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1

Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

1996-01-01

2

Guns, Gangs, and Gossip: An Analysis of Student Essays on Youth Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is an important public health problem, but few researchers have studied violence from youth's perspectives. Middle school students' essays about the causes of youth violence were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. The causes of violence identified by students were categorized into individual, peer, family, and…

Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Wong, Naima; Tarver, Darian; Rabiah, Deana; White, Sharrice

2004-01-01

3

Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

2012-01-01

4

Youth Violence: Lessons from the Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph summarizes what is known about youth and violence, identifying 10 myths that confound people's understanding of the real causes of youth violence. It focuses on: what contributes to youth violence (e.g., children exposed to domestic violence are at risk of using violence, children and adolescents use guns when they are easily…

Rinehart, P. Mann; Borowsky, I.; Stolz, A.; Latts, E.; Cart, C. U.; Brindis, C. D.

5

Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

Slovak, Karen

2002-01-01

6

Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

7

Strong Neighborhood Bonds, Less Gun Violence?  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Strong Neighborhood Bonds, Less Gun Violence? Participation of community members is essential, researchers ... tie people together can protect neighborhood residents from gun violence, a new study suggests. Researchers at the ...

8

Stopping the Violence: Creating Safe Passages for Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence has reached explosive levels in California. California youth have become both victim and aggressor. Between 1988 and 1991, youth homicide rates almost doubled. During the 1988-1989 school year, schools officials reported 69,191 student-to-student assaults and confiscated 5,107 knives and guns. State and federal legislation has…

Brown, Wanda; DeLapp, Lynn

9

Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

Howell, James C.

10

Implementation and Evaluation of a Youth Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…

Regan, Mary Elana

2009-01-01

11

The Real Costs of Gun Violence  

SciTech Connect

I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the form of higher taxes and waiting to go through the airport security checks. But that's just the beginning. The extraordinary reductions in lethal violence that occurred during the 1990s help account for rising property values and urban renewal; further reductions are possible and would do still more to enhance the average standard of living. This talk will explain why the economic perspective provides a fresh, useful point of view on violence, and will discuss the technique used to arrive at an estimate of the magnitude of the burden.

Cook, Philip J. (Duke University) [Duke University

2001-03-14

12

Youth Homicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young Americans are killed with guns at rates far higher than young people in other countries and than older Americans, with young, urban African-American males being most at risk. This fact sheet presents data on gun-related homicides among teenagers in the United States. The high rate of youth homicide in the United States is unique in the…

Duker, Laurie, Ed.

13

Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

14

Youth Violence: Prediction and Prevention. Facts You Can Use. Seeds of Help.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The escalation of youth violence is one of the major public health concerns of the United States. Many factors today make juveniles more likely to commit, or to become victims of, violent acts. Drugs, the availability of guns, and the emergence of gang problems in all regions of the country are among the causes of youth violence. Prevention of…

Facts You Can Use--Seeds of Help, 1997

1997-01-01

15

Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative: 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Treasury Department's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) recently placed this October, 1998 report online. The report examines the illegal youth firearms market in 27 different communities, based on the results of crime gun traces conducted by the ATF. Part I of the report summarizes the general findings and describes gun tracing efforts and new initiatives by local law enforcement agencies. Part II of the report contains uniform statistical reports for each of the 27 jurisdictions covered, including number and type of guns recovered, crime types associated with recovered firearms, and source states for traced crime guns. Users may download the entire report, the table of contents, highlights, or individual city reports in .pdf format. Additional resources at the site include information briefs on firearms, youth crime, and the core areas of the ATF's mission.

1998-01-01

16

Violence Exposure and Teen Dating Violence Among African American Youth.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. PMID:25287413

Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

2014-10-01

17

Saving Youth from Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly one million adolescents between the ages of 12 and 19 are victims of violent crimes each year, and this has been true since at least 1985. Children are becoming involved in violence at ever younger ages, both as victims and as perpetrators. The threat of firearms is the greatest concern in adolescent violence, but no single factor can be…

Hechinger, Fred M.

1994-01-01

18

Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

2005-01-01

19

Youth Violence National and State Statistics at a Glance  

MedlinePLUS

... Social Media Publications Youth Violence National and State Statistics at a Glance Share Compartir  Youth violence ... which youth are safe from violence.  National Statistics State Statistics References Centers for Disease Control and ...

20

Taking Aim at Gun Violence: Rebuilding Community Education & Employment Pathways  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In January 2013, President Obama released a plan for protecting children and communities by reducing gun violence. This plan has generated serious debate from both sides of the issue. The ensuing conversations about how to solve the issue of gun violence have been volatile. The President's plan includes reforms to close loopholes on background…

Bryant, Rhonda

2013-01-01

21

Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

2014-01-01

22

Youth Violence: Facts at a Glance  

MedlinePLUS

... American Indians and Alaska Natives. 1 Health Disparities School Violence Violence-related Behaviors In a 2011 nationally-representative ... being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property one or more times in the 12 months preceding the ... Youth Violence National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division ...

23

Youth Violence as Adaptation? Introduction to the Special Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces the special issue of the journal on the topic of youth violence as adaptation to community violence. Contrary to the predominant perspective that youth violence is a sign of dysfunction or maladaptation, the articles collected here consider whether some youth violence may have positively adaptive consequences in the face of…

Swisher, Raymond R.; Latzman, Robert D.

2008-01-01

24

National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the White House Council on Youth Violence, the National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center is a collaboration between the Council, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other federal agencies. The Resource Center Website is offered as a portal to federal information on youth violence prevention and suicide. The heart of the site is a sizable collection of annotated links, organized alphabetically by topic. The site also explores a number of "Hot Topics," such as Youth Suicide, After School Programs, and Intimate Partner and Family Violence, with background and overviews, publications, and annotated links. Additional content includes a teens-only section, links to related organizations, and an internal search engine.

25

Prosocial coping by youth exposed to violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exposure to violence encourages youth to cope with challenges via a mixture of asocial, depressive and antisocial,\\u000a aggressive tactics rather than prosocially in ways that benefit self without harming others. Youth exposed to violence are,\\u000a therefore, not only at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but also for externalizing and internalizing behavior\\u000a problems, school dropout, teen pregnancy, substance

Elaine A. Blechman; Jean E. Dumas; Ronald J. Prinz

1994-01-01

26

Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth.  

PubMed

Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. PMID:25477459

Heller, Sara B

2014-12-01

27

Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

2008-01-01

28

Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers\\u000a and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have\\u000a employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences\\u000a on youth violence such as family

Christopher J. Ferguson

2011-01-01

29

Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

2009-01-01

30

American Youth Violence: Implications for National Juvenile Justice Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the perception of increasing youth violence is based on fiction rather than fact. Provides the facts involved in the juvenile justice policy focusing on the differences between juvenile and adult violence, youth violence trends, population trends, and three legal policy issues toward adolescent violence. Offers juvenile crime…

Zimring, Franklin E.

