and structural factors and lesbian or bisexual identity. Of the 510 individuals in our sample, 95 (18.6%) identified as lesbian or bisexual. In multivariable analysis, reporting non-injection drug use in the last six months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.89; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.42, 5.75), youth ?24 years of age (AOR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.24, 4.73) and experiencing client-perpetrated verbal, physical and/or sexual violence in the last six months (AOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.98) remained independently associated with lesbian/bisexual identity, after adjusting for potential confounders. The findings demonstrate an urgent need for evidence-based social and structural HIV prevention interventions. In particular, policies and programmes tailored to lesbian and bisexual youth and women working in sex work, including those that prevent violence and address issues of non-injection stimulant use are required. PMID:24382155

Lyons, Tara; Kerr, Thomas; Duff, Putu; Feng, Cindy; Shannon, Kate

2014-01-01

267

A British perspective on guns, crime and social order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed an escalation in the number of young men involved in lethal gun-related violence in the UK. Within the last two years these have resulted in over 80 deaths. Lacking any overarching explanation some have attributed such violence to a burgeoning 'gun culture', others to the (alleged) arrival of American style gangs onto the streets of the

SIMON HALLSWORTH; DANIEL SILVERSTONE

268

Investigating the Role of Gender and Delinquency in Exposure to Violence Among Puerto Rican Youth  

PubMed Central

Using a longitudinal sample of Puerto Rican adolescents living in the Bronx, New York, this study examines the predictors of exposure to violence within gender. Results from a series of negative binomial regressions suggested (a) sensation seeking, peer delinquency, coercive discipline, and initial delinquency increased the likelihood of exposure to violence for both males and females at multiple time points and (b) initial delinquency was the only consistent predictor of exposure to violence at all time points. Regarding the role of gender, the results indicated that some risk factors were similar across genders (e.g., sensation seeking, coercive discipline, peer delinquency, and delinquent behavior), whereas other risk factors differed across gender (e.g., age and welfare among males and school environment for females). Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23914125

Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Canino, Glorisa

2013-01-01

269

Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

270

Educating Youth for a World beyond Violence: A Pedagogy for Peace. Education, Politics and Public Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a time of unprecedented social and economic crisis, this book represents a challenge to the orthodoxy that shapes the vision of educational purpose. It argues that now, more than ever, there is a moral imperative for educators to assume responsibility for helping to bring about a culture of peace and non-violence in both the nation and…

Shapiro, H. Svi

2010-01-01

271

Middle School Youth: Satisfaction with and Responses to a Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how group composition influences students' level of satisfaction with a dating violence and sexual assault prevention program. A 10- to 12-session program was presented to 396 urban African American middle school students in mixed- and same-gender groups. Both males and females were significantly more satisfied with the…

Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly; Sharma, Yasoda

2010-01-01

272

Religiosity Profiles of American Youth in Relation to Substance Use, Violence, and Delinquency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively little is known in terms of the relationship between religiosity profiles and adolescents' involvement in substance use, violence, and delinquency. Using a diverse sample of 17,705 (49 % female) adolescents from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, latent profile analysis and multinomial regression are employed to examine…

Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Hodge, David R.; Perron, Brian E.

2012-01-01

273

Perceptions of Violence and Fear of School Attendance among Junior High School Youths in Israel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines an exploratory model of how variables in school settings affect school victimization and the consequences of victimization for junior high school students. The model presents ways in which school context and victimization affect students' fear of attending school and their assessment of school violence. Discusses gender and cultural…

Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron A.; Zeira, Anat; Vinokur, Amiram D.

2002-01-01

274

Ecological Approaches to Mental Health Consultation with Teachers on Issues Related to Youth and School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that ecological issues are at the core of concerns about the violence U.S. students, particularly those in low-income urban communities, are exposed to or experience within or outside of school. It suggests the need for ecological systems theory-based mental health consultation for teachers and outlines a framework for creating teacher- and…

Astor, Ron Avi; Duncan, Brent B.; Pitner, Ronald O.

1996-01-01

275

Punishing Youth and Saturated Violence in the Era of Casino Capitalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay powerfully describes the rise of a neoliberal or "casino capitalism" as a punishing state that has been largely ignored by the mainstream media but is actively resisted by young people around the world. I highlight the pervasive use of violence and the celebration of war-like values that are no longer restricted to a…

Giroux, Henry

2013-01-01

276

Role Model Behavior and Youth Violence: A Study of Positive and Negative Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated how role models' behavior may positively or negatively influence African American early adolescents' attitudes toward violence and violent behavior. Participants in this study included 331 African American seventh and eighth graders from low-income neighborhoods in an urban, Midwestern city. The study used a model developed…

Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

277

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

278

How Culture Impacts the Dissemination and Implementation of Innovation: A Case Study of the Families and Schools Together Program (FAST) for Preventing Violence with Immigrant Latino Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider how culture impacts the translation of research into practice, focusing on the culture of the client and the culture\\u000a of the agency implementing selected programs. We build on lessons learned from a pilot study of an evidence-based family-school\\u000a partnership, Families and Schools Together (FAST), to prevent youth violence with low-income, immigrant Latino families in\\u000a Southern California. We examine

Nancy G. Guerra; Lyndee Knox

2008-01-01

279

Quality Improvement as a Tool for Translating Evidence Based Interventions Into Practice: What the Youth Violence Prevention Community can Learn from Healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care has been working for the past 2 decades to improve the translation of evidence based practice (EBPs) into care.\\u000a The strategies used to facilitate this, and lessons learned, can provide useful models for similar work taking place in youth\\u000a violence prevention. This article discusses the history of evidence translation in health care, reviews key strategies used\\u000a to support

Lyndee M. KnoxCheryl; Cheryl B. Aspy

280

Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.  

PubMed

Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup. PMID:21188487

Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

2011-08-01

281

Exploring the Moderating Influence of Delinquent Peers on the Link Between Trauma, Anger, and Violence Among Male Youth: Implications for Social Work Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study’s objective was to explore the influence of delinquent peer exposure, on the relationship between male youths’\\u000a histories of trauma, anger, and violent behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of male adolescents aged 12–17\\u000a and self report interviews, information was gathered on their levels of exposure to violence, stressful life events (SLE),\\u000a anger, depression, delinquent peer exposure, and violent

Tina Maschi; Carolyn Bradley

2008-01-01

282

Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

Kleck, Gary

1979-01-01

283

Media violence.  

PubMed

Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects. PMID:10904203

Cantor, J

2000-08-01

284

Examining the validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) for predicting probation outcomes among adjudicated juvenile offenders.  

PubMed

The current study examined the ability of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk for Youth (SAVRY), a standardized risk assessment instrument, to predict probation outcomes among a sample of 158 adjudicated juvenile offenders placed on probation. Traditionally, the SAVRY has been used to measure violence risk among adolescents after release from custody. More recently, a delinquency risk measure based on SAVRY responses was developed, which could be useful for other types of outcome. This study examined the predictive validity of both summary risk ratings (SRR) for probation outcomes, including the reason for terminating probation and length of time on probation. A number of bivariate analyses and Cox regression models provided preliminary support for the ability of the nonviolent delinquency SRR, and modest support for the violence SRR, to predict probation outcomes. The implications for use of the SAVRY SRRs during juvenile justice system decision-making and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23606362

Childs, Kristina K; Ryals, John; Frick, Paul J; Lawing, Kathryn; Phillippi, Stephen W; Deprato, Debra K

2013-01-01

285

Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence  

PubMed Central

The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

2013-01-01

286

Exposure to Violence o Youths' beliefs about the justifiability or acceptability of  

E-print Network

emotional cohesion, structure, and effective parenting practices, have been found to buffer the effects of youths' experiences with multiple forms of aggression (interparental, parent-child, and community) on their beliefs about aggression? 2. Does the quality of children's attachment with their mothers act

Sanders, Matthew

287

Hearts and Hands: A New Paradigm for Work with Youth and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instead of working solely to control young people and to put offenders behind bars, society should be trying to build a responsible community in which young people, aware of their value, act responsibly because they have seen responsible behavior in action. The importance of ritual and initiation for youth is discussed. (SLD)

Rodriguez, Luis J.

1997-01-01

288

Electron gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 100 kV electron gun with field emission electrode for analytical electron microscopy was improved. A tetrode concept was used to obtain brightness values of 100 million to 1 billion A\\/sq cm. Using a ceramic insulator, safe control of the accelerating voltage without misdischarges is assured. The basis for routine and automated operation of the gun is provided by the

D. Kurz

1985-01-01

289

A Solution-Focused Intervention with a Youth in a Domestic Violence Situation: Longitudinal Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a 4-year therapeutic intervention combining in-person and email communication with a 13-year-old Greek-Cypriot\\u000a teenager who witnessed and later was the victim of severe domestic violence. The intervention is based on an empowerment philosophy\\u000a and solution-focused strategies, and its usefulness is evaluated by three standardized measures at five time points between\\u000a the years 1999 and 2003. Pertinent

Savvas Daniel Georgiades

2008-01-01

290

Mother Abuse: A Matter of Youth Justice, Child Welfare or Domestic Violence&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the

C aroline H unter; J udy N ixon; S adie P arr

2010-01-01

291

Youth, gangs and violence: Analysing the social and spatial mobility of young people in Guatemala City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs have become an increasingly significant, and controversial, social institution in low-income communities in many cities in Central America, and yet the local-level impacts of this phenomenon, especially on young people, remain under-explored. Drawing on research with young people in Guatemala City, this paper explores the multiple barriers to the social and spatial mobility of both gang and non-gang

Ailsa Winton

2005-01-01

292

Adolescent Violence towards Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although adolescent-to-parent violence is often overlooked by family violence researchers and practitioners, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests it is widespread. Knowledge about this type of violence is limited and few established interventions exist. This article describes an intervention—called the Step-Up program—for youth who assault their parents in King County, Washington, and identifies risk factors for youth

Gregory Routt; Lily Anderson

2011-01-01

293

Various Viewpoints on Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

Klemm, Bonita; And Others

1995-01-01

294

Violence in America's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is concerned with the issue of school violence. The introductory section provides examples of violence in schools and notes that the Centers for Disease Control state that 1 student in 5 takes a weapon to school and 1 in 20 carries a gun. It is further noted that urban schools in the major metropolitan areas have the greatest risk of…

William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

295

Teenage Violence Toward Parents: A Neglected Dimension of Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored violence toward parents among 1,545 white male high school youth. The overall incidence of this violence is relatively low and does not increase over time. However, more violence is directed toward fathers than mothers, and the proportion of violence directed toward fathers rises considerably in the senior year. (Author/BL)

Peek, Charles W.; And Others

1985-01-01

296

Preventing School Violence: What Schools Can Do. Hot Topics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provide a range of data on dealing with violence in the schools and communities, focusing on risk factors and correlates of youth violence, how violence affects young people, and how schools can help students avoid violence. The papers include: "Youth Violence in the United States: Major Trends, Risk Factors, and…

Bosworth, Kris, Ed.

297

Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

Lester, David

1988-01-01

298

The Impact of the 1994 Federal Assault Weapon Ban on Gun Violence Outcomes: An Assessment of Multiple Outcome Measures and Some Lessons for Policy Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 bans a group of military-style semiautomatic firearms (i.e., assault weapons) and ammunition magazines capable of holding more than 10 rounds. Ban advocates argue that these weapons are particularly dangerous because they facilitate the rapid firing of high numbers of shots. Though the banned guns and magazines were used in

Christopher S. Koper; Jeffrey A. Roth

2001-01-01

299

Exposure to Community Violence and Violence Perpetration: The Protective Effects of Family Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research has found that urban youth are exposed to excessive levels of community violence, few studies have focused on the factors that alter the risk of exposure to violence or the processes through which youth who are exposed to community violence do better or worse. This study investigates the risk of exposure to community violence and…

Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

2004-01-01

300

Child and adolescent violence.  

