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1

Children, Youth, and Gun Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles summarizes knowledge and research about how gun violence affects children and youth and discusses which policies hold promise for reducing youth gun violence. The papers are: (1) "Statement of Purpose" (Richard E. Behrman); "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations" (Kathleen Reich, Patti L.…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

2

Gun violence among youth and the pediatrician's role in primary prevention.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a developmental stage characterized by high rates of violent behavior. Increasingly, violent injury is involving preadolescent children. Evidence suggests that the availability of guns increases the lethality of violent acts. Because guns are ubiquitous in the United States and integral to the current epidemic of youth violence, pediatricians should participate in primary prevention of firearm injuries. Efforts should begin long before children reach adolescence. Pediatricians should: (1) Encourage parents to remove guns from the home, or at a minimum to keep guns unloaded and locked up; (2) Advise parents to limit viewing of gun violence in the media, and playing with toy guns and video games that involve shooting; (3) Be alert for early indicators of aggressive behavior; and (4) Become outspoken advocates for laws that restrict gun availability. PMID:7936887

Webster, D W; Wilson, M E

1994-10-01

3

Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

1996-01-01

4

Guns, Gangs, and Gossip: An Analysis of Student Essays on Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is an important public health problem, but few researchers have studied violence from youth's perspectives. Middle school students' essays about the causes of youth violence were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. The causes of violence identified by students were categorized into individual, peer, family, and…

Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Wong, Naima; Tarver, Darian; Rabiah, Deana; White, Sharrice

2004-01-01

5

Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

2012-01-01

6

Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence

Kim, Henny H., Ed.

7

Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

Slovak, Karen

2002-01-01

8

Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of Programs and Initiatives. Program Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses a wide array of violence prevention strategies used across the United States, ranging from school-based prevention to gun market interception. Relevant research, evaluation, and legislation are included to ground these programs and provide a context for their successful implementation. The first section of the report is an…

Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

9

Understanding Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... social services. 3 Why is youth violence a public health problem? Youth violence is widespread in the United ... CDC uses a four-step approach to address public health problems like youth violence. Step 1: Define the ...

10

The Real Costs of Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the

Cook; Philip J

2001-01-01

11

Youth Violence: Lessons From the Experts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Acknowledgments; Introduction; What Contributes to Youth Violence; Violence By the Numbers; What Protects Children and Youth From Violence; Violence Prevention Programs; Influences on Responses to Violence; Resources; Bibliography.

P. Mann Rinehart I. Borowsky A. Stolz E. Latts C. U. Cart

1998-01-01

12

Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

Howell, James C.

13

Framing Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have quality newspapers incorporated what scholars have learned over the last quarter century about making news more useful as a resource for civic participation? A year-long analysis of reporting about youth violence in three California newspapers provides a schizophrenic conclusion: After the Columbine massacre, newspapers provided rich context,…

McManus, John; Dorfman, Lori

14

The Real Costs of Gun Violence  

ScienceCinema

I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the form of higher taxes and waiting to go through the airport security checks. But that's just the beginning. The extraordinary reductions in lethal violence that occurred during the 1990s help account for rising property values and urban renewal; further reductions are possible and would do still more to enhance the average standard of living. This talk will explain why the economic perspective provides a fresh, useful point of view on violence, and will discuss the technique used to arrive at an estimate of the magnitude of the burden.

15

Youth Violence: Prediction and Prevention. Facts You Can Use. Seeds of Help.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The escalation of youth violence is one of the major public health concerns of the United States. Many factors today make juveniles more likely to commit, or to become victims of, violent acts. Drugs, the availability of guns, and the emergence of gang problems in all regions of the country are among the causes of youth violence. Prevention of…

Facts You Can Use--Seeds of Help, 1997

1997-01-01

16

Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

2005-01-01

17

Youth Violence National and State Statistics at a Glance  

MedlinePLUS

... Digg Google Bookmarks Youth Violence National and State Statistics at a Glance Youth violence results in considerable ... in which youth are safe from violence. National Statistics State Statistics References Centers for Disease Control and ...

18

Congressional Testimony on School Violence: Early Childhood, Youth and Families Subcommittee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School violence has been linked to youth not recognizing the finality of death, extreme violence portrayed in the media, availability of guns, student reluctance to "tell," and lack of curriculum that teaches children anger management and problem-solving skills. Recommendations include making prevention programs a priority and establishing…

Poland, Scott

1998-01-01

19

Violence, Guns, and Drugs: A Cross-Country Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence rates differ dramatically across countries. A widely held view is that these differences reflect differences in gun control and\\/or gun availability, and certain pieces of evidence appear consistent with this hypothesis. A more detailed examination of this evidence suggests that the role of gun control\\/availability is not compelling. This more detailed examination, however, does not provide an alternative explanation

2001-01-01

20

Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

2014-01-01

21

Code Red: A Public Health Approach to School Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this case study (Code Red) is to demonstrate why school gun violence is a public health issue and to draw attention to the need for policy to address it. Traditionally, the concept of \\

Gerard Castro; Suzet M. McKinney; Anne Sobocinski; Sherry E. Weingart

22

Poverty and Youth Violence Exposure: Experiences in Rural Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence exposure among rural youths is a significant public health problem, yet little research has been conducted on violence in this setting. This study explored rural youths' direct and indirect experience of violence in the neighborhood, school, and home. The author used hierarchical regression analyses to explore youth violence exposure,…

Carlson, Karen Townsend

2006-01-01

23

National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the White House Council on Youth Violence, the National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center is a collaboration between the Council, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other federal agencies. The Resource Center Website is offered as a portal to federal information on youth violence prevention and suicide. The heart of the site is a sizable collection of annotated links, organized alphabetically by topic. The site also explores a number of "Hot Topics," such as Youth Suicide, After School Programs, and Intimate Partner and Family Violence, with background and overviews, publications, and annotated links. Additional content includes a teens-only section, links to related organizations, and an internal search engine.

24

The impact of gun control and gun ownership levels on violence rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

What effects do gun control restrictions and gun prevalence have on rates of violence and crime? Data were gathered for all 170 U.S. cities with a 1980 population of at least 100,000. The cities were coded for the presence of 19 major categories of firearms restriction, including both state- and city-level restrictions. Multiple indirect indicators of gun prevalence levels were

Gary Kleck; E. Britt Patterson

1993-01-01

25

Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

2008-01-01

26

77 FR 2731 - Request for Information on Youth Violence  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Surgeon General response to the public health problem of youth violence. DATES: Individuals...gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Scope of Problem: Youth violence is a significant public health problem with the potential for immediate and...

2012-01-19

27

Youth attitudes toward dating violence in Thailand.  

PubMed

This study assessed the occurrences and intensity of psychological, physical, and sexual attitudes toward dating violence among Thai youths, and examined possible variables related to the formation of these attitudes.The random sample consisted of 1,296 male and female adolescents from high school, vocational school, and out-of-school groups. Thai youths in general reported attitudes that were supportive of dating violence. The variables more closely related to attitudes toward dating violence were personal variables. Peer influence, partner relationships, and family characteristics were related to higher support for dating violence. Females reported higher endorsement of dating violence than males. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed, and recommendations for policy makers are drawn. PMID:20181774

Pradubmook-Sherer, Penchan

2011-04-01

28

Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

2009-01-01

29

Children and Guns. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Law enforcement officials, experts in public health, criminologists, educators, and youth offered testimony intended to help Congress understand the scope of the threat of guns and firearm violence to young people and the strains of the firearm problem on public and community services. A fact sheet points out that: (1) increasing numbers of youth

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

30

Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…

Ferguson, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

31

Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence. OJJDP Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, communities across the country have struggled to develop effective solutions to the problem of gun violence. Many have approached the United States Department of Justice for help in identifying solutions. This publication was developed in response to these requests. It is designed to provide state and local elected officials,…

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

32

Youth Violence and Suggestions for Schools To Reduce the Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of schools working to reduce youth violence and creating safe environments for students. Examines the causes of juvenile crime and looks at the juvenile justice system, parental responsibility, and five areas of public school responsibility (parent participation programs, school security procedures, safe school programs,…

Harris, Sandra L.; Harris, Jamey E.

2001-01-01

33

Gun Culture in Kumasi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about gun culture in Kumasi today. Gun use in Asante, and elsewhere in Ghana, has increased significantly in the last decade. In practice and in the public imagination this is associated with the rise of youth gangs and the criminalization of urban space. Much has been written about youths and violence elsewhere in Africa, but this article

T. C. McCaskie

2008-01-01

34

Youth Perceptions of Their School Violence Risks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to gauge youth perceptions of school violence, this study links two perceptual bias literatures: third-person perception and optimistic bias. The intersection of the two literatures may be especially beneficial in understanding how adolescents process and interpret public health messages and subsequently engage in risk behaviors or…

Chapin, John

2008-01-01

35

School Safety & Youth Violence: A Legal Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This legal primer on violence in schools addresses the responsibility of school officials to respond to undisciplined youths whose behavior threatens the welfare and safety of other children in attendance. It is broken down into sections that provide a brief overview of the key rules and guidelines for school officials and teachers in each topic…

Bailey, Kirk A.; Ross, Catherine J.

36

Collective violence: comparisons between youths and chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Patterns of collective violence found among humans include similarities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predominantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that include surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be larger, composed of younger individuals, occupying smaller territories and having a more complex organization. Youth gangs also differ from chimpanzee communities as a result of numerous cultural and environmental influences including complex relations with non-gang society. These relations are governed in important ways by such factors as perceived economic and personal constraints, policing, family structure, and levels of poverty, crime, and racism. Nevertheless, the concepts that sociologists use to account for collective violence in youth gangs are somewhat similar to those applied by anthropologists and biologists to chimpanzees. Thus in both cases collective violence is considered to emerge partly because males are highly motivated to gain personal status, which they do by physical violence. In the case of youth gangs, the reasons for the prevalence of physical violence in status competition compared to non-gang society are clearly context-specific, both culturally and historically. By contrast, among chimpanzees the use of physical violence to settle status competition is universal (in the wild and captivity). The use of physical violence in individual status competition therefore has different sources in youth gangs and chimpanzees. Regardless of its origin, however, its combination with an intense concern for status can explain: (1) why individual males form alliances among each other; and hence (2) how such alliances generate social power, closed groups, and a capacity for defense of territory or pre-emptive attacks on rivals. This comparison suggests that the use of physical violence to resolve individual status competition is an important predictor of collective violence at the gang level. We therefore view the similarities in aggression between humans and chimpanzees that we review here as being adaptive responses to local conditions, predicated on an inherent male concern for social status. PMID:15817741

Wrangham, Richard W; Wilson, Michael L

2004-12-01

37

Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

2008-01-01

38

Liminal Lives: South Asian Youth and Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines domestic violence experiences among South Asian youth in the United States. The paper uses a broad definition of violence, a continuum which includes aggression, coercion, control, intimidation, assault, to accommodate the meanings suggested by the youth. The main argument of this paper is that the youth's experiences cannot be adequately explained with reference to individual deviance or

Bandana Purkayastha

2000-01-01

39

Bring a gun to a gunfight: Armed adversaries and violence across nations.  

PubMed

We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms. PMID:24913946

Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

2014-09-01

40

Reducing Gun Violence: Results from an Intervention in East Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one solve violent crime in big cities? It's a vexing problem, and one that attracted the attention of a group of scholars at the RAND Corporation. This 82-page eBook released in 2010 takes a close look at how the Boston Gun Project might work if applied in East Los Angeles. In Boston, a coalition of researchers, community leaders, clergy, and others, worked together and designed, implemented, and monitored a project to reduce youth violence by reducing gang and gun violence. The program was quite successful, so this led the National Institute of Justice to work with RAND to see if this might work in Los Angeles. Specifically, the intervention included increased police presences, more stringent enforcement of housing codes for properties used by gang members, more stringent enforcement of parole and probation conditions, and referral of gun violations to federal prosecutors. While the program was somewhat successful when applied to this section of Los Angeles, the report recommends, "city leaders should establish processes to support agencies in such collaborations." Both a summary of the report and the eBook in its entirety are available for free download.

Tita, George

41

Understanding and Informing Policy Implementation: A Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we…

Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P.

2006-01-01

42

Dating violence experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.  

PubMed

Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth. PMID:23861097

Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer

2014-05-01

43

Urban youths' perspectives on violence and the necessity of fighting  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess youth perceptions of the causes and consequences of violence generally, the causes and consequences of fighting specifically, and to determine how best to approach fighting in the context of violence prevention activities. Methods: Thirteen structured focus group interviews with youths from three high violence urban settings: a large, urban high school, a training center for disadvantaged youths, and a school for adjudicated youths. Participants were 120 urban, predominately African-American youths and young adults ages 14–22 years (mean: 17.2 years). Seven focus groups were conducted with females, and six with males. Results: Adolescents identified the causes of violence on multiple levels including: individual, family, interpersonal, and community level factors. Most youths (89%) had been in a physical fight. Participants felt that fighting was not "right", but identified situations in which it was necessary. Specifically, fighting was used as a problem solving tool, and could prevent escalation of violence. Youths felt that the adults in their lives, including physicians, were generally ill equipped to give advice about violence, as adults' experiences were so removed from their own. Participants looked to experienced role models to offer problem solving and harm reduction strategies. Youths were open to receiving anticipatory guidance about violence and fighting from primary care physicians they felt comfortable with, and who showed respect for their experiences. Conclusions: Interventions that include blanket admonitions against fighting should be reassessed in light of youth perceptions that fighting plays a complex role in both inciting and preventing more serious violence.

Johnson, S; Frattaroli, S; Wright, J; Pearson-Fields, C; Cheng, T

2004-01-01

44

Accountability Issues in School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines various reasons that would account for school violence and considers ways educators can help eliminate violence from schools. The negative impact of violence in the media and easy access to guns are mentioned as probable causes of violence in youth. Students who do not feel part of the school community often resort to violence

Al-Bataineh, Adel T.

45

Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

46

Youth Collectivities and Adolescent Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several problems confront anyone who has the audacity to tackle the topic of this chapter. The most daunting of these is the\\u000a lack of a theoretically viable typology that situates gangs, or types of gangs, in a larger set of youth collectivities. If\\u000a the variety of terms used by police to describe “gang groups and members” is “bewildering” and “dismaying”

47

Parent Refugee Status, Immigration Stressors, and Southeast Asian Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the effects of parents’ experience of traumatic events on violence among Southeast Asian and Chinese youth. The study examines independent effects of parents’ refugee camp experiences and immigration stress on serious or family\\/partner violence among youth. Findings contribute evidence on the intergenerational effects of community-level trauma that can help policy makers better integrate family and community strategies

James H. Spencer; Thao N. Le

2006-01-01

48

Youth Violence in Central America: Discourses and Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article analyzes the social construction of youth violence in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and El Salvador on the one hand, and the related security policies of the three states, on the other. In each country, there is an idiosyncratic way of constructing youth violence and juvenile delinquency. Also, each country has its own manner of reaction to…

Peetz, Peter

2011-01-01

49

Crime, Violence, and Youth: The Challenge of Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, in order to combat violence and crime by youth, children must be taught to separate reality from the world of television and other media. Parents must be educated to become their own television censorship board. Violence in media leads to violence in reality. (Author/BEF)

Scott, Wayne S.

1979-01-01

50

Youth experiences of family violence and teen dating violence perpetration: cognitive and emotional mediators.  

PubMed

This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential influences upon one another are described. Theory and research on the role of emotions and emotional processes in the relation between youths' exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration are also reviewed. We present an integrated model that highlights how emotions and emotional processes work in tandem with hypothesized cognitive mediators to predict teen dating violence. PMID:22160838

Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H

2012-03-01

51

Assessing exposure to violence in urban youth.  

PubMed

This study reports on the development of a structured interview, My Exposure to Violence (My ETV), that was designed to assess child and youth exposure to violence. Eighty participants between the ages of 9 and 24 were assessed. Data from My ETV were fit to a Rasch model for rating scales, a technique that generates interval level measures and allows the characterization of both chronic and acute exposure. Results indicated that the fit statistics for six scales, covering both lifetime and past year victimization, witnessing of violence, and total exposure, were all good. These scales were found to have high internal consistency (r = .68 to .93) and test-retest reliability (r = .75 to .94). Evidence of construct validity was provided by the item analysis, which revealed a theoretically sensible ordering of item extremity, and also by analysis of bivariate associations. As expected, younger subjects generally reported less exposure to violence than did older subjects, males reported more exposure than did females, African-American subjects reported higher levels of exposure than did White subjects, violent offenders reported more exposure than did non-offenders, and those living in high crime areas reported more exposure than did those residing in low crime areas. Future areas of investigation and the potential contribution to studies of antisocial behavior and post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed. PMID:9669234

Selner-O'Hagan, M B; Kindlon, D J; Buka, S L; Raudenbush, S W; Earls, F J

1998-02-01

52

Urban youth violence: do definitions and reasons for violence vary by gender?  

PubMed

This study explored how young boys and girls living in low income urban neighborhoods defined and described reasons associated with youth violence. Five focus groups were conducted with 29 youth between the ages of 8 and 12 recruited from four selected study neighborhoods. Participants were asked to describe youth violence. Appropriate probes were used to explore similarities and differences by gender with regard to the reasons for violence. Definitions of youth violence were consistent across participants and included verbal threats, physical contact, and often the use of a weapon. Several common reasons for violence were found among both boys and girls; romantic relationships, respect, idle time, gangs/cliques, and witnessing violence. Reasons for violence unique to boys include fighting about issues related to money and illicit drugs. Gossip was identified as a reason specific to why girls engage in violence. Youth violence was perceived as a common problem impacting the lives of the boys and girls in this study. Although many of the reasons identified for violence are similar among boys and girls, select gender differences do exist. Future research and prevention efforts to address youth violence should engage young people in efforts to understand and address this important public health topic. PMID:15958786

Yonas, Michael A; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G; Peak, Geri; Gielen, Andrea C

2005-12-01

53

Cumulative experiences of violence among high-risk urban youth.  

PubMed

This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence and high degree of overlap among multiple types of violence exposure. Childhood physical, sexual (CSA), and emotional (CEA) abuse were interrelated and were associated with ECV. Cumulative experiences of childhood abuse (CCA) had a graded association with IPV victimization. In multivariate analyses, CCA and ECV were independently associated with IPV victimization. Gender moderated the effect of one association: CEA raised the risk of IPV victimization for girls but not for boys. Only CSA predicted IPV perpetration. Findings suggest that cumulative exposures to violence create cumulative risk for experiencing more violence. Shelter-dwelling, urban youth may be particularly vulnerable to this additive effect. PMID:18319372

Taylor, Catherine A; Boris, Neil W; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A; Rice, Janet C; Zeanah, Charles H

2008-11-01

54

Gun violence in Nigeria: a focus on ethno-religious conflict in Kano.  

PubMed

We investigated small arms and light weapons (SALW) in Africa by reviewing the situation in Nigeria and conducting a small study in one hospital in the country's north. Published reports about SALW in Nigeria suggest that several social, economic, and political factors have caused a marked increase in gun-related violence, including ethno-religious tensions, the response of security forces to criminal activity, and growing economic disparity. In Kano, a northern city that has been the focal point of communal riots between Christians and Muslims, we found that firearm injuries were linked to these riots. We recommend increased outreach to disenfranchised youth, addressing the use of firearms by security forces, and addressing the political and economic disparity between ethnic and religious groups. PMID:17955007

John, Ime A; Mohammed, Aminu Z; Pinto, Andrew D; Nkanta, Celestine A

2007-12-01

55

Youth and violence on local television news in California.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study explores how local television news structures the public and policy debate on youth violence. METHODS: A content analysis was performed on 214 hours of local television news from California. Each of the 1791 stories concerning youth, violence, or both was coded and analyzed for whether it included a public health perspective. RESULTS: There were five key findings. First, violence dominated local television news coverage. Second, the specifics of particular crimes dominated coverage of violence. Third, over half of the stories on youth involved violence, while more than two thirds of the violence stories concerned youth. Fourth, episodic coverage of violence was more than five times more frequent than thematic coverage, which included links to broader social factors. Finally, only one story had an explicit public health frame. CONCLUSIONS: Local television news provides extremely limited coverage of contributing etiological factors in stories on violence. If our nation's most popular source of news continues to report on violence primarily through crime stories isolated from their social context, the chance for widespread support for public health solutions to violence will be diminished.

Dorfman, L; Woodruff, K; Chavez, V; Wallack, L

1997-01-01

56

Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

2012-01-01

57

A Community-Based Systems Learning Approach to Understanding Youth Violence in Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Youth violence in general and gang violence in particular continues to be a pernicious problem facing the majority of large U.S. cities. Attempts to reduce youth violence are hindered by the absence of a shared framework that crosses multiple disciplines. Objective: The goal of the Youth Violence Systems Project (YVSP) is to help communities strategize for and achieve sustained

John McDevitt; Khary Bridgewater; Paul Bothwell; Steve Peterson; David Hemenway; Ros Everdell; Jeffrey Bass

2011-01-01

58

A Community-Based Systems Learning Approach to Understanding Youth Violence in Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background: Youth violence in general and gang violence in particular continues to be a pernicious problem facing the majority of large U.S. cities. Attempts to reduce youth violence are hindered by the absence of a shared framework that crosses multiple disciplines.Objective: The goal of the Youth Violence Systems Project (YVSP) is to help communities strategize for and achieve sustained reductions

John McDevitt; Khary Bridgewater; Paul Bothwell; Steve Peterson; David Hemenway; Ros Everdell; Jeffrey Bass

2011-01-01

59

Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally commissioned in response to the Columbine High shootings, the Surgeon General's report on youth violence "examines the factors that lead young people to gravitate toward violence, reviews the factors that protect youth from perpetrating violence and identifies effective research-based preventive strategies." While acknowledging that there has been a downward trend in youth violence since 1993, the report concludes that the "epidemic of youth violence is not over." The report identifies 27 specific intervention programs that have shown themselves to be statistically successful as well as debunking several common myths about youth violence. These last include assumptions about early childhood behavior as predictive of later violence, about the racial make-up of violent offenders, and the myth of the young "super-predator." From the above URL, visitors can access the full report, an executive summary, the January 17th press release (all in .pdf format), an archived Webcast of the surgeon general discussing the report (requires Windows Media Player), and some relevant links.

2001-01-01

60

78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...January 16, 2013 Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention...gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects thousands of...developing such an approach, a broader public health perspective is imperative....

2013-01-22

61

Caught in the Crossfire: A Report on Gun Violence in Our Nation's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on news stories from U.S. newspapers, this report examines the prevalence of gun violence in American schools. During the past 4 years, beginning with September 1986, at least 71 people (65 students and 6 employees) have been killed with guns at school. Another 201 were severely wounded, and 242 individuals were held hostage at gunpoint.…

Center To Prevent Handgun Violence, Washington, DC.

62

Does the declining lethality of gunshot injuries mask a rising epidemic of gun violence in the United States?  

PubMed

Recent mass shootings in the U.S. have reignited the important public health debate concerning measures to decrease the epidemic of gun violence. Editorialists and gun lobbyists have criticized the recent focus on gun violence, arguing that gun-related homicide rates have been stable in the last decade. While true, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also demonstrate that although gun-related homicide rates were stable between 2002 and 2011, rates of violent gunshot injuries increased. These seemingly paradoxical trends may reflect the declining lethality of gunshot injuries brought about by surgical advances in the care of the patient with penetrating trauma. Focusing on gun-related homicide rates as a summary statistic of gun violence, rather than total violent gunshot injuries, can therefore misrepresent the rising epidemic of gun violence in the U.S. PMID:24452421

Jena, Anupam B; Sun, Eric C; Prasad, Vinay

2014-07-01

63

Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Youth Gang Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980 has fueled the public's fear and magnified possible misconceptions about youth gangs. To address the mounting concern about youth gangs, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP's) Yout...

J. C. Howell S. H. Decker

1999-01-01

64

ADOLESCENTS' EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized community-based activities, which, in turn, protects against community violence exposure. Second, at the neighborhood level, we tested the hypothesis that lower violent crime rates explain the inverse relation between neighborhood youth organization variety and community violence exposure. Our findings supported the latter of these two mechanisms.

Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2011-01-01

65

Youth exposure to violence prevention programs in a national sample.  

PubMed

This paper assesses how many children and youth have had exposure to programs aimed at preventing various kinds of violence perpetration and victimization. Based on a national sample of children 5-17, 65% had ever been exposed to a violence prevention program, 55% in the past year. Most respondents (71%) rated the programs as very or somewhat helpful. Younger children (5-9) who had been exposed to higher quality prevention programs had lower levels of peer victimization and perpetration. But the association did not apply to older youth or youth exposed to lower quality programs. Disclosure to authorities was also more common for children with higher quality program exposure who had experienced peer victimizations or conventional crime victimizations. The findings are consistent with possible benefits from violence prevention education programs. However, they also suggest that too few programs currently include efficacious components. PMID:24630440

Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

2014-04-01

66

In The Crossfire: The Impact of Gun Violence on Public Housing Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on February 18, this 50-page report from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the first-ever comprehensive analysis of gun-related violence in public housing communities. Based on new data from HUD and the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the report reveals that, while crime in public housing developments is falling, residents of public housing are more than twice as likely to become victims of gun violence as the rest of the population, regardless of city size. The full text of the report is offered in .pdf format with five appendixes.

67

The Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994: Public Health and Child Safety. Hearing on S. 1882, A Bill To Amend Title 18, United States Code, To Promote the Safe Use of Guns and To Reduce Gun Violence before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session (March 23, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of several hearings on the Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994 introduced and discussed the Act as comprehensive legislation to address gun violence through six discrete initiatives: (1) handgun licensing; (2) prohibition of firearms possession by persons convicted of violent misdemeanors; (3) regulation of gun dealers; (4) limitation of…

Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution.