2000-01-01

31

Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…

Ferguson, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

32

Youth Perceptions of Their School Violence Risks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to gauge youth perceptions of school violence, this study links two perceptual bias literatures: third-person perception and optimistic bias. The intersection of the two literatures may be especially beneficial in understanding how adolescents process and interpret public health messages and subsequently engage in risk behaviors or…

Chapin, John

2008-01-01

33

Youth Violence in Harrison County, Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence plagues school communities and has traumatic effects on students, families, and communities (Affonso, Mayberry, Shibuya, Archambeau, Correa, Deliramich, & Frueh, 2010). Even though the rate of crime has declined, children have continued to increase the rates of violent acts (Funk, Elliot, Bechtoldt, Pasold, & Tsavoussis, 2003). Today, violent behaviors are being exhibited at an earlier age than ever

Ashley Rushing

2012-01-01

34

THE LINGUISTIC CONSTRUCTION OF YOUTH GANG VIOLENCE  

E-print Network

THE LINGUISTIC CONSTRUCTION OF YOUTH GANG VIOLENCE: TALK ABOUT THE MARA SALVATRUCHA AND THE MARA 18 OF EL SALVADOR AND GUATEMALA MARCH 4TH 12-1PM Wean Hall Conference Room 4625 Lunch talk with Prof during that period, reveal a diversity of stances and ideological positions on gang membership

Andrews, Peter B.

35

Youth Violence in Middle America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most of the national concern about violence has focused on major cities, no community is free from violence. Violent acts in suburbs, small towns, and rural areas may not be as severe as in urban areas, yet they exist. The Profiles of Student Life survey of 47,000 students in grades 6-12 included questions about violent behavior. The…

Benson, Peter L.; Roehlkepartain, Eugene

1992-01-01

36

African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence.  

PubMed Central

This study examined African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence. Through a mall intercept type study, 347 adults, ages 20 to 75, responded to a 54-item questionnaire. One third of the respondents claimed they owned one or more types of guns, three fourths had personally known someone who had been shot, more than one third had actually seen someone shot, and one third had a gun pulled on them. While the vast majority (84%) believed guns are too easy to obtain, the majority (62%) also believed that having a gun at home would help protect them. There were no significant differences in perceptions of guns based on age, gender, level of education, or socioeconomic status. The results of this study tend to substantiate the concern and fear of personal harm that African Americans have to contend with on a regular basis. The results also suggest the need for some form of educational intervention and gun safety training in order to help reduce the risk of death and injury among African Americans. PMID:8078079

Price, J. H.; Kandakai, T. L.; Casler, S.; Everett, S.; Smith, D.

1994-01-01

37

Warning Signs of Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... alcohol or drugs Increased risk-taking behavior Declining school performance Acute episode of major mental illness Planning how to commit acts of violence Announcing threats or plans for hurting others Obtaining ...

38

Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-occurrence, and Context  

PubMed Central

With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This paper examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth aggression, father-to-youth aggression, and community violence. A community-based sample of 103 parents and youth provided three waves of data at annual intervals beginning when the youth were aged 9–10. We explored stability of exposure, co-occurrence across different types of violence exposure, and associations with co-occurring risk factors. Approximately 30–45% of youth reported intermittent exposure over the 3 years. In addition to overlap among types of violence exposure within the family, we found overlap between parent-to-youth aggression and community violence, an association that was exacerbated in families where fathers reported high levels of global distress symptoms. Mother-to-youth, father-to-youth, and community violence related to youth behavior problems beyond the contextual risk factors of low income, stressful life events, and parents’ global distress symptoms. These results highlight the importance of examining violence longitudinally, across multiple types, and with attention to contextual factors. PMID:19238543

Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

2009-01-01

39

Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.  

PubMed

The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth. PMID:21161351

Ferguson, Christopher J

2011-04-01

40

Reducing Gun Violence: Results from an Intervention in East Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one solve violent crime in big cities? It's a vexing problem, and one that attracted the attention of a group of scholars at the RAND Corporation. This 82-page eBook released in 2010 takes a close look at how the Boston Gun Project might work if applied in East Los Angeles. In Boston, a coalition of researchers, community leaders, clergy, and others, worked together and designed, implemented, and monitored a project to reduce youth violence by reducing gang and gun violence. The program was quite successful, so this led the National Institute of Justice to work with RAND to see if this might work in Los Angeles. Specifically, the intervention included increased police presences, more stringent enforcement of housing codes for properties used by gang members, more stringent enforcement of parole and probation conditions, and referral of gun violations to federal prosecutors. While the program was somewhat successful when applied to this section of Los Angeles, the report recommends, "city leaders should establish processes to support agencies in such collaborations." Both a summary of the report and the eBook in its entirety are available for free download.

Tita, George

41

Effects of gun seizures on gun violence: “Hot spots” patrol in Kansas city  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that greater enforcement of existing laws against carrying concealed weapons could reduce firearms violence with a quasi-experimental, target beat\\/comparison beat design. Over a six-month period in a ten-by-eight-block area with a homicide rate 20 times higher than the national average, intensive patrol near gun crime hot spots produced a 65 percent increase in firearms seized by

Lawrence W. Sherman; Dennis P. Rogan

1995-01-01

42

Youth Collectivities and Adolescent Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several problems confront anyone who has the audacity to tackle the topic of this chapter. The most daunting of these is the\\u000a lack of a theoretically viable typology that situates gangs, or types of gangs, in a larger set of youth collectivities. If\\u000a the variety of terms used by police to describe “gang groups and members” is “bewildering” and “dismaying”

43

The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

44

Youth Violence in Central America: Discourses and Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article analyzes the social construction of youth violence in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and El Salvador on the one hand, and the related security policies of the three states, on the other. In each country, there is an idiosyncratic way of constructing youth violence and juvenile delinquency. Also, each country has its own manner of reaction to…

Peetz, Peter

2011-01-01

45

Parent Refugee Status, Immigration Stressors, and Southeast Asian Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the effects of parents’ experience of traumatic events on violence among Southeast Asian and Chinese youth. The study examines independent effects of parents’ refugee camp experiences and immigration stress on serious or family\\/partner violence among youth. Findings contribute evidence on the intergenerational effects of community-level trauma that can help policy makers better integrate family and community strategies

James H. Spencer; Thao N. Le

2006-01-01

46

Youth experiences of family violence and teen dating violence perpetration: cognitive and emotional mediators.  

PubMed

This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential influences upon one another are described. Theory and research on the role of emotions and emotional processes in the relation between youths' exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration are also reviewed. We present an integrated model that highlights how emotions and emotional processes work in tandem with hypothesized cognitive mediators to predict teen dating violence. PMID:22160838

Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H

2012-03-01

47

Accountability Issues in School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines various reasons that would account for school violence and considers ways educators can help eliminate violence from schools. The negative impact of violence in the media and easy access to guns are mentioned as probable causes of violence in youth. Students who do not feel part of the school community often resort to violence

Al-Bataineh, Adel T.

48

Substance Use and Violence Among Youth: A Daily Calendar Analysis.  