PubMed

Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important. PMID:12640949

Daane, Diane M

2003-01-01

301

A Community's Answer to Teen Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and implementation of the "This Is My Neighborhood: No Shooting Allowed" teenage violence prevention program in South Bend, Indiana. The program is designed to increase community awareness of gun violence, increase neighborhood pride, deglamourize guns, and educate children about the criminal justice system. (MDM)

Jourdan, Jeanne

1994-01-01

302

Community Norms on Toy Guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. Toy gun play has been asso- ciated with aggressive behavior, and it has been sug- gested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counsel- ing requires an understanding of norms regarding paren- tal attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both the- ories of,reasoned action and,planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people’s

Malla Rao; Tina L. Cheng; Ruth A. Brenner; Joseph L. Wright; Hari Cheryl Sachs; Patricia Moyer

2010-01-01

303

Releasing Their Stories: A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Histories of Mental Health Issues and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often the narratives of youth self-exploration and experience are lost in a drive to prevent, diagnose, or respond to youth-led crime. This exploratory qualitative study looks at and documents the life histories of youth concurrently involved in the juvenile justice system and in clinical treatment independent of the crimes they committed. A purposive sample of 9 male juvenile-justice-involved youth

Tina Maschi; Jennifer Perillo; Deborah Courtney

2011-01-01

304

Are medical societies developing a standard for gun injury prevention?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Following heightened gun violence in the 1990s, many medical societies in the United States adopted policies on the topic.Objective: Identify points of firearm violence policy agreement among large medical organizations.Design: Fourteen national medical societies—clinical focus, demonstrated interest in gun injury prevention, >2000 members—were selected for policy review in 2002. Policies were categorized on areas covered and items within these.

M M Longjohn; K K Christoffel

2004-01-01

305

Substance Abuse and Violence Prevention. Multiple Youth Programs Raise Questions of Efficiency and Effectiveness. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This testimony by the Director of Education and Employment Issues of the Health, Education, and Human Services Division of the General Accounting Office (GAO) is based on a number of GAO studies of substance abuse and violence prevention programs for youth. The testimony focuses on: (1) the information available about substance-abuse and…

Joyner, Carlotta C.

306

'That's life innit'A British perspective on guns, crime and social order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed an escalation in the number of young men involved in lethal gun-related violence in the UK. Within the last two years these have resulted in over 80 deaths. Lacking any overarching explanation some have attributed such violence to a burgeoning `gun culture', others to the (alleged) arrival of American style gangs onto the streets of the

Simon Hallsworth; Daniel Silverstone

2009-01-01

307

Pulling levers focused deterrence strategies and the prevention of gun homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of jurisdictions have been experimenting with new problem-oriented policing frameworks to understand and respond to gun violence among gang-involved offenders. These interventions are based on the “pulling levers” deterrence strategy that focuses criminal justice and social service attention on a small number of chronically offending gang members responsible for the bulk of urban gun violence problems. Unfortunately, there

Anthony A. Braga

2008-01-01

308

Healing Lessons: Urban High School Teachers Learning to Teach Black Youth with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

E-print Network

urban lit…They have death, violence, guns, drugs, romance,death in this community. Students had lost family members and peers to gun violence.deaths of two young men and the critical injuries of three others. The gun violence

Ferreira, Dawn Williams

2012-01-01

309

Conditions for resolving controversies between social actors in domestic violence and youth protection services: Toward innovative collaborative practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a qualitative analysis on strategies to encourage innovative collaborative practices, and the difficulties these pose, among various groups of practitioners involved with families experiencing domestic violence and child maltreatment simultaneously. The sociology of innovation provides the theoretical framework of this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 71 practitioners in the fields of domestic violence

Genevičve Lessard; Chantal Lavergne; Claire Chamberland; Dominique Damant; Daniel Turcotte

2006-01-01

310

Violence in adolescents' romantic relationships: findings from a survey amongst school-going youth in a South African community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study of heterosexual adolescent dating violence among secondary school students in a South African community. Approximately half of the surveyed males, and just over half of the surveyed females reported involvement in a physically violent dating relationship either as a perpetrator and\\/or victim. The study found significant associations between the beliefs about violence in a

LU-ANNE SWART; MOHAMED SEEDAT; GARTH STEVENS; IZABEL RICARDO

2002-01-01

311

Anger Mediates the Relation Between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that\\u000a is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two\\u000a important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are posttraumatic stress\\u000a disorder and problematic anger. The

Eva R. KimonisJames; James V. Ray; Jessica R. Branch; Elizabeth Cauffman

312

Trends in BB/pellet gun injuries in children and teenagers in the United States, 1985-99  

PubMed Central

Objective: To characterize national trends in non-fatal BB/pellet gun related injury rates for persons aged 19 years or younger in relation to trends in non-fatal and fatal firearm related injury rates and discuss these trends in light of injury prevention and violence prevention efforts. Setting: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) includes approximately 100 hospitals with at least six beds that provide emergency services. These hospitals comprise a stratified probability sample of all US hospitals with emergency departments. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) is a complete census of all death certificates filed by states and is compiled annually. Methods: National data on BB/pellet gun related injuries and injury rates were examined along with fatal and non-fatal firearm related injuries and injury rates. Non-fatal injury data for all BB/pellet gun related injury cases from 1985 through 1999, and firearm related injury cases from 1993 through 1999 were obtained from hospital emergency department records using the NEISS. Firearm related deaths from 1985 through 1999 were obtained from the NVSS. Results: BB/pellet gun related injury rates increased from age 3 years to a peak at age 13 years and declined thereafter. In contrast, firearm related injury and death rates increased gradually until age 13 and then increased sharply until age 18 years. For persons aged 19 years and younger, BB/pellet gun related injury rates increased from the late 1980s until the early 1990s and then declined until 1999; these injury rates per 100 000 population were 24.0 in 1988, 32.8 in 1992, and 18.3 in 1999. This trend was similar to those for fatal and non-fatal firearm related injury rates per 100 000 which were 4.5 in 1985, 7.8 in 1993, and 4.3 in 1999 (fatal) and 38.6 in 1993 and 16.3 in 1999 (non-fatal). In 1999, an estimated 14 313 (95% confidence interval (CI) 12 025 to 16 601) cases with non-fatal BB/pellet gun injuries and an estimated 12 748 (95% CI 7881–17 615) cases with non-fatal firearm related injuries among persons aged 19 years and younger were treated in US hospital emergency departments. Conclusions: BB/pellet gun related and firearm related injury rates show similar declines since the early 1990s. These declines coincide with a growing number of prevention efforts aimed at reducing injuries to children from unsupervised access to guns and from youth violence. Evaluations at the state and local level are needed to determine true associations. PMID:12226113

Nguyen, M; Annest, J; Mercy, J; Ryan, G; Fingerhut, L

2002-01-01

313

TELEVISION VIOLENCE AND KIDS' BEHAVIOUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the televised violence on children and their exposure to television violence. Since children are very visual learners, they model both the positive and negative the behaviors they see. This paper also reviews the television violence effect on the child's youth, which can also affect his or her adulthood. Some psychologists and psychiatrists feel that continued exposure to

MIRZA JAN

314

Intervening Processes Between Youths’ Exposure to Community Violence and Internalizing Symptoms Over Time: The Roles of Social Support and Coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of social support and coping as intervening processes between exposure to community violence and internalizing symptoms\\u000a were examined longitudinally among a community sample of 667 middle school students in the inner city. After controlling for\\u000a potential confounders (e.g., social desirability, victimization and witnessing of family violence, guardian’s psychological\\u000a symptomatology), internalizing symptoms at Year 2 were predicted by hypothesized

Margaret Rosario; Suzanne Salzinger; Richard S. Feldman; Daisy S. Ng-Mak

2008-01-01

315

An Essay on School Violence and Safety Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence is a serious problem in Japanese schools, despite the absence of guns. There are three forms: violence among students, violence against teachers, and vandalism. Violence among junior-high students is widespread. Schoolwide strategies to reinforce positive social norms, organize special teams of teachers, and strengthen extracurricular…

Takahashi, Susumu; Inoue, Wataru

1995-01-01

316

The National Television Violence Study: Key Findings and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes findings of the Television Violence Study indicating that the context of much television violence is dangerous to viewers, perpetrators go unpunished in the majority of programs, negative consequences of violence are often ignored, guns feature prominently, and presentation of violence differs greatly across networks and across…

Young Children, 1996

1996-01-01

317

Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

318

BB Guns Can Kill  

MedlinePLUS

... Kill BB guns can kill a person. High-velocity BB guns, which have muzzle velocities higher than 350 feet per second, can increase ... do not realize that BB guns, especially high-velocity guns, can cause death. Therefore the CPSC warns ...

319

Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: A school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3-5th grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait-list comparison groups. Students attended 13 bi-weekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed. PMID:21480032

Cooley-Strickland, Michele R.; Griffin, Robert S.; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean

2010-01-01

320

Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: a school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd-5th-grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait list comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed. PMID:21480032

Cooley-Strickland, Michele R; Griffin, Robert S; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean

2011-04-01

321

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

322

Do guns provide safety? At what cost?  

PubMed

Many people feel that having a gun provides greater safety for them and their family. Actually, having a firearm in the home escalates the risk for death or injury, while using it to shoot someone who endangers the household is much less common. The resultant injuries, deaths, emotional turmoil, and/or disabilities lead to greater utilization of health care and legal/police services. Payment for these expenses is provided by higher insurance premiums and tax rates. This financial aspect has become a part of our country's current political concern over firearm ownership rights, gun violence or regulation, health care costs, the economy, and taxes. PMID:20065902

Narang, Puneet; Paladugu, Anubha; Manda, Sainath Reddy; Smock, William; Gosnay, Cynthia; Lippmann, Steven

2010-02-01

323

Prevention of youth injuries.  

PubMed Central

There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

1999-01-01

324

Pew Interactive Tools: Gun Rights versus Gun Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Research Center has tracked shifting public opinion on gun rights and gun control over the past 20 years. Explore our polling data below to discover how demographics influence public opinion on gun rights and gun control. 

Center, Pew R.

325

Child Maltreatment, Adolescent Attachment Style, and Dating Violence: Considerations in Youths with Borderline-to-Mild Intellectual Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most salient developmental tasks of adolescence is the entry into romantic relationship, which often involves developing\\u000a attachments to partners. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment have been found to be at greater risk of insecure attachments\\u000a to romantic partners than non-maltreated adolescents, and the interaction of maltreatment and insecure attachment style has\\u000a been linked to dating violence.

Jonathan A. Weiss; Jennifer MacMullin; Randall Waechter; Christine Wekerle

326

Women, Violence, and the Law. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (September 16, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains witnesses' testimonies and prepared statement from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issues of violence against women, domestic violence, and the response of the justice system to such violence. In his opening statement, Representative George Miller presents a brief overview of the incidence of violence against…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

327

Failing at Kindness: Why Fear of Violence Endangers Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence-prevention policies stress high-tech security measures and zero tolerance over compassion. Student policing is intensifying, despite declining youth violence, rarity of shootings, and failure of police protection. Suburban youth violence is rooted in masculinity misconceptions and sexual harassment. Education, not retribution, should…

Perlstein, Daniel

2000-01-01

328

Teen Suicide and Guns  

MedlinePLUS

... Problems > Teen Suicide and Guns Health Issues Listen Teen Suicide and Guns Article Body Protect Your Teenager Many ... thinking of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of the ...

329

75 FR 27818 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...engage men and youth in preventing crimes of violence against women with the goal...

2010-05-18

330

75 FR 42128 - Office on Violence Against Women: Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), will be...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...engage men and youth in preventing crimes of violence against women with the goal...

2010-07-20

331

Guns and Juvenile Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a nationally representative panel data set of U.S. high school students, this paper investigates the effect of gun availability at home on robbery, burglary, theft, and property damage for juveniles. Controlling for a very large number of personal and family characteristics and exploiting the time variation in criminal activity and gun availability, we show that gun availability at home

Erdal Tekin

2006-01-01

332

Underground Gun Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teens in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir A. Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

2005-01-01

333

Underground Gun Markets &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets, drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teenagers in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities, plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

2007-01-01

334

Underground Gun Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets, drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teenagers in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities, plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

2007-01-01

335

Expect respect support groups: preliminary evaluation of a dating violence prevention program for at-risk youth.  