68

National Evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1985 and 1994 the rate of violent criminal acts committed by juveniles rose sharply. Juvenile homicides committed with a handgun more than doubled. This bulletin discusses the national evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative (YFVI), a program initiated by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) to fund…

Dunworth, Terence

69

Political Violence, Family Relations, and Palestinian Youth Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the associations among involvement in political violence, family relations, and several measures of adolescent social and psychological functioning in a sample of 7,000 Palestinian families from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Structural equation analysis of youth self-reported survey data revealed that experience in the intifada (as children) predicted increases in antisocial behavior (males and females)

Brian K. Barber

1999-01-01

70

Optimistic Bias among Potential Perpetrators and Victims of Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study furthers the current understanding of optimistic bias regarding youth violence among high school students. Results from a survey of 387 urban high school students indicate a wide range of predictors of optimistic bias, including experience, demographics, and attitudes. Linkages to other developmental frameworks (personal fable and…

Chapin, John; de las Alas, Stacy; Coleman, Grace

2005-01-01

71

Youth Violence: Psychosocial Risk Factors, Treatment, Prevention, and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews youth violence literature and discusses relevant psychosocial risk factors, treatment approaches, prevention programs, and recommendations. Research indicates violent behavior is linked with multiple psychosocial factors and that the most effective treatment and prevention programs are those that address the multiple factors…

Kashani, Javad H.; Jones, Michael R.; Bumby, Kurt M.; Thomas, Lisa A.

1999-01-01

72

Educating the community about violence through a gun turn-in program.  

PubMed

The Ceasefire Oregon gun turn in program was initiated to educate the community regarding violence through a gun turn-in program with voluntary surrender of firearms, educational efforts about violence, and institution of public safety policies. The community board of directors was composed of multiple community leadership organizations. A multi-intervention education, outreach and media program consisting of distribution of brochures, presentations, school education programs, and workshops was implemented throughout the year in addition to the gun turn-in program held in May for two days. A survey was administered to participants in the program at the turn-in sites. The cumulative total for guns turned in years 1994 to 1999 was 4,345. Half of the respondents reported possession of a gun at home. The most common reasons for participating in the gun turn in were obtaining gift certificates and not wanting the gun any more. A successful community grassroots program, Ceasefire Oregon has shown sustainability over six years with increased participation secondary to education, advertising and incentives. Community and statewide efforts can assist with building the infrastructure for programs, however more tools for quantitative performance program evaluation would facilitate measuring the impact on the community. PMID:11554497

Yurk, R; Jaramillo, L; Erwin, L L; Rendleman, N J

2001-10-01

73

Firearm Violence Among Youth: Public Health Strategies for Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firearm violence is a serious threat to the health of our children: an American child dies of gunshot wounds every 11\\/2 hours, and every 2 days 30 children—the equivalent of a school classroom—lose their lives to guns.1 Injured children and adolescents are cared for in emergency departments and trauma centers, and in some urban areas the increasing incidence of firearm

Elizabeth C Powell; Karen M Sheehan; Katherine Kaufer Christoffel

1996-01-01

74

Risk Versus Direct Protective Factors and Youth Violence  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have examined predictors of youth violence associated with the individual child, the family, school, and the surrounding neighborhood or community. However, few studies have examined predictors using a systematic approach to differentiate and compare risk and direct protective factors. Purpose This study examines risk and protective factors associated with youth violence in an ongoing longitudinal panel study of 808 students from 18 Seattle public elementary schools followed since 1985 when they were in fifth grade. Predictors span the individual, family, school, peer, and neighborhood domains. Methods Data were collected annually, beginning in 1985, to age 16 years, and then again at age 18 years. This paper provides findings of analyses in which continuous predictor variables, measured at ages 10–12 years, were trichotomized to reflect a risk end of the variable, a direct protective end, and a middle category of scores. Youth violence was measured at ages 13–14 years and 15–18 years. Results Bivariate analyses of risk and direct protective factors identified the following predictors of violence at ages 13–14 years and 15–18 years. Risk for violence was increased by earlier antisocial behavior (e.g., prior violence, truancy, nonviolent delinquency), attention problems, family conflict, low school commitment, and living in a neighborhood where young people were in trouble. Direct protective factors at ages 10–12 years include a low level of attention problems, low risk-taking, refusal skills, school attachment, and low access and exposure to marijuana at ages 10–12 years. Multivariate regressions showed neighborhood risk factors to be among the most salient and consistent predictors of violence after accounting for all other variables in the tested models. Conclusions Relatively few direct protective factors were identified in these statistical tests, suggesting the need for further review and possible refinement of the measures and methods that were applied. Implications provide important information for programs and policy.

Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun; Hawkins, J. David

2012-01-01

75

Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

2012-01-01

76

DISASTER AND YOUTH VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL ATTENDING YOUTH IN NEW ORLEANS  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings.

Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne

2013-01-01

77

Before Jonesboro and Littleton, Upper Perkiomen Middle School Dealt with Gun Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the implementation of a safe school initiative at an East Greenville, Pennsylvania middle school, following gun violence at the school in 1993. Considers the role of teachers, students, parents, and community in the initiative, changes to curriculum and student activities, special safety measures, and alternative programs for conflict…

Matz, Celine Marie

1999-01-01

78

Social Stress, Legitimate Violence, and Gun Availability: Links to Weapon-Specific Homicides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In comparative studies of homicide, many theories compete. This study examined two established theories, stress theory and culture of violence theory, in terms of their ability to explain state-to-state differences in the rate of highly specific types of homicides. The separate and joint effects on homicide committed by handguns, shoulder guns,…

Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

79

Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Electronic Aggression On this Page Publications Additional CDC Resources Additional ... used to describe this type of violence, electronic aggression is the term that most accurately captures all ...

80

Violence Prevention and Students with Disabilities: Perspectives from the Field of Youth Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the work in youth violence prevention has been based in a public health model and guided by a developmental-ecological perspective on risk and prevention (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1988). A central tenet of developmental-ecological theory is that individual development is influenced by the ongoing qualities of the social settings in which the…

Gorman-Smith, Deborah

2012-01-01

81

Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

2012-01-01

82

LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

2005-07-18

83

LX-04 Violence Measurements-Steven Tests Impacted by Projectiles Shot from a Howitzer Gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

Chidester, Steven K.; Vandersall, Kevin S.; Switzer, Lori L.; Tarver, Craig M.

2006-07-01

84

Firearm violence and the effects of gun control legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two gun control laws designed to reduce different types of violent crimes were evaluated. In 1981, East St. Louis, IL, imposed stricter penalties for individuals who carry firearms outside their homes for protection (individuals could keep firearms in their homes). This law had only a temporary impact in reducing firearm use in assaults and robberies. In Evanston, IL, a slightly

Roy S. Jung; Leonard A. Jason

1988-01-01

85

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite declines in youth violence nationally in the past decade, incidence of youth violence and victimization--from assaults to homicide--continue to be pressing concerns in public safety and public health. Youth violence is also a particular concern for low-income, minority communities, where poverty, family instability, and unemployment…

MacDonald, John; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kofner, Aaron; Stokes, Robert J.; Sehgal, Amber; Fain, Terry; Beletsky, Leo

2009-01-01

86

Saving Our Children: Can Youth Violence Be Prevented? An Interdisciplinary Conference (Wheaton, IL, May 20-22, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that violence is demographically concentrated in the male minority in inner cities is a necessary starting point for discussions of how to combat this violence. A conference on the prevention of youth violence was held in May 1996 to throw light on the problem of youth violence directly and specifically. Participants in this conference…

Ethiel, Nancy, Ed.

87

Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and after migration, immigrant youth might be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental…

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2011-01-01

88

Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

2007-01-01

89

The Role of Families and Care Givers as Risk and Protective Factors in Preventing Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research which discusses the risk and protective functions that families and other caregivers provide in influencing the development of aggressive behavior in youth. Currently, there is an emphasis on providing violence prevention programs in the school environment, typically with little parental or caregiver involvement. By enhancing the role of families and caregivers in youth violence prevention programs,

Le'Roy E. Reese; Elizabeth M. Vera; Thomas R. Simon; Robin M. Ikeda

2000-01-01

90

LX04 Violence Measurements-Steven Tests Impacted by Projectiles Shot from a Howitzer Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170–300 m\\/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges,

Steven K. Chidester; Kevin S. Vandersall; Lori L. Switzer; Craig M. Tarver

2006-01-01

91

LX04 Violence Measurments: Steven Tests Impacted By Projectiles Shot From A Howitzer Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 150-300 m\\/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic

Steven K. Chidester

2005-01-01

92

LX04 Violence Measurements-Steven Tests Impacted by Projectiles Shot from a Howitzer Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m\\/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges,

Steven K. Chidester; Kevin S. Vandersall; Lori L. Switzer; Craig M. Tarver

2006-01-01

93

The role of family, peers and school perceptions in predicting involvement in youth violence.  

PubMed

This study explored the relative importance of family, peers and school in predicting youth violence. The analysis was done on a nationally representative sample included 8,394 students from grade 6th-10th in Israel. Measures of youth violence included bullying, physical fights and weapon carrying. The findings suggested that all three social systems had significant relations with youth violence, respectively. Variables found to predict violence were: Family-lack of parental support regarding school; Peers-Lack of social integration or too many evenings out with friends; School-feeling of school alienation, low academic achievement and perceptions of frequent acts of violence in school. School perceptions had the strongest predicting power. Findings emphasized the importance of focusing on improving the daily school experience in reducing youth violence. PMID:12964445

Laufer, Avital; Harel, Yossi

2003-01-01

94

Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and following migration, immigrant youth may be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental separations). Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, we assessed exposure to violence and immigrant stressors and examined their relative impact on psychopathology in a sample of 164 Latino youth. Immigrant youth reported greater exposure to immigrant stressors relative to native-born peers, but few differences in rates of exposure to violence emerged. When considered alongside relevant immigration stressors, exposure to violence emerged as the strongest predictor of youth psychopathology. Results suggest that some types of stressors have more consistently deleterious effects on mental health and understanding resilient outcomes may entail considering the meaning attributed to stressors and the resources available to cope with stressors.

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2013-01-01

95

Human Development and Violence Prevention: A Focus on Youth. Center Paper 011.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication outlines a theoretical framework to guide research, policy, and action plans to combat youth violence. Research findings suggest that analyzing violence in connection with human development will provide a greater understanding of the problem. Such an analysis should trace pathways to violence in order to infuse prevention…

Williams, Kirk R.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Elliott, Delbert S.

96

Examining the Developmental Process of Risk for Exposure to Community Violence among Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

Considerable research has documented the effects of community violence exposure on adolescents’ behavior and mental health functioning, yet there has been less research on the process by which early risks increase the likelihood that youth will be exposed to community violence. The current study used data from a community epidemiologically-defined sample of 623 urban youth followed from first grade through adolescence to examine the process by which early-onset aggressive behavior and poor academic readiness influenced risk for community violence exposure. Consistent with transactional developmental theories, early-onset aggressive and disruptive behavior was associated with poor academic readiness; these early risks contributed to later peer rejection, and subsequent conduct problems and greater affiliation with deviant peers, which in turn increased youths’ exposure to community violence. Having an enhanced understanding of the risk process directs attention to potential targets for preventive interventions for youth at risk for subsequent exposure to violence.

Lambert, Sharon F.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Cammack, Nicole L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

97

Community monitoring for youth violence surveillance: testing a prediction model.  

PubMed

Predictive epidemiology is an embryonic field that involves developing informative signatures for disorder and tracking them using surveillance methods. Through such efforts assistance can be provided to the planning and implementation of preventive interventions. Believing that certain minor crimes indicative of gang activity are informative signatures for the emergence of serious youth violence in communities, in this study we aim to predict outbreaks of violence in neighborhoods from pre-existing levels and changes in reports of minor offenses. We develop a prediction equation that uses publicly available neighborhood-level data on disorderly conduct, vandalism, and weapons violations to predict neighborhoods likely to have increases in serious violent crime. Data for this study were taken from the Chicago Police Department ClearMap reporting system, which provided data on index and non-index crimes for each of the 844 Chicago census tracts. Data were available in three month segments for a single year (fall 2009, winter, spring, and summer 2010). Predicted change in aggravated battery and overall violent crime correlated significantly with actual change. The model was evaluated by comparing alternative models using randomly selected training and test samples, producing favorable results with reference to overfitting, seasonal variation, and spatial autocorrelation. A prediction equation based on winter and spring levels of the predictors had area under the curve ranging from .65 to .71 for aggravated battery, and .58 to .69 for overall violent crime. We discuss future development of such a model and its potential usefulness in violence prevention and community policing. PMID:23494404

Henry, David B; Dymnicki, Allison; Kane, Candice; Quintana, Elena; Cartland, Jenifer; Bromann, Kimberly; Bhatia, Shaun; Wisnieski, Elise

2014-08-01

98

African American and Latino Youth and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome: Effects on School Violence and Interventions for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…

Zyromski, Brett

2007-01-01

99

LX-04 Violence Measurments: Steven Tests Impacted By Projectiles Shot From A Howitzer Gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 150-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

Chidester, Steven K.

2005-07-01

100

Fresh Start: a multilevel community mobilization plan to promote youth development and prevent violence.  

PubMed

While much has been written about community mobilization for health, few detailed expositions of the formation of community mobilization, especially focused on youth violence prevention exist. The Columbia Center for Youth Violence Prevention, in collaboration with the UNIDOS Inwood Coalition, developed a Community mobilization plan to guide youth violence prevention in Inwood. The plan was developed within the context of an evidence-based organizing framework-Communities that Care (CTC) and takes a multi-level approach to service coordination that includes activities at the Individual, Family, Block, Organizational and Built Environment levels. This article describes how the Community mobilization plan was created, illustrates the use of evidence-based practices to lead to the development of the plan, outlines the plan's community/organizational activities, and summarizes the principles and processes that can be replicated in other communities seeking to start their own community mobilization efforts to reduce youth violence. PMID:21279433

Hernández-Cordero, Lourdes J; Ortiz, Angelo; Trinidad, Tomas; Link, Bruce

2011-09-01

101

Risk and Protective Profiles Among Never Exposed, Single Form, and Multiple Form Violence Exposed Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth,

Paula S. Nurius; Patricia L. Russell; Jerald R. Herting; Carole Hooven; Elaine A. Thompson

2009-01-01

102

The predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) among institutionalised adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the short-term predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) in a sample of institutionalised adolescents. Subjects were 208 adolescents in general residential adolescent psychiatry, correctional schools, or adolescent forensic units. Demographic features and the information needed to assess violence risk with SAVRY were retrieved from medical files

Monica Gammelgård; Anna-Maija Koivisto; Markku Eronen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

2008-01-01

103

Fostering Resilience among Urban Youth Exposed to Violence: A Promising Area for Interdisciplinary Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and…

Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.

2013-01-01

104

History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multiethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV\\/AIDS infection. They participated in

Flavio Francisco Marsiglia; Tanya Nieri; Elizabeth Valdez; Maria Gurrola; Catherine Marrs

2009-01-01

105

Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban…

Ruchkin, Vladislav; Henrich, Christopher C.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

2007-01-01

106

Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

2011-01-01

107

The Predictive Validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth in Secondary Educational Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current developments in violence risk assessment warrant consideration for use within educational settings. Using a structured professional judgment (SPJ) model, the present study investigated the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence in Youth (SAVRY) within educational settings. The predictive accuracy of the SAVRY scales…

McGowan, Mark R.; Horn, Robert A.; Mellott, Ramona N.

2011-01-01

108

Contrasting Portraits of War: Youths' Varied Experiences with Political Violence in Bosnia and Palestine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates some of the complexity of youths' experience with political violence as a means of cautioning researchers, applied professionals and policy makers against overly-simplistic conclusions and interventions when attempting to understand and serve the large populations of the world's youth who endure conflict. A variety of…

Barber, Brian K.

2008-01-01

109

Does Parenting Shield Youth from Exposure to Violence during Adolescence? A 5-Year Longitudinal Test in a High-Poverty Sample of Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group-based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results…

Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M.

2011-01-01

110

Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Introduction Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences. Methods We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N=457) of urban youth, 14–24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration. Results The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls) reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR=2.28;95%CI: 1.12—4.62) and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81—10.53) were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reporting hunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30—6.33), any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12—4.92) and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16—7.82) were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization. Conclusion The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In particular, reporting hunger, drunkenness and drug use were specifically associated with victimization and perpetration. These are all modifiable risk factors that can be prevented. It is clear that these vulnerable youth are in need of additional services and guidance to ameliorate their adverse childhood experiences, current health risk behaviors and disadvantaged living context.

Swahn, Monica H; Gressard, Lindsay; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Lynch, Catherine; Yao, Huang

2012-01-01

111

Youth suicide: prevention through risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for childhood and adolescent suicidal behavior are reviewed to point out important issues to focus suicide prevention strategies. Youth and family psychopathology involving suicidal behavior, violence, psychiatric disorders, including major depression, substance abuse, and psychosis, are the most significant risk factors for youth suicide and non-fatal suicidal acts. The availability of lethal means to commit suicide, especially guns

Cynthia R. Pfeffer

2001-01-01

112

The perpetration of intimate partner violence among LGBTQ college youth: the role of minority stress.  

PubMed

Preliminary research suggests that partner violence is a problem among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) college youth. However, there is no study to date with college youth on the factors associated with perpetration of same-sex partner violence, which is needed to inform prevention efforts specific to this population. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to assess how facets of minority stress (i.e., sexual-orientation-related victimization, sexual minority stigma, internalized homonegativity, sexual identity concealment) relate to physical, sexual, and psychological partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ college youth (N = 391; 49% identified as men; 72% Caucasian; M age: 20.77 years). At the bivariate level, physical perpetration was related to identity concealment and internalized homonegativity; sexual perpetration was related to internalized homonegativity; and psychological perpetration was related to sexual-orientation-related victimization. However, at the multivariate level (after controlling for concurrent victimization), psychological perpetration was unrelated to minority stress variables, whereas physical and sexual perpetration were both related to internalized homonegativity; physical perpetration was also related to identity concealment. These results underscore the utility of understanding partner violence among LGBTQ youth through a minority stress framework. Moreover, the current study highlights the need for a better understanding of factors that mediate and moderate the relationship between minority stress and partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ youth in order to inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23233160

Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

2013-11-01

113

What Works (and What Does Not) in Youth Violence Prevention: Rethinking the Questions and Finding New Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dramatic rises in youth violence in the United States beginning in the 1980s coupled with high visibility acts such as school shootings have resulted in a corresponding proliferation of programs designed to prevent aggression and violence in children and youth. Parallel with this increasing programmatic expansion, there have been repeated calls…

Guerra, Nancy G.; Boxer, Paul; Cook, Clayton R.

2006-01-01

114

Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress and Related Symptoms Among Inner-City Minority Youth Exposed to Community Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in levels of violence exposure, and in levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and related symptomatology in a sample of inner-city predominantly African American youth. Because such youth are at risk for exposure to chronic community violence, they are likely to experience considerable distress and clinical or subclinical levels of posttraumatic stress and related symptoms. Previous

Jennifer D. Foster; Gabriel P. Kuperminc; Ann W. Price

2004-01-01

115

Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress and Related Symptoms among Inner-City Minority Youth Exposed to Community Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in levels of violence exposure, and in levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and related symptomatology in a sample of inner-city predominantly African American youth. Because such youth are at risk for exposure to chronic community violence, they are likely to experience considerable distress and clinical or…

Foster, Jennifer D.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Price, Ann W.

2004-01-01

116

Exposure to Violence and Socioemotional Adjustment in Low-Income Youth: An Examination of Protective Factors  

PubMed Central

Using a sample of 391 low-income youth ages 13 to 17, this study investigated the potential moderating effects of school climate, participation in extracurricular activities, and positive parent-child relations on associations between exposure to violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and adolescent socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). Exposure to violence was related to both internalizing and externalizing problems. High levels of participation in extracurricular activities and positive parent-child relations appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the positive association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, school climate did not moderate associations between exposure to violence and socioemotional adjustment. Further, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems.

Hardaway, Cecily R.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Wood, Dana

2014-01-01

117

Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic achievement moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict\\/violence and subsequent posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. We

Eric F. Dubow; L. Rowell Huesmann; Paul Boxer; Simha Landau; Shira Dvir; Khalil Shikaki; Jeremy Ginges

2012-01-01

118

Community Violence and Youth: Affect, Behavior, Substance Use, and Academics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community violence is recognized as a major public health problem (WHO, "World Report on Violence and Health," 2002) that Americans increasingly understand has adverse implications beyond inner-cities. However, the majority of research on chronic community violence exposure focuses on ethnic minority, impoverished, and/or crime-ridden communities…

Cooley-Strickland, Michele; Quille, Tanya J.; Griffin, Robert S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Furr-Holden, Debra

2009-01-01

119

The Link between Poverty, the Proliferation of Violence and the Development of Traumatic Stress among Urban Youth in the United States to School Violence: A Trauma Informed, Social Justice Approach to School Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents two premises regarding school violence in urban America. First, that traumatic stress among urban youth in the United States is a key factor in the development and exacerbation of school violence in urban areas. Secondly, an efficacious approach to the resolution of school violence cannot be achieved without addressing this…

Rawles, Portia D.

2010-01-01

120

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Talk about Experiencing and Coping with School Violence: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative of the vulnerability that the youth felt at

Arnold H. Grossman; Adam P. Haney; Perry Edwards; Edward J. Alessi; Maya Ardon; Tamika Jarrett Howell

2009-01-01

121

Preventing recurring injuries from violence: the risk of assault among Cleveland youth after hospitalization.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Although interpersonal violence has increased among urban youth, its epidemiology remains unclear. To prevent such violence, identifying the susceptible population is important. METHODS: Medical records for 998 patients aged 5 to 25 years at an urban hospital were reviewed to compare data for patients admitted for assault-related injuries, those admitted for unintentional injuries, and those for problems other than injuries. RESULTS: Those initially admitted for treatment of assault were found to be at greater risk of subsequent treatment for assault than those admitted for noninjuries. CONCLUSIONS: Admission for injuries caused by violence may increase risk for future assaults; hospitalization may offer an opportunity to interrupt these patterns.

Litacker, D

1996-01-01

122

Enabling Prosecutors To Address Drug, Gang, and Youth Violence. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin offers data on recent trends in juvenile violence, juvenile drug offenses, and gang-related juvenile offending, and describes prosecutorial responses to such offenses. Examples of promising prosecutor-led programs combating the illicit use of guns, violence, drugs, and gangs are also provided. These examples provide a range of ideas…

Gramckow, Heike P.; Tompkins, Elena

123

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

PubMed Central

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. To current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths’ reinforcement sensitivity–behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)–is associated with specific clinical outcomes and increases risk for the development of such problems following exposure to violence. Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, Latino youth (N=168) provided reports of BIS/BAS and emotional/behavioral problems at Time 1, exposure to violence between Time 1 and Time 2, and clinical symptoms at Time 2. Results suggested that reinforcement sensitivity moderated the relation between violence exposure and psychopathology, such that increasing levels of BIS were associated with elevated risk for internalizing and posttraumatic stress symptoms following exposure to violence whereas BAS increased risk for externalizing problems. The importance of building on existing knowledge to understand minority youth psychopathology is discussed.

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2013-01-01

124

Predatory and Relationship Violence of Inter-City Youth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chicago Youth Development Study (CYDS) is a longitudinal study of the development of serious antisocial and violent behavior among urban youth. This study began in 1991 and was originally funded through the National Institute of Mental Health. The fun...

P. H. Tolan

2006-01-01

125

Violence and Latino youth: prevention and methodological issues.  

PubMed Central

Latino communities bear a disproportionate share of violence-related morbidity and mortality, yet little attention has been given to ethnic-cultural differences and their implications for violence prevention research and health promotion efforts. To date, much of what is known about violence among Latinos is based on regional homicide studies. Little formal data exist that assess and substantiate what is known about Latino cultures and their implications for the study of all aspects of violence, particularly prevention. This paper presents an overview of the scope of homicide and intentional injuries in Latino communities, reviews risk factors for intentional injuries, and discusses the implications of ethnic-specific factors for violence prevention and research efforts. Data collection and methodological issues and their implications for violence prevention research and health promotion efforts among Latino populations are specifically addressed.

Rodriguez, M A; Brindis, C D

1995-01-01

126

Youth Violence and School Safety Task Force Has Lasting Impact. Research Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North Carolina's 1999 Governor's Task Force on Youth Violence and School Safety produced a report that generated 10 action items and 6 main recommendations. This research bulletin presents a follow-up to the task force's efforts. It begins by providing background information about the task force and putting its work into context. It then discusses…

North Carolina State Dept. of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Raleigh.

127

Violent Youth Culture in Northern Ireland: Young Men, Violence, and the Challenges of Peacebuilding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses violent male youth culture in Northern Ireland within the context of a society emerging from a prolonged period of political violence toward peacebuilding. Specifically, the article focuses on the findings from a qualitative study carried out by the Centre for Young Men's Studies with 130 marginalized young men aged 13 to 16…

Harland, Ken

2011-01-01

128

Exposure to Violence and Aggression: Protective Roles of Social Support among Urban African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study examined the impact of social support on the relation between exposure to violence and aggressive behavior, as reported by self, peers, and teachers. The main-effects and stress-buffering models of social support were tested for parents, teachers, classmates, and close friends among 127 urban, African American youth. The…

Benhorin, Shira; McMahon, Susan D.

2008-01-01

129

Dating Violence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in a Sample of At-Risk Israeli Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This exploratory study examines the reported dating violence and its association with sexual risk behavior among Israeli adolescents, who are at risk for dropping out of school. Methodology: A convenience sample of 105 at-risk youth (51 boys and 54 girls) completed self-administered anonymous, questionnaires in small same-gender groups.…

Schiff, Miriam; Zeira, Anat

2005-01-01

130

The Analysis of Extracurricular Activities and Their Relationship to Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine how extracurricular activities relate to rural youth violence. Gender differences were examined across all of the study variables. Self-report data were collected from 235 teenagers from a rural, ethnically diverse, Virginia community. Correlations revealed a significant inverse relationship between church…

Linville, Deanna C.; Huebner, Angela J.