PubMed

Background: While researchers have identified factors that contribute to youth violence, less is known about the details of violent incidents. In addition, substance use has been linked to youth violence; however, little is known about actual substance use on days in which violence occurs. Objective: This study examined reasons for peer violence and the association between substance use and violence using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Methods: Data were collected from Emergency Department (ED) patients (ages 14-24; n = 599; 59% male, 65% African American) who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months. Daily data regarding past 30-day substance use and violence and reasons for violent incidents were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Multi-level multinomial regression models were conducted to test the associations between substance use and peer violence incidents (i.e., none, moderate and severe). Results: Conflict over 'personal belongings' was a common reason for violence among males; 'jealousy'/'rumors' were common reasons among females. Moderate victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and cocaine use. Severe victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol use. Moderate or severe aggression was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and non-medical sedative use. Conclusions: Results suggest that youth violence prevention that addresses differential reasons for violence among males and females as well as substance use would be beneficial. PMID:25493643

Stoddard, Sarah A; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Walton, Maureen A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Chermack, Stephen T; Blow, Frederic C; Booth, Brenda M; Cunningham, Rebecca M

2014-12-10

49

Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

2012-01-01

50

Internalized Racism’s Association With African American Male Youth’s Propensity for Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth Violence in African American communities is still considered to be at epidemic proportions. The traditional risk factors for youth violence (i.e. delinquent friends, poverty, drug use, carrying a weapon etc.) do not account for the disproportionate overrepresentation of African American males. This study sought to better understand the propensity for violence among African American males ages 14-19 years (N=224)

Wesley W. Bryant

2011-01-01

51

Violence among Street-Involved Youth: The Role of Methamphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study investigated a possible association between violence and the use of drugs, particularly methamphetamine and alcohol. Methods: Cross-sectional, baseline data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Subjects were asked whether they had suffered or perpetrated violence in the 6 months prior to the interview. Results: In total, 478

Ian Martin; Anita Palepu; Evan Wood; Kathy Li; Julio Montaner; Thomas Kerr

2009-01-01

52

Symptom Patterns among Youth Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children and adolescents exposed to intimate partner violence display a broad range of symptoms. We sought to differentiate\\u000a symptom patterns and predictors of these patterns using a person-oriented approach. Previous cluster analysis research of\\u000a exposed youth was extended to include youth PTSD symptoms and trauma history. Participants were 74 mothers who had received\\u000a a police call for domestic violence, and

Jason M. Lang; Carla Smith Stover

2008-01-01

53

Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally commissioned in response to the Columbine High shootings, the Surgeon General's report on youth violence "examines the factors that lead young people to gravitate toward violence, reviews the factors that protect youth from perpetrating violence and identifies effective research-based preventive strategies." While acknowledging that there has been a downward trend in youth violence since 1993, the report concludes that the "epidemic of youth violence is not over." The report identifies 27 specific intervention programs that have shown themselves to be statistically successful as well as debunking several common myths about youth violence. These last include assumptions about early childhood behavior as predictive of later violence, about the racial make-up of violent offenders, and the myth of the young "super-predator." From the above URL, visitors can access the full report, an executive summary, the January 17th press release (all in .pdf format), an archived Webcast of the surgeon general discussing the report (requires Windows Media Player), and some relevant links.

2001-01-01

54

Youth Violence: Gangs on Main Street, USA. Issues in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report profiles the issue of youth violence: the history of its appearance in U.S. culture, the recent escalation of gang activity in U.S. communities, and the strategies put forth in smaller cities to meet this challenge. The report notes that there has been an explosion of gang violence in the United States that has been fostered by a…

Hamner, Carole J.

55

PREVENTING YOUTH VIOLENCE AND DROPOUT: A RANDOMIZED FIELD EXPERIMENT  

E-print Network

Public Schools, to the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority for providing Illinois Criminal for Youth Violence Prevention, grants from the Joyce, MacArthur, McCormick, Polk, and Spencer foundations the Russell Sage Foundation and LIEPP at Sciences Po. We are grateful to the staff of Youth Guidance and World

Scherer, Norbert F.

56

78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...January 16, 2013 Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention...gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects thousands of...developing such an approach, a broader public health perspective is imperative....

2013-01-22

57

Violence Against Lesbian and Gay Male Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article documents the incidence of violent assaults toward lesbian and gay male youths and those youths' suicidal behavior. Data were obtained by reviewing charts for the first 500 youths seeking services in 1988 at the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a community-based agency serving lesbian and gay male adolescents in New York City. The adolescents, who ranged in age from 14 to

JOYCE HUNTER

1990-01-01

58

Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2009-01-01

59

Psychosocial Correlates of Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the association between physical dating violence victimization and risk and protective factors, an anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to Latino youth (n = 446) residing in suburban Washington, DC. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed, and adjusted OR and 95% CI were examined.…

Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth; Kerr, Melissa Hallmark; Shattuck, Teresa

2005-01-01

60

Political Violence, Family Relations, and Palestinian Youth Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the associations among involvement in political violence, family relations, and several measures of adolescent social and psychological functioning in a sample of 7,000 Palestinian families from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Structural equation analysis of youth self-reported survey data revealed that experience in the intifada (as children) predicted increases in antisocial behavior (males and females)

Brian K. Barber

1999-01-01

61

In The Crossfire: The Impact of Gun Violence on Public Housing Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on February 18, this 50-page report from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the first-ever comprehensive analysis of gun-related violence in public housing communities. Based on new data from HUD and the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the report reveals that, while crime in public housing developments is falling, residents of public housing are more than twice as likely to become victims of gun violence as the rest of the population, regardless of city size. The full text of the report is offered in .pdf format with five appendixes.

62

Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence  

PubMed Central

Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.

2013-01-01

63

What We Know About Gun Use Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current generation of American teenagers has grown up surrounded by gun violence. Guns have played a significant role in shaping the developmental trajectories and behaviors of many inner-city youths. In this essay, we examine the role of guns in the lives of young people, and especially in the social and symbolic construction of violent events among adolescents, primarily focusing

Deanna L. Wilkinson; Jeffrey Fagan

2001-01-01

64

Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

2012-01-01

65

DISASTER AND YOUTH VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL ATTENDING YOUTH IN NEW ORLEANS  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. PMID:21783056

Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne

2013-01-01

66

The Social Networks of Homeless Youth Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence.  

PubMed

While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths' experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (? = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p < .05) than females who did not experience IPV. Female homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (? = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p < .05), but those who experienced sexual abuse during childhood had fewer male friends (? = -2.04, SE = 0.93, p < .05). Although there was no significant difference in the rate of IPV victimization across genders, the context of this abuse appears to be drastically different. The results suggest that females with more male friendships are at greater risk for exposure to IPV. To date, there are few effective youth-targeted IPV prevention programs and none have been shown to be effective with homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071

Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

2014-01-12

67

Gender differences in the effects of parental underestimation of youths' secondary exposure to community violence.  

PubMed

Secondary exposure to community violence is particularly detrimental for male youths, who disproportionately report witnessing community violence and suffering associated trauma-related symptoms. Yet, few studies have investigated whether parents perceive and report similar gender disparities among youths. In addition, few studies have examined the potentially negative effects of parent-child discord as to the youth's level of exposure to violence, or whether these effects vary across gender. Therefore, this study investigated whether differences between parents' and youths' reports of youths' exposure to violence, and the consequences of such reporting discord, varied across the gender of the youth informant. Participants were adolescents aged approximately 12 and 15 years at baseline (N = 1,517; 51 % female). Descriptive analyses indicated that male youths reported significantly higher levels of exposure to violence than female youths, but parents similarly under-reported their male and female children's experiences with violence. Hierarchical analyses indicated that parental underestimation of youths' exposure to violence had negative consequences. Moreover, significant interaction effects demonstrated that only females responded to reporting discord with internalizing problems. Conversely, both male and female youths responded to reporting discord with externalizing problems and offending. The results suggest that while parent-child discord is associated with negative outcomes for both male and female youths, discord may be disproportionately associated with negative outcomes among young females. The findings speak to the utility of examining the correlates and consequences of exposure to violence from a "gendered" perspective. PMID:23277295

Zimmerman, Gregory M; Farrell, Amy S

2013-10-01

68

Before Jonesboro and Littleton, Upper Perkiomen Middle School Dealt with Gun Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the implementation of a safe school initiative at an East Greenville, Pennsylvania middle school, following gun violence at the school in 1993. Considers the role of teachers, students, parents, and community in the initiative, changes to curriculum and student activities, special safety measures, and alternative programs for conflict…