PubMed

Expect Respect support groups, a selective prevention strategy, are designed to prevent and reduce dating violence among at-risk middle and high school students. This preliminary, uncontrolled evaluation examined changes in healthy relationship skills and emotionally and physically abusive behaviors in participants' peer and dating relationships. Self-reports (N = 144) showed significant increases in healthy relationship skills from baseline to program completion, whereas levels of victimization and perpetration remained unchanged. A subgroup of students who reported baseline levels of victimization and perpetration with means at least one standard deviation above the group mean reported significantly less victimization and perpetration at program completion. PMID:22872708

Ball, Barbara; Tharp, Andra Teten; Noonan, Rita K; Valle, Linda Anne; Hamburger, Merle E; Rosenbluth, Barri

2012-07-01

336

Family Violence and Delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdisciplinary research has indicated that the experience of family violence is a risk factor for childrens’ delinquency\\u000a specifically and antisocial behavior more generally. Violence in the family is a national public health concern in view of\\u000a its common occurrence, its immediate health and safety concerns for victims, and its broad effects on youth development (Daro,\\u000a Edleson, & Pinderhughes, 2004; Straus

Carolyn A. Smith; Timothy O. Ireland

337

Violence risk and psychopathology in institutionalised adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the association between psychopathology, psychiatric symptoms and risk of violence. The groups studied comprise 163 institutionalised adolescents from both psychiatric and correctional facilities. Risk of violence is measured with Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) and compared with ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Further, in a subsample comprising 48 adolescents, the association of

Monica Gammelgĺrd; Anna-Maija Koivisto; Markku Eronen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

2010-01-01

338

Youth's Strategies for Staying Safe and Coping with the Stress of Living in Violent Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth living in urban environments of pervasive violence are exposed to a variety of violence-related stressors. This qualitative descriptive study sought to ascertain how community-dwelling youth perceived exposure to violence and how these youth identified and used available resources. The intent of this community-based participatory research…

Teitelman, Anne; McDonald, Catherine C.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

2010-01-01

339

Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

McGee, Zina T.

1999-01-01

340

Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

2009-01-01

341

Violence in the Media  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many think that television and other media are primarily responsible for the aggressiveness of American youth and the youth of Western nations. Several experimental and longitudinal studies have provided considerable support to this claim. However, there are those who outright deny that the media has any influence on aggressive behavior. The debate over media violence and its impact on society is addressed in this chapter.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

342

Youth In Action: Youth Preventing Drug Abuse. Bulletin No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drug prevention projects have proven successful in curtailing drug activity and the violence associated with it. An effective drug prevention project can educate children, youth, and adults about the dangers of illegal drugs. It can provide skills to help...

S. Bilchik

1998-01-01

343

Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence  

E-print Network

entation of minorities in the juvenile justice system. State Relations and Assistance Division supports collaborative efforts by States to carry out the mandates of the JJDP Act by providing formula grant funds to States; furnishing technical assistance to States, local governments, and private agencies; and monitoring State compliance with the JJDP Act. Information Dissemination Unit informs individuals and organizations of OJJDP initiatives; disseminates information on juvenile justice, delinquency prevention, and missing children; and coordinates program planning efforts within OJJDP. The unit's activities include publishing research and statistical reports, bulletins, and other documents, as well as overseeing the operations of the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse. Concentration of Federal Efforts Program promotes interagency cooperation and coordination among Federal agencies with responsibilities in the area of juvenile justice. Th

Shay Bilchik; Gun Violence

1999-01-01

344

Putting Accelerator Technology to Work Fully Superconducting GunFully Superconducting Gun  

E-print Network

Putting Accelerator Technology to Work Fully Superconducting GunFully Superconducting Gun BNL PS Gun LANL/AES NC or AES FS gun e- 1.5-2.5 MeV 500-300 mA CW * e- 1.6-2.8 MeV 500-300 mA CW Beam cavity with low current beam * NC gun with derated gradient FS gun permits 25% higher current Ilan Ben

345

Youth's Strategies for Staying Safe and Coping with the Stress of Living in Violent Communities  

PubMed Central

Youth living in urban environments of pervasive violence are exposed to a variety of violence-related stressors. This qualitative descriptive study sought to ascertain how community-dwelling youth perceived exposure to violence and how these youth identified and used available resources. The intent of this community-based participatory research study was to help inform the design of a youth violence prevention center intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 18 youth ages 10–16. Youth reported high levels of exposure to neighborhood violence. A theme of identifying and navigating safe and unsafe places emerged. Other stressors were more proximal and included interpersonal issues and conflicts. Youth used neighborhood and individual resources to cope with stressors. Youth maintained a high level of vigilance and developed clear strategies to safely navigate violent neighborhoods. Implications for youth due to the constant vigilance and exquisite sensitivity to stressors of chronic neighborhood violence are discussed. PMID:21765562

Teitelman, Anne; McDonald, Catherine C.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

2011-01-01

346

Aggressive Behavior among Rural Minority Youth: Concerns for Schools and the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two cases of youth violence in southwestern New Mexico, one involving an Anglo youth and one a Mexican American youth, highlight the diversity of the area and the biased treatment of Mexican American youth. New Mexico demographics suggest a link between diversity and high rates of crime and violence. National reports clearly report the extent of…

French, Laurence Armand

347

Carbon nanotube electron gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

348

Carbon plasma gun  

SciTech Connect

A family of plasma guns supplying highly ionized carbon plasma is described. The guns are simple and inexpensive to construct and are pulsed by small capacitor banks of a few hundred joules. The output consists of 10/sup 17/--10/sup 18/ multiply ionized carbon ions traveling at about 10/sup 7/ cm/s. Neutral output is very low and arrives well after the ionized carbon. The guns and pulsers are very reliable.

Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Zagar, D.M.; Mills, G.S.; Humphries, S. Jr.; Goldstein, S.A.

1980-12-01

349

Understanding violence: a school initiative for violence prevention.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates Understanding Violence, a violence prevention initiative implemented in a Boston-area elementary school whose students experience high rates of community violence. Understanding Violence draws on the educational and personal skills of youths and allows them to practice positive alternatives to violence. Participating 5th graders (n = 123) completed a survey that included rating scale items and open-ended questions to assess the program. Results indicate high levels of satisfaction with and learning from the program. Participants responded positively to the program's use of diverse components and community engagement. Developed as part of a larger community mental health outreach program, Understanding Violence offers an example of a school-based initiative to mitigate the effects of community violence. PMID:19830623

Nikitopoulos, Christina E; Waters, Jessica S; Collins, Erin; Watts, Caroline L

2009-01-01

350

Guns in the medical literature--a failure of peer review.  

PubMed

Errors of fact, design, and interpretation abound in the medical literature on guns and violence. The peer review process has failed to prevent publication of the errors of politicized, results-oriented research. Most of the data on guns and violence are available in the criminologic, legal, and social sciences literature, yet such data escape acknowledgment or analysis of the medical literature. Lobbyists and other partisans continue to promulgate the fallacies that cloud the public debate and impede the development of effective strategies to reduce violence in our society. This article examines a representative sample of politicized and incompetent research. PMID:8201280

Suter, E A

1994-03-01

351

Sidewall core gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for taking core samples from the sidewall of a borehole in a well, the apparatus comprising: a string of drill pipe; at least one gun housing connected to the downhole end of the drill string; at least one coring bullet radially disposed within the gun housing, the coring bullet arranged for securing formation samples from the

E. A. Jr. Colle; D. N. Jr. Yates; E. F. Brieger

1986-01-01

352

Violence against surgical residents.  

PubMed Central

Violence against hospital personnel is underreported (less than one in five assaults), and accurate statistics as to the rate of violence against hospital personnel are thus difficult to establish. In the psychiatric discipline, an abundance of information has been published regarding violence in the health care setting, but few studies have examined violence outside psychiatric hospitals or by patients not diagnosed with psychiatric ailments. Using a survey that elicits information about workplace violence, we sought to gauge the prevalence of violent acts affecting general hospital workers who treat victims of violence on a daily basis. The survey was completed by a cohort of surgical staff nationwide (475 responses from 57 residency programs). Two hundred and eighty residents reported having witnessed one or more physical attacks, and 179 reported having been attacked. Violent acts were more likely to be committed in a public hospital than a private institution (P = 0.05). As shown in previous research, most attacks occurred in the emergency room (P = 0.01); the wards and parking lot were next in frequency. Women residents were more likely than men to call hospital security to intervene in a potentially violent situation (P = 0.04), and junior residents (postgraduate years 1-4) were more likely to be attacked than senior residents (> or = 5 years) (P = 0.04). The attacker was most likely to be a young black male between ages 19 and 30 (P = 0.01). We found no statistical relationship between the attacker and the victim regarding sex or race. Of the 475 respondents, 470 reported that they carry a gun themselves or know someone in the hospital environment who carries a gun. Images Figure 1. PMID:9291743

Barlow, C B; Rizzo, A G

1997-01-01

353

Posttraumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: II. Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions for youth exposed to family violence recently have incorporated a trauma focus with the objective of reducing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms along with alleviating other wide-ranging childhood disorders. This article describes generally agreed-upon treatment components for youth exposed to violence in the home (specifically, children who are physically abused or witnesses to interparental violence), including reexposure interventions, education about

Katrina A. Vickerman; Gayla Margolin

2007-01-01

354

Attitudes toward Violence Scale: Psychometric Properties with a High School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence represents a serious problem affecting individuals, communities, and the larger society. Greater efforts aimed at the eradication of youth violence are necessary, and work in this field could be enhanced by psychometrically strong measures. The present study examined the factor structure of the Attitudes Toward Violence Scale (ATV)…

Davidson, M. Meghan; Canivez, Gary L.

2012-01-01

355

Violence in the Schools: Programs and Policies for Prevention. A Report from the Canadian Education Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication offers some insight into the problem of violence in Canadian schools and provides examples of ways to reduce it. The forms of violent activities examined include youth/youth-gang violence, violence against teachers, bullying, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Each chapter presents research findings and examples of programs…

MacDougall, Jyl

356

DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN COMMUNITY VIOLENCE EXPOSURE AND PERCEIVED NEIGHBORHOOD VIOLENCE  

PubMed Central

Community violence exposure (CVE) has been identified as a significant public health concern given its association with numerous mental health problems. Perceptions of neighborhood violence (PNV) also may adversely affect youth adjustment. In recognition that PNV may differ from individuals own experience of CVE, the current study utilized latent class analysis to examine the degree and consequences of consistency and discrepancy in adolescents community violence exposure and PNV. Participants included an epidemiologically-defined community sample of 456 African American adolescents (52% male; mean age=11.77). Results revealed three groups of youth: high CVE/high PNV, low CVE/low PNV, and low CVE/high PNV. Longitudinal analyses suggest that a discrepancy between CVE and PNV is important for understanding depressive and anxious symptoms among urban African American youth. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:23555155

Cammack, Nicole L.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

357

Copter Gun Explorations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an investigation in which students predict and verify the effect that the number of clicks of a toy copter gun has on the height that the copter will attain. Provides follow-up questions for the students. (MDH)

Park, John C.

1992-01-01

358

Adolescent interpersonal violence: implications for health care professionals.  