2005-01-01

131

Attitudes of Rural Middle-School Youth toward Alcohol, Tobacco, Drugs, and Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1996, our research team has conducted 15 focus groups with 169 middle-school youth in small communities as formative research for campaigns against alcohol, tobacco, drugs, and violence. Some key findings of a synthesis of focus-group results are that girls and boys perceive different risks to alcohol and tobacco use; peer relationships are…

Kelly, Kathleen J.; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Edwards, Ruth W.

2004-01-01

132

From Illinois' Front Line against Crime: A School and Youth Violence Prevention Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that one of the most powerful weapons to prevent crime are programs such as quality educational child care, after-school and summer programs, and child abuse prevention, this brief presents the school and youth violence prevention plan of an organization of Illinois law enforcement officers, state's attorneys, crime survivors, and leaders…

2003

133

Resilience Moderates the Relationship between Exposure to Violence and Posttraumatic Reexperiencing in Mi'kmaq Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Nova Scotian Mi'kmaq community that hopes to shed light on the relationship between exposure to violence and mental health in First Nations youth. This particular study sought to examine how the multifaceted construct of resilience might act as a protective factor,…

Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H.; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Stevens, Doreen; Ungar, Michael; Wekerle, Christine

2010-01-01

134

Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

135

Violent female youth: an examination of instrumental violence, psychopathy, and offense characteristics.  

PubMed

Female youth are a strikingly under-studied population within the accumulated forensic literature, yet they represent a significant and growing population within forensic contexts. Despite research demonstrating a relationship between the presence of psychopathic traits and instrumental violence among adult offenders, researchers have only recently begun to examine this relationship among juvenile offenders. Our investigation of this potential relationship among a large sample of female offenders (N = 145) who had committed a violent offense revealed that youths with more psychopathic traits were not significantly more likely to use instrumental violence in the commission of their crimes than those with less psychopathic traits. The findings are discussed in terms of offense severity, and a comprehensive overview of female youths' specific motivations and offense characteristics are provided. Research directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24470358

Hutton, Erin L; Woodworth, Michael

2014-01-01

136

The relationship between violence and youth suicide indicators among Asian American and Pacific Islander youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature documents a relationship between interpersonal violence and suicide. One tool used to understand interpersonal violence is the Power Wheel, developed from clinical experience and originally used in domestic violence education. We examine the relationship between Teen Power and Control Wheel domains and suicidal indicators (seriously considered suicide, made a suicide plan, and attempted suicide) among Asian American and

Deborah A. Goebert; Cathy K. Bell; Barry Carlton; Michael Fukuda

2009-01-01

137

Perceptions of gender-based violence among South African youth: implications for health promotion interventions  

PubMed Central

Gender-based violence is a widespread problem in South Africa. Past structural inequities have created a climate conducive to violence against women. As an initial step toward developing a health promotion program, we conducted exploratory formative research to examine the barriers that affect the health and well-being of youth. Fourteen focus groups (nine with girls and five with boys) were conducted with 112 adolescents in a racially mixed community on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. We utilized grounded theory and thematic analysis to examine the data. The impact of poverty, ubiquitous gendered violence, transactional sex and unsafe recreational spaces emerged as the major themes. The experiences of youth were consumed by issues of safety rather than the pursuit of other developmentally appropriate markers. Our findings suggest that health promotion programs should create safe spaces for youth and opportunities to critically question the assumptions and manifestations of a patriarchal society. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a strong need for multi-sectorial interventions directed at many levels to prevent gender-based violence.

Mosavel, M.; Ahmed, R.; Simon, C.

2012-01-01

138

An exploratory investigation of adolescent intimate partner violence among African American youth: a gendered analysis.  

PubMed

Extant research demonstrates that while adolescent intimate partner violence (IPV) is an ever-growing concern in the United States, most research on IPV has focused on adult victims and offenders. To fill this gap in the literature, the present research examines youth IPV by conducting focus groups with 25 male and female youth between the ages of 15 and 19 years whose race was primarily African American. Drawing on open-ended responses by adolescent participants, the present study aimed to shed light on African American youths' perceptions of IPV, their perceptions regarding such violence among their peers, the dynamics of help-seeking behaviors, and what services youth perceive as most helpful in the prevention and intervention of adolescent IPV. Findings reveal that most participants only recognize physical aggression as IPV; express hesitation in disclosing violence to adults, especially nonfamily adults; and report being unaware of and/or unwilling to utilize existing prevention and intervention services traditionally targeted at adult populations. Implications for future research and policy are also presented and discussed. PMID:23920339

Love, Sharon RedHawk; Richards, Tara N

2013-11-01

139

Multiple Traumas, Postelection Violence, and Posttraumatic Stress Among Impoverished Kenyan Youth  

PubMed Central

Research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among youth has focused on specific subgroups from developed countries. Most of the world’s youth and war-like violence, however, is concentrated in developing countries, yet there is limited mental health data within affected countries. This study focused on a random community-based sample of 552 impoverished youth ages 6–18 within an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya, which experienced war-like violence for a month following the contested presidential election of 2007. Six months after the violence ended, 99 (18%) had PTSD according to the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (Steinberg, Brymer, Decker, & Pynoos, 2004), and an additional 18 (3%) were found to have partial PTSD due to high overall scores. Kenyan psychologists conducted diagnostic interviews and found the positive predictive value of the assessment tool to be 72% in this sample; the confirmed prevalence was 12%. Similar to other studies worldwide, Criterion C (avoidance) was the limiting factor for diagnosing PTSD according to the DSM-IV-TR, and parent–child agreement was at best fair. The number of traumatic experiences was strongly associated with PTSD outcomes. Differences due to age or sex were not found. The findings indicate the need for universal mental health services for trauma-exposed youth and their families in the impoverished informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.

Harder, Valerie S.; Mutiso, Victoria N.; Khasakhala, Lincoln I.; Burke, Heather M.; Ndetei, David M.

2012-01-01

140

The developmental ecology of urban males' youth violence.  

PubMed

Data from a longitudinal study of 294 African American and Latino adolescent boys and their caregivers living in poor urban communities were used to test a developmental-ecological model of violence. Six annual waves of data were applied to evaluate the relations between microsystem influences of parenting and peer deviance (peer violence and gang membership), macrosystem influences of community structural characteristics and neighborhood social organization, and individual involvement in violence (level and growth). Structural equation modeling analyses showed that community structural characteristics significantly predicted neighborhood social processes. Parenting practices partially mediated the relation between neighborhood social processes and gang membership. Parenting practices was fully mediated in its relation to peer violence by gang membership. Gang membership was partially mediated by peer violence level in its relation to individual violence level. Although the overall set of relations does not satisfy mediation requirements fully in all instances, the model was validated for the most part, supporting a focus on a multilevel ecological model of influences on risk development. PMID:12661886

Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B

2003-03-01

141

Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female) African American youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods who participated in the Mobile Youth Survey from 1998 through 2006. Using general growth mixture modeling, we found two hopelessness trajectory classes for both boys and girls during middle adolescence: a consistently low hopelessness class and an increasingly hopeless class with quadratic change. In all classes, youth who reported stronger early adolescent connections to their mothers were less hopeless at age 13. The probability of later adolescent violence with a weapon was higher for boys and was associated with the increasingly hopeless class for both boys and girls. Implications for new avenues of research and design of hope-based prevention interventions will be discussed.

Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

2011-01-01

142

"This Was My Hell": The Violence Experienced by Gender Non-Conforming Youth in US High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the experiences of harassment and violence endured by seven gender non-conforming youth in US high schools. Based on a larger research project, it opens an inquiry into the school-based lives of gender-variant teens, a group heretofore ignored by most academics and educators. Breaking violence down into two main types (physical…

Wyss, Shannon E.

2004-01-01

143

The Overlap of Witnessing Partner Violence with Child Maltreatment and Other Victimizations in a Nationally Representative Survey of Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the co-occurrence of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other forms of victimization. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 4,549 youth aged 0-17. Results: Witnessing partner…

Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard

2010-01-01

144

Community violence exposure and post-traumatic stress reactions among Gambian youth: the moderating role of positive school climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Community violence exposure among youth can lead to various negative outcomes, including post-traumatic stress symptoms. Research\\u000a in the Western world indicates that a number of social support factors may moderate the relation between violence exposure\\u000a and internalizing symptoms. Little research has been carried out in non-Western countries. This study aimed to fill this gap\\u000a by exploring the relations among violence

Deborah A. O'DonnellWilliam; William C. Roberts; Mary E. Schwab-Stone

2011-01-01

145

Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.  

PubMed

Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M?=?15?years; range?=?13-16?years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

McGill, Tia M; Self-Brown, Shannon R; Lai, Betty S; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; Leblanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

2014-01-01

146

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Talk about Experiencing and Coping with School Violence: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative…

Grossman, Arnold H.; Haney, Adam P.; Edwards, Perry; Alessi, Edward J.; Ardon, Maya; Howell, Tamika Jarrett

2009-01-01

147

Making a Difference: The Impact of Traditional Male Role Models on Drug Sale Activity and Violence Involving Black Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elijah Anderson's Code of the Street provides an ethnographic account of a disadvantaged urban environment where residents face poverty and racial residential isolation. For Anderson, joblessness among African-American men deprive youth of positive male role models, creating a context for the “street code” to govern behavior, leading youth to violence. Similarly, a disadvantaged urban setting in which opportunities in legitimate

Karen F. Parker; Scott R. Maggard

2009-01-01

148

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2012-01-01

149

Computer-mediated intervention to prevent drug abuse and violence among high-risk youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluated a computer-mediated intervention for preventing drug abuse and violence. Research participants were economically disadvantaged youth, defined as early adolescents from households with family incomes below the Federal poverty line. Based on cognitive–behavioral skills approaches shown effective in past research, computer intervention was compared with conventionally delivered intervention in a pretest–posttest, control group design. Outcome findings revealed that

Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer Di Noia; Jill R. Glassman

2004-01-01

150

Violence in street culture: cross-cultural comparison of youth groups and criminal gangs.  

PubMed

Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in Brazil, Russia, and Germany. Focusing on street culture norms and their relevance for youth groups in everyday life, the author shows that there are worldwide similarities, and these are most likely to be seen in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The article deals not only with the question of how people act in conflicts but also focuses on a social order in which the reputation of men is based mainly on questions of masculinity, honor, and power expressed through aggressive behavior. The results are based on more than one hundred semistructured qualitative interviews with street culture youth, prison inmates, adult family members, social workers, police, and researchers that were conducted in recent years in the three countries.The study also describes a typology of conflict behavior among male street culture youth that helps in understanding why even juveniles who were socialized in the milieu of the street culture can reject violence and do not have to turn to violence in all conflicts. The article examines the similarities in the reasons for violence and fear of violence, as well as the differences in frequency and intensity between violent countries (such as Brazil and the Russian Federation) and less violent countries (for example, Germany). PMID:18855319

Zdun, Steffen

2008-01-01

151

Gun Crime in the Age Group 18-20  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, released jointly by the US Department of Justice and the Department of the Treasury, presents a statistical analysis of the extent of gun crime committed in the US by persons between the ages of 18 and 20. The findings of the report show that this age group committed the most gun homicides in 1997, were more likely to use a firearm during a crime, and possessed the largest number of guns connected to documented crimes. The report also makes suggestions for reducing gun violence for this age group through legislation, and outlines the proposed Youth Gun Crime Enforcement Act of 1999. The report derived the latest data from the Uniform Crime Reports and the National Crime Victimization Survey as well as the gun tracing data from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

1999-01-01

152

The Developmental Ecology of Urban Males' Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested a developmental-ecological model of violence using longitudinal data from poor, urban African American and Latino adolescent boys and caregivers. Found that community structural characteristics significantly predicted neighborhood social processes. Parenting practices partially mediated relationship between neighborhood social processes and…

Tolan, Patrick H.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.

2003-01-01

153

Political Violence, Family Relations, and Palestinian Youth Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated associations among involvement in political violence, family relations, and adolescent social and psychological functioning in Palestinian families in Israel. Found that childhood "Intifada" experience predicted increased antisocial behavior for adolescent males and females and depression for females 1 to 2 years after the end of the…

Barber, Brian K.

1999-01-01

154

Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

Ascione, Frank R.

155

Building Community Connections for Youth To Reduce Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative in Morton High School District 201, Cicero, IL, which used a social ecological systems perspective to implement its goals. Social-emotional learning and violence-prevention strategies were provided at the levels of the community, school, and individual. Creation of a safe school environment…

Telleen, Sharon; Maher, Susan; Pesce, Rosario C.

2003-01-01

156

Hopelessness and Violence Among Inner-City Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Ethnographic literature on inner-city life argues that adolescents react to their uncertain (and objectively bleak) future by abandoning hope; this, in turn, leads them to engage in risk behaviors, including violence, with considerable frequency. This study empirically measures the pervasiveness of hopelessness and uncertainty about the future among inner-city adolescents and documents the link between hopelessness, uncertainty, and risk

John M. Bolland; Debra Moehle McCallum; Brad Lian; Carolyn J. Bailey; Paul Rowan

2001-01-01

157

Community readiness for change and youth violence prevention: a tale of two cities.  

PubMed

This case study identifies a situation in which there exists a set of preconditions for the successful application of evidence based practice to bear on the community based problem of youth violence. The concept of readiness to change and its impact on the success or failure of interventions designed to change harmful or dangerous behavior among individuals is well established and understood in intervention research. In recent years this concept has been discussed and developed in the community intervention and harm reduction literatures. The current study is one of a community where an attempt was made to identify community levels of harm, develop a strategic plan to reduce the source of harm, and develop, implement, and evaluate youth violence prevention interventions. Over more than 5 years of involvement by university based researchers and community partners, the effort was largely unsuccessful. The events of this project are discussed within the context of the Community Readiness Model Edwards et al. (J Community Psychol 28(3): 291-307, 2000) and we present a narrative that helps to highlight the reasons for the relative lack of success of the effort. We suggest additional strategies and actions that might have helped to overcome the lack of readiness of this particular community to reduce the harms associated with youth violence. Suggestions that may improve chances for a more successful set of outcomes for other communities in similar states of readiness to change and with similar challenges are given. PMID:21203826

Parker, Robert Nash; Alcaraz, Roxanna; Payne, Pedro R

2011-09-01

158

Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among Youth in Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among teens in Hawai‘i. Methods Youth from two O‘ahu high schools (N = 623) were asked to complete a quantitative survey about their experiences, as victims and perpetrators, of IPV. Results The most frequently reported type of violence was monitoring/controlling behaviors. Girls reported higher rates of victimization and perpetration than boys for most violence types. Conclusions Future research should examine the contexts in which teen IPV occurs. It will also be important to engage community-based organizations in prevention efforts. Therefore, a train-the-trainer curriculum for IPV prevention and intervention is proposed.

Helm, Susana

2011-01-01

159

Epidemiology of mixed martial arts and youth violence in an ethnically diverse sample.  

PubMed

Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies. PMID:22455184

Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M

2012-01-01

160

Mother abuse: a matter of youth justice, child welfare or domestic violence?  

PubMed

International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence. PMID:20726145

Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie

2010-01-01

161

Gun Safety (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC School Violence and the News Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents ... Your Child Gun Safety Should You Worry About School Violence? Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should ...

162

Children, adolescents, and war: the systematic engagement of youth in collective violence.  

PubMed

Increasingly health personnel are called on to address the needs of adolescents affected by armed conflict. Adolescents suffer as combatants, direct and indirect casualties, as dependents of combatants, and as citizens of countries whose resources are destroyed and/or consumed by war and other forms of organized violence. Survivors of war, ex-child soldiers, refugees, and others are found today in cities on all continents. This paper will review the epidemiology of armed conflict, especially with respect to children and youth, examine the etiology of youth involvement in armed conflict including social risk factors and developmental vulnerabilities, and review the peace-building efforts of the United Nations, communities, and youth themselves. Finally we will briefly review the efforts of those committed to the well-being of adolescents in the areas of advocacy and treatment. PMID:20653212

Warf, Curren; Eisenstein, Evelyn; Stahl, Christiane

2009-12-01

163

Adolescent Violence: The Protective Effects of Youth Assets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored adolescent physical fighting and weapon carrying, using in-home interviews with 1,098 middle-high school students and their parents. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between youth assets and the risk behaviors while controlling for demographic information. Both demographic factors and assets were…

Aspy, Cheryl B.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; McLeroy, Kenneth; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

2004-01-01

164

Predicting Rearrest for Violence among Serious Youthful Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes youthful parolees' risk of arrest for a violent crime. Results suggest that prior criminal history and socioeconomic variables are powerful predictors of both the timing and the charge of first arrest following parole. Prior gang involvement and heavy use of alcohol or drugs did not predict violent recidivism. (RJM)

Lattimore, Pamela K.; And Others

1995-01-01

165

The mediating role of social support, cognitive appraisal, and quality health care in black mothers' stress-resilience process following loss to gun violence.  

PubMed

Although much attention has been granted to the perpetrators and victims of gun violence, limitations exist in our understanding of the psychological well-being of parents grieving children lost to gun violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of social support, cognitive appraisal, and quality health care on the relationship between traumatic stress and resilience among Black mothers bereaving children to gun violence. A cross-sectional design and network sampling method were used to recruit 48 Black mothers living in a large Canadian city. Participants completed a survey either by phone or in person. Social support and positive appraisal were found to be protective factors of resilience for study participants. The traumatic stress experienced by the sample decreased with increased social support (beta = -.291, p = .045), leading to an increase of their resilience (beta = .297, p = .032). With positive appraisal of the loss, the stress levels of study participants decreased (beta = -.334, p = .023), leading to increased resilience (beta = .441, p = .003). Quality health care showed a significant positive relationship with the resilience of the women (beta = .313, p = .023) but did not mediate the relationship between their stress and resilience. For Black mothers who experience loss of a child to gun violence, policy and social change efforts should focus on strengthening their access to formal and informal supports and improving their abilities to find meaning in their loss. PMID:23763109

Bailey, Annette; Sharma, Manoj; Jubin, Michelle

2013-01-01

166

Gender differences in the effects of community violence on mental health outcomes in a sample of low-income youth receiving psychiatric care.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that community violence impacts mental health outcomes, but much of this research has not (a) distinguished between different types of community violence, (b) examined gender differences, and (c) focused on youth living in urban poverty. The current study addresses these questions. Participants were 306 youth (23 % girls) and one parent/guardian receiving outpatient psychiatric services for disruptive behavior disorders in a large urban city. Youth and parents reported on youth's experience of different types of community violence (being a direct victim, hearing reports, and witnessing violence), and whether violence was directed toward a stranger or familiar. Outcomes included youth externalizing, internalizing, and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed via parent and youth reports. Being a direct victim of violence accords risk for all mental health outcomes similarly for both boys and girls. However, gender differences emerged with respect to indirect violence, such that girls who hear reports of violence against people they know are at increased risk for all assessed mental health outcomes, and girls who witness violence against familiars are at increased risk for externalizing mental health symptoms in particular. There are gender differences in violence-related mental health etiology, with implications for intervention assessment and design. PMID:24496719

Javdani, Shabnam; Abdul-Adil, Jaleel; Suarez, Liza; Nichols, Sara R; Farmer, A David

2014-06-01

167

Educational Performance and Attitudes toward School as Risk-Protective Factors for Violence: A Study of the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether school experiences, school performance, and other risk-protective factors were related to violence among Hawaiian, Filipino, and Samoan youths residing in Hawai'i. This study analyzed survey data (N = 325) collected in three high schools having concentrations of Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan…

Wegner, Eldon L.; Garcia-Santiago, Orlando; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.

2010-01-01

168

The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of…

Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard

169

The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew’s general strain theory (GST) give contrasting accounts of whether exposure to violence has a

Richard Spano; Craig Rivera; John Bolland

2006-01-01

170

Gun Control Debate in US Senate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News targets recent developments in federal gun control legislation. Last week, in a contentious and often contradictory debate, the Republican-led US Senate approved several gun control amendments adjoined to a juvenile crime bill chiefly sponsored by Sen. Orrin G. Hatch, R-Utah. Despite the ostensible Republican concessions on gun control policy in the wake of recent youth gun violence, Democrats did not support some of the measures because they believe them to be "riddled with high-caliber loopholes" exhorted by the powerful gun lobby. On Friday, the Senate voted 48-47 for an amendment that would require compulsory background checks of buyers at gun shows. Opponents cited various loopholes in the amendment, including provisions that decrease the wait for negative background checks at gun shows (a 24-hour deadline instead of the three-day limit required with other gun sales) and permit people to hock a gun at a pawnshop and reclaim it without a check. Other gun control amendments to the bill passed earlier last week include the restriction of access to semiautomatic assault weapons for juveniles and a ban on the importation of high-capacity ammunition clips. Today the Senate plans to vote on another amendment that would mandate licensed gun dealers to include a child safety lock with the sale of any handgun. The omnibus juvenile justice bill still has more than 80 amendments awaiting action, which presumably will be tabled at least until after Memorial Day, and ultimately may perish if the partisan bickering in the Senate over gun control policy cannot be resolved before they must move on to other business.

Osmond, Andrew.

171

A Daily Calendar Analysis of Substance Use and Dating Violence among High Risk Urban Youth*  

PubMed Central

Background Dating violence (DV) among youth is an important public health problem. This study examined reasons for physical DV and the association between substance use and youth DV using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Methods Patients (ages 14–24) presenting to an urban Emergency Department (ED) for a violent injury and a proportionally-selected comparison sample of non-violently injured youth who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months (n=599) were enrolled in this study. Multi-level, multinomial regressions were conducted using daily-level substance use data from Time Line Follow Back (TLFB) responses and physical DV data that were obtained by coding Time Line Follow Back –Aggression Module responses for the 30 days prior to visiting the ED. Results The two most commonly reported reasons for physical dating aggression and victimization, across sexes, were “jealousy/rumors” or “angry/bad mood.” Multi-level multinomial regression models, adjusting for clustering within individual participants, showed that among females, cocaine use and sedative/opiate use were associated with severe dating victimization and alcohol use was associated with severe dating aggression. Conclusions Use of TLFB data offers a unique opportunity to understand daily-level factors associated with specific incidents of DV in more detail. This study provides novel data regarding reasons for DV and the relationship between daily substance use and DV among urban youth, with alcohol, cocaine, and sedative/opiate use being associated with various types of DV. ED based DV interventions should be tailored to address youths’ reasons for DV as well as reducing their substance use.

Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Booth, Brenda M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Walton, Maureen A.

2012-01-01

172

Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study  

PubMed Central

Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating victim status in boys. All violence-affected youth exhibited significantly higher rates of cumulative mental health problems. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of violence for the mental health of youth. They reveal a particular vulnerability as a function of gender. Implications for policy making, clinical practice and research are discussed.

2013-01-01

173

Disintegration and Violence among Migrants in Germany: Turkish and Russian Youths versus German Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turkish and Russian immigrants are the two largest groups of immigrants in Germany, but there are some important differences regarding their legal status. Although most of the Turkish adolescents were born in Germany, few of them have German citizenship. In contrast, most of the Russian youths were born outside Germany, but they mostly possess…

Baier, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Christian

2008-01-01

174

The Effectiveness of the Warning Signs Program in Educating Youth about Violence Prevention: A Study with Urban High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the Warning Signs program in educating urban high school youth about the signs of potential violence in themselves and others was stud- ied. No differences were found with exposure to the program. Rather, students in all groups identified certain personality traits that are suggestive of vio- lence, but ignored family, school, and social contribu- tors. Suggestions for

Kristin Schaefer

175

Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

2011-01-01

176

Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

177

Aiming for Prevention: Medical and Public Health Approaches to Small Arms, Gun Violence, and Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of global small arms violence is enormous and the scale of human suffering it causes is immense, although poorly counted. It causes at least hundreds of thousands of deaths and more than a million injuries each year, as well as permanent physical and psychological damage, destruction of families, lost productivity, and diversion of resources from basic health services.

Brian Rawson

178

3 CFR - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence  

...2014-01-01 false Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention...January 16, 2013 Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention...Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to...

2014-01-01

179

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Develop the PARTNERS Youth Violence Prevention Program  

PubMed Central

Background School-based violence prevention programs have shown promise for reducing aggression and increasing children’s prosocial behaviors. Prevention interventions within the context of urban after-school programs provide a unique opportunity for academic researchers and community stakeholders to collaborate in the creation of meaningful and sustainable violence prevention initiatives. Objectives This paper describes the development of a collaborative between academic researchers and community leaders to design a youth violence prevention/leadership promotion program (PARTNERS Program) for urban adolescents. Employing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) model, this project addresses the needs of urban youth, their families, and their community. Methods Multiple strategies were used to engage community members in the development and implementation of the PARTNERS Program. These included focus groups, pilot testing the program in an after-school venue, and conducting organizational assessments of after-school sites as potential locations for the intervention. Results Community members and academic researchers successfully worked together in all stages of the project development. Community feedback helped the PARTNERS team redesign the proposed implementation and evaluation of the PARTNERS Program such that the revised study design allows for all sites to obtain the intervention over time and increases the possibility of building community capacity and sustainability of programs. Conclusion Despite several challenges inherent to CBPR, the current study provides a number of lessons learned for the continued development of relationships and trust among researchers and community members, with particular attention to balancing the demand for systematic implementation of community-based interventions while being responsive to the immediate needs of the community.

Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Thomas, Nicole A.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Freedman, Melanie A.; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Woodlock, Joseph; Guerra, Terry; Bradshaw, Ayana S.; Woodburn, Elizabeth M.; Myers, Rachel K.; Fein, Joel A.

2011-01-01

180

"I live by shooting hill"-a qualitative exploration of conflict and violence among urban youth in New Haven, Connecticut.  

PubMed

To elucidate urban youths' perceptions of conflict and violence we conducted a qualitative study among minority urban youths in New Haven, Connecticut. We utilized the ecological framework to explore the multilevel nature of the findings, and triangulated results with a parallel quantitative study. We found risk factors for violence at multiple levels including lack of interpersonal anger management skills (individual level); parents not physically present in the household (relationship level); residence in crime and gang-ridden neighborhoods (community level); and socioeconomic inequalities between neighborhoods, as reflected by participants' perception of the inadequacy of neighborhood resources to provide safety (societal level). Neighborhood resources were perceived as sparse, and police were not regarded as a protective factor (sometimes rather as racially discriminatory). Participants' statements pertaining to feelings of isolation, racism, and violence without strong parental, neighborhood, and school support may impede prosocial attitudes and behaviors throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22643467

Shuval, Kerem; Massey, Zohar; Caughy, Margaret O; Cavanaugh, Brenda; Pillsbury, Charles A; Groce, Nora

2012-02-01

181

Community mobilization and community-based participatory research to prevent youth violence among Asian and immigrant populations.  