Matz, Celine Marie

1999-01-01

69

Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

2012-01-01

70

Event-Level Analysis of Antecedents for Youth Violence: Comparison of Dating Violence with Non-Dating Violence  

PubMed Central

Background Dating violence (DV) has emerged as a major concern among youth with links to substance use, injuries, and death. The Emergency Department (ED) provides an opportunity for violence screening and prevention interventions. Additional data are needed regarding antecedents of DV versus non-dating violence (NDV; e.g., acquaintance, stranger) to develop ED-based violence interventions for youth. Methods Participants were 575 patients screening positive for past 6-month drug use in an urban ED who completed timeline follow-back aggression modules at Baseline, 6-, and 12-months, indicating event-specific antecedents of violence. Multi-level logistic regressions using event-level data, nested by individual and time (i.e. Baseline, 6- and 12-month assessment intervals) to examine antecedents of DV vs. NDV. Post-hoc analyses examined substance use × reasons and gender interactions. Results Prescription sedative/opioid misuse was more likely to be reported prior to DV whereas alcohol only, and co-ingested alcohol and marijuana only, were more likely to be reported prior to NDV. Reasons for DV included: “personal belongings, “angry/bad mood,” “jealousy,” “drunk/high on drugs” and “arguing about sex”. Reasons for NDV included: “rumors,” “retaliation,” “personal space” and “aid (someone) due to physical attack”. Substance use before/during conflicts and reasons for conflicts were both uniquely associated with DV versus NDV. Two gender interactions were found. Conclusions ED based interventions for urban youth need to be tailored by gender, substance use (alcohol, cocaine, sedatives), reasons for violence, and type of violence (DV vs. NDV). PMID:24182751

Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

2013-01-01

71

LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

2005-07-18

72

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite declines in youth violence nationally in the past decade, incidence of youth violence and victimization--from assaults to homicide--continue to be pressing concerns in public safety and public health. Youth violence is also a particular concern for low-income, minority communities, where poverty, family instability, and unemployment…

MacDonald, John; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kofner, Aaron; Stokes, Robert J.; Sehgal, Amber; Fain, Terry; Beletsky, Leo

2009-01-01

73

The Role of Families and Care Givers as Risk and Protective Factors in Preventing Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research which discusses the risk and protective functions that families and other caregivers provide in influencing the development of aggressive behavior in youth. Currently, there is an emphasis on providing violence prevention programs in the school environment, typically with little parental or caregiver involvement. By enhancing the role of families and caregivers in youth violence prevention programs,

Le'Roy E. Reese; Elizabeth M. Vera; Thomas R. Simon; Robin M. Ikeda

2000-01-01

74

Preventing Youth Violence. A Summary of Program Evaluations. Urban Health Initiative Monograph Series, Monograph 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary explaining the results of evaluations of programs to prevent youth violence is an attempt to fill the gap in information about what works and what does not. An effort is made to place the problem of youth violence in perspective, using information largely taken from Bureau of Justice statistics. The existing programs are divided into…

Kellermann, Arthur L.; Fuqua-Whitley, Dawna S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

75

"If They Could Make Us Disappear, They Would!" Youth and Violence in Cite Soleil, Haiti  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores community-level risk and protective factors for youth violence in Cite Soleil, Port-au-Prince's most violent slum. The youth of Cite Soleil have often been mobilized to violence by powerful actors as tools for achieving political or financial gain. Drawing on a formal survey (N=1,575) and ethnographic data collected between…

Willman, Alys; Marcelin, Louis Herns

2010-01-01

76

Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and following migration, immigrant youth may be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental separations). Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, we assessed exposure to violence and immigrant stressors and examined their relative impact on psychopathology in a sample of 164 Latino youth. Immigrant youth reported greater exposure to immigrant stressors relative to native-born peers, but few differences in rates of exposure to violence emerged. When considered alongside relevant immigration stressors, exposure to violence emerged as the strongest predictor of youth psychopathology. Results suggest that some types of stressors have more consistently deleterious effects on mental health and understanding resilient outcomes may entail considering the meaning attributed to stressors and the resources available to cope with stressors. PMID:24465062

Gudiño, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2013-01-01

77

The Nature and Correlates of Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youths in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to assess the prevalence and severity of dating violence among Jewish and Arab, male\\u000a and female Israeli youths, to examine the sociodemographic variables related to dating violence among Israeli adolescents,\\u000a and to assess whether the variables correlated with dating violence differ among Jewish and Arab, male and female youths.\\u000a The random sample consisted of

Moshe Sherer

2009-01-01

78

Exposure to Violence o Youths' beliefs about the justifiability or acceptability of  

E-print Network

Exposure to Violence o Youths' beliefs about the justifiability or acceptability of aggression have been identified as a mechanism by which exposure to violence leads to aggressive behavior in children aggression develop therefore is an important step in understanding the effects of violence. o Children

Sanders, Matthew

79

Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.  

PubMed

In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

2013-11-01

80

Predictors of violence and delinquency among high risk youth and youth gang members in San Salvador, El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low future orientation, low empathy, educational difficulty, school expulsion, delinquent peers, gang membership, and low social support were found to be significant risk factors for violence and delinquency among a sample (N = 174) of high risk youth and youth gang members in San Salvador, El Salvador.

René Olate; Christopher Salas-Wright; Michael G. Vaughn

2012-01-01

81

Community monitoring for youth violence surveillance: testing a prediction model.  

PubMed

Predictive epidemiology is an embryonic field that involves developing informative signatures for disorder and tracking them using surveillance methods. Through such efforts assistance can be provided to the planning and implementation of preventive interventions. Believing that certain minor crimes indicative of gang activity are informative signatures for the emergence of serious youth violence in communities, in this study we aim to predict outbreaks of violence in neighborhoods from pre-existing levels and changes in reports of minor offenses. We develop a prediction equation that uses publicly available neighborhood-level data on disorderly conduct, vandalism, and weapons violations to predict neighborhoods likely to have increases in serious violent crime. Data for this study were taken from the Chicago Police Department ClearMap reporting system, which provided data on index and non-index crimes for each of the 844 Chicago census tracts. Data were available in three month segments for a single year (fall 2009, winter, spring, and summer 2010). Predicted change in aggravated battery and overall violent crime correlated significantly with actual change. The model was evaluated by comparing alternative models using randomly selected training and test samples, producing favorable results with reference to overfitting, seasonal variation, and spatial autocorrelation. A prediction equation based on winter and spring levels of the predictors had area under the curve ranging from .65 to .71 for aggravated battery, and .58 to .69 for overall violent crime. We discuss future development of such a model and its potential usefulness in violence prevention and community policing. PMID:23494404

Henry, David B; Dymnicki, Allison; Kane, Candice; Quintana, Elena; Cartland, Jenifer; Bromann, Kimberly; Bhatia, Shaun; Wisnieski, Elise

2014-08-01

82

"There's so much at stake": sexual minority youth discuss dating violence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating violence among a sample of sexual minority youth. Focus groups were conducted as part of a larger study that surveyed 109 sexual minority youth between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Participants identified four main themes contributing to dating violence among same-sex couples: homophobia (societal and internalized); negotiating socially prescribed gender roles; assumed female connection; and other relationship issues. Such information is essential for determining the need for and content of dating violence services, including education, safety planning, and referrals for mental and physical health services for sexual minority youth. PMID:22831848

Gillum, Tameka L; DiFulvio, Gloria

2012-07-01

83

Should We Have Faith in the Churches? Ten-Point Coalition's Effect on Boston's Youth Violence. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the role of religious institutions in reducing youth violence in the inner city. The paper focuses on the Ten-Point Coalition, a group of ministers in Boston who have contributed in specific ways to reducing youth violence in that city. It analyzes the effectiveness of the police in reducing violence, pointing to the…

Berrien, Jenny; Winship, Christopher

84

African American and Latino Youth and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome: Effects on School Violence and Interventions for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…

Zyromski, Brett

2007-01-01

85

Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include "superpredator", "quarantining the contagious", "corrective surgery", "man as computer", "vaccine",…

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2008-01-01

86

Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

2011-01-01

87

Fostering Resilience among Urban Youth Exposed to Violence: A Promising Area for Interdisciplinary Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and…

Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.