PubMed

Violence involvement is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. This review provides a summary of the burden of adolescent violence and violence-related behavior, risk, and protective factors for violence outcomes. The importance of screening for violence involvement in the primary care setting and examples of online resources to support providers in advocating, assessing, and intervening on behalf of youth are also reviewed. The article draws attention to bullying and dating/relationship violence, not as new forms of violence-related behavior, but as behaviors with health outcomes that have recently received increased attention. PMID:25124212

Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

2014-09-01

359

Murderers and martyrs: Violence, discourse, and the (re)construction of meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the question of violence has drawn attention from religious studies scholars and public commentators alike. From schoolchildren with guns to terrorists with bombs, the perpetrators of violent acts have forced communities, nations, and even scholars to grapple with the nature and meaning of violence. But although significant attention has been paid to religious groups that foster violence

Melissa M. Wilcox

2001-01-01

360

African American Adolescents Living and Coping With Community Violence on Chicago’s Southside  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and incidents involving police, gun violence, and murders. Boys report more exposure to

Dexter R. Voisin; Jason D. P. Bird; Melissa Hardestry; Cheng Shi Shiu

2011-01-01

361

The Overlap of Youth Violence Among Aggressive Adolescents with Past-Year Alcohol Use--A Latent Class Analysis: Aggression and Victimization in Peer and Dating Violence in an Inner City Emergency Department Sample  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify overlap and violence types between peer and dating aggression and victimization using latent class analysis (LCA) among a sample of aggressive adolescents with a history of alcohol use and to identify risk and protective factors associated with each violence class. Method: From September 2006 to September 2009, a systematic sample of patients (14–18 years old) seeking care in an urban emergency department were approached. Adolescents reporting any past-year alcohol use and aggression completed a survey using validated measures including types of violence (severe and moderate aggression, severe and moderate victimization with both peers and dating partners). Using LCA, violence classes were identified; correlates of membership in each LCA class were determined. Results: Among this sample (n = 694), LCA identified three classes described as (a) peer aggression (PA) (52.2%), (b) peer aggression + peer victimization (PAPV) (18.6%), and (c) multiple domains of violence (MDV) (29.3%). Compared with those in the PA class, those in the PAPV class were more likely to be male, report injury in a fight, and have delinquent peers. Compared with the PA class, those in the MDV class were more likely to be female, African American, report injury in a fight, carry a weapon, experience negative consequences from alcohol use, and have delinquent peers and more family conflict. Compared with the PAPV class, those in the MDV class were likely to be female, African American, receive public assistance, carry a weapon, experience negative consequences from alcohol use, and use marijuana. Conclusions: There is extensive overlap of victimization and aggression in both peer and dating relationships. Also, those with high rates of violence across relationships have increased alcohol misuse and marijuana use. Thus, violence-prevention efforts should consider addressing concomitant substance use. PMID:23200158

Whiteside, Lauren K.; Ranney, Megan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Walton, Maureen A.

2013-01-01

362

Measuring Violence Risk and Outcomes among Mexican American Adolescent Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central to the development of culturally competent violence prevention programs for Hispanic youth is the development of psychometrically sound violence risk and outcome measures for this population. A study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of two commonly used violence measures, in this case for Mexican American adolescent…

Cervantes, Richard C.; Duenas, Norma; Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles

2006-01-01

363

Directory of Community Service and Domestic Violence Service Providers  

E-print Network

- ing ages 13 to adult. Support group for LGBT youth ages 13-21. Works with domestic violence victims2008 Directory of Community Service and Domestic Violence Service Providers for the Community Prepared by the Committee for LGBT Concerns of the Delaware Coalition Against Domestic Violence #12;All

Firestone, Jeremy

364

Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

2008-01-01

365

No Safe Place: KIDS COUNT Report on Children and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing increasing concerns about rising youth-related crime in Missouri, this Kids Count report on children and violence examines the impact of community and family violence on young perpetrators and victims, and explores characteristics of successful programs to prevent or reduce family and community violence in Missouri. Data suggest that…

Hensley, Melissa; And Others

366

Law, Social Policy, and Violence: The Impact of Regional Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social policies reflect cultural values. Because of their frontier heritage, the U.S. South and West were hypothesized to have cultures favoring violence for self-protection. Predictions were confirmed for laws relating to guns, defense of self and home, and foreign policy. In addition, the legacy of slavery should make the South more accepting of violence used for coercion and punishment. Predictions

Dov Cohen

1996-01-01

367

An Overview: Children and Violence. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report of the Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth reviews the role of schools, bullying, media, family violence, gangs, and substance use in the violence experienced by children and young people in Virginia and the United States. The report finds that increasing numbers of young people experience violent images and…

Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

368

Seeking Solutions to Violence on Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television Programming on Black…

Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.

369

Electromagnetic configurations of rail guns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some problems associated with the electromagnetic acceleration of macrobodies in a rail gun are examined. An approach to the design of rail gun configurations is proposed, and some basic rail gun schemes are synthesized. The alternative rail gun schemes are compared in terms of electrode potential and stability of the electrode gap with respect to parasitic current shunting. The effect of the ohmic resistance of the electrodes and of the additional magnetization field on the spatial structure of the discharge in the rail gun channel is discussed. A classification of rail gun modifications is presented.

Fat'yanov, O. V.; Ostashev, V. E.; Lopyrev, A. N.; Ul'Yanov, A. V.

1993-06-01

370

Warning Signs of Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... in the context of: A recent death or suicide of a friend or family member A recent break-up with a boyfriend or girlfriend or conflict with parents News reports of other suicides by young people in the same school or ...

371

Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems  

PubMed Central

The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal maternal and early childhood externalizing problems. Social competency and depression during middle childhood moderated the relationship between victimization and violent behaviors for girls, but not boys: Lower levels of social competency and depression served as risk factors for delinquency among teenage girls who experienced victimization during childhood. These findings have important implications for youth violence prevention programs. PMID:21720452

Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

2009-01-01

372

Injury risk of nonpowder guns.  

PubMed

Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys. PMID:15520121

Laraque, Danielle

2004-11-01

373

Violence Prevention: An Evaluation of Program Effects with Urban African American Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many violence prevention programs have been developed to combat the problems of violence and aggression among youth, few programs have been evaluated. This study examines the impact of a violence prevention program among African American students in two inner-city schools in Chicago. Students in 5th through 8th grade participated in Second Step: A Violence Prevention Program, and completed surveys

Susan D. McMahon; Jason J. Washburn

2003-01-01

374

Social Relationships and Violence Trajectories from Adolescence through Early Adulthood into Adulthood  

E-print Network

child abuse victimization by a parent significantly increases the risk of violenceparent-child relationship that have been found to be associated with violence,Parents and Peers in Violence Avoidance Among African-American Youth. Maternal and Child

Lim, June Young

2014-01-01

375

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

376

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Violence, Intimate Partner Violence, Violence Against Women, and Sexual Assault National Clearinghouse on Abuse in Later Life Through ... more than 170 languages through interpreter services. National Sexual Assault Hotline 1-800-656-HOPE (4673) When a ...

377

Gun Policy, Opinion, Tragedy, and Blame Attribution: The Conditional Influence of Issue of Frames  

E-print Network

hypotheses using data from two field polls—one examining support for concealed handgun laws and the other examining blame attribution following the shootings at Columbine High School. We find that alternative gun frames influence opinion about concealed...+, Malden, MA 02148, USA, and 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK+ (Jones 1994; Kingdon 1995; Riker 1986). After the Columbine High shootings, the percentage of the public citing crime0violence and gun control as the most important issue confronting...

Haider-Markel, Donald P.; Joslyn, Mark R.

2001-01-01

378

Pacific Center for Violence Prevention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at San Francisco General Hospital, the Pacific Center for Violence Prevention supports community-based violence prevention in California and works to reduce youth access to drugs, alcohol, and firearms. Despite the Center's focus on California, interested users from any state will find a large number of violence-prevention resources at the site. Sections for Drugs, Alcohol, and Firearms each contain facts sheets, policy briefs, statistics, and links to related publications and other resources. Additional offerings at the site include memos on and links to federal and state firearm legislation, news updates, and a listing of events and conferences. Portions of the site are also available in Spanish.

Prevention., Pacific C.

379

High gradient electron guns  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been conducted to determine peak operating gradients attainable in thermionic electron guns. These tests are part of a study of high-current-density, long-life cathodes suitable for use in high power klystrons. We also investigated the use of chromium oxide coating as a means of inhibiting electronic breakdown across the focus electrode anode gap. Field gradients in excess of 280 kV/cm have been achieved for a gun operating at 240 kV with a beam current of 228 A, at pulse widths of the order of 1 {mu}s. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Fant, K.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Koontz, R.F.; Vlieks, A.E. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Miram, G. (Miram (G.), Atherton, CA (USA))

1990-08-01

380

Unbalanced field RF electron gun  

DOEpatents

A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

Hofler, Alicia

2013-11-12

381

Firearm Retailers' Willingness to Participate in an Illegal Gun Purchase  

PubMed Central

Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or “straw” purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99–21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun’s use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9489-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20803095

2010-01-01

382

Animal abuse and exposure to interparental violence in Italy: assessing the cycle of Violence in youngsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abuse against animals is an indicator of children’s maladjustment associated with\\u000adomestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to\\u000ainterparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results\\u000aindicate that half of all youth ever abused animals, with boys more often involved\\u000athan girls. Almost half of the whole sample has been

A. C. Baldry

2003-01-01

383

Animal abuse and exposure to interparental violence in Italy: assessing the cycle of violence in youngsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abuse against animals is an indicator of children’s maladjustment associated with\\u000adomestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to\\u000ainterparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results\\u000aindicate that half of all youth ever abused animals, with boys more often involved\\u000athan girls. Almost half of the whole sample has been

A. C. Baldry

2004-01-01

384

Linking Academics and Social Learning: Perceptions of School Staff to a Violence Prevention Program at an Alternative School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how school staff conceptualize their work with youths in an alternative school for weapon policy offend- ers after having undergone at least one year of a whole-school violence prevention program conducted by the Syracuse University Violence Pre- vention Project. The article examines the intent of school staff, their ideas, perspectives, and language about youths, violence, and schooling,

Ronnie Casella; Joan Burstyn

385

Synthesis of the Pierce gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthesis procedure is derived for the design of Pierce guns whereby the gun convergence angle, cathode spherical radius, anode-cathode spacing, and throw are calculated by iterations that typically converge in four cycles to 0.1 deg. The validity of the method is demonstrated for guns of medium perveance.

Rodney, J.; Vaughan, M.

1981-01-01

386

Pathways to Aggression in Urban Elementary School Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the pathways from violence exposure to aggressive behaviors in urban, elementary school youth. We utilized structural equation modeling to examine putative causal pathways between children's exposure to violence, development of posttraumatic stress symptoms, permissive attitudes towards violence, and engagement in aggressive…

Ozkol, Hivren; Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph

2011-01-01

387

School Violence Continues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An expelled student dressed in all black and carrying two guns opened fire at Gutenberg Gymnasium School in the eastern German city of Erfurt Friday morning, killing 17 people before shooting himself. This tragic incident caused the death of two young girls, 14 teachers, a police officer who responded to the scene, and the gunman. According to police chief Manfred Grube, the gunman, armed with a handgun and a pump-action gun, stalked the corridors and rooms of the school around 9 am (GMT), seeking out adults and then gunning them down. Describing the scene as a "picture of horror," Grube said the 19-year-old gunman fled German commandos as they stormed the building, and shot himself in a classroom. A special church service is due to take place this Friday evening. All the city's bells are to be rung, and flags are being flown at half mast.German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said he was "staggered" by the shooting, and cancelled an election campaign planned to begin on Saturday. Approximately 750 students in grades 5-12 are enrolled at the school, which celebrated its 10th anniversary in December. The shooting came just hours before the German Parliament approved a new bill tightening the country's already strict gun control laws. For more information on this tragic shooting, users may access the first two articles. The third article provides information on the gun law recently passed by Germany's Parliament, and the fourth article provides data regarding the Gutenberg Gymnasium School and the city of Erfurt. Articles 5 through 7 all provide chronological listings of other school shootings around the world, and the last site offers risk factors for school violence compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Green, Marcia.

2002-01-01

388

Radar gun hazards  

SciTech Connect

Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

Not Available

1991-12-20

389

Gun Dealers, USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, more than 11,500 adolescents' and young adults' lives are taken each year by firearms. Although Federal law prohibits minors from purchasing handguns, they typically get them by asking someone of legal age (18 years or older) to purchase them from one of the 256,771 Federally licensed gun dealers. This pamphlet answers…

Duker, Laurie; And Others

390

Magnetron injection gun scaling  

SciTech Connect

Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations.

Lawson, W.

1988-04-01

391

Rail Gun Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Rail Gun Model simulates a rail gun created by running current through long rods generating a magnetic field that accelerates a current-carrying cross-rod. The simulation shows the generated magnetic field. Users can adjust the current in the rails and rod as well as the spacing between the rails. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Rail Gun model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_RailGun.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Cox, Anne

2009-09-18

392

The Rail Gun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…

Stewart, Gay B.