PubMed

Many community mobilization activities for youth violence prevention involve the researchers assisting communities in identifying, adapting, and/or tailoring evidence-based programs to fit the community needs, population, and cultural and social contexts. This article describes a slightly different framework in which the collaborative research/evaluation project emerged from the community mobilization activities. As will be discussed, this collaborative, sustained partnership was possible in the context of the Center on Culture, Immigration and Youth Violence Prevention's (UC Berkeley ACE) community mobilization activities that brought the issue of youth violence, particularly among immigrant and minority populations, to the forefront of many of the community partners' agendas. The East Bay Asian Youth Center (EBAYC) was one of the partners that came to the table, which facilitated the community-based engagement/mobilization. UC Berkeley ACE collaborated with EBAYC to evaluate an after-school program and an alternative probation program serving a diverse youth and immigrant population, including African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics. This article describes UC Berkeley ACE's community mobilization activity and the collaborative partnership with EBAYC, discusses how the evaluations incorporated community-based principles in design and practice, and presents some findings from the evaluations. PMID:21210205

Le, Thao N; Arifuku, Isami; Vuong, Linh; Tran, Gianna; Lustig, Deborah F; Zimring, Franklin

2011-09-01

182

Youth Violence: Developing Local and State Solutions. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State Solutions (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state solutions. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

183

Upset among youth in response to questions about exposure to violence, sexual assault and family maltreatment.  

PubMed

To assess whether youth are upset by being asked questions about sensitive kinds of abuse, victimization, family maltreatment, and sexual victimization in the course of standard epidemiological surveys. A national sample of youth aged 10-17 were interviewed on the telephone by experienced interviewers as part of the National Survey of Children Exposed to Violence. At the end they were asked whether answering questions had upset them. Of the youth interviewed, 4.5% reported being at all upset and 0.8% reported being pretty or a lot upset. However, only a minority of those upset, .3% of the total sample, said they would not participate again had they known about the content. But even in this group, the regret about participation was mostly due to the length of the survey, not the types of questions being asked. Thus, asking about exposure to abuse and sensitive kinds of victimization in standard interview surveys is associated with low levels of respondent upset due to the nature of the questions. PMID:24004683

Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry; Shattuck, Anne

2014-02-01

184

Successful public policy change in California: firearms and youth resources.  

PubMed

The California Wellness Foundation's Violence Prevention Initiative (VPI) was a 70 million dollars, 10-year effort to reduce violence among California youth. The Policy and Public Education Program of the initiative advanced two broad policy goals: (1) limiting the availability of handguns to youth, (2) increasing the state's investment in youth resources. Roughly 110 communities passed more than 300 ordinances to limit gun availability or promote gun safety. In addition, California legislators passed 24 statewide gun laws. Funding for youth programs increased to more that 368 million dollars in 2002-03, from about 100 million dollars in 1996-97. Using a framework adapted from the social movements and political communications literature the importance of four key elements was apparent in the VPI: articulating clear policy goals, strategic issue framing, capitalizing on political opportunity, and effectively mobilizing resources. The impact of new gun policies, increased funding for youth programs, and a diverse network of policy professionals and issue advocates interested in social change to decrease violence remain to be fully understood. PMID:16022213

Wallack, Lawrence; Winett, Liana; Lee, Amy

2005-07-01

185

Adolescent decisional autonomy regarding participation in an emergency department youth violence interview.  

PubMed

Much attention has been given to determining whether an adolescent patient has the capacity to consent to research. This study explores the factors that influence adolescents' decisions to participate in a research study about youth violence and to determine positive or negative feelings elicited by being a research subject. The majority of subjects perceived their decision to participate to be free of coercion, and few felt badly about having participated. However, adolescents who were alone in the room during the assent process were more likely to report that they chose freely to be a research subject. This study may influence the ways physicians communicate with adolescent patients around research assent within a clinical care environment. PMID:16179323

Cohn, Jennifer M; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Fein, Joel A

2005-01-01

186

FBI Reports Drop in Crime Due to Gun Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a report released Sunday, the FBI found that a seven percent drop in homicides was entirely attributable to a decrease in killings committed with guns. The report also linked a drop in the rate of robbery involving guns to a ten percent drop in overall robberies nationwide. The decline in crime remained consistent in other categories as well, including property crimes, homicide against women, and random violent crimes. Surprisingly, in the wake of certain highly publicized acts of youth violence, the rate of violent juvenile crime has also dropped. This marks the seventh straight year that crime has declined in America. While both the report and many experts see a direct link between declining crime and tougher gun control, there continue to be dissenters -- one might ask if there isn't a certain circularity to the FBI's conclusions, and it remains to be seen if the current Congress will be swayed to retake up the gun legislation defeated this past summer.

Charbonneau, David D.

187

The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew's general strain theory (GST) give…

Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John

2006-01-01

188

Keep It in the Ring: Using Boxing in Social Group Work with High-Risk and Offender Youth to Reduce Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the concept of using boxing in social group work with juvenile offenders and high-risk youth as a means to decrease violence in their lives and their communities. It examines how learning the art of boxing can be woven into the group process to address violence. It presents ten attributes of boxing in a social group work setting

Whitney Wright

2006-01-01

189

Effectiveness of school-based violence prevention for children and youth: a research report.  

PubMed

Aggression, bullying and violence in children and youth are prevalent in Canada (18%) and internationally. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Roots of Empathy (ROE), a school-based mental health promotion and violence prevention program for children that has been widely implemented but rarely evaluated. Eight school divisions were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received ROE in 2002-2003 (445 students) or a wait-list control group (315 students). These were compared on three child mental health outcomes (physical aggression, indirect aggression and pro-social behaviour), rated by teachers and students (self-rated). The three wait-list school divisions received ROE in 2003-2004 (new cohort of 265 students) and were compared with the control group from 2002-2003 on the three outcomes, for replication purposes. For both comparisons, the authors report multi-level modelling analyses regarding (1) immediate effects after ROE completion at the end of the school year (pretest to post-test) and (2) long-term ROE effects up to three years after post-test. ROE had replicated, beneficial effects on all teacher-rated outcomes, which were generally maintained or further improved across follow-up. However, ROE had almost no statistically significant or replicated effects on student-rated outcomes. This is the first evaluation to suggest that ROE appears effective when implemented on a large scale under real-world delivery conditions. PMID:24956430

Santos, Robert G; Chartier, Mariette J; Whalen, Jeanne C; Chateau, Dan; Boyd, Leanne

2011-04-01

190

The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth as a Predictor of Recidivism in a United Kingdom Ccohort of Adolescent Offenders with Conduct Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective study examined the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 99 male adolescents who were assessed in custody and followed up 12 months post release. Outcome data on recidivism were based on official Home Office records. The base…

Dolan, Mairead C.; Rennie, Charlotte E.

2008-01-01

191

Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City's Youth: A Matter of Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…

Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

2004-01-01

192

Mobilizing Communities to Implement Evidence-Based Practices in Youth Violence Prevention: The State of the Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community mobilization can increase the effective implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in youth violence prevention.\\u000a These strategies bring together people and organizations in a community to try to solve or reduce a problem. They help communities\\u000a address the challenges of identifying EBPs, disseminating them to local decision-makers, and then implementing and sustaining\\u000a them if they are successful. Science-based systems for

Thomas E. Backer; Nancy G. Guerra

193

Effects of the It's Your Game . . . Keep It Real Program on Dating Violence in Ethnic-Minority Middle School Youths: A Group Randomized Trial.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined whether It's Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. Methods. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Results. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR?=?1.74; 95% CI?=?1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR?=?1.58; 95% CI?=?1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusions. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior. PMID:24922162

Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Tortolero, Susan R

2014-08-01

194

75 FR 42126 - Office on Violence Against Women  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...assistance for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. Overall, the purpose of the...services for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking, as well...

2010-07-20

195

Violence as a Public Health Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence is a public health problem that affects people of all ages. In 2007, violence was one of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States for people from birth to age 64 years. Violence takes many forms, such as child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, self-directed violence, and youth violence. Violence may be best understood

Tamara M. Haegerich; Linda L. Dahlberg

2011-01-01

196

Effects of Exposure to Community Violence on Internalizing Symptoms: Does Desensitization to Violence Occur in African American Youth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to community violence\\u000a to internalizing symptoms in 251 African American adolescents (mean age?=?12.86, SD?=?1.28). Participants reported on exposure to community violence, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses\\u000a were used to test the hypotheses and, consistent with predictions, the results indicated that the association

Noni K. Gaylord-Harden; Jamila A. Cunningham; Brett Zelencik

2011-01-01

197

Violence risk and gang affiliation in youth offenders: a recidivism study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs are ubiquitous around the world and have been problematic for the social and criminal justice agencies. Despite widespread public concern, there has been relatively scarce empirical scrutiny of youth gangs internationally and little outside of America and Europe. In particular, the activities of youth gangs, the function of gang membership, the criminogenic needs of gang-affiliated youth, and the

Chi Meng Chu; Michael Daffern; Stuart Thomas; Jia Ying Lim

2010-01-01

198

Dealing with Youth Violence. What Schools and Communities Need To Know.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication addresses many of the complexities of violence, and provides information to prepare educators and parents to combat violence in schools and communities. The chapters are: (1) "How Educators, Students, Parents, and Law Enforcement Officials See School Violence" (Rose M. Duhon-Sells and Halloway C. Sells); (2) "Addressing School…

Duhon-Sells, Rose, Ed.

199

When Prohibition Works: Alternatives to Violence in the Odyssey House Youth Program and in the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical violence, a factor often associated with drug addiction, must be reduced or eliminated in order for drug dependent individuals to reenter society. To examine the extent to which individual violence associated with drug addiction was controllable by the Odyssey House drug addiction rehabilitation program, the violence potential of 47…

King, David F.; Straus, Murray A.

200

Perpetrator and victim gender patterns for 21 forms of youth victimization in the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence.  

PubMed

Most interest in violence and gender has focused on certain types of victimization such as sex offenses and relational aggression. This study examined gender patterns across numerous forms of youth victimization. The data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative U.S. sample of 4,549 children ages 1 month to 17 years obtained through a telephone survey of caregivers and youth. For 18 of 21 victimization types, male perpetration was significantly more common than female perpetration. Perpetrator-victim patterns revealed that most forms of physical assault and bullying showed a predominantly male-on-male pattern. All forms of sexual assault, plus kidnapping, showed a predominantly male-on-female pattern. Nonphysical maltreatment showed a mixed pattern, with fairly similar rates across all four gender configurations. Many violence types were more severe when perpetrated by males versus females as indicated by higher injury rates and greater victim fear. Higher order analyses by victimization type indicated, among other findings, that victimization types with more stranger perpetrators had more male perpetrators, victimizations with higher percentages of male-on-female and female-on-male incidents were more likely to be sexual offenses, and higher percentages of female-on-female incidents were associated with verbal victimizations. Results also suggest that males are more likely to aggress in more impersonal contexts compared to females. Gender socialization, physical power, and social power appear to intersect in ways that create gendered patterns of violence. These factors, versus a focus on skills deficits, need more attention in prevention and intervention. PMID:24547672

Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

2013-01-01

201

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE ABAN AYA YOUTH PROJECT IN REDUCING VIOLENCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENT MALES USING LATENT CLASS GROWTH MIXTURE MODELING TECHNIQUES  

PubMed Central

This study employs growth mixture modeling techniques to evaluate the preventive effects of the Aban Aya Youth Project in reducing the rate of growth of violence among African American adolescent males (N = 552). Results suggest three distinct classes of participants: high risk (34%), medium risk (54%), and low risk (12%) based on both the participants’ initial violence scores and their growth of violence over time. Results further show significant effects (almost 3 times as large as the effect found in the regular one-class analysis) for the high-risk class but not for the medium- or low-risk classes.

SEGAWA, EISUKE; NGWE, JOB E.; LI, YANHONG; FLAY, BRIAN R.

2008-01-01

202

Evaluation of the effects of the Aban Aya Youth Project in reducing violence among African American adolescent males using latent class growth mixture modeling techniques.  

PubMed

This study employs growth mixture modeling techniques to evaluate the preventive effects of the Aban Aya Youth Project in reducing the rate of growth of violence among African American adolescent males (N = 552). Results suggest three distinct classes of participants: high risk (34%), medium risk (54%), and low risk (12%) based on both the participants' initial violence scores and their growth of violence over time. Results further show significant effects (almost 3 times as large as the effect found in the regular one-class analysis) for the high-risk class but not for the medium- or low-risk classes. PMID:15731509

Segawa, Eisuke; Ngwe, Job E; Li, Yanhong; Flay, Brian R

2005-04-01

203

Violence and National Development in Nigeria: The Political Economy of Youth Restiveness in the Niger Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

One element in the contradictions underpinning Nigeria's development crisis is the marginalisation of the youth. This article examines the factors that influence youth restiveness in Nigeria's Niger Delta region. It discusses the impact of conservative elite politics and the oil-centric political economy characterised by the impoverishment, neglect and the repression of the oil-producing communities on the youth in the region.

Jeremiah O. Arowosegbe

2009-01-01

204

Youth Summits: Law-Related Education for Violence Prevention. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The youth summit, which engages adolescent students, public officials, and lawyers in discourse and deliberation about critical social problems and legal issues, is becoming a popular method of law-related education. This Digest discusses (1) the youth summit concept in law-related education; (2) examples of youth summits across the United States;…

Leiterman, Hannah

205

Psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life in youth affected by violence: the burden of the multiply victimised.  

PubMed

This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent victimisation and violence perpetration were contrasted with non-involved comparisons. The results show that even low levels of violence involvement were associated with more problems, fewer protective factors and impaired HRQOL. Multiply victimised youth - not perpetrating victims - stood out with internalising, peer and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Discriminant function analysis separated non-involved from violence-affected youth, and multiply victimised from not multiply victimised youth. Externalising behaviours, family issues, male sex and school functioning predicted group separation on the first function (proportion variance explained 80.0%), while internalising and peer issues were predictive for the second function (PVE 14.2%). Implications for prevention, intervention and research are discussed. PMID:23582650

Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2013-06-01

206

Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health  

PubMed Central

Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates.

Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

2012-01-01

207

Risk Factors for Severe Inter-Sibling Violence: A Preliminary Study of a Youth Forensic Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perpetration of severe inter-sibling violence (SISV) remains a largely unexplored area of family violence. This article describes an investigation of risk factors for intentional SISV perpetration. A sample of 111 young people under the care of the Scottish criminal justice or welfare systems was studied. A SISV perpetration interview schedule…

Khan, Roxanne; Cooke, David J.

2008-01-01

208

75 FR 27820 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...assistance for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. Overall, the purpose of the...services for youth victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking, as well...

2010-05-18

209

Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?  

PubMed

Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization. PMID:24364129

McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

2013-01-01

210

Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

McNeil, Michele

2013-01-01

211

Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... youth homelessness based on current evidence about what works. Click here to find out more about the Framework. Communities Engaged in Youth Homelessness In communities across the country, organizations, schools, researchers, philanthropic partners and young people are ...

212

Peace and Non-Violence: A Community Collaborates for Inner City Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the escalation of violent crime among youth in Knoxville, Tennessee, two partnerships have been developed by Pellissippi State Technical Community College (PSTCC), a university and the K-12 system in the Greater Knoxville area, and community leaders to provide non-violent alternatives for youth. The first effort, the annual Greater…

Chandler, Vrondelia

213

A game theoretic model of gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the passage of the Brady Bill in 1993 and the approval of the Feinstein Amend- ment the following year, gun control has once again become a subject of heated public debate in the United States. Procontrol forces point to high levels of gun ownership as the cause of much, if not most, violence in America, and argue that gun

Robert Taylor

1995-01-01

214

Association between early marriage and intimate partner violence in India: a focus on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan.  

PubMed

The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women aged 20 to 24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India's girls who are married under the legal age of marriage. PMID:20587462

Speizer, Ilene S; Pearson, Erin

2011-07-01

215

Youth, violence and non-injection drug use: nexus of vulnerabilities among lesbian and bisexual sex workers.  

PubMed

Despite increasing evidence of enhanced HIV risk among sexual minority populations, and sex workers (SWs) in particular, there remains a paucity of epidemiological data on the risk environments of SWs who identify as lesbian or bisexual. Therefore, this short report describes a study that examined the individual, interpersonal and structural associations with lesbian or bisexual identity among SWs in Vancouver, Canada. Analysis drew on data from an open prospective cohort of street and hidden off-street SWs in Vancouver. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the independent relationships between individual, interpersonal, work environment and structural factors and lesbian or bisexual identity. Of the 510 individuals in our sample, 95 (18.6%) identified as lesbian or bisexual. In multivariable analysis, reporting non-injection drug use in the last six months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.89; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.42, 5.75), youth ?24 years of age (AOR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.24, 4.73) and experiencing client-perpetrated verbal, physical and/or sexual violence in the last six months (AOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.98) remained independently associated with lesbian/bisexual identity, after adjusting for potential confounders. The findings demonstrate an urgent need for evidence-based social and structural HIV prevention interventions. In particular, policies and programmes tailored to lesbian and bisexual youth and women working in sex work, including those that prevent violence and address issues of non-injection stimulant use are required. PMID:24382155

Lyons, Tara; Kerr, Thomas; Duff, Putu; Feng, Cindy; Shannon, Kate

2014-09-01

216

African American adolescents living and coping with community violence on Chicago's southside.  

PubMed

This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and incidents involving police, gun violence, and murders. Boys report more exposure to violence as victims and witnesses, whereas girls are more likely to hear about violent acts. Coping styles range from "getting through," which included both an acceptance of community conditions; "getting along," which included self-defense techniques; "getting away," which included avoidance coping strategies; and "getting back," which consisted of confrontational coping strategies. Boys report more confrontational coping styles than are girls, who utilized more avoidance approaches. Widespread school-based interventions are warranted, given the high prevalence of community violence exposure among these youth and may provide important supports for coping against such trauma. PMID:20956443

Voisin, Dexter R; Bird, Jason D P; Hardestry, Melissa; Cheng Shi Shiu

2011-08-01

217

National Youth Gang Survey (1997). Summary: National Youth Gang Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent proliferation of youth gangs throughout the United States and the growth of youth gang violence have heightened the awareness of the youth gang problem among public policymakers, law enforcement agencies, and social scientists. To measure the e...

1999-01-01

218

Gender differences in the longitudinal impact of exposure to violence on mental health in urban youth.  

PubMed

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have produced inconsistent findings. The present study examines the moderating effects of gender on the longitudinal association between exposure to violence and a variety of mental health symptoms (externalizing, internalizing, PTSD, dissociation) in a racially diverse urban adolescent sample (N = 615; 50.6% female; Time 1 mean age = 14.15; Time 2 mean age = 16.70). For both genders, exposure to violence prospectively predicted increases in all types of symptoms. Although boys reported more exposure to violence on average, girls experiencing violence were more likely to experience dissociative (but not PTSD, internalizing, or externalizing) symptoms. The results suggest that adolescent girls exposed to potentially traumatic events may be especially vulnerable to experiencing certain trauma-related symptoms and imply gender-specific pathways to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:21400207

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-12-01

219

Media violence.  

PubMed

Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects. PMID:10904203

Cantor, J

2000-08-01

220

Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

2006-01-01

221

Investigating the Role of Gender and Delinquency in Exposure to Violence Among Puerto Rican Youth  

PubMed Central

Using a longitudinal sample of Puerto Rican adolescents living in the Bronx, New York, this study examines the predictors of exposure to violence within gender. Results from a series of negative binomial regressions suggested (a) sensation seeking, peer delinquency, coercive discipline, and initial delinquency increased the likelihood of exposure to violence for both males and females at multiple time points and (b) initial delinquency was the only consistent predictor of exposure to violence at all time points. Regarding the role of gender, the results indicated that some risk factors were similar across genders (e.g., sensation seeking, coercive discipline, peer delinquency, and delinquent behavior), whereas other risk factors differed across gender (e.g., age and welfare among males and school environment for females). Study limitations and implications are discussed.

Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Canino, Glorisa

2013-01-01

222

Violence in Street Culture: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Youth Groups and Criminal Gangs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in…

Zdun, Steffen

2008-01-01

223

Serious Youth Violence and Innovative Prevention: On the Emerging Link Between Public Health and Criminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was not so long ago that scholarly writings pointed to the vast chasm that existed between criminal justice and public health approaches to understanding and controlling interpersonal violence. Other scholarship of the day examined how criminal justice and criminology could benefit from adopting elements of the public health approach. For sure, there still exist many differences in how the

Brandon C. Welsh; Anthony A. Braga; Christopher J. Sullivan

2012-01-01

224

Moral Panic over Youth Violence: Wilding and the Manufacture of Menace in the Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes moral panic over wilding (sexual violence committed by a group of urban teens), examining elements of race, class, and fear of crime, especially as manifested in the media. Suggests that wilding is a distinctive form of moral panic that symbolizes a threat to society at large and to a political economy that reproduces racial and social…

Welch, Michael; Price, Eric A.; Yankey, Nana

2002-01-01

225

Middle School Youth: Satisfaction with and Responses to a Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how group composition influences students' level of satisfaction with a dating violence and sexual assault prevention program. A 10- to 12-session program was presented to 396 urban African American middle school students in mixed- and same-gender groups. Both males and females were significantly more satisfied with the…

Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly; Sharma, Yasoda

2010-01-01

226

A Delphi Approach to Reach Consensus on Primary Care Guidelines regarding Youth Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Anticipatory guidance is a cornerstone of modern pediatric practice. In recognition of its importance for child well being, injury prevention counseling is a standard element of that guidance. Over the last 20 years, there has been growing recognition that intentional injury or violence is one of the leading causes of morbidity and…

De Vos, Edward; Spivak, Howard; Hatmaker-Flanigan, Elizabeth; Sege, Robert D.

2007-01-01

227

Role Model Behavior and Youth Violence: A Study of Positive and Negative Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated how role models' behavior may positively or negatively influence African American early adolescents' attitudes toward violence and violent behavior. Participants in this study included 331 African American seventh and eighth graders from low-income neighborhoods in an urban, Midwestern city. The study used a model developed…

Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

228

Sexual Violence and Youth in South Africa: The Need for Community-Based Prevention Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: South Africa is reported to have one of the highest rates of sexual violence in the world, with adolescent girls between the ages of 12-17 being particularly at risk. Given that adolescence is considered a critical developmental period for establishing normative sexual behavior, this study explored multiple levels of risk influences…

Petersen, Inge; Bhana, Arvin; McKay, Mary

2005-01-01

229

Educating Youth for a World beyond Violence: A Pedagogy for Peace. Education, Politics and Public Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a time of unprecedented social and economic crisis, this book represents a challenge to the orthodoxy that shapes the vision of educational purpose. It argues that now, more than ever, there is a moral imperative for educators to assume responsibility for helping to bring about a culture of peace and non-violence in both the nation and…

Shapiro, H. Svi

2010-01-01

230

Attitudes toward Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youth in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this research were to assess the attitudes toward dating violence among Jewish and Arab male and female adolescents in Israel. The random sample consisted of 1,357 participants from among 9th to 12th grade pupils enrolled in eight Arab and eight Jewish junior and senior high schools. The study assessed attitudes toward…

Sherer, Moshe

2010-01-01

231

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

232

Service Without Guns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Service Without Guns"--by Donald J. Eberly and Reuven Gal with a guest chapter by Michael Sherraden--notes the many similarities between military service and civilian National Youth Service (NYS) and concludes that NYS can and should become as large and influential in the 21st Century as military service was in the 20th. The book examines the…

Eberly, Donald J.; Gal, Reuven

2006-01-01

233

Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female)…

Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

2011-01-01

234

Methodological Challenges Examining Subgroup Differences: Examples from Universal School-based Youth Violence Prevention Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the literature on school-based universal violence prevention programs to illustrate key methodological\\u000a challenges for investigating subgroup differences in prevention effects. The variety of potential moderating factors examined\\u000a within this literature is discussed within the context of a social-ecological model. Our review of this literature identified\\u000a the following methodological issues: the need for a clear a priori theoretical

Albert D. Farrell; David B. Henry; Amie Bettencourt

235

Exposure to Community Violence and Daily Feeling States Among Urban African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the relationships between exposure to community violence and daily feeling states among 175 6th- through 8th-grade African American students. The relationships were tested both cross-sectionally and longitudinally over the 3-year span. Four daily feeling state subscales: contented, hostile, anxious, and dysphoric were developed from a factor analysis of the 30 Experience Sampling Method (ESM) feeling states.

Catherine K. Sweeney; Jonathon Goldner; Maryse H. Richards

2011-01-01

236

A Nation of Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States leads the developed world in youth violence, with the highest homicide and suicide rates among young people. Exposure starts early. To reduce violence in U.S. schools, we must control handguns, abolish television violence, isolate violent students, and change the ways that juvenile offenders are punished. (MLH)

Haynes, Richard M.; Chalker, Donald M.

1999-01-01

237

School Violence: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the school nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and development of violence prevention strategies in the school and community, offering an overview of school violence; risk factors for youth violence (gender, age, race, ethnicity, behavior, family, school, and community); risk factors for school shootings; and implications for…

Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper

2002-01-01

238

Youth, gangs and violence: Analysing the social and spatial mobility of young people in Guatemala City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs have become an increasingly significant, and controversial, social institution in low-income communities in many cities in Central America, and yet the local-level impacts of this phenomenon, especially on young people, remain under-explored. Drawing on research with young people in Guatemala City, this paper explores the multiple barriers to the social and spatial mobility of both gang and non-gang

Ailsa Winton

2005-01-01

239

Appetitive Violence: A New Phenomenon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence has long been regarded as a major social issue. The past decade has, however, seen the scrutiny which encompasses this violence intensify, largely due to a recent media focus on an apparently increasing tendency amongst some young people to engage in acts of ‘appetitive’ or ‘thrill-seeking’ violence. This is reported to be a new form of violence, in

Hannah Ching; Michael Daffern; Stuart Thomas

2011-01-01

240

Child and adolescent violence.  