2013-01-01

88

Contrasting Portraits of War: Youths' Varied Experiences with Political Violence in Bosnia and Palestine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates some of the complexity of youths' experience with political violence as a means of cautioning researchers, applied professionals and policy makers against overly-simplistic conclusions and interventions when attempting to understand and serve the large populations of the world's youth who endure conflict. A variety of…

Barber, Brian K.

2008-01-01

89

Firearm injury among urban youth during the last decade: An escalation in violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To better characterize firearm violence in urban youth, the authors investigated the circumstances and out-come of shootings among youths under 17 years of age. Methods: A retrospective case review was undertaken of all patients under 17 years of age treated for a gunshot wound at two adjoining level I Trauma Centers (adult and pediatric) administering to a predominantly lower

Michael L Nance; Perry W Stafford; C. William Schwab

1997-01-01

90

Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

Lai, Mary H.

2005-01-01

91

An Ecological Approach to Understanding Youth Violence: The Mediating Role of Substance Use  

PubMed Central

The authors tested an ecological model that posits mediating variables (substance use and mental health) in the association between ecological factors (family closeness, school closeness, and peer closeness) and youth violence in a sample of 4,783 adolescents. Model including substance use present significantly less total effect between ecological factors and youth violence than do models without substance use. Additional probing of significant mediation effect using the Sobel test was performed and suggested that substance use did function as a mediator in the hypothesized path. Considerations of adolescent violence should recognize the possible role of ecological factors and how their influence may vary by substance use. PMID:21423847

Moon, Sung Seek; Patton, Joy; Rao, Uma

2010-01-01

92

Does Parenting Shield Youth from Exposure to Violence during Adolescence? A 5-Year Longitudinal Test in a High-Poverty Sample of Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group-based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results…

Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M.

2011-01-01

93

Parent-Youth Discordance about Youth-Witnessed Violence: Associations with Trauma Symptoms and Service Use in an At-Risk Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth

Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.; Dubowitz, Howard

2012-01-01

94

Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress and Related Symptoms Among Inner-City Minority Youth Exposed to Community Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in levels of violence exposure, and in levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and related symptomatology in a sample of inner-city predominantly African American youth. Because such youth are at risk for exposure to chronic community violence, they are likely to experience considerable distress and clinical or subclinical levels of posttraumatic stress and related symptoms. Previous

Jennifer D. Foster; Gabriel P. Kuperminc; Ann W. Price

2004-01-01

95

Exposure to Violence and Socioemotional Adjustment in Low-Income Youth: An Examination of Protective Factors  

PubMed Central

Using a sample of 391 low-income youth ages 13 to 17, this study investigated the potential moderating effects of school climate, participation in extracurricular activities, and positive parent-child relations on associations between exposure to violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and adolescent socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). Exposure to violence was related to both internalizing and externalizing problems. High levels of participation in extracurricular activities and positive parent-child relations appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the positive association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, school climate did not moderate associations between exposure to violence and socioemotional adjustment. Further, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. PMID:21607826

Hardaway, Cecily R.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Wood, Dana

2014-01-01

96

The Gold Standard of Gun Control Book Review of Joyce Malcolm, Guns and Violence: The English Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the last several decades, the United States and Canada have enjoyed robust scholarly inquiry into the law and policy issues regarding gun control and gun rights. Yet in the United Kingdom, scholarly attention to firearms policy has been almost nil. 4 As a result, the definitive history of the right to arms guarantee in the 1689 English Bill of

David B. Kopel; Paul Gallant; Joanne D. Eisen

97

Violence Exposure and PTSD: The Role of English Language Fluency in Latino Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Latinos have been a rapidly growing population in the US, little is known about how mental health symptoms may present\\u000a in Latino children especially in the context of those living in poverty and exposed to violence. We explored the level of\\u000a violence exposure and trauma symptoms in Latino youth and the relationship of these factors with English language fluency.

Sheryl Kataoka; Audra Langley; Bradley Stein; Lisa Jaycox; Lily Zhang; Norma Sanchez; Marleen Wong

2009-01-01

98

Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic achievement moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict\\/violence and subsequent posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. We

Eric F. Dubow; L. Rowell Huesmann; Paul Boxer; Simha Landau; Shira Dvir; Khalil Shikaki; Jeremy Ginges

2012-01-01

99

The prevalence and consequences of exposure to violence among African-American youth.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic exposure to community violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a nonrandom sample (N = 221) of low-income African-American youth between 7 and 18 years old. Results showed males were more likely than females to be victims of and witnesses to violent acts; there were no other significant sociodemographic differences in the degree of exposure to violence. PTSD symptom reporting was moderately high for this sample of youth; 54 youth (27.1%) met all three of the diagnostic criteria considered. Regression analyses revealed that being victimized and witnessing violence were significantly related to the reporting of PTSD symptoms. These symptoms were more extreme among victimized females and victimized youth who had no primary males living with them in the household (i.e., fathers and/or brothers). Exposure to violence among youth is clearly significant to their reporting of PTSD symptomatology, yet the clinical implications of this relationship remain largely unexplored. PMID:8444774

Fitzpatrick, K M; Boldizar, J P

1993-03-01

100

The Link between Poverty, the Proliferation of Violence and the Development of Traumatic Stress among Urban Youth in the United States to School Violence: A Trauma Informed, Social Justice Approach to School Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents two premises regarding school violence in urban America. First, that traumatic stress among urban youth in the United States is a key factor in the development and exacerbation of school violence in urban areas. Secondly, an efficacious approach to the resolution of school violence cannot be achieved without addressing this…

Rawles, Portia D.

2010-01-01

101

Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence.  

PubMed

We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic-White gap (33%) and the Black-White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences. PMID:23327266

Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

2013-03-01

102

Violent Youth Culture in Northern Ireland: Young Men, Violence, and the Challenges of Peacebuilding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses violent male youth culture in Northern Ireland within the context of a society emerging from a prolonged period of political violence toward peacebuilding. Specifically, the article focuses on the findings from a qualitative study carried out by the Centre for Young Men's Studies with 130 marginalized young men aged 13 to 16…

Harland, Ken

2011-01-01

103

A Challenging Job: Physical and Sexual Violence towards Group Workers in Youth Residential Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…

Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

2014-01-01

104

Resilience Moderates the Relationship between Exposure to Violence and Posttraumatic Reexperiencing in Mi'kmaq Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Nova Scotian Mi'kmaq community that hopes to shed light on the relationship between exposure to violence and mental health in First Nations youth. This particular study sought to examine how the multifaceted construct of resilience might act as a protective factor,…

Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H.; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Stevens, Doreen; Ungar, Michael; Wekerle, Christine

2010-01-01

105

Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

106

Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

107

Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their parents once a year for 3 consecutive years. Palestinian children, males,

Eric F. Dubow; Paul Boxer; L. Rowell Huesmann; Simha Landau; Shira Dvir; Khalil Shikaki; Jeremy Ginges

2012-01-01

108

Disentangling the Effects of Violent Victimization, Violent Behavior, and Gun Carrying for Minority Inner-City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two waves of longitudinal data were used to examine the sequencing between violent victimization, violent behavior, and gun carrying in a high-poverty sample of African American youth. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that violent victimization T1 and violent behavior T1 increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying T2…

Spano, Richard; Bolland, John

2013-01-01

109

Does Community Violence Exposure Predict Trauma Symptoms in a Sample of Maltreated Youth in Foster Care?  