1996-01-01

393

Violence and Abuse in American Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, June 14, 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains testimony and prepared statements from the Congress presented at a hearing on family violence. Statements are given from an executive involved in a television special about incest, a victim of abuse, Senator Ted Stevens of Alaska, and representatives from a victim witness program, the United Way, the National Conference of…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

394

Sex Role and Attitudes Toward Institutional Violence Among College Youth: The Impact of Sex-Role Identification, Parental Socialization, and Socio-Cultural Milieu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudinal differences between males and females on certain issues have been repeatedly documented through commercial public polls and academic studies. One of these differences is the greater reluctance on the part of females to support the use of institutional violence as an instrument of public policy. This paper empirically explores the…

Starr, Jerold M.; Cutler, Neal E.

395

Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale County, Georgia"…

Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

396

The Prevention of School Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights theproblems of school violenceand delinquency among youth in our society. It presents research involving regression analysis of data available at the county level for the state of Illinois. A cross-sectional design is utilized for the 102 counties of that state. Results indicate that school violence isimpacted by demographics, i.e, the number of African Americans and whites, while

Arthur Horton

2001-01-01

397

School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents papers from a 1998 conference on school violence in Valparaiso, Indiana. The papers include: "What is School Violence? An Integrated Definition" (Stuart Henry); "Violence in Schools: Rage against a Broken World" (J. Scott Staples); "Listening to What the Streets Say: Vengeance as Ideology?" (Ralph Cintron); "School Violence:…

Hinkle, William G., Ed.; Henry, Stuart, Ed.

2000-01-01

398

Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

2011-01-01

399

Cognitive-Behavioral-Expressive Interventions with Aggressive and Resistant Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, youth placed in residential treatment facilities demonstrate violent. aaaressive behavior. Research on national, regional and local levels consistently demonstrate that youth referred for residential placement evidence violent and aggressive ideation and behavior. Tpically, such youth have experienced abuse and come from families of origin characterized by violence as well as probable sexual and substance abuse. Trends in the provision

Daniel L. Davis; Lucinda H. Booster

1993-01-01

400

Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

2004-01-01

401

Sociologic perspectives on juvenile violence.  

PubMed

In sum, there are four sets of social factors that help us understand why juvenile violence appears when, and where, it does, and why some communities and entire societies are persistently wracked by youth violence whereas others are largely spared its worst expressions. When it comes to the first three factors in particular--deprivation, disorganization, and brutalization--the evidence for these links is as strong as anything in social science, and that evidence is supported by a variety of sources and a variety of methods of investigation. Such investigation includes the knowledge we gain through social intervention. Some of the most effective violence prevention programs are successful precisely because they confront and deflect the social forces that otherwise often lead to violence. Consider, for example, the home-visiting programs that work with poor parents in disorganized communities to lower the risks of child abuse; and some of the more "holistic" or "multisystemic" efforts to work with violent juvenile offenders. The best of these programs work by tackling the problems of social isolation and lack of supports in the community, as well as immediate issues of economic survival for vulnerable families and children. More generally, we know that the availability of steady and rewarding work in the future, of the kind that can reliably sustain a family, is one of the most important factors allowing some youths to "desist" from violence as they mature. These conclusions give us much to be encouraged about, and much to be alarmed about. On the one hand, understanding that youth violence often is rooted in a set of adverse social conditions that are identifiable, and potentially modifiable, is a fundamentally optimistic message. It reminds us that the level of juvenile violence we suffer in America today is neither fated nor inevitable. Other societies that are in many respects much like us suffer far less of it; so could we, and we increasingly understand some of the ways in which we could make that happen. We know that some programs designed to increase opportunities and supports for high-risk youth and families do work, and we know that there are broader social and economic policies--policies that are not abstract visions, but have actually been put into place in societies much like our own--that can significantly diminish the pressures toward violence that are bred by poverty and social insecurity among the young. But knowing what to do is one thing, and actually doing it is another. In this there is much reason for concern. The 7-year economic boom that began in the early 1990s has had salutary effects on youth violence, mainly by providing improved economic opportunities for low-income youth and, accordingly, diminishing the appeal of illegal activities. Despite that extraordinary burst of sustained prosperity, however, too many of America's youth remain impoverished, sometimes desperately so: the boom has had only limited effect on our disturbingly high rates of family poverty, which continue to tower above those of comparable industrial societies. And if the boom should come to an end, and we enter again into a period of rising joblessness for youth and young adults, then much, or all, of the recent gains could be quickly lost. The positive economic trends that have helped take the edge off serious juvenile violence in the past few years, in short, are both partial and fragile. Worse, some of our recent social and economic policies, at both state and federal levels, are working in the opposite direction. Some variants of welfare reform, for example, have tossed many vulnerable families off of public assistance without offering solid economic opportunities in its place. Many more families face this future as federal time limits on public welfare increasingly come into play. Given what we know about the links between deprivation and youth violence, this is not a development we can celebrate. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:11005004

Currie, E

2000-10-01

402

Violent Death, Violent States, and American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report studies patterns of violence among White youth, aged 15 to 24. Results show that youth death rates have been far higher in the rural West than in other areas of the country for most of the twentieth century. One possible cause may be the rural White ethos of the American West. (PS)

Greenberg, Michael R.; And Others

1987-01-01

403

Inhalant Use by Canadian Aboriginal Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study followed youth who received treatment for inhalant abuse. Many came from backgrounds marked by isolation, poverty, family violence, and substance abuse. Average age the youths first used inhalants was 9.72 years. Model predicted those who abused inhalants immediately before admission, were described as unmotivated in treatment, and were…

Coleman, Heather; Charles, Grant; Collins, Jennifer

2001-01-01

404

The Impact of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Later Violence and Psychological Distress: A Study of Resilience among a Scottish Youth Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of bullying between age 13 and 16 years on negative outcomes at age 17 years, taking into account various resilience factors at the individual, family, and community level. Using longitudinal data from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, a prospective cohort study of around 4,300 young people in…

McVie, Susan

2014-01-01

405

Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of…

Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Padilla, Mark B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

2011-01-01

406

Adolescents and media violence: six crucial issues for practitioners.  

PubMed

The mass media are rife with violent images and messages and youth spend a great deal of time with media. A rich tradition of research shows that exposure to media violence leads to aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior, and also to fear and desensitization. Certain youth are more vulnerable to violent media messages and images; the impact of media violence is modified by its nature and context. Parents, teachers, and the media industry should work toward mitigating the effects of media violence on youth; pediatricians and other health care providers play a key role in fostering healthy family media habits. PMID:16111617

Hogan, Marjorie J

2005-06-01

407

The Impact of Exposure To Violence On a Trajectory of (Declining) Parental MonitoringA Partial Test of the Ecological—Transactional Model of Community Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 348 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence on parenting over time. Semiparametric group-based modeling is used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from Time 1 (T1) to Time 5 (T5). Results indicate that for youth (a) 48% had

Richard Spano; Craig Rivera; Alexander T. Vazsonyi; John M. Bolland

2008-01-01

408

RF Gun Optimization Study  

SciTech Connect

Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

2007-07-03

409

Friction in rail guns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

Kay, P. K.

1984-01-01

410

The Media Spectacle of ColumbineAlienated Youth as an Object of Fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although youth violence and “delinquency” have frequently generated fear of alienated youth in American life, especially since the 1950s, the media coverage of the Columbine shootings reconstructed youth alienation in novel ways, generating a new fear and reality of “alien” youth. Analysis of both print and television media shows that following Columbine, school shooters have come to stand for an

Benjamin Frymer

2009-01-01

411

Media influence on attitudes toward guns and gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs the 1995 National Opinion Survey of Crime and Justice to examine the effect that media consumption (hours\\u000a of television viewing per week, regular viewing of crime drama, and primary source of crime news) has on attitudes towards\\u000a guns and gun control. Logistic regression results indicate that regular viewers of crime shows are more likely to oppose gun

KENNETH DOWLERI

2002-01-01

412

Gay and Lesbian Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of gay and lesbian youths' tendencies for suicide and the extent to which these tendencies are influenced by sexual orientation, violence, age, substance abuse, physical or emotional abuse, family rejection, or gender. Based on a sample of 48 respondents, nearly one-half seriously considered suicide while one-third actually attempted suicide. Close to three-quarters of this population cited

Tracie L. Hammelman

1993-01-01

413

The relationship between social support and adolescent dating violence: a comparison across genders.  

PubMed

Although much research has focused on the function of social support in adult intimate partner violence, little is known about the role of social support in adolescent dating violence. This study is an exploratory analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and family on the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and victimization among a large sample of youth (n = 970). Approximately, 21% of the sample reported experiencing victimization in a dating relationship whereas 23% indicated perpetrating dating violence. Male youth reported significantly more involvement in dating violence as both perpetrators and victims. Negative binomial regression modeling indicated that increased levels of support from friends was associated with significantly less dating violence perpetration and victimization; however, when gendered models were explored, the protective role of social support was only maintained for female youth. Family support was not significantly related to dating violence in any model. Implications for dating violence curriculum and future research are addressed. PMID:22204945

Richards, Tara N; Branch, Kathryn A

2012-05-01

414

Air guns: toys or weapons?  

PubMed

Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent. PMID:16936506

Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

2006-09-01

415

Beliefs about the risks of guns in the home: analysis of a national survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives—While epidemiological evidence suggests homes with guns are more likely to be the site of a suicide or homicide than homes without guns, the public's perception of these risks remains unknown. This study assesses the prevalence of the belief that homes with guns are safer than homes without guns, and factors associated with this belief. Methods—Telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 4138 registered voters in urban areas in the US. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess correlates of beliefs about the safety of keeping a gun in the home. Results—Twenty nine per cent of respondents believed keeping a gun in the home makes the home more safe, 40% said less safe, 23% said it depends, and 9% were unsure. The belief that a home is more safe with a gun was associated with being male, young, completing 12 years or fewer of education, having no children living at home, Republican party affiliation, and low levels of trust in the police for protection. Prior exposure to violence and fear of victimization were not associated with the outcome. Conclusions—Findings may increase understanding about the public's perception of the risk in keeping guns in the home and assist educational efforts to decrease the risk of these injuries. PMID:10628918

Howard, K. A.; Webster, D.; Vernick, J.

1999-01-01

416

Violent Media, Guns and Moral Panics: The Columbine High School Massacre, 20 April 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on 20 April 1999, and the initial media response, in some kind of historical perspective. In attempting to interpret what happened, a hierarchy of causation (presuppositions, preconditions, predpitants and triggers) is adopted. Moral panic assumptions that media violence or the availability of guns are the immediate

John Springhall

1999-01-01

417

Violent Media, Guns and Moral Panics: The Columbine High School Massacre, 20 April 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in a historical perspective. Describes the shootings in Littleton and the high school shootings since 1996. Interprets the possible reasons for the Columbine shootings, such as the role of the high school, access to guns, and violence in the mass media. (CMK)

Springhall, John

1999-01-01

418

State Gun Policy and Cross-State Externalities: Evidence from Crime Gun Tracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of cross-state externalities associated with gun regulations in the context of the gun trafficking market. Using gun tracing data, which identify the source state for crime guns recovered in destination states, we find that firearms in this market tend to flow from states with weak gun laws to states with strict gun

Brian G. Knight

2011-01-01

419

Youth Suicide: A Psychosocial Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on studies in different cultures and subcultures and in different age groups to develop a psychosocial perspective for viewing youthful suicide. Uses disciplines ranging from demography to psychodynamics to discuss relationship of violence to suicide; role of families in producing youngsters who become preoccupied with death and suicide; and…

Hendin, Herbert

1987-01-01

420

America, guns, and freedom. Part I: A recapitulation of liberty  

PubMed Central

The role of gun violence and street crime in the United States and the world is currently a subject of great debate among national and international organizations, including the United Nations. Because the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the individual right of American citizens to own private firearms, availability of firearms is greater in the U.S. than the rest of the world, except perhaps in Israel and Switzerland. Indeed, although the American people continue to purchase and possess more firearms, homicides and violent crimes have continued to diminish for several decades because guns in the hands of the law-abiding citizens does not translate into more crime. As neurosurgeons, we can be compassionate and still be honest and have the moral courage to pursue the truth and find viable solutions through the use of sound, scholarly research in the area of guns and violence. We have an obligation to reach our conclusions based on objective data and scientific information rather than on ideology, emotionalism or partisan politics. PMID:23227438

Faria, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

421

Macroeconomics and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers macroeconomic aspects of violence. It moves beyond the usual focus on war to argue the economic importance of all forms and aspects of armed and unarmed violence. Violence refers to acts of self-harm, interpersonal violence, and collective violence. Self-harm includes suicide; interpersonal violence includes organized criminal violence as well as domestic and workplace violence. Collective violence generally

Jurgen Brauer; J Paul Dunne

2010-01-01

422

The Contribution of Marital Violence to Adolescent Aggression Across Different Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different forms of aggression were measured in 296 young men and women participating in a study dating from their childhood that included families with marital violence. The youth reported on their perpetration of physical aggression with same-sex peers, dating partners, and parents. Measures were also collected on youth depression and empathy. Childhood exposure to marital violence predicted aggression toward peers

Laura Ann McCloskey; Erika L. Lichter

2003-01-01

423

Teen Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can ... victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, ...