PubMed

Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important. PMID:12640949

Daane, Diane M

2003-01-01

241

The Public Health Approach to Youth Violence and Child Maltreatment Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people in the United States suffer the consequences of violence, including physical injuries, psychological trauma, and death. Solutions to violence have traditionally been reactive. Through the lens of the public health perspective, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) views violence as predictable based on various contributing factors, and thus as preventable. Within CDC, the Division of

W. Rodney Hammond; Tamara M. Haegerich; Janet Saul

2009-01-01

242

Guns, Southernness, and gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southerners have been found to have higher levels of gun ownership than persons who reside elsewhere. This may be due to cultural factors peculiar to the Southern region. If so, this would have interesting implications for gun control initiatives. Although the differential in gun ownership has been linked to varying support or opposition to gun control, the relationship between this

Pauline Gasdow Brennan; Alan J. Lizotte; David McDowall

1993-01-01

243

The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth as a predictor of recidivism in a United Kingdom cohort of adolescent offenders with conduct disorder.  

PubMed

This prospective study examined the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 99 male adolescents who were assessed in custody and followed up 12 months post release. Outcome data on recidivism were based on official Home Office records. The base rates for violent and general recidivism, respectively, were 38.4% and 70.7%. The predictive validity of the SAVRY Risk Total and the SAVRY Risk Rating was moderate for both violent and general recidivism, but both showed incremental validity in predicting outcomes compared with the PCL: YV. Data are discussed in relation to the limited published international literature. PMID:18315397

Dolan, Mairead C; Rennie, Charlotte E

2008-03-01

244

Kansas City Gun Experiment. Research in Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of a police patrol project to reduce gun violence, drive by shootings, and homicides in a patrol beat where the homicide rate was 20 times higher than the national average. Gun crime is rising rapidly nationwide, while other types of crime a...

L. W. Sherman J. W. Shaw D. P. Rogan

1995-01-01

245

Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

Kleck, Gary

1979-01-01

246

Releasing Their Stories: A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Histories of Mental Health Issues and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often the narratives of youth self-exploration and experience are lost in a drive to prevent, diagnose, or respond to youth-led crime. This exploratory qualitative study looks at and documents the life histories of youth concurrently involved in the juvenile justice system and in clinical treatment independent of the crimes they committed. A purposive sample of 9 male juvenile-justice-involved youth

Tina Maschi; Jennifer Perillo; Deborah Courtney

2011-01-01

247

Gun Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... though guns are featured in many television shows, video games, computer games, and movies, it's important to know ... could only happen on TV, in movies, or video games. A real gun is never a toy, and ...

248

76 FR 62291 - National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...experience domestic violence are at a higher risk for failure in school, emotional disorders...perpetuate the cycle of violence themselves later...to play in ending violence against youth...and fathers, and schools and...

2011-10-07

249

At-Risk and Delinquent Youth. Multiple Programs Lack Coordinated Federal Effort. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Accounting Office evaluated federal programs that serve at-risk and delinquent youth. The work, which took place over several years, focused on: (1) who administers such programs; (2) how much money is spent on federal programs for at-risk youth; and (3) what is known about their effectiveness. Overall, its is apparent that multiple…

Blanchette, Cornelia M.

250

Gun Safety  

MedlinePLUS

Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

251

Anger Mediates the Relation Between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that\\u000a is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two\\u000a important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are posttraumatic stress\\u000a disorder and problematic anger. The

Eva R. KimonisJames; James V. Ray; Jessica R. Branch; Elizabeth Cauffman

252

Gun Blast from Naval Guns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The available data on gun blasts from naval guns are complied utilizing computer curve fitting techniques. Curves of peak free-air pressure are presented for all naval guns, ranging in size from 20 mm to 16in./50. In addition, curves of arrival time, dura...

M. F. Walther

1972-01-01

253

Street Gang Violence in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels and descriptors of violence among European street gangs are summarized from studies reported primarily under the aegis of the Eurogang Program initiated in 1997 and continuing still. European gang violence is placed in the context of its American counterpart, of European non-gang youth violence, and of the definitional and structural components of the Eurogang Program. European gangs in over

Malcolm W. Klein; Frank M. Weerman; Terence P. Thornberry

2006-01-01

254

Are medical societies developing a standard for gun injury prevention?  

PubMed Central

Context: Following heightened gun violence in the 1990s, many medical societies in the United States adopted policies on the topic. Objective: Identify points of firearm violence policy agreement among large medical organizations. Design: Fourteen national medical societies—clinical focus, demonstrated interest in gun injury prevention, >2000 members—were selected for policy review in 2002. Policies were categorized on areas covered and items within these. Consensus areas were addressed by ?7/14 societies.Consensus items were included by ?7/14 societies, shared items by 5–6. Results: There were five consensus areas: access prevention, gun commerce, research, public education, and clinical counseling. There were four consensus items: restricting gun access by enforcing existing laws, restricting access to all guns at the point of sale, restricting access to handguns at the point of sale, and creating a national database on gun injury and death. Shared items promote violence prevention, clinical education on risks of guns in the home, treating guns as consumer products, restricting gun access to children, bans on automatic weapons, and promoting trigger locks. Conclusions: Large medical societies in the United States agree on key approaches for reducing gun injury mortality and morbidity. Future research will be needed to track the evolution of this emerging standard for physician action, which now includes the consensus areas and items. It promises to be, in effect, a medical standard of care for gun injury prevention. The United States experience may be useful to others working on gun injury prevention.

Longjohn, M; Christoffel, K

2004-01-01

255

Violence and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools must increasingly deal with children who brandish weapons and exhibit antisocial or violent behavior. Psychologists agree that young children are very susceptible to violence and that stored violent images can warp their interpretation of reality. To combat youth violence, many schools have adopted antiviolence curricula and conflict…

Sauerwein, Kristina

1995-01-01

256

Understanding the Relationship Between Hyper-Violence and Educational Disparity: Listening to the Voices of Latina Youth From Oakland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hyper-violence that exists in Oakland, California, has persistently made national headlines. When examining the violence that exists in low-income urban cities, studies usually overemphasize the male experience. The studies that center on female experience usually focus on extreme cases such as gang-involved and incarcerated girls. This study foregrounds the experiences of Latina high school girls from Oakland who are

Yanira Madrigal-Garcia

2011-01-01

257

A Framework for Community Mobilization to Promote Healthy Youth Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In community mobilization to prevent youth violence, local people take action to create conditions under which youth are healthy and safe. This manuscript outlines a framework for supporting and evaluating community mobilization to promote healthy youth development as an approach to preventing youth violence. The framework highlights 12 key community processes to facilitate change and improvement. A descriptive case study

Jomella Watson-Thompson; Stephen B. Fawcett; Jerry A. Schultz

2008-01-01

258

Gun Safety Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here Home > Safety Tips > Tip > Guns Gun Safety Tips Store Guns and Ammunition Safely Store ... visit about safe gun storage practices. Dispose of Guns You Don't Need If you decide that ...

259

Mediation by peer violence victimization of sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors: pooled youth risk behavior surveys.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI?=?6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI?=?1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI?=?3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A

2014-06-01

260

Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use,…

Sundaram, Vanita

2013-01-01

261

Prevalence of youth access to alcohol, guns, illegal drugs, or cigarettes in the home and association with health-risk behaviors.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of access to alcohol, guns, drugs, or cigarettes in the home and its association with related health-risk behaviors among adolescents.METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 1995 in-home survey of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health which used a nationally representative school-based sample (N = 6,504) of adolescents in grades 7-12. We used logistic regression analysis, adjusted for gender, race/ethnicity and age, to examine the associations between access to alcohol, guns, drugs, and cigarettes in the home and the practice of risk behaviors involving those variables.RESULTS: Overall, 1,817 (28%) adolescents reported having easy access to alcohol in the home, 1,616 (25%) had access to a gun, 189 (3%) had access to drugs, and 2,067 (32%) had access to cigarettes. Associations were found between easy home access to alcohol and drinking during the past 12 months (Adj. OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.89-2.47), ever being drunk at school (Adj. OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.85-2.95, and ever driving drunk (Adj. OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.29-2.09). Access to a gun at home was associated with carrying a gun to school (Adj. OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.40-4.64). Associations were also found between access to drugs and cigarettes in the home and ever using drugs and smoking regularly.CONCLUSIONS: Easy access to alcohol, guns, and cigarettes in the home is prevalent among adolescents and may increase involvement in risky behaviors. Limiting access therefore is important in order to reduce the occurrence of health-risk behaviors associated with substance use, deliquency and injury among adolescents. PMID:11018352

Swahn; Hammig

2000-10-01

262

Developing ethical leadership in youth to reduce violence among them: a resource for the church and society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifeworlds and problems that lead some young people to lives of violence, crime, cognitive and academic deficiencies, substance and alcohol abuse and\\/or other anti-social behaviors is one of the most serious problems facing our nation as we enter the new millennium. In order to critically examine this problem attention is first given to the issue of identity formation, the

Gregory E. Coles

2001-01-01

263

Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: A school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3-5th grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait-list comparison groups. Students attended 13 bi-weekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed.

Cooley-Strickland, Michele R.; Griffin, Robert S.; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean

2010-01-01

264

The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, drawing on approximately 1,100 males from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, demonstrates the importance of genetics, and genetic-environmental interactions, for understanding adolescent delinquency and violence. Our analyses show that three genetic polymorphisms--specifically, the 30-bp promoter-region variable…

Guo, Guang; Roettger, Michael E.; Cai, Tianji

2008-01-01

265

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

266

The Effects of Dating Violence, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among a Diverse Sample of Illinois Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active adolescents…

Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A.; Vines, Linda N.

2011-01-01

267

Stolen Gun Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guns stolen from law-abiding households provide an important source of guns for criminals. Crime rates increase with the availability of stolen guns, so the gun market is subject to externalities that generate excessive ownership and inadequate spending on protective measures to deter gun theft. We show that a simple refundable deposit for guns can internalize the externalities in the gun

Robert W. Helsley; Arthur O'Sullivan

2001-01-01

268

Holocaust Youth and Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Holocaust study for youth becomes integrated into the U.S. educational structure, educators throughout the country are going to need resources that combine history and humanity to convey to young people the impact of tragedy and violence that World War II and the Holocaust had on the youth of a particular time in the 20th century. This paper…

Clark, Joanna

269

Public opinion polling on gun policy.  

PubMed

Faced with the national epidemic of gun violence, legislators should be especially sensitive to their constituents' support for various policy options. This support is best evidenced by well-conducted public opinion polls. We review public opinion polls on gun policy since 1987. Although the public support for a number of promising interventions targeting the design and manufacture of firearms has not been meaningfully investigated, strong support is evidenced for most other gun-control options. The public also believes, contrary to Supreme Court rulings, that the Second Amendment to the Constitution protects a broad individual right to bear arms. PMID:8125437

Vernick, J S; Teret, S P; Howard, K A; Teret, M D; Wintemute, G J

1993-01-01

270

Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

Lester, David

1988-01-01

271

Prevention of youth injuries.  

PubMed Central

There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents.

Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

1999-01-01

272

The contribution of childhood emotional abuse to teen dating violence among child protective services-involved youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveFor child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional abuse for understanding adolescent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology

Christine Wekerle; Eman Leung; Anne-Marie Wall; Harriet MacMillan; Michael Boyle; Nico Trocme; Randall Waechter

2009-01-01

273

Trends in BB/pellet gun injuries in children and teenagers in the United States, 1985-99  

PubMed Central

Objective: To characterize national trends in non-fatal BB/pellet gun related injury rates for persons aged 19 years or younger in relation to trends in non-fatal and fatal firearm related injury rates and discuss these trends in light of injury prevention and violence prevention efforts. Setting: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) includes approximately 100 hospitals with at least six beds that provide emergency services. These hospitals comprise a stratified probability sample of all US hospitals with emergency departments. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) is a complete census of all death certificates filed by states and is compiled annually. Methods: National data on BB/pellet gun related injuries and injury rates were examined along with fatal and non-fatal firearm related injuries and injury rates. Non-fatal injury data for all BB/pellet gun related injury cases from 1985 through 1999, and firearm related injury cases from 1993 through 1999 were obtained from hospital emergency department records using the NEISS. Firearm related deaths from 1985 through 1999 were obtained from the NVSS. Results: BB/pellet gun related injury rates increased from age 3 years to a peak at age 13 years and declined thereafter. In contrast, firearm related injury and death rates increased gradually until age 13 and then increased sharply until age 18 years. For persons aged 19 years and younger, BB/pellet gun related injury rates increased from the late 1980s until the early 1990s and then declined until 1999; these injury rates per 100 000 population were 24.0 in 1988, 32.8 in 1992, and 18.3 in 1999. This trend was similar to those for fatal and non-fatal firearm related injury rates per 100 000 which were 4.5 in 1985, 7.8 in 1993, and 4.3 in 1999 (fatal) and 38.6 in 1993 and 16.3 in 1999 (non-fatal). In 1999, an estimated 14 313 (95% confidence interval (CI) 12 025 to 16 601) cases with non-fatal BB/pellet gun injuries and an estimated 12 748 (95% CI 7881–17 615) cases with non-fatal firearm related injuries among persons aged 19 years and younger were treated in US hospital emergency departments. Conclusions: BB/pellet gun related and firearm related injury rates show similar declines since the early 1990s. These declines coincide with a growing number of prevention efforts aimed at reducing injuries to children from unsupervised access to guns and from youth violence. Evaluations at the state and local level are needed to determine true associations.

Nguyen, M; Annest, J; Mercy, J; Ryan, G; Fingerhut, L

2002-01-01

274

Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

2009-01-01

275

Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on forty years of distinguished service in delinquency prevention, John Calhoun, founder of the National Crime Prevention Council, lays out the essential ingredients for preventing violence. These include strategies for connecting with alienated youth, building community norms of caring, reducing access of weapons of violence, and claiming…

Calhoun, John

2006-01-01

276

Violence in the Media  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many think that television and other media are primarily responsible for the aggressiveness of American youth and the youth of Western nations. Several experimental and longitudinal studies have provided considerable support to this claim. However, there are those who outright deny that the media has any influence on aggressive behavior. The debate over media violence and its impact on society is addressed in this chapter.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

277

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Domestic Violence Domestic violence is an escalating pattern of violence or intimidation by an intimate partner, which is used to gain power and control. Several categories of domestic violence against the elderly have been identified: "Domestic violence ...

278

Spectrometer gun  

DOEpatents

A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

279

Youth In Action: Youth Preventing Drug Abuse. Bulletin No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drug prevention projects have proven successful in curtailing drug activity and the violence associated with it. An effective drug prevention project can educate children, youth, and adults about the dangers of illegal drugs. It can provide skills to help...

S. Bilchik

1998-01-01

280

1998 National Gun Policy Survey of the National Opinion Research Center: Research Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research in 1999 released a final report based on the research findings of a national survey on gun policies. The 64-page study reports on topics such as the regulation of firearms, gun ownership and use, knowledge and attitudes toward guns, gun violence, and safety issues. The report includes thirteen statistical tables and concludes that the American public strongly supports "legislation to regulate firearms, make guns safer, and reduce the accessibility of firearms to criminals and children."

Smith, Tom W.

281

Perspectives on School Aggression and Violence. Highlights from the Working Forum on Children and Youth Who Have Aggressive and Violent Behaviors (Tampa, Florida, February 2-3, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents papers and dialogue group highlights from a symposium on the growing challenge of school aggression and violence, strategies to combat this aggression and violence, and ways to make schools safe again. An introductory paper by Cynthia L. Warger is titled "Responding to School Violence within an Educational Framework."…

Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.

282

Violence and the Schools. A Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics paint a startling and frightening picture of school violence in America. Understanding the real problem is essential to focus national attention and to bring about awareness that energy must be committed to preventing violence. The 27 items in this collection are organized into 4 comprehensive sections. Section 1, "Attention: Guns,…

Harris, Phillip, Ed.

283

Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths from 1994 and 1999 and comparisons of U.S. data to those of other industrialized countries. A table delineates 1996-1998…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

284

Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths and finds the statistics alarming, despite recent decline. The first of three tables in the report delineates 1979-1999…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

285

Guide to Conducting Your Own Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Systems measures six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth: behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute...

2009-01-01

286

National Youth Gang Survey, 1996. Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The youth gang problem in the United States has become an important public policy issue in recent years, largely because of the growth of youth gang violence and the apparent proliferation of youth gangs throughout the United States. In order to measure t...

1999-01-01

287

Attitudes toward Violence Scale: Psychometric Properties with a High School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence represents a serious problem affecting individuals, communities, and the larger society. Greater efforts aimed at the eradication of youth violence are necessary, and work in this field could be enhanced by psychometrically strong measures. The present study examined the factor structure of the Attitudes Toward Violence Scale (ATV)…

Davidson, M. Meghan; Canivez, Gary L.

2012-01-01

288

Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

Utter, Glenn H.

289

Violent behavior among urban youth attending alternative schools.  

PubMed

This study described violent behavior and aggression among youth attending alternative schools, and examined sociodemographic factors associated with such violence. The study involved 494 students attending 10 alternative schools in Houston, Texas. Data were collected between November 2000 and February 2001 by audio-enabled laptop computers equipped with headphones. Students self-reported an average of 11.8 aggressive acts during the week prior to the survey. Students reported a 30-day weapon carrying prevalence of 22.7%; 30-day gun carrying prevalence of 11.1%; 30-day knife or club prevalence of 17.2%; 12-month fighting prevalence of 50.6%; and 12-month prevalence of injuries due to fighting of 6.5%. Association between demographic variables, self-reported aggressive behavior, and other forms of aggression was examined using multivariate logistic regression. Students were divided into four mutually exclusive violence-related categories: no fighting and no weapon (referent), fighting only, carrying weapon only, fighting and weapon carrying. Student aggression was significantly associated with fighting and weapon carrying, with incremental increases at each level (OR 1.1 per unit of increase, 95% CI 1.1-1.2) and in presence of the covariates. Among Houston's alternative school students, the prevalence of violent behavior (weapon carrying, gun carrying, knife or club carrying, fighting, and treatment by a doctor or nurse for injuries) is higher compared to regular high school students. Aggression related strongly to weapon carrying and fighting in the sample. Data indicate alternative school youth urgently need prevention and treatment programs to help them live in safer environments. PMID:12557630

Escobar-Chaves, S Liliana; Tortolero, Susan R; Markham, Christine; Kelder, Steve H; Kapadia, Asha

2002-11-01

290

Gun Control vs. Gun Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website from opensecrets.org (see the July 30, 1999 Scout Report) summarizes the current state of the debate including the positions of the interest groups on both sides and, most revealingly, offers statistics on campaign contributions from both sides of the debate to Congress. In addition, links are provided to a congressperson-by-congressperson breakdown of voting records vis-a-vis contributions received. Such a site may not resolve the constitutional (and sometimes metaphysical) issues involved in the gun debate, but it gives us a more realistic picture of how the politics of influence impact this issue.

291

Violence among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in Maine: Part II--Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While violent crime among youth has not reached the epic proportions in Maine that it has elsewhere, there are signs that some youths are already involved in a cycle of violence and many others are at risk. The Maine Bureau of Health convened an interdepartmental work group to study youth violence in 1993 culminating in Part 1 of a two-part…

Maine State Dept. of Human Services, Augusta.

292

Preventing Violence After a Natural Disaster  

MedlinePLUS

... is having thoughts of suicide , call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255). Learn more about Suicide Prevention . Prevent Youth Violence Respect others and value differences. ...

293

BB Guns Can Kill  

MedlinePLUS

... Kill BB guns can kill a person. High-velocity BB guns, which have muzzle velocities higher than 350 feet per second, can increase ... do not realize that BB guns, especially high-velocity guns, can cause death. Therefore the CPSC warns ...

294

More Guns, More Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual rates of gun ownership at both the state and the county levels during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly

Mark Duggan

2001-01-01

295

Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

296

The Gun Dispute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)

Spitzer, Robert J.

1999-01-01

297

Is Youth Violence Just Another Fact of Life? Some Kids Resilient; Some Kids at Risk. Clarifying the Debate: Psychology Exmaines the Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological research has demonstrated that violence is learned, and it has identified some factors that put children at risk of perpetrating or being victimized by violence. Because aggression is often learned at an early age, prevention programs that start early in childhood and continue throughout adolescence have the best chance for success.…

American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

298

Gender and the impact of gun control on suicide and homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An avenue to controlling lethal violence—suicide and homicide—may be to restrict the availability of the method. Guns are a preferred method for violence in many countries. An opportunity to study the effects of gun control laws on the use of firearms for suicide and homicide is provided by Canada's Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1977 (Bill C-51), enforced from 1978

Antoon A. Leenaars; David Lester

1996-01-01

299

Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

2008-01-01

300

Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

301

Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence

Jordan, Lucinda

2012-01-01

302

Measuring Violence Risk and Outcomes among Mexican American Adolescent Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central to the development of culturally competent violence prevention programs for Hispanic youth is the development of psychometrically sound violence risk and outcome measures for this population. A study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of two commonly used violence measures, in this case for Mexican American adolescent…

Cervantes, Richard C.; Duenas, Norma; Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles

2006-01-01

303

Violence Prevention for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States is recognized as leading the industrialized world in violent death rates. The increase in youth violence is primarily attributable to an increase in the "lethality" and not the "frequency" of violent acts because more crimes are being committed with handguns. This chapter reviews the existing literature on violence prevention…

Murray, Mary E.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Williams, Kirk R.

304

School Violence: Preventative, Restorative, and Educative Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently in many Canadian schools, escalated violence presents an evident threat. Rates of severe youth violence are considerably lower than sensational media coverage would have people believe, but at the same time, many young people, as well as adults, do not feel safe, respected, or constructively engaged as they should be. While schools cannot…

Bickmore, Kathy

2008-01-01

305

Violence Prevention: An Evaluation of Program Effects with Urban African American Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many violence prevention programs have been developed to combat the problems of violence and aggression among youth, few programs have been evaluated. This study examines the impact of a violence prevention program among African American students in two inner-city schools in Chicago. Students in 5th through 8th grade participated in Second Step: A Violence Prevention Program, and completed surveys

Susan D. McMahon; Jason J. Washburn

2003-01-01

306

Pew Interactive Tools: Gun Rights versus Gun Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Research Center has tracked shifting public opinion on gun rights and gun control over the past 20 years. Explore our polling data below to discover how demographics influence public opinion on gun rights and gun control. 

Center, Pew R.

307

The Overlap of Youth Violence Among Aggressive Adolescents with Past-Year Alcohol Use--A Latent Class Analysis: Aggression and Victimization in Peer and Dating Violence in an Inner City Emergency Department Sample  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify overlap and violence types between peer and dating aggression and victimization using latent class analysis (LCA) among a sample of aggressive adolescents with a history of alcohol use and to identify risk and protective factors associated with each violence class. Method: From September 2006 to September 2009, a systematic sample of patients (14–18 years old) seeking care in an urban emergency department were approached. Adolescents reporting any past-year alcohol use and aggression completed a survey using validated measures including types of violence (severe and moderate aggression, severe and moderate victimization with both peers and dating partners). Using LCA, violence classes were identified; correlates of membership in each LCA class were determined. Results: Among this sample (n = 694), LCA identified three classes described as (a) peer aggression (PA) (52.2%), (b) peer aggression + peer victimization (PAPV) (18.6%), and (c) multiple domains of violence (MDV) (29.3%). Compared with those in the PA class, those in the PAPV class were more likely to be male, report injury in a fight, and have delinquent peers. Compared with the PA class, those in the MDV class were more likely to be female, African American, report injury in a fight, carry a weapon, experience negative consequences from alcohol use, and have delinquent peers and more family conflict. Compared with the PAPV class, those in the MDV class were likely to be female, African American, receive public assistance, carry a weapon, experience negative consequences from alcohol use, and use marijuana. Conclusions: There is extensive overlap of victimization and aggression in both peer and dating relationships. Also, those with high rates of violence across relationships have increased alcohol misuse and marijuana use. Thus, violence-prevention efforts should consider addressing concomitant substance use.

Whiteside, Lauren K.; Ranney, Megan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Walton, Maureen A.

2013-01-01

308

School Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention. Why is school violence a public health problem? School associated violent deaths are rare.1 • ... CDC uses a four-step approach to address public health problems like school violence: Step 1: Define the ...

309

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

310

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Violence, Intimate Partner Violence, Violence Against Women, and Sexual Assault National Clearinghouse on Abuse in Later Life Through ... more than 170 languages through interpreter services. National Sexual Assault Hotline 1-800-656-HOPE (4673) When a ...

311

Linking Academics and Social Learning: Perceptions of School Staff to a Violence Prevention Program at an Alternative School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how school staff conceptualize their work with youths in an alternative school for weapon policy offend- ers after having undergone at least one year of a whole-school violence prevention program conducted by the Syracuse University Violence Pre- vention Project. The article examines the intent of school staff, their ideas, perspectives, and language about youths, violence, and schooling,

Ronnie Casella; Joan Burstyn

312

Teen Suicide and Guns  

MedlinePLUS

... Teen Suicide and Guns Health Issues Listen Teen Suicide and Guns Article Body Protect Your Teenager Many ... of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of the ...

313

Pathways to Aggression in Urban Elementary School Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the pathways from violence exposure to aggressive behaviors in urban, elementary school youth. We utilized structural equation modeling to examine putative causal pathways between children's exposure to violence, development of posttraumatic stress symptoms, permissive attitudes towards violence, and engagement in aggressive…

Ozkol, Hivren; Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph

2011-01-01

314

Animal Abuse and Youth Violence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although legal definitions of animal abuse vary, it is a crime in every State, and many States have enacted laws establishing certain forms of cruelty to animals as felony offenses. The forms of abuse to which animals may be subjected are similar to the f...