PubMed Central

Previous studies find that childhood exposure to family and community violence is associated with trauma symptoms. Few studies, however, have explored whether community violence exposure (CVE) predicts trauma symptoms after controlling for the effects associated with family violence exposure (FVE). In the current study, CVE and FVE were examined in a sample of 179 youth with a recent history of maltreatment. CVE was associated with trauma symptoms after controlling for FVE, but FVE was not associated with trauma symptoms after controlling for CVE. In addition, negative coping strategies (e.g., self-harm, interpersonal aggression) partially mediated the association between CVE and trauma symptoms. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for interventions aimed at addressing the needs of children exposed to violence. PMID:21287965

Garrido, Edward F.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N.

2010-01-01

110

Perceptions of gender-based violence among South African youth: implications for health promotion interventions  

PubMed Central

Gender-based violence is a widespread problem in South Africa. Past structural inequities have created a climate conducive to violence against women. As an initial step toward developing a health promotion program, we conducted exploratory formative research to examine the barriers that affect the health and well-being of youth. Fourteen focus groups (nine with girls and five with boys) were conducted with 112 adolescents in a racially mixed community on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. We utilized grounded theory and thematic analysis to examine the data. The impact of poverty, ubiquitous gendered violence, transactional sex and unsafe recreational spaces emerged as the major themes. The experiences of youth were consumed by issues of safety rather than the pursuit of other developmentally appropriate markers. Our findings suggest that health promotion programs should create safe spaces for youth and opportunities to critically question the assumptions and manifestations of a patriarchal society. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a strong need for multi-sectorial interventions directed at many levels to prevent gender-based violence. PMID:21733916

Mosavel, M.; Ahmed, R.; Simon, C.

2012-01-01

111

An exploratory investigation of adolescent intimate partner violence among African American youth: a gendered analysis.  

PubMed

Extant research demonstrates that while adolescent intimate partner violence (IPV) is an ever-growing concern in the United States, most research on IPV has focused on adult victims and offenders. To fill this gap in the literature, the present research examines youth IPV by conducting focus groups with 25 male and female youth between the ages of 15 and 19 years whose race was primarily African American. Drawing on open-ended responses by adolescent participants, the present study aimed to shed light on African American youths' perceptions of IPV, their perceptions regarding such violence among their peers, the dynamics of help-seeking behaviors, and what services youth perceive as most helpful in the prevention and intervention of adolescent IPV. Findings reveal that most participants only recognize physical aggression as IPV; express hesitation in disclosing violence to adults, especially nonfamily adults; and report being unaware of and/or unwilling to utilize existing prevention and intervention services traditionally targeted at adult populations. Implications for future research and policy are also presented and discussed. PMID:23920339

Love, Sharon RedHawk; Richards, Tara N

2013-11-01

112

Life skill interventions with homeless youth, domestic violence victims and adults with mental illness.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This paper presents three exploratory studies of life skills interventions (employment, money management or food/nutrition) with 73 homeless individuals from four shelters and supportive housing programs located in the urban Midwest for youth, victims of domestic violence and adults with mental illness. The Ansell Casey Life Skills Assessment was administered prior to the eight group and individual sessions. Quizzes and posttests indicated clinical change in all groups, with statistical significance in the domestic violence group. The intervention implementation, challenges encountered, and strategies developed for implementing shelter-based interventions are discussed. Recommendations for successfully providing collaborative university-shelter clinical interventions are provided. PMID:23926940

Helfrich, Christine A; Aviles, Ann M; Badiani, Chaula; Walens, Deborah; Sabol, Peggy

2006-01-01

113

Does the Alcohol Make Them Do It? Dating Violence Perpetration and Drinking Among Youth  

PubMed Central

Strong evidence links alcohol use to partner violence perpetration among adults, but the relation between youth alcohol use and dating violence perpetration (DVP) is not as well studied. The authors used meta-analytic procedures to evaluate current knowledge on the association between alcohol use and DVP among youth. The authors reviewed 28 studies published in 1985–2010; most (82%) were cross-sectional. Alcohol use was measured in 3 main ways: 1) frequency or quantity of use, 2) frequency of heavy episodic drinking, or 3) problem use. Collectively, results support the conclusion that higher levels of alcohol use are positively associated with youth DVP. With fixed-effects models, the combined odds ratios for DVP for frequency/quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and problem use were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.31), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.85), and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.94, 2.80), respectively. This association persisted even after accounting for heterogeneity and publication bias. No studies were designed to assess the immediate temporal association between drinking and DVP. Future research should assess whether there are acute or pharmacologic effects of alcohol use on youth DVP. Furthermore, few studies have been hypothesis driven, controlled for potential confounding, or examined potential effect measure modification. Studies designed to investigate the youth alcohol–DVP link specifically, and whether results vary by individuals’ gender, developmental stage, or culture, are needed. PMID:22128086

Rothman, Emily F.; McNaughton Reyes, Luz; Johnson, Renee M.; LaValley, Michael

2012-01-01

114

The Overlap of Witnessing Partner Violence with Child Maltreatment and Other Victimizations in a Nationally Representative Survey of Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the co-occurrence of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other forms of victimization. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 4,549 youth aged 0-17. Results: Witnessing partner…

Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard

2010-01-01

115

Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is a serious global public health problem. Despite a decline in homicide rates across the United States during the 1990s, homicide rates are again rising and continue to claim the lives of many young people. The human and economic toll of violence on young people, their families, and society is high. Homicide is the second leading…

Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Toal, Susan B., Comp.; Swahn, Monica H., Comp.; Behrens, Christopher B., Comp.

2005-01-01

116

Boys and Violence: A Gender-Informed Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the phenomenon of youth violence from a psychology of gender perspective. Although other factors are discussed—including gun availability, violence-related media influence, family and caretaker factors, and effects of teasing and bullying—the intention is to highlight new thinking on the potential relationship between boys' traditional masculine socialization experiences and violence. In this new perspective, traditional masculine socialization estranges

June Feder; Ronald F. Levant; James Dean

2007-01-01

117

Boys and Violence: A Gender-Informed Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the phenomenon of youth violence from a psychology of gender perspective. Although other factors are discussed—including gun availability, violence-related media influence, family and caretaker factors, and effects of teasing and bullying—the intention is to highlight new thinking on the potential relationship between boys' traditional masculine socialization experiences and violence. In this new perspective, traditional masculine socialization estranges

June Feder; Ronald F. Levant; James Dean

2010-01-01

118

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2012-01-01

119

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Talk about Experiencing and Coping with School Violence: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative…

Grossman, Arnold H.; Haney, Adam P.; Edwards, Perry; Alessi, Edward J.; Ardon, Maya; Howell, Tamika Jarrett

2009-01-01

120

Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

2014-01-01

121

Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.  