424

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Meet OVW Leadership Areas of Focus Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Dating Violence Stalking Grant Programs Tribal Communities Reports ... includes, but is certainly not limited to, marital rape, attacks on sexual parts of the body, forcing ...

425

Resonant optical gun.  

PubMed

We propose a concept of a structure-a resonant optical gun-to realize an efficient propulsion of dielectric microparticles by light forces. The structure is based on a waveguide in which a reversal of the electromagnetic momentum flow of the incident mode is realized by exciting a whispering gallery resonance in the microparticle. The propelling force can reach the value up to the theoretical maximum of twice the momentum flow of the initial wave. The force density oscillates along the particle periphery and has very large amplitude. PMID:24784113

Maslov, A V; Bakunov, M I

2014-05-01

426

Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: II. Treatment  

PubMed Central

Interventions for youth exposed to family violence recently have incorporated a trauma focus with the objective of reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms along with alleviating other wide-ranging childhood disorders. This paper describes generally agreed-upon treatment components for youth exposed to violence in the home, including re-exposure interventions, education about violence and cognitive restructuring, processing of emotional cues, social problem-solving skills, and parenting interventions. Empirically evaluated treatment programs for different developmental stages (preschool, school-age, and adolescence) are summarized and remaining questions about how to best focus treatment efforts for youth traumatized by family violence are presented. PMID:20104253

Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

2010-01-01

427

Violence and HIV/AIDS prevention among female out-of-school youths in southwestern Nigeria: lessons learnt from interventions targeted at hawkers and apprentices.  

PubMed

Between 1997 and 2003, four studies on hawkers and apprentices in motor parks and work shops in south west, Nigeria were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing HIV infection and gender based violence (GBV). The studies were in 3 phases namely baseline survey, intervention and end line survey. Interventions consisting of:--development and distribution of education materials and training programmes for the police, judiciary, instructors, drivers, traders and apprentices/hawkers, including micro-credit facilities were implemented in some of the studies. The major lessons learnt were that: Young girls working in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy face dual risks of HIV infection and GBV and yet they are seldom targets of intervention; Many had been victims of GBV and did not seek redress either because they accept it is their lot, are afraid of being stigmatized or are put off the prolonged legal system; Perpetrators tend to deny their involvement in violence; Despite the challenges involved, interventions implemented among female apprentices and hawkers, especially those that involve multiple stakeholders, made a difference in protecting this group from dual risks of GBV and HIV/AIDS infection. We recommend more intervention programmes for this population, and regulation of activities in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy. PMID:15977443

Fawole, O I; Ajuwon, A J; Osungbade, K O

2004-12-01

428

Heavy duty plasma spray gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heavy duty plasma spray gun for extended industrial service is disclosed. The gun includes a gas distribution member made of a material having a coefficient of expansion different from that of the parts surrounding it. The gas distribution member is forcibly urged by a resilient member such as a coiled spring against a seal so as to assure the

G. C. Irons; J. F. Klein; R. D. Lander; H. C. Thompson; R. D. Trapani

1984-01-01

429

Imitation Gun Law: an Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Imitation gun-enabled crime has received extensive political and media coverage in the UK over recent years. The Violent Crime Reduction Act 2006 (VCRA) was introduced to control public possession, manufacture, import and sale of imitation guns. The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) has drawn on the Act: publicising it, enforcing it and running a targeted surrender scheme enabling the hand-in

HENRIETTA WHEAL; NICK TILLEY

2009-01-01

430

Violence Exposure, Sleep Disturbance, and Poor Academic Performance in Middle School  

PubMed Central

Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth. PMID:23315234

Lepore, Stephen J.; Kliewer, Wendy

2013-01-01

431

Violence exposure, sleep disturbance, and poor academic performance in middle school.  

PubMed

Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth. PMID:23315234

Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy

2013-11-01

432

Pervasive media violence.  

PubMed

In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes. PMID:8724228

Schooler, C; Flora, J A

1996-01-01

433

America, guns and freedom: Part II -- An international perspective  

PubMed Central

The need for reducing gun violence is discussed along with the necessity for citizens to assume some responsibility for protecting themselves, their families, and their property from criminal elements because the police cannot physically be everywhere to protect us all of the time. The problem of sensationalization of gun crimes by the media, multiple shootings by deranged individuals, accidents with firearms, suicide rates, and children with guns are discussed. The relationship of civilian disarmament in the context of tyrannical governments and genocide are also explored. Incidents in which liberty has been extinguished because firearms have been banned and citizens have been disarmed by increasingly oppressive governments, and the converse, countries where freedom has been preserved by armed citizens are also described. We conclude that guns in the hands of law-abiding citizens deter crimes, and nations that trust their citizens with firearms have governments that sustain liberty and affirm individual freedom. Governments that do not trust their citizens with firearms tend to be despotic and tyrannical, and are a potential danger to good citizens — and a peril to humanity. PMID:23227440

Faria, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

434

LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations  

SciTech Connect

The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

Schmerge, John

2010-12-10

435

Youth Participation in Youth Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently, adults organize and implement youth projects without involving youth in the process. However, youth should be involved in problem identification and program design because they understand the needs of their peers and how to reach them effectively. This paper examines youth participation as a process for bringing about effective youth

Kothari, Roshani

436

Strong association between earlier abuse and revictimization in youth  

PubMed Central

Background Violence victimization among youth is recognized as a public health problem. The objective was to analyze the risk pattern of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse during the past 12 months by gender, sociodemographic factors, health risk behaviors, and exposure to abuse before the age of 15, among young men and women attending youth health centers in Sweden. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a nationally representative sample of youth health centers. A total of 2,250 young women and 920 young men aged 15–23 completed a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% CI were calculated. Results A consistent and strong association was noted between exposure to all types of violence during the past year and victimization before the age of 15 for all types of violence for both women and men. The only exceptions were childhood sexual victimization and sexual violence during the past year for men. Younger age was associated with all violence exposure for the women and with emotional violence for the men. For the women, drug use was associated with all types of violence, while the association with hazardous alcohol use and not living with parents was restricted to physical and sexual violence exposure, present smoking was restricted to emotional and physical violence exposure, and partnership and living in urban areas were restricted to sexual violence. For men, not being partnered, hazardous alcohol consumption, and drug use meant increased risk for physical violence, while smoking and living in urban areas were associated with sexual violence. After adjustment, immigration had no association with violence exposure. Conclusions Violence victimization in young men and women is often not a single experience. Findings underline the importance of early interventions among previously abused youth. PMID:25018145

2014-01-01

437

Mental Health Service Use among High School Students Exposed to Interpersonal Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Violence-exposed youth rarely receive mental health services, even though exposure increases risk for academic and psychosocial problems. This study examines the association between violence exposure and mental health service contact. The 4 forms of violence exposure were peer, family, sexual, and witnessing. Methods: Data are from…

Green, Jennifer Greif; Johnson, Renee M.; Dunn, Erin C.; Lindsey, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

2014-01-01

438

Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration Within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all public school students enrolled in grades 7, 9, 11 and 12 (N =

Monica H. Swahn; Thomas R. Simon; Ileana Arias; Robert M. Bossarte

2008-01-01

439

Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence, School Year 2004-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Code of Virginia" (Section 22.1-279.3:1) requires school divisions statewide to submit data annually to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting data on discipline, crime, and violence to the VDOE in 1991. The federal "Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994"…

Virginia Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

440

Spinal Cord Injury as a Permanent Consequence of Victimization in Random Violence: A Public Health Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traumatic spinal cord injuries resulting from criminal violence is a growing public health concern. Citing the criminal justice system's failure to reduce violence and the costs of treating injuries, a public health-education approach is advocated. Approaches to prevention, gun control, and a comprehensive family policy are discussed. (Author/EMK)

Anderson, James F.; Dyson, Laronistine; Grandison, Terry

1998-01-01

441

Mental Health Consequences of Palestinian Adolescents' Exposure to Family Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the psychological consequences of adolescents' exposure to psychological abuse and physical violence in the family. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 1,185 Palestinian adolescents. Different forms of the Conflict Tactic Scales were used to measure adolescents' witnessing and experiencing different patterns of abuse and violence in their families. The Youth Self Report was used

Muhammad M. Haj-Yahia; Rula Abdo-Kaloti

2007-01-01

442

Treating Violence in the School through Traditional Martial Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a comprehensive survey of the literature title "Coping With Violence in the School System," Benbenisti, Astor, and Marachi (2003) map out the programs being deployed throughout the school system today. Those programs listed are "peace builders," "second step," "Richmond's youth against violence," "student's project for peace," "community…

Kim, Israel

2004-01-01

443

Victories over Violence: The Quest for Safe Schools and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Periodic mass school shootings and the steady slaughter of youth on the streets of our cities are both products of cultures of violence. The authors highlight key factors that promote or prevent such acts, beginning with the little-known account of a young boy who perpetuated the most deadly school violence in history.

Mitchell, Martin L.; Brendtro, Larry K.

2013-01-01

444

Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence on Adolescent Violence and Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the…

Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.

2011-01-01

445

Choking Game: CDC's Findings on a Risky Youth Behavior  

MedlinePLUS

... Motor Vehicle Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Violence Prevention Data & Statistics (WISQARS) Funded Programs Communications Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Research Update The Choking Game: CDC´s Findings on a Risky Youth Behavior Centers ...

446

28 CFR 2.64 - Youth Corrections Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees ...date for a prisoner who has either committed or attempted a crime of violence. (iv) Drug/alcohol abuse programs:...

2010-07-01

447

28 CFR 2.64 - Youth Corrections Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees ...date for a prisoner who has either committed or attempted a crime of violence. (iv) Drug/alcohol abuse programs:...

2011-07-01

448

28 CFR 2.64 - Youth Corrections Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees ...date for a prisoner who has either committed or attempted a crime of violence. (iv) Drug/alcohol abuse programs:...

2013-07-01

449

28 CFR 2.64 - Youth Corrections Act.  

...SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees ...date for a prisoner who has either committed or attempted a crime of violence. (iv) Drug/alcohol abuse programs:...

2014-07-01

450

28 CFR 2.64 - Youth Corrections Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees ...date for a prisoner who has either committed or attempted a crime of violence. (iv) Drug/alcohol abuse programs:...

2012-07-01

451

Violence against Women  

MedlinePLUS

Violence against women Intimate partner and sexual violence against women Fact sheet N°239 Updated October 2013 Key facts: Violence against women - particularly intimate partner violence and sexual violence against ...

452

Parental attitudes toward BB and pellet guns.  