F. R. Ascione

2001-01-01

315

Violence and Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the most maligned and harassed students in high schools are those who are perceived not to fit the norms for sexual behavior. These include gay and lesbian students, bisexual students, transgendered students, effeminate heterosexual males, and masculine-acting heterosexual females. Together these students are the targets of a wide range of negative behaviors from subtle exclusion to physical assault. In

James Lock

2002-01-01

316

Warning Signs of Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... unchangeable) factors like: A history of violent or aggressive behavior Young age at first violent incident Having ... guilt or worthlessness Poor control over behavior Impulsive, aggressive behavior Drop in quality of school performance or ...

317

Risks among inner-city young teens: the prevalence of sexual activity, violence, drugs, and smoking.  

PubMed

Boston University's Youth at Risk (URISK) program is working to reduce five high-risk behaviors: violence, sexual activity, drinking, illicit drug use, and smoking, among inner-city public middle-school students, grades 6-8. To set program priorities and for subsequent program evaluation, students in four schools completed a self-report questionnaire. Violence (physical fighting or carrying a knife or a gun) and sexual activity were the most commonly reported risks, 54% and 38%, respectively, for such activity within the past year. Four-fifths of the students reported risk in at least one of the five risk categories at some time; two-thirds reported current risk in at least one category. Among those reporting two or more current risks, over 90% included violence, and over 80% included sexual activity. Except for smoking, risk rates were lower in females than in males. Risk rates for violence and drug use were similar among blacks and whites, while sexual activity was more common and drinking and smoking less common among blacks compared with whites. Rates for all high-risk behaviors were consistently lower for Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. Risk rates for violence were similar for grades 6-8. Sexual activity increased mainly from the 7th to the 8th grade. Drinking increased both from the 6th to the 7th grade and again from the 7th to the 8th grade. Drug use and smoking increased only from the 6th to the 7th grade. PMID:8347639

Vanderschmidt, H F; Lang, J M; Knight-Williams, V; Vanderschmidt, G F

1993-06-01

318

Media violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious

Joanne Cantor

2000-01-01

319

Gay Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence, ubiquitous in our society, has both universal and unique manifestations in regards to gay men. Gay men can be victims of the random violence to which all citizens are subject. But they also can be victims of violence specifically related to their sexual orientation (called gay bashing). Domestic violence can occur in gay relationships as well. This two part

Rochelle L. Klinger

1996-01-01

320

Youth and the City Streets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing, rebellion, and drugs. (NB)

Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

1992-01-01

321

Adolescents and media violence: six crucial issues for practitioners.  

PubMed

The mass media are rife with violent images and messages and youth spend a great deal of time with media. A rich tradition of research shows that exposure to media violence leads to aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior, and also to fear and desensitization. Certain youth are more vulnerable to violent media messages and images; the impact of media violence is modified by its nature and context. Parents, teachers, and the media industry should work toward mitigating the effects of media violence on youth; pediatricians and other health care providers play a key role in fostering healthy family media habits. PMID:16111617

Hogan, Marjorie J

2005-06-01

322

Trauma-focused CBT for youth who experience ongoing traumas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will this in some way impair their responding to current or ongoing trauma? The

Judith A. Cohen; Anthony P. Mannarino; Laura K. Murray

2011-01-01

323

Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

2004-01-01

324

Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

2011-01-01

325

Domestic and school violence among high school students in Jamaica.  

PubMed

This study determined the prevalence of domestic and school violence among high school students in Jamaica. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 3124 students (1467 boys and 1657 girls) from 34 randomly selected high schools in 13 of the 14 parishes in Jamaica. There were 1590 tenth graders (mean age 16 years) and 1534 eleventh graders (mean age 17 years). One thousand six hundred and seventeen students were from rural and 1507 from urban communities and 1642 and 1482 were children/wards of professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The results revealed that 78.5% of the students had witnessed violence in their communities, 60.8% in their schools, and 44.7% in their homes. Twenty-nine per cent of the students had caused injury to persons. Several weapons and techniques were used by the students during violent acts and these included the use of hands or feet 59.8%, nasty words 59.1%, kicks and punches 54.5%, blunt objects 26.5%, knives 18.4%, ice picks 9.3%, machetes 8.9%, scissors 8.5%, forks 7.5%, guns 6.9%, other weapons (e.g. bottles, dividers) 6.7%, acids 5.5%, and alkalis 4.9%. Significantly higher numbers of boys, 10th graders, and urban students indicated that they used more of the 14 weapons than girls, 11th graders and rural students, respectively. Effective programmes are urgently needed to address the high rate of violence recorded in this study among high school youths in Jamaica. PMID:11076217

Soyibo, K; Lee, M G

2000-09-01

326

Inhalant Use by Canadian Aboriginal Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study followed youth who received treatment for inhalant abuse. Many came from backgrounds marked by isolation, poverty, family violence, and substance abuse. Average age the youths first used inhalants was 9.72 years. Model predicted those who abused inhalants immediately before admission, were described as unmotivated in treatment, and were…

Coleman, Heather; Charles, Grant; Collins, Jennifer

2001-01-01

327

Survey of SRF guns  

SciTech Connect

Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

Belomestnykh, S.

2011-07-25

328

Can Organized Youth Activities Protect Against Internalizing Problems Among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?  

PubMed Central

Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and white youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during adolescence. We also examined the extent to which participation in organized activities protected youth against the internalizing consequences of domestic violence. We found that intensive participation in either afterschool programs or extracurricular activities was inversely associated with youth internalizing problems. Moreover, we found that intensive participation in afterschool programs weakened the association between parents’ domestic violence and youths’ internalizing problems.

Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

329

The Media Spectacle of ColumbineAlienated Youth as an Object of Fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although youth violence and “delinquency” have frequently generated fear of alienated youth in American life, especially since the 1950s, the media coverage of the Columbine shootings reconstructed youth alienation in novel ways, generating a new fear and reality of “alien” youth. Analysis of both print and television media shows that following Columbine, school shooters have come to stand for an

Benjamin Frymer

2009-01-01

330

School Violence Continues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An expelled student dressed in all black and carrying two guns opened fire at Gutenberg Gymnasium School in the eastern German city of Erfurt Friday morning, killing 17 people before shooting himself. This tragic incident caused the death of two young girls, 14 teachers, a police officer who responded to the scene, and the gunman. According to police chief Manfred Grube, the gunman, armed with a handgun and a pump-action gun, stalked the corridors and rooms of the school around 9 am (GMT), seeking out adults and then gunning them down. Describing the scene as a "picture of horror," Grube said the 19-year-old gunman fled German commandos as they stormed the building, and shot himself in a classroom. A special church service is due to take place this Friday evening. All the city's bells are to be rung, and flags are being flown at half mast.German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said he was "staggered" by the shooting, and cancelled an election campaign planned to begin on Saturday. Approximately 750 students in grades 5-12 are enrolled at the school, which celebrated its 10th anniversary in December. The shooting came just hours before the German Parliament approved a new bill tightening the country's already strict gun control laws. For more information on this tragic shooting, users may access the first two articles. The third article provides information on the gun law recently passed by Germany's Parliament, and the fourth article provides data regarding the Gutenberg Gymnasium School and the city of Erfurt. Articles 5 through 7 all provide chronological listings of other school shootings around the world, and the last site offers risk factors for school violence compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Green, Marcia.

2002-01-01

331

Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of…

Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Padilla, Mark B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

2011-01-01

332

The Impact of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Later Violence and Psychological Distress: A Study of Resilience among a Scottish Youth Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of bullying between age 13 and 16 years on negative outcomes at age 17 years, taking into account various resilience factors at the individual, family, and community level. Using longitudinal data from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, a prospective cohort study of around 4,300 young people in…

McVie, Susan

2014-01-01

333

Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), showing gun mounting pad, wall rings, small niche, and opening to outside - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Battery Adair, Princeton Place, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

334

Carbon nanotube electron gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

335

Electrothermal light gas gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrothermal light gas gun (ELGG) has been developed that has launched 2.0 grams to about 7 km\\/sec, 10 grams to 4.6 km\\/sec, and 17 grams to 3.5 km\\/sec with an efficiency of 32 percent, from a 16 mm reusable steel gun tube. These initial experiments were with a single chamber breech fed launcher. The gun is scalable to large

Derek A. Tidman; Dennis W. Massey

1993-01-01

336

Electrothermal light gas gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrothermal light gas gun (ELGG) has been developed that has launched 2.0 g to about 7 km\\/s, 10 g to 4.6 km\\/s, and 17 g to 3.5 km\\/s with an efficiency of 32% from a 16-mm reusable steel gun tube. These initial experiments were with a single-chamber breech fed launcher. The gun is scalable to large bore sizes and

D. A. Tidman; D. W. Massey

1993-01-01

337

Community Violence Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Children and Adolescents: The Need for Multilevel Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to community violence pervades the lives of many urban American youths. A growing body of research illustrates when and how exposure to neighborhood violence impacts the psychosocial functioning of youths. However, few empirically supported preventative efforts exist to mitigate these effects. The following briefly outlines the state of current intervention efforts, and then summarizes how articles presented in this

Patrick J. Fowler; Jordan M. Braciszewski

2009-01-01

338

Psychopathy and instrumental violence: facet level relationships.  

PubMed

The relationship between psychopathy and violence is well established. However, the extent to which psychopathy is related to different types of violent behavior warrants further study. We examined the relationship between instrumental violence, psychopathy, and psychopathic traits among 248 European American and African American adult male county jail inmates. We assessed instrumentality based on subjective motivations for respondent-identified acts of violence. Psychopathy was assessed using the PCL-R based on interview and file review. We controlled for potentially important covariates, namely IQ and prior violence. Results were in part consistent with findings from studies with adolescents, in that we identified a positive relationship between instrumentality of violence and manipulative interpersonal style. Results differed from youth studies with regard to relationships between instrumentality and other facets of psychopathy. The implications of our study are discussed with regard to treatment and the developmental stability of the relationship between psychopathic traits and instrumental violence. PMID:19663661

Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T; Kosson, David S

2009-08-01

339

Youth Voices Thrive in Facilitating Leadership in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the inner-city of Washington, D.C., lives a generation of young people for whom violence, discrimination, and poverty are a daily reality. This article describes one youth organization that encourages these young people to voice their hopes and concerns for their community and work to create solutions. The out-of-school-time programming of…

Detzler, Mindy Larson; Van Liew, Charise; Dorward, Lisa Granquist; Jenkins, Roneka; Teslicko, David

2007-01-01

340

Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: II. Treatment.  

PubMed

Interventions for youth exposed to family violence recently have incorporated a trauma focus with the objective of reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms along with alleviating other wide-ranging childhood disorders. This paper describes generally agreed-upon treatment components for youth exposed to violence in the home, including re-exposure interventions, education about violence and cognitive restructuring, processing of emotional cues, social problem-solving skills, and parenting interventions. Empirically evaluated treatment programs for different developmental stages (preschool, school-age, and adolescence) are summarized and remaining questions about how to best focus treatment efforts for youth traumatized by family violence are presented. PMID:20104253

Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla

2007-01-01

341

Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: II. Treatment  

PubMed Central

Interventions for youth exposed to family violence recently have incorporated a trauma focus with the objective of reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms along with alleviating other wide-ranging childhood disorders. This paper describes generally agreed-upon treatment components for youth exposed to violence in the home, including re-exposure interventions, education about violence and cognitive restructuring, processing of emotional cues, social problem-solving skills, and parenting interventions. Empirically evaluated treatment programs for different developmental stages (preschool, school-age, and adolescence) are summarized and remaining questions about how to best focus treatment efforts for youth traumatized by family violence are presented.

Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

2010-01-01

342

Dating Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents of Teens Crime, Teens, and Trauma Assault Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual ... Parents of Teens Crime, Teens, and Trauma Assault Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual ...

343

Teen Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young ... death. An important risk factor for violence in teens is the behavior of their friends and classmates. ...

344

75 FR 14596 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Family Violence Prevention...Organizations Program Office: Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF), Family...March 16, 2010 on the Administration for Children and Families' (ACF) Funding...

2010-03-26

345

Violence exposure, sleep disturbance, and poor academic performance in middle school.  

PubMed

Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth. PMID:23315234

Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy

2013-11-01

346

School Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

2006-01-01

347

Rarefaction Wave Gun Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new species of gun propulsion that dramatically reduces recoil momentum imparted to the gun is presented. First conceived by the author on 18 March 1999, the propulsion concept is explained, a methodology for the design of a reasonable apparatus for exp...

E. L. Kathe

2002-01-01

348

Early electric gun research  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been sporadic efforts to use electricity to power guns and launch projectiles at high velocity for more than a century. Each generation seems to have “reinvented” the idea and has built upon prior efforts, leading to successively greater progress. With the present interest in electric guns for military, and other, applications, it is instructive to review previous developments

I. R. McNab

1999-01-01

349

Sidewall core gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for taking core samples from the sidewall of a borehole in a well, the apparatus comprising: a string of drill pipe; at least one gun housing connected to the downhole end of the drill string; at least one coring bullet radially disposed within the gun housing, the coring bullet arranged for securing formation samples from the

E. A. Jr. Colle; D. N. Jr. Yates; E. F. Brieger

1986-01-01

350

Remotely controlled spray gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

Cunningham, William C. (inventor)

1987-01-01

351

Electron Gun Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to develop various cold-cathode electron guns to demonstrate that they have properties suitable for application to e-beam lasers. The plasma cathode electron gun has been the subject of study for the previous periods of th...

W. M. Clark G. J. Dunning

1976-01-01

352

Electron Gun Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to develop various cold-cathode plasma electron guns to demonstrate that they have properties suitable for application to e-beam lasers. The plasma cathode electron gun has been the subject of study for the previous period...

W. M. Clark G. J. Dunning

1976-01-01

353

Electron Gun Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first gun developed was the plasma cathode electron gun. The electron source in this device is a plasma generated within a low-voltage, hollow-cathode discharge; a thermionic emitter is not required. Electrons extracted from the plasma pass through a ...

W. M. Clark G. S. Dunning

1976-01-01

354

Mental Health Service Use among High School Students Exposed to Interpersonal Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Violence-exposed youth rarely receive mental health services, even though exposure increases risk for academic and psychosocial problems. This study examines the association between violence exposure and mental health service contact. The 4 forms of violence exposure were peer, family, sexual, and witnessing. Methods: Data are from…

Green, Jennifer Greif; Johnson, Renee M.; Dunn, Erin C.; Lindsey, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

2014-01-01

355

Community Violence Exposure and Aggression among Urban Adolescents: Testing a Cognitive Mediator Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that exposure to violence leads to aggressive behavior, but few community-based studies have examined theoretical models illustrating the mediating social cognitive processes that explain this relation with youth exposed to high rates of violence. This study examines the impact of community violence on behavior through…

McMahon, Susan D.; Felix, Erika D.; Halpert, Jane A.; Petropoulos, Lara A. N.

2009-01-01

356

Mental Maps: A Tool for Thinking about Community and School Violence. Teaching Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that mental mapping of school and community violence provides a concrete picture of youth perspectives on violence. Presents a lesson plan to help students analyze violence issues and develop community service projects. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and a student handout. (CFR)

Miller, Barbara

1995-01-01

357

Preventing Violence in Schools. Information Capsule. Volume 0906  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on the causes and incidence of youth violence and summarizes violence prevention strategies used in schools across the country. Particular attention is devoted to the use of metal detectors in schools. It would cost an estimated $32.5 million to implement a metal detection program in all of the District's…

Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2009

2009-01-01

358

Preventing School Violence by Building Connectedness: A Local Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School violence in British Columbia (Canada) is directly related to youth alienation and disconnectedness. The Native concept of connectedness or sense of belonging can be a useful guide for assessing the effectiveness of school violence programs. Connectedness, in this context, indicates that humans are part of a seamless web of creation in which…

Ashford, Mary-Wynne

359

Trends, Risks and Interventions in Lethal Violence. Proceedings of the Third Annual Spring Symposium of the Homicide Research Working Group. Held in Atlanta Georgia in July 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Section One: Recent and Long Term Trends in U.S. Homicide; Section Two: International and Regional Violence Patterns; Section Three: High Risk Groups: Violence Against Women; Section Four: High Risk Groups: Youth At Risk of Becoming An Offender;...

C. Block R. Block

1995-01-01

360

Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This yearbook compiles information on research findings on children and youth and media violence, as seen from the perspective of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child. The thematic focus of the yearbook is on the influence of children's exposure to media violence. Section 1 of the yearbook, "Children and Media on the UN…

Carlsson, Ulla, Ed.; von Feilitzen, Cecilia, Ed.

361

Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence on Adolescent Violence and Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the…

Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.

2011-01-01

362

Does Parenting Mediate the Effects of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior? An Ecological-Transactional Model of Community Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three waves of longitudinal data from a high poverty sample of 1544 African American youth were used to test an ecological-transactional model of violence. SEM analyses were conducted to determine whether parenting (Time 2) mediated the effects of exposure to violence (Time 1) on violent behaviors (Time 3). Findings supported the specified model.…

Spano, Richard; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Bolland, John

2009-01-01

363

An economic analysis of guns, crime, and gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is posited in which guns are demanded for recreation, self-protection, or criminal purposes, and in which crime is supplied. Crime rates influence guns demanded for self-protection, and guns demanded by criminals depend upon guns held by law-abiding citizens. Comparative static analysis was used to investigate the effects of crime and gun control policies, including laws that permit citizens

John F. McDonald

1999-01-01

364

Witnessing violence among high school students in Thailand.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to explore the levels of witnessing violence among Thai youths and to examine whether a Western model of witnessing violence that relates to personal and family characteristics, peer relationships, own violence, violence in the family, violence in the school, and in the community, is appropriate for the Thai reality. The random sample consisted of 2,897 youths: 1,107 (38.2%) males and 1,722 (59.4%) females. Results indicated that witnessing violence rates among the Thai youths are high, but in general, quite similar to those reported in the west. The most frequently witnessed violent act was hitting and punching in school. Peer characteristics and their advice were the most related factor to witnessing violence followed by own violence activities, violence in the family, and the surrounding subsystems, supporting the similarities of the Thai reality to the Western one. No significant differences were indicated between the rural and inner-city settings. The results were interpreted in light of the cultural characteristics of Thailand. PMID:23486753

Sherer, Penchan; Sherer, Moshe

2014-05-01

365

Street Soldiers: Violence Prevention over the Airwaves, a Phenomenon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-tiered approach that the Omega Boys Club of San Francisco uses to help stop violence among inner-city youth. Essential steps of the plan are to provide appropriate information through effective communication channels, to show youth alternative ways of living that allow them to release their negative behavior, and to teach them…

Marshall, Joseph E., Jr.

1995-01-01

366

Violence Prevention Among African American Adolescent Males  

PubMed Central

Objective To test psychosocial mediators of the effects of an intervention in reducing the rate of growth of violence among adolescents. Method Five hundred and seventy-one African American adolescent males participated in this randomized trial. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to ascertain both intervention and mediated effects. Results Intervention significantly reduced rate of growth of violence and 5 social and psychological factors in the treatment group relative to the control group. Four of these social and psychological factors were found to be complete mediators between the intervention and its preventive effects. Conclusion Changing psychological mediating variables is central to reducing youth violence.

Ngwe, Job E.; Liu, Li C.; Flay, Brian R.; Segawa, Eisuke

2009-01-01

367

Benefits of a Hospital-Based Peer Intervention Program for Violently Injured Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exposure to violence predisposes youths to future violent behavior. Breaking the cycle of violence in inner cities is the primary objective of hospital-based violence intervention and prevention programs. An evaluation was undertaken to determine if a hospital-based, peer intervention program, \\

Daniel Shibru; Elaine Zahnd; Marla Becker; Nic Bekaert; Gregory P Victorino

2007-01-01

368

High velocity gas gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

1988-10-01

369

Liquid Propellant Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a liquid propellant gun featuring concentric propellant pump, valve and bolt. Forward movement of the bolt causes forward movement of the propellant pump by interconnection of ball detents. The valve is forced open by dif...

J. W. Holtrop

1976-01-01

370

Liquid Propellant Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a method whereby an injection system is provided for a liquid propellant gun including coaxial flow valves, giving complete mixing of two propellant components by covergent streams. Ullage is eliminated by closely contour...

B. Bartels J. W. Holtrop L. L. Liedtke R. T. Trovinger

1975-01-01

371

High Velocity Gas Gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

1988-01-01

372

The challenge of gun control for mental health advocates.  

PubMed

Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence. PMID:24042247

Pandya, Anand

2013-09-01

373

Family violence.  

PubMed

Family violence occurs in many forms; the most prominent are domestic violence, child abuse, and elder abuse. Family violence affects many persons at some point in their life and constitutes the majority of violent acts in our society. Although there has been considerable study of the patterns, risk factors, and interventions for each form of family violence, great controversy still exists within each area. There is growing recognition of an overlap in the patterns, causes, and effective interventions across types of family violence. There is also an increasing awareness of the value of greater integration of theory and research across areas into a family violence approach through an ecological perspective. This review focuses on current knowledge related to these problems and suggests integrative steps to advance knowledge. PMID:16318607

Tolan, Patrick; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David

2006-01-01

374

Examining How Neighborhood Disadvantage Influences Trajectories of Adolescent Violence: A Look at Social Bonding and Psychological Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To understand how neighborhoods influence the development of youth violence, we investigated intrapersonal mediators of the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and youth violence trajectories between ages 11 and 18. The hypothesized mediators included indicators of social bonding (belief in conventional values, involvement…

Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.

2011-01-01

375

Firearm Retailers' Willingness to Participate in an Illegal Gun Purchase  

PubMed Central

Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or “straw” purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99–21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun’s use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9489-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

2010-01-01

376

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... recovery from mental illness. Children exposed to domestic violence are at risk for developmental problems, psychiatric disorders, school difficulties, aggressive behavior, and low self-esteem. These ...

377

Aggression and Violence in the United States: Reflections on the Virginia Tech Shootings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggression and violence in the United States remain vexing problems that require several key responses. First, universal prevention programs and targeted treatment strategies for people at risk of aggressive behavior are needed to address the established link between mental illness and the potential for violence. Sadly, many perpetrators of gun

Jenson, Jeffrey M.

2007-01-01

378

Spinal Cord Injury as a Permanent Consequence of Victimization in Random Violence: A Public Health Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traumatic spinal cord injuries resulting from criminal violence is a growing public health concern. Citing the criminal justice system's failure to reduce violence and the costs of treating injuries, a public health-education approach is advocated. Approaches to prevention, gun control, and a comprehensive family policy are discussed. (Author/EMK)

Anderson, James F.; Dyson, Laronistine; Grandison, Terry

1998-01-01

379

The Effectiveness of Policies and Programs that Attempt to Reduce Firearm Violence: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to rising rates of firearms violence that peaked in the mid-1990s, a wide range of policy interventions have been developed in an attempt to reduce violent crimes committed with firearms. Although some of these approaches appear to be effective at reducing gun violence, methodological variations make comparing effects across program…

Makarios, Matthew D.; Pratt, Travis C.

2012-01-01

380

Shooting rampages, mental health, and the sensationalization of violence  

PubMed Central

Gun violence and, most recently, senseless shooting rampages continue to be sensitive and emotional points of debate in the American media and the political establishment. The United Nations is already set to commence discussing and approving its Small Arms Treaty in March 2013. And following the Newtown, Connecticut tragedy in the United States this past December, American legislators are working frantically to pass more stringent gun control laws in the U.S. Congress. The American media and proponents of gun control assert that the problem lies in the “easy availability of guns” and “too many guns” in the hand of the public. Second Amendment and gun rights advocates, on the other hand, believe the problem lies elsewhere, including a permissive criminal justice system that panders to criminals; the failure of public education; the fostering of a culture of dependence, violence, and alienation engendered by the welfare state; and the increased secularization of society with children and adolescents growing up devoid of moral guidance. I cannot disagree with the latter view, but I believe there are additional, contributing, and more proximate causes — e.g., failures of the mental health system and the role of the media and popular culture in the sensationalization of violence — that also need to be specifically pointed out and discussed in the medical literature, as I have set out to do in this review article.

Faria, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

381

Clinical Issues in the Treatment of Chicano Male Gang Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of gang violence poses a significant threat to the mental health of Chicano children. Although there has been considerable media attention given to the increase in gang violence, the mental health literature is sparse with clinical information on the assessment and treatment of Chicano gang-involved youth. The sparsity of information has been related to public apathy toward these

Jerald Belitz; Diana Valdez

1994-01-01

382

What Canadian Youth Tell Us about Disclosing Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To report findings from a study of anonymous disclosures of abuse experiences among a national sample of youth in Canada who participated in violence prevention programming. Methods: A qualitative analysis was done of a purposeful sample of 1,099 evaluation forms completed following Red Cross RespectED violence prevention programming…

Ungar, Michael; Tutty, Leslie M.; McConnell, Sheri; Barter, Ken; Fairholm, Judi

2009-01-01

383

Youth Helping Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the evaluation of a suburban hotline. Among its foci is the interrelationship between the growth and development of a core group of youthful phone aides and that of the organization as a whole. (Author/AM)

Gordon, James S.

1976-01-01

384

Youth justice and health: An argument against proposed changes to the Youth Criminal Justice Act  

PubMed Central

The Canadian Paediatric Society is deeply concerned about the negative effects on the developmental, psychological and emotional health of young offenders if the Youth Criminal Justice Act is amended as proposed. Changing Canada’s youth crime law to achieve stiffer sentences for youth 14 years of age and older who are convicted of serious violent offences is contrary to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Treating adolescents as adults puts them at serious health and human rights risks – including trauma, violence and abuse – and interferes with their overall development. Furthermore, rates of mental illness are higher among youth in custody. Youth should only serve their sentence in a facility that is exclusively limited to youth, and considers the rights of youth as well as their mental, physical, developmental and educational needs.