PubMed

Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M?=?15?years; range?=?13-16?years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

McGill, Tia M; Self-Brown, Shannon R; Lai, Betty S; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; Leblanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

2014-01-01

122

Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M?=?15?years; range?=?13–16?years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

2014-01-01

123

Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths  

PubMed Central

Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors. PMID:18855489

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

124

Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.  

PubMed

Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. PMID:21491577

Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

2011-01-01

125

Youth Violence and Hegemonic Masculinity among Pacific Islander and Asian American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

As scholars and community stakeholders continue to understand hegemonic masculinity and its influences on youth violence,\\u000a it is important that marginalized ethnic groups are not excluded from the discourse. This qualitative exploratory study investigates\\u000a the ways that hegemonic masculinity impacts adolescent boys and girls from Pacific Islander and Asian American backgrounds.\\u000a Research findings reveal how peers, family members, and romantic

David Tokiharu Mayeda; Lisa Pasko

126

The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.  

PubMed

School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented. PMID:23390438

Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Nam Su

2013-01-01

127

The Developmental Ecology of Urban Males' Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested a developmental-ecological model of violence using longitudinal data from poor, urban African American and Latino adolescent boys and caregivers. Found that community structural characteristics significantly predicted neighborhood social processes. Parenting practices partially mediated relationship between neighborhood social processes and…

Tolan, Patrick H.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.

2003-01-01

128

Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners.  

PubMed

Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence. PMID:24407932

Martin-Storey, Alexa

2015-01-01

129

Gun Crime in the Age Group 18-20  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, released jointly by the US Department of Justice and the Department of the Treasury, presents a statistical analysis of the extent of gun crime committed in the US by persons between the ages of 18 and 20. The findings of the report show that this age group committed the most gun homicides in 1997, were more likely to use a firearm during a crime, and possessed the largest number of guns connected to documented crimes. The report also makes suggestions for reducing gun violence for this age group through legislation, and outlines the proposed Youth Gun Crime Enforcement Act of 1999. The report derived the latest data from the Uniform Crime Reports and the National Crime Victimization Survey as well as the gun tracing data from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

1999-01-01

130

Tomorrow's players under occupation: an analysis of the association of political violent with psychological functioning and domestic violence, among Palestinian youth.  

PubMed

A 2005 survey of 2,328 youth (ages 12 to 18) in the West Bank, Palestine, revealed an association between exposure to politically violent events, domestic violence, and school violence and with psychological symptomatology. Results also found associations between family violence, family economic status, and psychological symptomatology. Respondents reported low levels of family functioning. Data revealed some geographic variability in experiences of politically violent events, domestic violence, school violence, and psychological symptomatology. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:17696671

Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Sehwail, Mahmud A

2007-07-01

131

GUN VIOLENCE & SMALL ARMS PROLIFERATION "Whenever arms flow, violence follows", UN Messenger of Peace, actor Michael Douglas  

E-print Network

-related deaths. Fear, physical pain, and death are the price we are paying for our easy access to guns. Weapons creates a climate of fear and lawlessness. Small arms are weapons designed for individual use, including, and others who bring death and mayhem into our communities. To halt the destructive march of armed conflict

Plotkin, Joshua B.

132

Gun Safety (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC School Violence and the News Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents ... Your Child Gun Safety Should You Worry About School Violence? Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should ...

133

African Indigenous Proverbs and the Question of Youth Violence: Making the Case for the Use of the Teachings of Igbo of Nigeria and Kiembu of Kenya Proverbs for Youth Character and Moral Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historic and contemporary global concern over youth violence and indiscipline/subordination in schools has educators, school administrators and policy makers working hard to ensure that schools are welcoming and safe spaces for learners. Social harmony can only be achieved by understanding and addressing the causes of youth violence and…

Dei, George Sefa

2013-01-01

134

Asian\\/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center: Interpersonal Violence and Deviant Behaviors among Youth in Hawai‘i  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis study investigates the prevalence rates of violent and deviant behaviors among a sample of Filipino, Hawaiian, Japanese, and Samoan public high school students residing in Hawai‘i, and is the first relatively large-scale study of its kind regarding a disaggregated sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) youth. Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan adolescents were the chosen ethnic groups for

David T. Mayeda; Earl S. Hishinuma; Stephanie T. Nishimura; Orlando Garcia-Santiago; Gregory Y. Mark

2006-01-01

135

Media Violence Research and Youth Violence Data: Why Do They Conflict?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Contrary to media headlines and public perceptions, there is little evidence of a substantial link between exposure to violent interactive games and serious real-life violence or crime. Conclusion: Further research is needed on whether violent games may affect less dramatic but real concerns such as bullying, fighting, or attitudes and…

Olson, Cheryl K.

2004-01-01

136

Evaluating Agency and Responsibility in Gendered Violence: African American Youth Talk About Violence and Hip Hop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of this study provide insights into the ways that African American adolescents think about gendered interpersonal\\u000a violence. African American high school students were invited to discuss images and incidents from contemporary urban music\\u000a culture (events based on incidents with famous hip hop figures and lyrics from rap music) in a focus group format. We explored\\u000a how African American

Catherine R. Squires; Laura P. Kohn-Wood; Tabbye Chavous; Prudence L. Carter

2006-01-01

137

Disintegration and Violence among Migrants in Germany: Turkish and Russian Youths versus German Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turkish and Russian immigrants are the two largest groups of immigrants in Germany, but there are some important differences regarding their legal status. Although most of the Turkish adolescents were born in Germany, few of them have German citizenship. In contrast, most of the Russian youths were born outside Germany, but they mostly possess…

Baier, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Christian

2008-01-01

138

Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study  

PubMed Central

Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating victim status in boys. All violence-affected youth exhibited significantly higher rates of cumulative mental health problems. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of violence for the mental health of youth. They reveal a particular vulnerability as a function of gender. Implications for policy making, clinical practice and research are discussed. PMID:23819775

2013-01-01

139

Behavioral adaptation among youth exposed to community violence: a longitudinal multidisciplinary study of family, peer and neighborhood-level protective factors.  

PubMed

Several studies across fields have documented the detrimental effects of exposure to violence and, separately, the power of developmental assets to promote positive youth development. However, few have examined the lives of youth exposed to violence who demonstrate resilience (that is, positive adjustment despite risk), and hardly any have examined how developmental assets may shape resilient trajectories into adulthood for youth exposed to violence. What are these resources and relationships that high-risk youth can leverage to tip the balance from vulnerability in favor of resilience? We used generalized estimating equations to examine multilevel longitudinal data from 1,114 youth of ages 11-16 from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Behavioral adaptation was a dynamic process that varied over time and by level of violence exposure. In the short term, being a victim was associated with increased aggression and delinquency. In the long term though, both victims and witnesses to violence had higher odds of behavioral adaptation. Baseline family support and family boundaries, friend support, neighborhood support, and collective efficacy had positive main effects for all youth. Additionally, having family support, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities for participation modified the effect of exposure to violence and increased odds of behavioral adaptation over time. Policies, systems, and programs across sectors should focus on building caring relationships/supports with family members and friends, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities especially for witnesses and victims of violence, to promote behavioral resilience and related outcomes into adulthood for high-risk youth. PMID:23404664

Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

2013-12-01

140

"You Can Try, But You Won't Stop It. It'll Always Be There": Youth Perspectives on Violence and Prevention in Schools.  