PubMed

As well as describing our pediatric BB and pellet gun injuries and the circumstances surrounding these injuries, we also evaluated parental perceptions of the dangers of BB and pellet guns. A convenience sample of three groups of parents and their children presenting to a Midwest, urban, children's hospital emergency department was prospectively enrolled. The three groups of parents included the injured group, which consisted of the parents whose children had been injured by BB or pellet guns; the gun group, which consisted of the parents who allowed their children to possess BB or pellet guns but had not sustained injury from these guns; and the no gun group, which consisted of the parents who did not allow their children to have these guns. All parents completed a survey concerning their attitudes toward BB and pellet guns. Twenty-eight parents completed questionnaires in each of the three groups. Most BB and pellet gun injuries occurred in adolescent males at home without adult supervision and were inflicted by a friend or by themselves. The injured group and the no gun group viewed BB and pellet guns as significantly more dangerous than the gun group. Parents who allow their children to have BB or pellet guns appear to misperceive their potential for injury by allowing their children to use these guns in an unsafe manner. Clinicians must educate parents about the significant potential for injury of nonpowdered guns. PMID:10826075

Damore, D T; Ramundo, M L; Hanna, J P; Dayan, P S

2000-05-01

453

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Epilogue #12;Inside Gun Shows;Epilogue In February 2010, I attended a Crossroads of the West gun show at the Arizona State Fairgrounds here an update on each of the Phoenix obser- vations made in the photo-essay portion of Inside Gun

Leistikow, Bruce N.

454

Analysis of states gun control restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis analyzes the policy effects of several state gun control restrictions in the United States. The study employs the data of gun related crimes and gun control restrictions from Statistical Abstract of Criminal Justice Handbook through five years (from 1995 to 2000). Although many scholars have studied previously gun control policy effects on crimes, they always focus on the

Xiaofeng Cheng

2002-01-01

455

Understanding of Guns, Gun Play, and Aggressivity Among 5-9 Year Old Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge about guns and the relation between play with guns and aggressivity was assessed in a group of 5-9 year old children. Each child was questioned about his gun play and his understanding of guns after he was shown a display of two toy and two real guns. This data was then correlated with a teacher rating of aggression for each child.…

LaVoie, Joseph C.; Adams, Gerald R.

456

The Effects of Gun Ownership Rates and Gun Control Laws on Suicide Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of gun control laws and gun ownership rates on state-level suicide rates. Using the most recent data on suicide rates, gun control measures, and gun ownership rates, the results of the present study suggest that states that require handgun permits have lower gun-related suicide rates, and states that have

Mark Gius

2011-01-01

457

School and Community Influences on the Long Term Post-Disaster Recovery of Children and Youth Following Hurricane Georges  

PubMed Central

Disasters affect the school and community microsystems in which children and youth recover. This study explored characteristics of the school (school violence, teachers’ attitudes) and community microsystem (neighborhood climate, neighborhood monitoring, community violence) that may affect the disaster exposure and internalizing psychopathology relationship in children and youth 12–27 months after Hurricane Georges hit Puerto Rico. A representative sample (N=1,637) of caregivers and children/youth completed structured interviews in Spanish. Controlling for gender and perception of poverty, for children (age 6–10 years), hurricane exposure increased risk for internalizing psychopathology, but the school and community variables did not have an influence. For all youth (age 11–17 years), witnessing community violence and poor teacher attitudes increased the risk of psychopathology. In addition, neighborhood climate and school violence were moderators. For non-exposed youth, poor neighborhood climate and perceiving greater school violence increased the risk of internalizing psychopathology, whereas for exposed youth it did not.

Felix, Erika; You, Sukkyung; Canino, Glorisa

2014-01-01

458

Imaging's insights into human violence.  

PubMed

Following every well-publicized act of incomprehensible violence, the news media rush to interview neighbors, family members, and experts in an attempt to discover what could have led an individual to commit such a barbarous act. Certain stock answers are reiterated: video games, bullying, violent films, mental illness, the availability of guns, and a society that is increasingly both anonymous and callous. Might imaging be one of the more valuable keys to unlocking the mysteries of violent, aggressive people? This article explores these questions and their complex answers in the context of violent individuals. PMID:24614436

Church, Elizabeth J

2014-01-01

459

Adapting dating violence prevention to francophone Switzerland: a story of intra-western cultural differences.  

PubMed

Dating violence prevention programs, which originated in the United States, are beginning to be implemented elsewhere. This article presents the first adaptation of a violence prevention program for a European culture, Francophone Switzerland. A U.S. dating violence prevention program, Safe Dates (Foshee & Langwick, 1994), was reviewed in 19 youth and 4 professional focus groups. The most fundamental program concepts--"dating" and "violence"--are not the same in Switzerland and the United States. Swiss youth were not very focused on establishing monogamous romantic relationships, and there is no ready translation for "dating." Violence has not become the focus of a social movement in Switzerland to the same extent that it has in the United States, and distinctions among terms such as "dating violence" and "domestic violence" are not well known. Psychoeducational approaches are also less common in the Swiss context. As the movement to prevent violence extends worldwide, these issues need greater consideration. PMID:22455183

Hamby, Sherry; Nix, Kaki; De Puy, Jacqueline; Monnier, Sylvie

2012-01-01

460

Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.  

PubMed

Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations. PMID:25211757

McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

2014-11-01

461

Temporal association between federal gun laws and the diversion of guns to criminals in Milwaukee.  

PubMed

The practices of licensed gun dealers can threaten the safety of urban residents by facilitating the diversion of guns to criminals. In 2003, changes to federal law shielded gun dealers from the release of gun trace data and provided other protections to gun dealers. The 14-month period during which the dealer did not sell junk guns was associated with a 68% reduction in the diversion of guns to criminals within a year of sale by the dealer and a 43% increase in guns diverted to criminals following sales by other dealers. The laws were associated with a 203% increase in the number of guns diverted to criminals within a year of sale by the gun store, which was the focus of this study. Policies which affect gun dealer accountability appeared to influence the diversion of guns to criminals. PMID:22218834

Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vittes, Katherine A

2012-02-01

462

What Canadian Youth Tell Us about Disclosing Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To report findings from a study of anonymous disclosures of abuse experiences among a national sample of youth in Canada who participated in violence prevention programming. Methods: A qualitative analysis was done of a purposeful sample of 1,099 evaluation forms completed following Red Cross RespectED violence prevention programming…

Ungar, Michael; Tutty, Leslie M.; McConnell, Sheri; Barter, Ken; Fairholm, Judi

2009-01-01

463

What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal  

E-print Network

2 How Gun Shows Work What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal. But other states have enacted more specific definitions as they acted to regulate gun shows themselves or gun sales at gun shows but not elsewhere (Table 2-1). In the parking lot of a gun show in Pharr, Texas

Leistikow, Bruce N.

464

Gravity's smoking gun?  

E-print Network

We present a new constraint on the biased galaxy formation picture. Gravitational instability theory predicts that the two-point mass density correlation function, \\xi(r), has an inflection point at the separation r=r_0, corresponding to the boundary between the linear and nonlinear regime of clustering, \\xi = 1. We show how this feature can be used to constrain the square of the biasing parameter, b^2 = \\xi_g / \\xi on scales r = r_0, where \\xi_g is the galaxy-galaxy correlation function, allowed to differ from \\xi. We apply our method to real data: the \\xi_g(r), estimated from the APM galaxy survey. Our results suggest that the APM galaxies trace the mass at separations r > 5 Mpc/h, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km/s Mpc. The present results agree with earlier studies, based on comparing higher order correlations in the APM with weakly non-linear perturbation theory. Both approaches constrain the "b" factor to be within 20% of unity. If the existence of the feature we identified in the APM \\xi_g(r) -- the inflection point near \\xi_g = 1 -- is confirmed by more accurate surveys, we may have discovered gravity's smoking gun: the long awaited ``shoulder'' in \\xi, predicted by Gott and Rees 25 years ago.

E. Gaztanaga; R. Juszkiewicz

2001-07-20

465

Eccentrically actuated perforating guns  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is described for perforating a well casing comprising, in combination: a side pocket mandrel including an elongate mandrel body intersected by a longitudinal production bore and by an offset receptacle bore extending alongside the production bore, an upper body section attached to the upper end of said mandrel body, said upper body section having a main passage formed therethrough in alignment with the production bore and having an offset sidewall forming a belly chamber for receiving a kick over tool, said belly chamber providing kick over tool access to the receptacle bore, said upper body section having means for connecting its upper end to a tubing string, and the side pocket mandrel having means for connecting its lower end to a tubing string; and, a perforator tool including a gun mandrel attached to the lower end of said side pocket mandrel body and having detonator means disposed within the side pocket receptacle bore, said detonator means being disposed for striking engagement by a kick over tool.

George, F.R.; Restarick, H.L.; Merritt, D.T.

1993-07-06

466

School Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/youthviolence/ schoolviolence/SAVD.html • School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS). The SHPPS is a ... can use to improve their health and safety policies and programs. Five topics are covered, ... foster care, universal school-based violence prevention programs, and transfer ...

467

Legal Implications of Profiling Students for Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how predicting violent activity with a youth violence profile in school raises legal concerns focusing on the validity and use of profiles as social science evidence: the impact of potential discrimination, search and seizure, and the implications for privacy. Argues that these issues rest on fundamental concerns about the general…

Bailey, Kirk A.

2001-01-01

468

Preventing School Violence by Promoting Wellness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for school-based health promotion and prevention programming that can serve to guide planning and action. Rather than separating specific prevention programs (such as violence prevention, substance abuse prevention, etc.) from more broad-based youth development efforts, this approach provides an integrated framework that: (a) identifies benchmarks of healthy development and strategies to support this development across

Nancy G. Guerra

2003-01-01

469

Assessing and Managing Violence Risk in Juveniles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highly practical and accessible, this is an indispensable resource for any mental health practitioner working with adolescents at risk for violent behavior. Presented is a comprehensive framework for evaluating justice-involved youth or those whose behavior in school, therapy sessions, or other contexts raises concern about violence. Detailed case…

Borum, Randy; Verhaagen, David

2006-01-01

470

How much for a dime bag? An exploration of youth drug markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about how youth obtain marijuana and other drugs. The Drugs, Alcohol and Violence International (DAVI) study explored youthful drug markets among samples of school students, detained youth, and school dropouts (ages 14–17 years) in the greater metropolitan areas of Philadelphia, Toronto, Montreal, and Amsterdam. Students frequently reported sharing drugs, either getting them from others or giving

L. D Harrison; P. G Erickson; D. J. Korf; S Brochu; A. Benschop

2008-01-01

471

How much for a dime bag? An exploration of youth drug markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about how youth obtain marijuana and other drugs. The Drugs, Alcohol and Violence International (DAVI) study explored youthful drug markets among samples of school students, detained youth, and school dropouts (ages 14–17 years) in the greater metropolitan areas of Philadelphia, Toronto, Montreal, and Amsterdam. Students frequently reported sharing drugs, either getting them from others or giving

Lana D. Harrison; Patricia G. Erickson; Dirk J. Korf; Serge Brochu; Annemieke Benschop

2007-01-01

472

Challenging the silences and omissions of dominant media: Youth-led media collectives in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to introduce scholars and practitioners of youth and community media to exemplary youth-led media projects in Colombia. It highlights case studies of two media collectives led by Afro-Colombian and Indigenous youth, who are producing media under difficult conditions fueled by war, violence and poverty. I had the opportunity to get to know these and

Diana Coryat

473

The World's Youth 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the Population Reference Bureau (see the November 17, 1998 Scout Report for the Social Sciences) provides data and analysis on the world's youth. The report includes data on "population, education, and health, with a special focus on sexual and reproductive health." The topics covered in this report include "education, sexual and reproductive lives of young people, use of contraception, sexual violence against young women, HIV/AIDS, and policy and program approaches." The text of the report is presented in .pdf format, and the data tables may be viewed in either HTML or .pdf format. Individual topics are also accessible using a sidebar menu.

2001-01-01

474

Hip Hop Is Now: An Evolving Youth Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging from Rap music, Hip Hop has become a lifestyle to many modern youth around the world. Embodying both creativity and controversy, Hip Hop mirrors the values, violence, and hypocrisy of modern culture. The authors dispel some of the simplistic views that surround this evolving youth movement embraced by millions of young people who are…

Taylor, Carl; Taylor, Virgil

2007-01-01

475

Keeping Every Child Safe: Curbing the Epidemic of Violence. Joint Hearing Examining the Impact of Violence on Children before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate, and the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families of the House of Representatives. One Hundred Third Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents testimony regarding the impact of violence on children. The opening statement of Senator Dodd discusses the exposure of American children to violence and notes the Senator's introduction of the "Child and Family Services and Law Enforcement Partnership Act," an act proposed to provide children exposed to violence with…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

476

[Suicide with home-made gun].  