Elliott, April S; Katzman, Debra K

2011-01-01

385

Electromagnetic configurations of rail guns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some problems associated with the electromagnetic acceleration of macrobodies in a rail gun are examined. An approach to the design of rail gun configurations is proposed, and some basic rail gun schemes are synthesized. The alternative rail gun schemes are compared in terms of electrode potential and stability of the electrode gap with respect to parasitic current shunting. The effect of the ohmic resistance of the electrodes and of the additional magnetization field on the spatial structure of the discharge in the rail gun channel is discussed. A classification of rail gun modifications is presented.

Fat'yanov, O. V.; Ostashev, V. E.; Lopyrev, A. N.; Ul'Yanov, A. V.

1993-06-01

386

Assessing and Managing Violence Risk in Juveniles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highly practical and accessible, this is an indispensable resource for any mental health practitioner working with adolescents at risk for violent behavior. Presented is a comprehensive framework for evaluating justice-involved youth or those whose behavior in school, therapy sessions, or other contexts raises concern about violence. Detailed case…

Borum, Randy; Verhaagen, David

2006-01-01

387

Dating Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

Stader, David L.

2011-01-01

388

YA Radar: Youth Experts Screen the Teen Climate at the Dawn of 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses results of a survey of youth experts who work with or for teens in libraries, schools, and other areas to determine the most important issues affecting youth. Highlights include intellectual freedom; information access; reading; literacy; social issues, including youth violence; teen culture, including Internet chat; education issues;…

MacRae, Cathi Dunn

2000-01-01

389

Reactions to Dating Violence among Latino Teenagers: An Experiment Utilizing the Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence is a serious problem among adolescents and young adults. Understanding teens' reactions to dating violence offers the potential to understand the factors that lead to perpetration of violent behavior and to elucidate prevention strategies. Knowledge concerning youth attitudes about dating violence is limited, and has largely come…

Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Jaycox, Lisa H.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Zander-Cotugno, Megan; Marshall, Grant N.; Shelley, Gene A.

2007-01-01

390

The Clustering of Risk Behaviors Among Caribbean Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relationships among risk behaviors for Caribbean youth; and to determine the correlations between initiation of sexual activity and other risk behaviors. Methods: The associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol and marijuana use, early initiation of sexual intercourse, involvement in violence and delinquency were examined using odds ratios on data from the Caribbean Youth Health Survey (n =

Sally-Ann Ohene; Marjorie Ireland; Robert Wm Blum

2005-01-01

391

Hip Hop Is Now: An Evolving Youth Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging from Rap music, Hip Hop has become a lifestyle to many modern youth around the world. Embodying both creativity and controversy, Hip Hop mirrors the values, violence, and hypocrisy of modern culture. The authors dispel some of the simplistic views that surround this evolving youth movement embraced by millions of young people who are…

Taylor, Carl; Taylor, Virgil

2007-01-01

392

Imaging's insights into human violence.  

PubMed

Following every well-publicized act of incomprehensible violence, the news media rush to interview neighbors, family members, and experts in an attempt to discover what could have led an individual to commit such a barbarous act. Certain stock answers are reiterated: video games, bullying, violent films, mental illness, the availability of guns, and a society that is increasingly both anonymous and callous. Might imaging be one of the more valuable keys to unlocking the mysteries of violent, aggressive people? This article explores these questions and their complex answers in the context of violent individuals. PMID:24614436

Church, Elizabeth J

2014-01-01

393

Keeping Every Child Safe: Curbing the Epidemic of Violence. Joint Hearing Examining the Impact of Violence on Children before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate, and the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families of the House of Representatives. One Hundred Third Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents testimony regarding the impact of violence on children. The opening statement of Senator Dodd discusses the exposure of American children to violence and notes the Senator's introduction of the "Child and Family Services and Law Enforcement Partnership Act," an act proposed to provide children exposed to violence with…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

394

Erosion in Large Gun Barrels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The erosion of gun tubes is a very complex interdisciplinary problem involving several branches of engineering and science. Several mechanisms are responsible for this limitation to gun tube life, some of which are of thermal origin, some are mechanical a...

1975-01-01

395

The World's Youth 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the Population Reference Bureau (see the November 17, 1998 Scout Report for the Social Sciences) provides data and analysis on the world's youth. The report includes data on "population, education, and health, with a special focus on sexual and reproductive health." The topics covered in this report include "education, sexual and reproductive lives of young people, use of contraception, sexual violence against young women, HIV/AIDS, and policy and program approaches." The text of the report is presented in .pdf format, and the data tables may be viewed in either HTML or .pdf format. Individual topics are also accessible using a sidebar menu.

2001-01-01

396

Electromagnetic targeting of guns  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) signals produced from explosives being fired have been reported in the literature for fifty years. When a gun is fired it produces an EMP muzzle blast signal. The strength and nature of these signals was first analyzed in the early 1970s, while the results were interesting, no follow-up studies were conducted. With modern detection and signal processing technology, we believe that these signals could be used to instantaneously locate guns of virtually all calibers as they fire. The objective of our one-year project was to establish the basic nature of these signals and their utility in the concept of electromagnetic targeting of guns.

Pogue, E.W.; Boat, R.M.; Holden, D.N.; Lopez, J.R. [and others

1996-10-01

397

Gun storage device  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A storage device provides for the secure storage of a gun in a vehicle, includes a rectangular base plate and a box-like cover having a rectangular top and sidewalls that form a chamber for storing a gun. The sidewalls enclose a rectangular area that corresponds substantially to the area of the base plate so that the cover forms a close fit around the base plate, which has a planar central portion joined to and surrounded by upwardly bent elongated edge portions. The base plate and cover each include an aperture, each slightly offset from a center point of the base plate central portion and top cover, respectively, but in vertical alignment with each other and with an aperture formed by the trigger guard of a gun stored in the device. The storage device also includes a rotatable pin that is sized to pass through the apertures in the base plate and cover and through the trigger guard of a gun stored in the device. At its plate end, the pin is provided with a base large enough to prevent its passage through the aperture in the plate. The pin is inserted in the plate aperture and extends through the trigger guard of a gun in the storage chamber and through the aperture in the cover. At its cover end, the pin has a transverse bore that accommodates the shank of a portable lock. Locking the lock in the bore of the pin after it has passed through the plate aperture, trigger guard, and cover aperture secures the gun within the storage device.

2000-07-04

398

Developing a trauma-informed, emergency department-based intervention for victims of urban violence.  

PubMed

The Surgeon General's report on youth violence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other national organizations are calling for public health approaches to the issue of youth violence. Hospital-based violence intervention programs have shown promise in reducing recurrent violence and decreasing future involvement in the criminal justice system. These programs seldom address trauma-related symptoms. We describe a conceptual framework for emergency department-based and hospital-based violence intervention programs that intentionally addresses trauma. The intervention described--Healing Hurt People--is a trauma-informed program designed to intervene in the lives of injured patients at the life-changing moment of violent injury. This community-focused program seeks to reduce recurrent violence among 8- to 30-year-olds through opportunities for healing and connection. Healing Hurt People considers the adversity that patients have experienced during their lives and seeks to break the cycle of violence by addressing this trauma. PMID:21967178

Corbin, Theodore J; Rich, John A; Bloom, Sandra L; Delgado, Dionne; Rich, Linda J; Wilson, Ann S

2011-01-01

399

Unbalanced field RF electron gun  

DOEpatents

A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

Hofler, Alicia

2013-11-12

400

Gun Cultures or Honor Cultures? Explaining Regional and Race Differences in Weapon Carrying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…

Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe

2010-01-01

401

Violent Media, Guns and Moral Panics: The Columbine High School Massacre, 20 April 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on 20 April 1999, and the initial media response, in some kind of historical perspective. In attempting to interpret what happened, a hierarchy of causation (presuppositions, preconditions, predpitants and triggers) is adopted. Moral panic assumptions that media violence or the availability of guns are the immediate

John Springhall

1999-01-01

402

Violent Media, Guns and Moral Panics: The Columbine High School Massacre, 20 April 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in a historical perspective. Describes the shootings in Littleton and the high school shootings since 1996. Interprets the possible reasons for the Columbine shootings, such as the role of the high school, access to guns, and violence in the mass media. (CMK)

Springhall, John

1999-01-01

403

Public Opinion and Gun Control: A Comparison of Results From Two Recent National Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares results from two recent national surveys of public opinion on gun control and related weapons-policy issues. One survey was commissioned by the National Rifle Association, the other by the Center for the Study and Prevention of Handgun Violence. Despite the vastly different outlooks of the two sponsoring organizations, the results from both surveys are nearly identical everywhere

James D. Wright

1981-01-01

404

Hot Hollow Cathode Gun Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on th...

J. D. Zeren

1983-01-01

405

Hot hollow cathode gun assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly is disclosed. The device includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, J. D.

1983-11-01

406

Glue Guns: Aiming for Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While glue guns are very useful, there are safety issues. Regardless of the temperature setting, glue guns can burn skin. The teacher should demonstrate and supervise the use of glue guns and have a plan should a student get burned. There should be an initial first aid protocol in place, followed by a visit to the school nurse. An accident report…

Roy, Ken

2010-01-01

407

Domestic violence.  

PubMed

Essential facts Domestic violence and abuse includes physical abuse, threats, emotional abuse, sexual assault or stalking. According to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), each year at least 1.2 million women and 784,000 men experience domestic violence and abuse in England and Wales, with one in three women and nearly one in five men experiencing it at some point in their lives. Both women and men can experience this type of abuse and violence in heterosexual and same-sex relationships. PMID:24712604

2014-04-01

408

Youth Gangs and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have begun to document the changing organizational forms of youth gangs in the United States. The emergence\\/re-emergence of these gangs, often accompanied by increased violence and involvement in drug use and\\/or trafficking, poses major public policy issues. However, little empirical research has been conducted on this subject, and very few studies have been based on interviews with gang

C. Ronald Huff

1989-01-01

409

Gun Dealers, USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, more than 11,500 adolescents' and young adults' lives are taken each year by firearms. Although Federal law prohibits minors from purchasing handguns, they typically get them by asking someone of legal age (18 years or older) to purchase them from one of the 256,771 Federally licensed gun dealers. This pamphlet answers…

Duker, Laurie; And Others

410

Rarefaction Wave Gun Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RArefaction waVE guN (RAVEN) propulsion constitutes a novel means to dramatically reduce the recoil momentum and heat imparted to future cannons during firing. The method may be considered a hybrid propulsion technology with features common to both closed...

E. Kathe R. Dillon S. Sopok M. Witherell S. Dunn

2001-01-01

411

RF Gun optimization study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development

A. Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko; M. Krasilnikov

2007-01-01

412

Magnetron injection gun scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design

W. Lawson

1988-01-01

413

Smart Gun Technology Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort had two objectives. The first objective was to document the current status of technologies that may be applicable to the development of a 'smart gun.' Sandia reviewed the technologies identified in the 1996 report as well as new ideas that are...

J. W. Wirsbinski

2001-01-01

414

The Rail Gun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…

Stewart, Gay B.

1996-01-01

415

Rail Gun Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Rail Gun Model simulates a rail gun created by running current through long rods generating a magnetic field that accelerates a current-carrying cross-rod. The simulation shows the generated magnetic field. Users can adjust the current in the rails and rod as well as the spacing between the rails. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Rail Gun model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_RailGun.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Cox, Anne

2009-09-18

416

Media violence.  

PubMed

American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials. PMID:9568012

Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

1998-04-01

417

Workplace Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Ways of preventing or diffusing volatile situations or aggressive behavior, conflict resolution. The dynamics of violence. How to recognize and deal with hostile aggressive persons, nonviolent responses. Managing anger. Techniques and skills ...

418

The Relationship between Adolescents' Experience of Family Violence and Dating Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether experiences of familial victimization and aggression are potential risk factors for dating violence in male and female teenage relationships. The authors compare 471 adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the care of a youth protection agency and from a community sample. Results show that adolescents carry negative childhood…

Laporte, Lise; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra J.; Chamberland, Claire

2011-01-01

419

Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

2010-01-01

420

America, guns, and freedom. Part I: A recapitulation of liberty  

PubMed Central

The role of gun violence and street crime in the United States and the world is currently a subject of great debate among national and international organizations, including the United Nations. Because the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the individual right of American citizens to own private firearms, availability of firearms is greater in the U.S. than the rest of the world, except perhaps in Israel and Switzerland. Indeed, although the American people continue to purchase and possess more firearms, homicides and violent crimes have continued to diminish for several decades because guns in the hands of the law-abiding citizens does not translate into more crime. As neurosurgeons, we can be compassionate and still be honest and have the moral courage to pursue the truth and find viable solutions through the use of sound, scholarly research in the area of guns and violence. We have an obligation to reach our conclusions based on objective data and scientific information rather than on ideology, emotionalism or partisan politics.

Faria, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

421

Youth and Parental Attitudes toward Fighting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…

Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.

2008-01-01

422

ODDJP's Tribal Youth Initiatives: Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The violent crime rate among American Indians is twice that of the United States as a whole. Tribal communities are also beset by high rates of domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, alcohol abuse, and gang involvement. Given such factors, it is not surprising that tribal youth are exposed to multiple risk factors for delinquency. Indeed,…

McKinney, Kay

423

Trends in the Prevalence of Behaviors That Contribute to Violence on School Property  

MedlinePLUS

... Prevalence of Behaviors that Contribute to Violence on School Property National YRBS: 1991–2011 The national Youth ... from 2009–2011 2 Carried a weapon on school property on at least 1 day (for example, ...

424

The polarized SRF gun experiment.  

SciTech Connect

RF electron guns are capable of producing electron bunches with high brightness, which outperform DC electron guns and may even be able to provide electron beams for the ILC without the need for a damping ring. However, all successful existing guns for polarized electrons are DC guns because the environment inside an RF gun is hostile to the GaAs cathode material necessary for polarization. While the typical vacuum pressure in a DC gun is better than 10{sup -11} torr the vacuum in an RF gun is in the order of 10{sup -9} torr. Experiments at BINP Novosibirsk show that this leads to strong ion back-bombardment and generation of dark currents, which destroy the GaAs cathode in a short time. The situation might be much more favorable in a (super-conducting) SRF gun. The cryogenic pumping of the gun cavity walls may make it possible to maintain a vacuum close to 10{sup -12} torr, solving the problem of ion bombardment and dark currents. Of concern would be contamination of the gun cavity by evaporating cathode material. This report describes an experiment that Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in collaboration with Advanced Energy Systems (AES) is conducting to answer these questions.

Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Grover, R.; Todd, R.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

2007-09-10

425

Developing alternative masculinities as a strategy to address gender-based violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishThis article discusses research using focus groups and personal interviews with rural male youth on gender-based violence. The findings revealed that many of the youth considered relationship violence acceptable, but the article highlights the fluid, multiple and contextual nature of masculinity that surfaced. The significance of these alternative responses for interventions is emphasized.FrenchCet article commente une recherche menée au moyen

Reshma Sathiparsad

2008-01-01

426

Violence among children and adolescents and the role of the pediatrician.  

PubMed

Violence has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and has become the single most important public health problem affecting adolescent males. It is believed that violence and its subsequent morbidity and mortality have a multifactorial origin, including developmental factors, gang involvement, access to firearms, drugs, the media, poverty, and family violence. Pediatricians have a critical role in reducing violence through early identification of family violence, education and counseling to decrease well-known risk factors, and provision of nonviolent problem-solving and coping strategies to children, youth, and their families. It is essential that we initiate preventive measures now rather than be paralyzed by the weight of the crisis. PMID:7581314

Dukarm, C P; Holl, J L; McAnarney, E R

1995-01-01

427

RF Gun Optimization Study  

SciTech Connect

Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

2007-07-03

428

Friction in rail guns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

Kay, P. K.

1984-01-01

429

Experimental Studies of Coaxial Plasma Gun Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation of a coaxial plasma gun, plasma sheath currents and related behavior are examined. Plasma behavior in the gun affects gun characteristics. Plasma gun applications are determined by the plasma behavior. The AFWL PUFF capacitor bank (72 mu F, 29 nH, 120 kV) drives the plasma gun using a deuterium fill gas. The gas breakdown site is isolated

David Wayne Price

1988-01-01

430

Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

1997-01-01

431

America, guns and freedom: Part II - An international perspective.  

PubMed

The need for reducing gun violence is discussed along with the necessity for citizens to assume some responsibility for protecting themselves, their families, and their property from criminal elements because the police cannot physically be everywhere to protect us all of the time. The problem of sensationalization of gun crimes by the media, multiple shootings by deranged individuals, accidents with firearms, suicide rates, and children with guns are discussed.The relationship of civilian disarmament in the context of tyrannical governments and genocide are also explored. Incidents in which liberty has been extinguished because firearms have been banned and citizens have been disarmed by increasingly oppressive governments, and the converse, countries where freedom has been preserved by armed citizens are also described. We conclude that guns in the hands of law-abiding citizens deter crimes, and nations that trust their citizens with firearms have governments that sustain liberty and affirm individual freedom. Governments that do not trust their citizens with firearms tend to be despotic and tyrannical, and are a potential danger to good citizens - and a peril to humanity. PMID:23227440

Faria, Miguel A

2012-01-01

432

People and guns involved in denied and completed handgun sales  

PubMed Central

Objective: Denial of handgun purchases by prohibited people and knowledge of the structure of gun commerce have helped to deter and prevent firearm violence. The authors hypothesize that handguns involved in a denied purchase would more closely resemble those used in crime compared with handguns sold. Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Denied and completed handgun sales in California, 1998–2000. Main outcome measures: Handgun and purchaser characteristics of denied and completed sales were compared. In particular, handgun characteristics most closely associated with crime guns (type, caliber, barrel length, price) were examined. Results: Compared with handguns sold, handguns in denied sales were somewhat more likely to be semiautomatic pistols (74.6% v 69.4%), to have short barrels (25.9% v 22.2%), and be of medium caliber (48.9% v 37.3%). Ten percent of the handguns in denied sales and 3.4% of handguns sold were identified as inexpensive. Conclusions: The characteristics of denied handguns are similar to those seen among crime guns. Both groups of guns may reflect the desirability for criminal purposes of pistols, which have larger ammunition capacities than other handguns, and short barrels, which increase their ability to be concealed.

Wright, M; Wintemute, G; Claire, B

2005-01-01

433

Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?  

PubMed

Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths. PMID:24156172

Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

2013-09-01

434

America, guns and freedom: Part II -- An international perspective  

PubMed Central

The need for reducing gun violence is discussed along with the necessity for citizens to assume some responsibility for protecting themselves, their families, and their property from criminal elements because the police cannot physically be everywhere to protect us all of the time. The problem of sensationalization of gun crimes by the media, multiple shootings by deranged individuals, accidents with firearms, suicide rates, and children with guns are discussed. The relationship of civilian disarmament in the context of tyrannical governments and genocide are also explored. Incidents in which liberty has been extinguished because firearms have been banned and citizens have been disarmed by increasingly oppressive governments, and the converse, countries where freedom has been preserved by armed citizens are also described. We conclude that guns in the hands of law-abiding citizens deter crimes, and nations that trust their citizens with firearms have governments that sustain liberty and affirm individual freedom. Governments that do not trust their citizens with firearms tend to be despotic and tyrannical, and are a potential danger to good citizens — and a peril to humanity.

Faria, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

435

Intimate Partner Violence Intervention through the Lens of Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intimate Partner Violence Intervention through the Lens of Culture Caroline Campbell, LSW & Zujeil Flores, BA \\u000aBiographical Sketch: Caroline Campbell is a licensed social worker who currently oversees the Women’s Wellness Department at Congreso de Latinos Unidos, Inc.. In this role, she oversees all domestic violence counseling services for the adult and youth program. Prior to her role as Manager,

Campbell Caroline LSW; Flores Zujeil BA

2012-01-01

436

The effects of exposure to violence and victimization across life domains on adolescent substance use.  

PubMed

This study uses longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effects of exposure to school violence, community violence, child abuse, and parental intimate partner violence (IPV) on youths' subsequent alcohol and marijuana use. We also examine the cumulative effects of being exposed to violence across these domains. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1,655 adolescents and their primary caregivers participating in the PHDCN. The effects of adolescents' exposure to various forms of violence across different life domains were examined relative to adolescents' frequency of alcohol and marijuana use three years later. Multivariate statistical models were employed to control for a range of child, parent, and family risk factors. Exposure to violence in a one-year period increased the frequency of substance use three years later, though the specific relationships between victimization and use varied for alcohol and marijuana use. Community violence and child abuse, but not school violence or exposure to IPV, were predictive of future marijuana use. None of the independent measures of exposure to violence significantly predicted future alcohol use. Finally, the accumulation of exposure to violence across life domains was detrimental to both future alcohol and marijuana use. The findings support prior research indicating that exposure to multiple forms of violence, across multiple domains of life, negatively impacts adolescent outcomes, including substance use. The findings also suggest that the context in which exposure to violence occurs should be considered in future research, since the more domains in which youth are exposed to violence, the fewer "safe havens" they have available. Finally, a better understanding of the types of violence youth encounter and the contexts in which these experiences occur can help inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing victimization and its negative consequences. PMID:23743232

Wright, Emily M; Fagan, Abigail A; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

2013-11-01

437

The Developmental Dynamics of Aggression and the Prevention of School Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors consider school violence from a dynamic systems conceptualization of aggression. This perspective suggests that aggression and school violence involve the contributions of both school social dynamics and the developmental histories of youth who are at risk for involvement in antisocial behavior. The authors present the concept of…

Farmer, Thomas W.; Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.; Estell, David B.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

2007-01-01

438

Putting Research into Practice in School Violence Prevention and Intervention: How Is School Counseling Doing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…

McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon

2011-01-01

439

The Role of Social Work in the Context of Social Disintegration and Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence and the violence discourse are very similar from country to country: focus on youth, preponderance of males among perpetrators and victims, disproportionate involvement of migrants and indigenous people, greater prevalence with socioeconomic disadvantage and low education, and the impact of underlying factors such as political…

Moller, Kurt

2008-01-01

440

The role of sports for violence prevention: sport club participation and violent behaviour among adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth involvement in conflict and violence is a frequent problem in Germany as well as in many European countries. The European Commission's White Paper on Sport presumes that sport participation might be of help in preventing adolescents from delinquency and violence. It further claims that social norms inherent in the world of sport (e.g. fair play, team spirit) might foster

Michael Mutz; Jürgen Baur

2009-01-01

441

Strengthening the Collaboration between Public Health and Criminal Justice to Prevent Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades in the United States, I, public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers have charted new territory by increasingly using public health strategies to understand and prevent youth violence, which has traditionally been considered a criminal justice problem. The utilization of public health approaches has generated several contributions to the understanding and prevention of violence, including

Deborah Prothrow-Stith

2004-01-01

442

Ten-Year Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization?among?US?Adolescent?Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The study provides 10-year trend data on the psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence (PDV) victimization among females who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of US high school students between 1999 and 2009. Methods: The dependent variable was PDV. Independent variables included 4 dimensions: violence,…

Howard, Donna E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Wang, Min Q.

2013-01-01

443

The Longitudinal Association of Adolescent Dating Violence with Psychiatric Disorders and Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the prevalence, correlates and mental health impacts of intimate partner violence are well documented in adolescents and young adults, fewer studies have considered physical dating violence among clinical samples of help-seeking young people. In a sample of 98 young people aged 15-24 years (54% females) referred to a specialist public youth

Brown, Adrienne; Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Killackey, Eoin; Purcell, Rosemary; Buckby, Joe; Yung, Alison R.

2009-01-01

444

Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

445

The Evaluation of School-Based Violence Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Youth violence and related aggressive behaviors have become serious public health issues with physical, economic, social, and psychological impacts and consequences. This study identified and evaluated the characteristics of successful school-based violence prevention programs. Methods: Twenty-six randomized controlled trial (RCT),…

Park-Higgerson, Hyoun-Kyoung; Perumean-Chaney, Suzanne E.; Bartolucci, Alfred A.; Grimley, Diane M.; Singh, Karan P.

2008-01-01

446

Teen Perceptions of Dating Violence, Help-Seeking, and the Role of Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From April 2007 to June 2008, focus groups with 41 Washington, DC youth, ages 11 to 19, were conducted by Break the Cycle. One group consisted of eight self-identified sexual minority teens. Participants were asked questions exploring their opinions on the prevalence of dating violence among teens, dating violence dynamics, seeking or providing…

Gallopin, Colleen; Leigh, Laila

2009-01-01

447

Street youth and AIDS.  

PubMed

An attempt is made to characterize the population of homeless street youth who are living marginally and to describe aspects of this population's dynamics, motivations, values, and aspirations. Street youth, ranging in age from birth to 21, are on the street for one reason or another--dire poverty in the home, which necessitates their working on the street to supplement the family income, because they have been rejected by parents or guardians, because they have left home due to violence in the home, drug or alcohol use by family members, or because of lack of a place where they feel they can be "themselves." These conditions make street youths particularly vulnerable to HIV infection, not to mention malnutrition, stress, and drug use. Their violently accelerated emotional maturation, ignorance, alcohol- and drug-induced confusion, together with the exploitation and sexual abuse of which they are often victims, are additional factors that contribute to sexual practices that may lead to HIV infection. PMID:1389867

Bond, L S; Mazin, R; Jiminez, M V

1992-01-01

448

Right-wing extremist violence among adolescents in Germany.  