PubMed

Three cases of suicide by single bullet injury to head by home-made guns with immediate incapacitation are reported in following article. Zip gun (home-made gun) is a improvised firearm, usually a handgun. Home-made guns are almost always single-shot, as the improvised construction sometimes makes them weak enough to be destroyed by the act of firing. Zip guns are mostly smoothbore. Zip gun injuries, although unique today, represent a special category of missile injury with atypical low velocity terminal ballistics. PMID:19534397

Safr, M; Hejna, P; Zátopková, L

2009-04-01

477

Violence in families of adolescent runaways.  

PubMed

Adolescents who run away from home frequently give many reasons for their behavior, but rarely has an examination of physical maltreatment as a precipitating factor for leaving home been carefully conducted. The Conflict Tactics Scale, a measure of how families resolve conflicts, was completed by 199 adolescents who ran away to a youth shelter. Some 78% of the adolescents self-reported significant physical violence directed toward themselves by a parent in the one year prior to their running away. There were no significant effects of age or sex on the amount of physical violence. A comparison between runaway adolescents and adolescents labeled abused reveals no significant differences in at-risk child abuse scores. An argument is presented for crisis counselors and youth shelter workers to more carefully examine and treat family violence in adolescents who run. PMID:6541081

Farber, E D; Kinast, C; McCoard, W D; Falkner, D

1984-01-01

478

Are toy guns too dangerous?  

PubMed

Toy guns with projectiles may injure young children. A study was undertaken to assess the danger posed by these toys and the regulations governing them. US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) data indicate that toy guns with projectiles cause relatively few injuries, mostly to young boys. The magnitude of the problem is smaller than that of nonpowder and powder firearms. Most often, toy gun injuries are to the face and eyes. Of the estimated 818 injuries in 1980 and 1981, 2.9% required hospitalization. More than 400 days were lost from school and work, and there were nearly 3,000 days of restricted activity due to these toy gun injuries. The hazard posed by toy guns with projectiles can be reduced through the legitimate regulatory authority of the Consumer Product Safety Commission with minor impact on retail cost, toy industry sales, and the play value of the toys. The yearly cost to consumers from increased regulation would probably be similar to the annual cost of the injuries. Regulation is warranted to protect young children who use these toys. PMID:3969326

Tanz, R; Christoffel, K K; Sagerman, S

1985-02-01

479

Possession, Transportation, and Use of Firearms by Older Youth in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…

White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd

2014-01-01

480

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom trajectories in Hurricane Katrina affected youth  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Hurricane Katrina affected youth. Method A total of 426 youth (51% female; 8–16 years old; mean age=11 years; 75% minorities) completed assessments at 4 time points post-disaster. Measures included Hurricane impact variables (initial loss/disruption and perceived life threat); history of family and community violence exposure, parent and peer social support, and post-disaster posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results Latent class growth analysis demonstrated that there were three distinct trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms identified for this sample of youth (resilient, recovering, and chronic, respectively). Youth trajectories were associated with Hurricane-related initial loss/disruption, community violence, and peer social support. Conclusions The results suggest that youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina have variable posttraumatic stress disorder symptom trajectories. Significant risk and protective factors were identified. Specifically, youth Hurricane and community violence exposure increased risk for a more problematic posttraumatic stress disorder symptom trajectory, while peer social support served as a protective factor for these youth. Identification of these factors suggests directions for future research as well as potential target areas for screening and intervention with disaster exposed youth. Limitations The convenience sample limits the external validity of the findings to other disaster exposed youth, and the self-report data is susceptible to response bias. PMID:23206321

Self-Brown, Shannon; Lai, Betty S.; Thompson, Julia E.; McGill, Tia; Kelley, Mary Lou

2014-01-01

481

Engaging health professionals in advocacy against gun violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health professionals have long been involved with advocacy around the social determinants of health, including protesting against war and mitigating the production, trade and use of specific weapon systems. Small arms and light weapons are a key area on which to focus, as they are responsible for the majority of injuries and deaths in war and their availability is related

Andrew D. Pinto

2008-01-01

482

Physicians among many participants in midst of Canada's emotional gun-control debate.  

PubMed

Because they are seen as advocates for public health and safety, physicians are also widely believed to be supporters of aggressive gun-control measures, but in reality there are strong feelings on both sides of the issue. "People assume that more gun control will mean less violence, but there are no hard data to support that," says Vancouver psychiatrist Joseph Noone, who argues that Canada already has highly restrictive firearms laws. Other physicians are puzzled by colleagues' opposition to the changes. "I don't understand why it's such a big deal," says Dr. Stephen Corber, medical officer of health for the Ottawa-Carleton region. He argues that registration would not be a deterrent to responsible gun use and ownership. PMID:7780910

LeBourdais, E

1995-06-15

483

Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

Palmer, R.B.

1988-01-01

484

Effects of a Gun Dealer's Change in Sales Practices on the Supply of Guns to Criminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Licensed gun dealers are a major conduit for gun trafficking. Prior to May 1999, a single gun store sold more than half of the guns recovered from criminals in Milwaukee, WI, shortly following retail sale. On May 10, 1999, the store stopped selling small, inexpensive handguns popular with criminals, often called “Saturday night specials.” The purpose of this study was

Daniel W. Webster; Jon S. Vernick; Maria T. Bulzacchelli

2006-01-01

485

Reducing firearm violence: a research agenda.  

PubMed

In the United States, firearms are involved in tens of thousands of deaths and injuries each year. The magnitude of this problem prompted the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to issue a report in 2004 detailing the strengths and limitations of existing research on the relationship between firearms and violence. In response, a multidisciplinary group of experts in the field of firearms and violence formed the National Research Collaborative on Firearm Violence. The Collaborative met for 2 days in June 2005 to (1) critically review the main findings of the NAS report and (2) define a research agenda that could fill research and data gaps and inform policy that reduces gun-related crime, deaths and injuries. This article summarizes the Collaborative's conclusions and identifies priorities for research and funding. PMID:17446246

Weiner, Janet; Wiebe, Douglas J; Richmond, Therese S; Beam, Kristen; Berman, Alan L; Branas, Charles C; Cheney, Rose A; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Firman, John; Fishbein, Martin; Hargarten, Stephen; Hemenway, David; Jeffcoat, Robert; Kennedy, David; Koper, Christopher S; Lemaire, Jean; Miller, Matthew; Roth, Jeffrey A; Schwab, C William; Spitzer, Robert; Teret, Stephen; Vernick, Jon; Webster, Daniel

2007-04-01

486

Coaxial plasma gun in mode 1 operation †  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma focusing action is observed in two coaxial plasma guns, operating in deuterium in mode 1 operation, one with a non-conducting outer cylinder (gun A) and the other one with a, conducting outer cylinder (gun B). For gun A a limiting velocity of 4-5 cm\\/?sec in the steady propagation region is measured, but despite this low velocity, focusing characteristics in

Y. H. CHEN; S. LEE

1973-01-01

487

Violence Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Social Services During the 2 years preceding the study: • 93.9% of states provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on violence prevention services to school mental health or social services staff. • The percentage ...

488

Dating Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Barbara Givens, Seniors Against Stalking/Domestic Abuse Chelsey Waters, Center for Family Violence Prevention Mark Nowacki, Culpeper Victim/Witness Program Vilma Torres, Safe Horizon Public Policy Legislative Agenda Amendments Alabama Alaska Arizona California Colorado ...

489

Differentiating suicide ideators from attempters: violence-a research note.  

PubMed

Which factors distinguish suicide attempters from suicide ideators is a relatively neglected question in suicidology. Data from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, encompassing 1,439 youth suicide ideators and 1,097 attempters, was used to explore which factors best differentiate suicide attempters from ideators, with a focus on violence involvement. Measures of violence include the contexts of fights, dating, and weapons carrying. Controls were incorporated for psychiatric disorders, risky sexual behavior, school integration, and demographics. Controlling for the other variables, violence differentiated attempts from ideation: fighting (OR = 2.18) and weapon carrying (OR = 1.13). Psychiatric factors that predicted attempts over ideation included major depression (OR = 1.86), use of cocaine (OR = 2.34), and having a suicide plan (OR = 2.69), while demographic factors included gender, age, residence in the Midwest, and Hispanic, African American, or Asian ethnicity. A supplementary analysis (N = 11,546) determined that violence also helped to differentiate suicide ideators from nonsuicidal youth. Four factors (including violence involvement, eating disorders, and gender consistently) differentiated both between suicide attempts and ideation, and also between suicide ideators and nonsuicidal youth. The link between violence involvement and suicidality is interpreted in terms of the capability for suicide from the interpersonal theory of suicide. PMID:24033552

Stack, Steven

2014-02-01

490

Guns, Gangs, and the Underclass: A Constructionist Analysis of Gun Violence in a Toronto High School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé:À l'aide de données recueillies lors de la couverture d'événements par la presse locale, on examine comment a été présenté le meurtre d'un jeune de 15 ans, Jordan Manners, commis dans une école secondaire de Toronto. En particulier, on cherche à comprendre pourquoi, après avoir d'abord tenté de contextualiser l'événement en fonction d'autres cas de tireurs dans des écoles, les

William OGrady; Patrick F. Parnaby; Justin Schikschneit

2010-01-01

491

Domestic violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

One incident of domestic violence is reported to the police every minute and up to 30% of domestic abuse starts during pregnancy. However domestic violence remains a subject that health professionals find difficult to discuss.Patients in violent relationships may present in a wide variety of ways including a disastrous obstetric history with repeated miscarriages, stillbirth or pre-term labour.If a woman

Amanda Green; Susan Ward

2010-01-01

492

The social costs of gun ownership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides new estimates of the effect of household gun prevalence on homicide rates, and infers the marginal external cost of handgun ownership. The estimates utilize a superior proxy for gun prevalence, the percentage of suicides committed with a gun, which we validate. Using county- and state-level panels for 20 years, we estimate the elasticity of homicide with respect

Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig

2006-01-01

493

The Rail Gun Muad Al Khaldi  

E-print Network

The Rail Gun Muad Al Khaldi Department of Electrical Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Abstract- The rail gun is one of promising ways of launching projectiles. Recently, many. In this project, I am going to investigate the construction of electromagnetic rail guns, the way the function

Masoudi, Husain M.

494

Intervening in gun markets: an experiment to assess the impact of targeted gun-law messaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess whether targeting new gun buyers with a public safety message aimed at improving\\u000a gun law awareness can modify gun purchasers’ behaviors. Between May 2007 and September 2008, 2,120 guns were purchased in\\u000a two target neighborhoods of the City of Los Angeles. Starting in August 2007, gun buyers initiating transactions on odd-numbered\\u000a days

Greg Ridgeway; Anthony A. Braga; George Tita; Glenn L. Pierce

2011-01-01

495

Moral Markets for Troubling Youths: A Disruption!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that public policy discourse with narrow views of morality and character are at the center of contemporary definitions and marketing of services for violent/troubled youth. Uses descriptive and ethnographic data on violence in urban and black schools/communities to argue that, left undisturbed, moral entrepreneurs pose as much risk as…

Cousins, Linwood H.

2001-01-01

496

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: United States, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined national Youth Risk Behavior Survey data and state and local surveys of high school students to investigate behaviors contributing to unintentional injuries, violence, substance use, age at initiation of risk behaviors, substance abuse on school property, sexual behaviors contributing to pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases,…

Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Williams, Barbara; Ross, James G.; Lowry, Richard; Kolbe, Lloyd

2002-01-01

497

ODDJP's Tribal Youth Initiatives: Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The violent crime rate among American Indians is twice that of the United States as a whole. Tribal communities are also beset by high rates of domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, alcohol abuse, and gang involvement. Given such factors, it is not surprising that tribal youth are exposed to multiple risk factors for delinquency. Indeed,…

McKinney, Kay

498

Youth and Parental Attitudes toward Fighting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…

Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.

2008-01-01

499

The Xygra gun simulation tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductive electromagnetic launchers, or coilguns, use discrete solenoidal coils to accelerate a coaxial conductive armature. To date, Sandia has been using an internally developed code, SLINGSHOT, as