PubMed

What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And although it is emphasized that approval of and willingness to use violence do not automatically lead to actual acts of violence, this article suggests that the existence of these convictions in society helps to legitimize attitudes that become expressed in violence, in particular among youths.This article presents a five-stage process model that portrays the underlying preconditions for acts of right-wing extremist violence, the contexts in which such violence takes place, and the factors that cause it to escalate. This structural model is used to outline central empirical findings of recent German quantitative and especially qualitative studies about right-wing extremist violent offenders. For analytical reasons, the basic elements of the process model (socialization, organization, legitimation, interaction, and escalation) are treated separately. The authors also examine right-wing extremist violence from a disintegrative perspective. Given that intersubjective recognition is an existential human need, right-wing extremist violence is understood as a "productive" way of dealing with individual recognition deficits. On the basis of the integration dimensions of social disintegration theory, three fundamental recognition needs are distinguished. Right-wing extremist violence can best be explained as a consequence of recognition deficits in all three central integration dimensions. PMID:18855328

Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

2008-01-01

449

Trends in Children's Exposure to Violence, 2003 to 2011.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE The study suggests that years of public policy designed to reduce the burden of violence and victimization among youths is having some success. OBJECTIVE To identify trends in children's exposure to violence, crime, and abuse from 2003 through 2011. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Three national telephone surveys of representative samples of children and caregivers from 2003, 2008, and 2011 were compared, all obtained using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire; samples included parents of children 2 to 9 years old and youth 10 to 17 years old. EXPOSURES Direct and indirect experiences of violence, abuse, and victimization during the previous year. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Change in rates between 2003 and 2011 and between 2008 and 2011. RESULTS Of 50 trends in exposure examined, there were 27 significant declines and no significant increases between 2003 and 2011. Declines were particularly large for assault victimization, bullying, and sexual victimization. There were also significant declines in the perpetration of violence and property crime. For the recession period between 2008 and 2011, there were 11 significant declines and no increases for 50 specific trends examined. Dating violence declined, as did one form of sexual victimization and some forms of indirect exposure. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Victimization surveys with general population samples confirm patterns seen in police data and adult surveys. Crime and violence have been declining in the child and youth population as well. PMID:24781431

Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather A; Hamby, Sherry L

2014-06-01

450

Understanding and Predicting Gun Barrel Erosion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Australian Defence Force will soon have to contend with gun barrel erosion issues arising from the use of new low-vulnerability gun propellants, the acquisition of new ammunition and gun systems, and possible modifications to existing propelling charg...

I. A. Johnston

2005-01-01

451

The Impact of Family and Peer Protective Factors on Girls' Violence Perpetration and Victimization  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigates whether family and peer connections and prosocial norms buffer adolescent girls’ violence involvement, and whether a youth development intervention augments the power of these protective factors in reducing girls’ risk for violence. Methods Data were obtained from 253 13–17 year-olds enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of Prime Time, a youth development intervention offered through urban clinic settings to girls at high risk for pregnancy. Participants completed an A-CASI survey at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following enrollment. Protective factors included scales assessing family and peer connections and prosocial norms. Outcome variables were violence victimization and perpetration scales measured at 18 months. Results Family connections and prosocial norms independently protected girls against violence involvement. Peer prosocial norms also served as a protective buffer against violence perpetration and victimization; however, girls with strong peer connections had higher levels of violence perpetration. Participation in Prime Time augmented the protective effects of family and peer connections on girls’ violence victimization but not perpetration. Prime Time participants who had high levels of family connections reported the lowest levels of violence victimization at 18 months. Prime Time participants with strong peer connections trended toward lower levels of violence victimization than other girls. Conclusions Results suggest that effects of the Prime Time intervention on violence victimization were optimized among high-risk adolescent girls with strong connections to family and peers. The intervention was most potent in preventing violence victimization among girls with strong prosocial connections to family and peers.

Shlafer, Rebecca J.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Gower, Amy L.

2012-01-01

452

Student Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses student violence within the framework of causes, issues, and false and true solutions. The author decries the abdication of responsibilities by both college administrators, who have permitted students to "do their thing," and leftwing students, who crusade thoughtlessly against educational institutions. Some true solutions…

Bloomberg, Edward

453

Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quarterly publication, issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), contains articles dealing with family violence and alcohol abuse, children of alcoholic parents, training programs for counselors, and confidentiality of client records. The three articles on alcohol abuse suggest that: (1) there is a clear…

Sorgen, Carol, Ed.

1979-01-01

454

Qualitative Lessons from a Community-Based Violence Prevention Project with Null Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Handgun Violence Prevention Project (YHVPP) was conducted in the Denver Metropolitan Area from July 1999 to June 2002. Several factors associated with youth attitudes and behaviors regarding handguns were identified and verified empirically. Interventions were designed to modify these factors and to evaluate their effectiveness in…

Williams, Kirk R.; Mattson, Sabrina Arredondo

2006-01-01

455

Is sexual violence associated with symptoms of depression and suicide attempts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual assault, depression, and suicide are all very serious issues among youth today. This study sought to quantify the association between sexual violence, symptoms of depression, and suicide attempts through the use of 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data. The YRBS is a nationally representative dataset of United States high school students, grades 9-12. It was hypothesized that sexual

MeLisa Creamer

2010-01-01

456

The Perceptions of Cross Cultural Student Violence in an Urban School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While America fights an international war on terrorism a greater war looms in our own backyard. Poverty, the lack of resources and a failing educational system continues to strangle our urban youth. Violence between youth in urban schools perplexes our society everyday. Within this context lie the ever growing confrontation between black and…

Pearson, Darryl Xavier

2010-01-01

457

Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

2007-01-01

458

Parenting Control in Contexts of Political Violence: Testing Bi-directional Relations between Violence Exposure and Control in Post-Accord Belfast  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective The goal of the present study is to examine bi-directional relations between youth exposure to sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behavior and mothers’ efforts to control youth’s exposure to community violence in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Design Mother-child dyads (N=773) were interviewed in their homes twice over 2 years regarding youth’s exposure to sectarian (SAB) and nonsectarian (NAB) community antisocial behavior and mothers’ use of control strategies, including behavioral and psychological control. Results Youth’s exposure to NAB was related to increases in mothers’ use of both behavioral and psychological control strategies over time, controlling for earlier levels of these constructs. Reflecting bi-directional relations, mothers’ behavioral control strategies were associated with youth’s reduced exposure to both NAB and SAB over time, whereas psychological control was not related to reduced exposure. Conclusion Only nonsectarian community violence was associated longitudinally with mothers’ increased use of control strategies, and only behavioral control strategies were effective in reducing youth’s exposure to community antisocial behavior, including both sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behavior.

Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

2012-01-01

459

Liquid gun propellant stimulation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

To increase a yield of a hydrocarbon such as oil from a subsurface reserv, the reservoir is stimulated by pumping liquid gun propellant (LP) into the reservoir and igniting the LP. The LP is pumped into a packed-off region in a cased well; the depth of the packed-off region is selected to lie within the reservoir. The ignition of the LP causes a pressurization of the reservoir, thus fracturing the reservoir. The fracture increases a surface area through which the hydrocarbon can be extracted, and the heat from the ignition reduces the viscosity of the hydrocarbon.

2000-08-08

460

The reconnection gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electromagnetic launcher called the reconnection gun is introduced. Its potential performance is shown to be superior to that of a modern railgun for projectiles with mass greater than a few hundred grams. It has a 'characteristic velocity' which is an order of magnitude lower for much lower energy loss to ohmic heating. Also, it has several advantages for producing higher acceleration including; no barrel, no drop in acceleration with increase in projectile mass, higher peak pressure on the projectile and smaller differences between average and peak pressure. Experimental results and plans for high-performance, multi-stage designs are briefly discussed.

Cowan, M.; Cnare, E. C.; Duggin, B. W.; Kaye, R. J.; Tucker, T. J.

1986-11-01

461

Resonant optical gun.  

PubMed

We propose a concept of a structure-a resonant optical gun-to realize an efficient propulsion of dielectric microparticles by light forces. The structure is based on a waveguide in which a reversal of the electromagnetic momentum flow of the incident mode is realized by exciting a whispering gallery resonance in the microparticle. The propelling force can reach the value up to the theoretical maximum of twice the momentum flow of the initial wave. The force density oscillates along the particle periphery and has very large amplitude. PMID:24784113

Maslov, A V; Bakunov, M I

2014-05-01

462

Youth Count: The Vermont Youth Report, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the well-being of Vermont's youth. The report balances at-risk youth data with survey results related to "positive youth development," an approach that promotes beneficial attributes of youth and their communities. Following an introduction and discussion of positive youth development and youth well-being…

Farber, Wendy; Burgess, Beth

463

Predicting Gang Fight Participation in a General Youth Sample via the HEW Youth Development Model's Community Program Impact Scales, Age, and Sex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accurate prediction of violence has been in the spotlight of critical concern in recent years. To investigate the relative predictive power of peer pressure, youth perceived negative labeling, youth perceived access to educational and occupational roles, social alienation, self-esteem, sex, and age with regard to gang fight participation…

Truckenmiller, James L.

464

Gas injected washer plasma gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plasma gun similar in geometry to the washer plasma gun has been operated with gas injected externally. Hydrogen, nitrogen and argon plasmas have been ionised and accelerated to velocities of the order of 107 mm s-1 and densities 1011 mm-3. Higher parameter range is possible with higher electrical input power.

K. K. Jain; P. I. John; A. M. Punithavelu; P. P. Rao

1980-01-01

465

Victim as Offender in Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To determine how often adolescent and young adult victims of assaultive injury are offenders in assaults and other crimes.Design: Comparison of 10- to 24-year-old males treated in the accident and emergency department for assault-related injuries to similar-aged males treated in the same department for unintentional injuries. Police records were searched on both groups for warnings or convictions. Setting:

Frederick P Rivara; JP Shepherd; DP Farrington; PW Richmond

1995-01-01

466

The Jamaican adolescent's perspective on violence and its effects.  

PubMed

The Caribbean and in particular Jamaica is experiencing an epidemic of violence which adversely affects its youth who are the main perpetrators and victims. Early and protracted exposure to violence is part of the socialization experience that results in violence-related behaviours. This paper examines the impact of the early and sustained exposure to violence on the attitudes and behaviours of Jamaican adolescents from their perspective. An analysis of qualitative data collected from three studies between 2005 and 2009 among adolescents across Jamaica was conducted using the recurrent theme approach. Exposure to violence was common and increased with age and lower socioeconomic status and was most marked among marginalized inner city youth. While attitudes and behaviours in response to the violence varied among adolescents, there was a "dose response effect" in relation to age and lower social status. It is necessary to alter the socialization process in order to break the cycle of violence through wide ranging interventions that touch on every aspect of the spheres of influence in the life of Jamaican adolescents. PMID:21942121

Bailey, A

2011-03-01

467

Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: I. Overview and Issues  

PubMed Central

Exposure to child physical abuse and parents’ domestic violence can subject youth to pervasive traumatic stress and lead to Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The often repeating and ongoing nature of family violence exposure may result in youth exhibiting problems in multiple domains of functioning and meeting criteria for multiple disorders in addition to PTSD. These characteristics as well as unique factors related to children’s developmental level and symptom presentation complicate a PTSD diagnosis. This paper describes evolving conceptualizations in the burgeoning field of trauma related to family violence exposure, and reviews considerations that inform assessment and treatment planning for this population.

Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.

2010-01-01

468

Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: I. Overview and Issues.  

PubMed

Exposure to child physical abuse and parents' domestic violence can subject youth to pervasive traumatic stress and lead to Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The often repeating and ongoing nature of family violence exposure may result in youth exhibiting problems in multiple domains of functioning and meeting criteria for multiple disorders in addition to PTSD. These characteristics as well as unique factors related to children's developmental level and symptom presentation complicate a PTSD diagnosis. This paper describes evolving conceptualizations in the burgeoning field of trauma related to family violence exposure, and reviews considerations that inform assessment and treatment planning for this population. PMID:20107623

Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A

2007-12-01

469

Boys' and Young Men's Perspectives on Violence in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The challenge of violence for youth in low-income countries includes a range of experiences from witnessing to experiencing to participating in violence. Although boys and young men are often the perpetrators of such violence, they may also be its victims. Yet little evidence exists from the voiced experiences of boys themselves on perceptions and interpretations of the violence around them. Given the numerous negative health implications of violence for boys, for the girls and other boys with whom they interact, and for the health of their future partners and families, we conducted an in-depth study in rural and urban Tanzania with adolescent boys on the masculinity norms shaping their transitions through puberty that might be contributing to high-risk behaviours, including engagement in violence. The findings identified underlying societal gendered norms influencing the enactment of violence, and recommendations from the boys on how to diminish the violence around them. Additional research is needed with boys on the social norms and structural factors influencing their engagement in violence.

Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia

2013-01-01

470

Impact Of Pediatricians’ Perceived Self-Efficacy and Confidence on Violence Prevention Counseling: A National Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To measure impact of pediatricians’ perceived self-efficacy and confidence on current practices and attitudes regarding four\\u000a violence prevention (VP) topics (gun storage, gun removal, limiting exposure to media violence, discipline techniques) during\\u000a health supervision for children ages 2–11.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Random sample survey of American Academy of Pediatrics Fellows (n = 486; 53% response rate) providing health supervision for children ages 2–11. Participants surveyed

Stacia A. Finch; Victoria Weiley; Edward H. Ip; Shari Barkin

2008-01-01

471

Investigating the Link Between Gun Possession and Gun Assault  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated the possible relationship between being shot in an assault and possession of a gun at the time. Methods. We enrolled 677 case participants that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based control participants within Philadelphia, PA, from 2003 to 2006. We adjusted odds ratios for confounding variables. Results. After adjustment, individuals in possession of a gun were 4.46 (P < .05) times more likely to be shot in an assault than those not in possession. Among gun assaults where the victim had at least some chance to resist, this adjusted odds ratio increased to 5.45 (P < .05). Conclusions. On average, guns did not protect those who possessed them from being shot in an assault. Although successful defensive gun uses occur each year, the probability of success may be low for civilian gun users in urban areas. Such users should reconsider their possession of guns or, at least, understand that regular possession necessitates careful safety countermeasures.

Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

2009-01-01

472

Towards a Conceptual Model Linking Community Violence Exposure to HIV-Related Risk Behaviors among Adolescents: Directions for Research  

PubMed Central

Purpose To present a conceptual framework which accounts for the relationship between community violence exposures and youth HIV risk behaviors. Methods This article provides an overview of existing research on the links between community violence exposure and HIV risk for youth and offers a conceptual framework for clarifying how community violence exposure might contribute to HIV sexual risk. Results Increasing empirical findings substantiate that the links between community violence exposure and HIV risk behaviors among youth are mediated by psychological problem behaviors, low school success and negative peer influences. Conclusions Researchers have identified the behaviors that place teens at risk for becoming infected with HIV. However, most scholars have overlooked the potential importance of community violence exposure in influencing such behaviors. This paper presents new directions for adolescent research and HIV interventions based on an integrated conceptual framework.

Voisin, Dexter R.; Jenkins, Esther J.; Takahashi, Lois

2012-01-01

473

Celebrating Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists the four young people cited as exceptional youth by President Ronald Reagan on September 9, 1988, during Youth 2000 Week. Cited were Andrea Taylor of Kansas City, Missouri, Peggy Lee Rogers of Denver, Colorado, Annette Pino of Pueblo, Colorado, and Ed Lucero, a student at Colorado State University. (SKC)

Children Today, 1988

1988-01-01

474

Empowering Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gulf of Maine Institute (GOMI) is striving to empower youth to take on stewardship roles in their communities. Through its Community Based Initiative (CBI) program, GOMI addresses environmental degradation by working with teams of students, teachers, and community members from around the Gulf of Maine to inspire youth to be stewards of the…

Miner, Jennifer; Elshof, Leo; Redden, Anna; Terry, John

2004-01-01

475

Political Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Political violence in its various forms seems to have been with us throughout much of human history. In recent times, however,\\u000a it has become a primary mode of political address in an increasing number of global contexts. Whether it is the two World\\u000a Wars, the assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler, or numerous assassination attempts made on the life of Cuban

J. Angelo Corlett

476

Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at

Donald A. Rabern; Robert Valdiviez

2012-01-01

477

Underwater Weapon System Having a Rotatable Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses an underwater weapon system having a rotating gun system mounted in a vehicle housing. The gun system includes a gun and ammunition sealed within a waterproof housing with the gun muzzle protruding from the housing. The g...

T. J. Gieseke

2003-01-01

478

Air gun test evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A mechanical shock testing apparatus is used for testing the response of components subject to large accelerations in hostile environments. The test acceleration is provided by the impact of a bullet against a plate on which the component to be tested is mounted. This report describes a series of experiments that were performed to determine the dependence of the air gun test apparatus performance on incremental changes in the hardware configurations, changes in the pressure used to drive the bullet, and different accelerometers. The effect of variation of these experimental factors on the measured acceleration was determined using a Taguchi screening experimental design. Experimental settings were determined that can be used to operate the tester with a measured output within acceleration specifications.

Carleton, J.J. II; Fox, L.; Rudy, C.R.

1992-01-15

479

Procedures for preventing juvenile violence in Switzerland: the Zurich model.  

PubMed

The Swiss legal system places strong emphasis on risk assessment and treatment of potentially violent offenders. Especially after the 2001 Zug massacre, there is close cooperation between the judicial and mental health systems to prevent violence through early detection and intervention. A case study of a risk management program for a dangerous seventeen-year-old delinquent youth illustrates this approach. PMID:21491574

Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Urbaniok, Frank; Laubacher, Arja; Pierce, Christine Schnyder; Moskvitin, Konstantin

2011-01-01

480

Identifying and Intervening with Girls at Risk for Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence has become a prominent national concern, largely focused on boys who have perpetrated highly publicized massacres. Less well-publicized is the rapid increase in arrests of girls for violent crimes and weapons violations. In just 2 decades, violent crime arrests for female juveniles increased by 108%. From research findings, a…

Thomas, Sandra P.

2003-01-01

481

Identifying and intervening with girls at risk for violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence has become a prominent national concern, largely focused on boys who have perpetrated highly publicized massacres. Less well-publicized is the rapid increase in arrests of girls for violent crimes and weapons violations. In just 2 decades, violent crime arrests for female juveniles increased by 108%. From research findings, a composite portrait of the violent girl can be drawn.

Sandra P. Thomas

2003-01-01

482

Narrating Neighborhood: Denying Young Women's Public Voices about Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a youth-centered activist project with a group of young women in Brooklyn, NY, and the controversy surrounding it. In 1999 the young women created a neighborhood mural with anti-violence themes. Within 6 months of the mural's dedication, the mural was whitewashed by the corporate owner of the mural wall. Using content and…

Bertram, Corrine C.

2008-01-01

483

A Study of a Violence Prevention Program in Prekindergarten Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prevention programs in schools are one response to youth, community, and family violence. Many of these programs target older children and adolescents. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the preschool curriculum of the Peacemakers program, which was developed by a consortium of social service agencies for implementation in schools. This…

Allen, Susan F.

2009-01-01

484

Peer violence perpetration among urban adolescents: dispelling the myth of the violent immigrant.  

PubMed

Researchers have found an inverse relationship between immigrant status and violence perpetration. Most studies have examined Mexican immigrants, and few have assessed immigration factors other than nativity. Additionally, the majority have focused on the most serious forms of violence despite the fact that moderate violence is more common. Using data from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, we generated prevalence estimates of peer violence perpetration across immigration related factors, examined whether risk factors for peer violence differed by these variables, and explored the contribution of risk factors to peer violence perpetration. Recent immigrants had a significantly lower prevalence of peer violence compared to each other generations/time in U.S. group. Known risk factors for violence perpetration varied by generation/time in U.S.: compared to other groups, recent immigrants were less likely to have used substances, and were more likely earn A's and B's in school. Recent immigrants had a significantly lower risk of violence perpetration relative to U.S.-born (RR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.62). Adjusting for known risk factors did not attenuate differences in risk. While immigrant youth had a lower risk of peer violence, the protective effect was diminished among immigrants who had resided in the U.S. for >4 years. This pattern demonstrates that negative assimilation occurs within the first generation, not just across generations. Results suggest that perpetration of violence worsens with increased time in the U.S. Research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the acquisition of behaviors such as violence among recently arrived immigrant youth. PMID:21156691

Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M; McNamara, Mariah; Gupta, Jhumka

2011-09-01

485

Exclusion, Civic Invisibility and Impunity as Explanations for Youth Murders in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a sociological analysis, this study of youth murders in Brazil focuses on victim-generating sociostructural situations and the social creation of victims. Rather than concentrating on individuals' predispositions or overt motives for murdering Brazilian youth, or on the victims' specific alleged misbehaviors and threats, or some generalized `culture of violence', we identify the particular conditions that transform particular kinds of

MARTHA K. HUGGINS; MYRIAM MESQUITA P. DE CASTRO

1996-01-01

486

Empowering Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: Lessons Learned From a Safe Schools Summit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools is a significant problem in the United States. This study examined responses of youth participants at a statewide Safe Schools Summit to a survey of their experiences with school-based violence, harassment, and discrimination, and of the effects of their attendance at the Summit. Quantitative analyses found that 92%

Shelley L. Craig; Edmon W. Tucker; Eric F. Wagner

2008-01-01

487

Community Disorder, Victimization Exposure, and Mental Health in a National Sample of Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study considers whether elevated distress among youth living in more disordered neighborhoods can be explained by personal exposure to violence and victimization, level of non-victimization adversity, and family support. Analyses were based on a sample of 2,039 youth ages 10 to 17 who participated in the National Survey of Children's Exposure…

Turner, Heather A.; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David

2013-01-01

488

Aboriginal Youth and Violent Gang Involvement in Canada: Quality Prevention Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an epidemic of Aboriginal youth gang violence in some parts of Canada today, and young Aboriginal gang members are killing each other and committing suicide at rates that exceed those of any other group in Canada. This paper provides an overview of the current situation, and describes five major pathways to violent gang involvement for Aboriginal youth. It

Mark Totten

489

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry

490

Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

491

Measuring Risk and Protection in Communities Using the Communities that Care Youth Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Communities That Care Youth Survey measures risk and protective factors shown in prior studies to predict adolescent problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence. This paper describes the development and validation of cut points for the risk and protective factor scales in the Communities That Care Youth Survey that…

Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Brooke-Weiss, Blair L.; Catalano, Richard F.

2007-01-01

492

Assessing the Implementation and Effects of a Trauma-Focused Intervention for Youths in Residential Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods being used to implement and assess the effects of a trauma-focused intervention in residential treatment programs for youths with emotional and behavioral problems, and histories of maltreatment and exposure to family or community violence. Preliminary baseline profiles of the therapeutic environments and youths are also presented. The intervention, referred to as the Sanctuary Model® (Bloom, 1997),

Jeanne C. Rivard; Sandra L. Bloom; Robert Abramovitz; Lina E. Pasquale; Mariama Duncan; David McCorkle; Andrew Gelman

2003-01-01

493

Translating Research into Practice: Trans Youth Recommendations for Improving School Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trans youth are considered one of the most marginalized and oppressed populations. Many experience transphobia and violence based on their gender identity and expression. This qualitative study describes the school experiences of 24 trans youth in Philadelphia and presents their recommendations for school administrators and educators. To…

Sausa, Lydia A.

2005-01-01

494

Reduction of Gun Erosion and Correlation of Gun Erosion Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gun barrel erosion is serious problem with two-stage light gas guns. Excessive barrel erosion can lead to poor or failed launches and frequent barrel changes, with the corresponding down time. Also, excessive barrel erosion can limit the maximum velocity obtainable by loading down the hydrogen working gas with eroded barrel material. Guided by a CFD code, the operating conditions of the Ames 0.5-inch gun were modified to reduce barrel erosion. The changes implemented included: (1) reduction in the piston mass, powder mass and hydrogen fill pressure; and (2) reduction in pump tube volume, while maintaining hydrogen mass. The latter change was found, in particular, to greatly reduce barrel erosion. For muzzle velocity ranges of 6.1 - 6.9 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 10. Even for the higher muzzle velocity range of 7.0 - 8.2 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 4. Gun erosion data from the Ames 0.5-inch, 1.0-inch, and 1.5-inch guns operated over a wide variety of launch conditions was examined and it was found that this data could be correlated using four different parameters: normalized powder charge energy, normalized hydrogen energy density, normalized pump tube volume and barrel diameter. The development of the correlation and the steps used to collapse the experimental data are presented. Over a certain parameter range in the correlation developed, the barrel erosion per shot is found to increase very rapidly. The correlation should prove useful in the selection of gun operating conditions and the design of new guns. Representative shapes of eroded gun barrels are also presented.

Bogdanoff, Dave; Wercinski, Paul (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

495

The sustained impact of adolescent violence histories on early adulthood outcomes  

PubMed Central

A history of victimization and violence perpetration are well-established risk factors that hamper positive development in early adulthood, yet their separate and overlapping effects are rarely examined simultaneously, confounding understanding of their relative impacts. This study follows a diverse sample of at-risk adolescents (N=570) into early adulthood, comparing roles and resources, stress and distress, and maladaptive behaviors for those with a history of no violence, victimization only, perpetration only, and both perpetration and victimization. Results demonstrate four distinctive profiles, although all violence-exposed youth report more problems in the three assessed domains relative to those with no violence histories. Implications for intervention are discussed.

Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A.

2013-01-01

496

Automatic Light Gas Gun Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work was continued toward the development of an automatic hypervelocity weapon based on the principles and techniques of the laboratory light gas gun. With the basic feasibility of the firing scheme established by the preceding work phase, effort was aime...

1964-01-01

497

Automatic Light Gas Gun Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic feasibility of a hypervelocity weapon concept, evolved from the operating principles and techniques of the light gas gun, was experimentally investigated. Initial efforts were directed toward the preliminary design and experimental proof of the ...

1964-01-01

498

Rotary Bolt Liquid Propellant Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a liquid propellant gun loading, propellant injection and firing mechanism characterized by a rotating breech block having a generally spherical contour. The breech block is intermittently rotated to and locked in sequent...

G. L. Petersen J. W. Holtrop

1977-01-01

499

The Polarized SRF Gun Experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is under way to prove the feasibility of a super-conducting RF gun for the production of polarized electrons. We report on the progress of the experiment and on simulations predicting the possibility of success.

Kewisch, Joerg; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Rao, Triveni; Burrill, Andrew; Pate, David; Wang Erdong; Todd, Rob [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Bluem, Hans; Holmes, Doug; Schultheiss, Tom [Advanced Energy Systems, Medford, NY (United States)

2009-08-04

500

"School Violence" as a Social Problem: Charting the Rise of the Problem and the Emerging Specialist Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, violence taking place in schools has entered both popular and academic discourse. Frequently, the term "school violence" is used as a catch-all concept to refer to disorder and disruption in schools, as well as the unruliness of contemporary youth. This is apparent not only in the North American context, but in highly…

Brown, Jane; Munn, Pamela

2008-01-01