PubMed

The role of schools in preventing violence among teenagers has been highlighted, as has the development of youth-led prevention initiatives. This article explores how young people's views on violence influence their perceptions of its preventability, drawing on focus group discussions with 14- to 16-year-olds from six schools across the north of England. Young people view violence as a highly individualized phenomenon, and gender norms play an important role in shaping young people's perceptions of the preventability of violence. The findings presented here suggest that school-based violence prevention must fundamentally address gender norms and expectations to challenge young people's acceptance and tolerance of violence. PMID:25480304

Sundaram, Vanita

2014-12-01

141

Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from…

Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

2011-01-01

142

Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

143

Assessing the Impact of Violence and War on Youth in Low-and Middle-Income Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research is needed to understand the effects of violence and armed conflict in low-and middle-income countries, though there are logistical and ethical concerns that should be taken prior to study design. Objective: This paper provides commentary on some of the challenges inherent in conducting research with youth affected by war in…

Song, Suzan; Shaheen, Mohammed

2013-01-01

144

Risk and protective factors associated with youth violence among secondary school students in a nationally representative sample in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

During the past decade, youth violence has received increasing attention as a major public health issue in Puerto Rico as well as in the United States. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors of youth violence in a representative sample of school adolescents in Puerto Rico. Risk and protective factors were grouped into five domains: individual, family, peer group, school and community. From a total of 2,385 participants, 10.7% reported at least one violent behavior and 3.4% reported two or more violent behaviors. In multiple regression analysis the risk factors identified were male gender, junior grade students, having a favorable attitude towards antisocial behavior, use of ecstasy, involvement with antisocial peers and reporting antisocial parents. Participation in family decisions was the only protective factor associated with violence. Findings from this study could have important implications for the development of preventive programs for the adolescent population in Puerto Rico. PMID:15803985

Reyes, J C; Moscoso, M; Vélez, C N; Rodríguez, F; Colón, H M; Robles, R; Parrilla, I; Ramos, G; Suárez, C M; Mercado, H; Suárez, R A

2004-01-01

145

"I live by shooting hill"-a qualitative exploration of conflict and violence among urban youth in New Haven, Connecticut.  

PubMed

To elucidate urban youths' perceptions of conflict and violence we conducted a qualitative study among minority urban youths in New Haven, Connecticut. We utilized the ecological framework to explore the multilevel nature of the findings, and triangulated results with a parallel quantitative study. We found risk factors for violence at multiple levels including lack of interpersonal anger management skills (individual level); parents not physically present in the household (relationship level); residence in crime and gang-ridden neighborhoods (community level); and socioeconomic inequalities between neighborhoods, as reflected by participants' perception of the inadequacy of neighborhood resources to provide safety (societal level). Neighborhood resources were perceived as sparse, and police were not regarded as a protective factor (sometimes rather as racially discriminatory). Participants' statements pertaining to feelings of isolation, racism, and violence without strong parental, neighborhood, and school support may impede prosocial attitudes and behaviors throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22643467

Shuval, Kerem; Massey, Zohar; Caughy, Margaret O; Cavanaugh, Brenda; Pillsbury, Charles A; Groce, Nora

2012-02-01

146

“I Live by Shooting Hill” – A Qualitative Exploration of Conflict and Violence among Urban Youth in New Haven, Connecticut  

PubMed Central

To elucidate urban youths’ perceptions of conflict and violence we conducted a qualitative study among minority urban youths in New Haven, Connecticut. We utilized the ecological framework to explore the multilevel nature of the findings, and triangulated results with a parallel quantitative study. We found risk factors for violence at multiple levels including lack of interpersonal anger management skills (individual level); parents not physically present in the household (relationship level); residence in crime and gang-ridden neighborhoods (community level); and socioeconomic inequalities between neighborhoods, as reflected by participants’ perception of the inadequacy of neighborhood resources to provide safety (societal level). Neighborhood resources were perceived as sparse, and police were not regarded as a protective factor (sometimes rather as racially discriminatory). Participants’ statements pertaining to feelings of isolation, racism, and violence without strong parental, neighborhood, and school support may impede prosocial attitudes and behaviors throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22643467

Shuval, Kerem; Massey, Zohar; O Caughy, Margaret; Cavanaugh, Brenda; Pillsbury, Charles A; Groce, Nora

2013-01-01

147

Upset among youth in response to questions about exposure to violence, sexual assault and family maltreatment.  

PubMed

To assess whether youth are upset by being asked questions about sensitive kinds of abuse, victimization, family maltreatment, and sexual victimization in the course of standard epidemiological surveys. A national sample of youth aged 10-17 were interviewed on the telephone by experienced interviewers as part of the National Survey of Children Exposed to Violence. At the end they were asked whether answering questions had upset them. Of the youth interviewed, 4.5% reported being at all upset and 0.8% reported being pretty or a lot upset. However, only a minority of those upset, .3% of the total sample, said they would not participate again had they known about the content. But even in this group, the regret about participation was mostly due to the length of the survey, not the types of questions being asked. Thus, asking about exposure to abuse and sensitive kinds of victimization in standard interview surveys is associated with low levels of respondent upset due to the nature of the questions. PMID:24004683

Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry; Shattuck, Anne

2014-02-01

148

Youth Violence: Developing Local and State Solutions. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State Solutions (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state solutions. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

149

FBI Reports Drop in Crime Due to Gun Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a report released Sunday, the FBI found that a seven percent drop in homicides was entirely attributable to a decrease in killings committed with guns. The report also linked a drop in the rate of robbery involving guns to a ten percent drop in overall robberies nationwide. The decline in crime remained consistent in other categories as well, including property crimes, homicide against women, and random violent crimes. Surprisingly, in the wake of certain highly publicized acts of youth violence, the rate of violent juvenile crime has also dropped. This marks the seventh straight year that crime has declined in America. While both the report and many experts see a direct link between declining crime and tougher gun control, there continue to be dissenters -- one might ask if there isn't a certain circularity to the FBI's conclusions, and it remains to be seen if the current Congress will be swayed to retake up the gun legislation defeated this past summer.

Charbonneau, David D.

150

Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City's Youth: A Matter of Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…

Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

2004-01-01

151

LA INTERACCIÓN TRANSNACIONAL DE LA SOCIEDAD CIVIL CENTROAMERICANA FRENTE A LA VIOLENCIA JUVENIL Transnational interaction of the Central American civil society before the youth violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence is one of the most important social problems in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. The expansion of the youth gangs has been confronted by the governments of these nations through the adoption of repressive measures. Massive police operations and anti-gang legislation have been the main tools used in the three countries to try to stop the rise of

Alberto MARTÍN ÁLVAREZ; TORRE OROPEZA

2008-01-01

152

Youth Empowerment Solutions for Peaceful Communities: combining theory and practice in a community-level violence prevention curriculum.  

PubMed

This article describes the development and evaluation of an after-school curriculum designed to prepare adolescents to prevent violence through community change. This curriculum, part of the Youth Empowerment Solutions for Peaceful Communities (YES) program, is guided by empowerment and ecological theories within a positive youth development context. YES is designed to enhance the capacity of adolescents and adults to work together to plan and implement community change projects. The youth curriculum is organized around six themed units: (a) Youth as Leaders, (b) Learning about Our Community, (c) Improving Our Community, (d) Building Intergenerational Partnerships, (e) Planning for Change, and (f) Action and Reflection. The curriculum was developed through an iterative process. Initially, program staff members documented their activities with youth. These outlines were formalized as curriculum sessions. Each session was reviewed by the program and research staff and revised based on underlying theory and practical application. The curriculum process evaluation includes staff and youth feedback. This theoretically based, field-tested curriculum is designed to be easily adapted and implemented in a diverse range of communities. PMID:21059871

Zimmerman, Marc A; Stewart, Sarah E; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan; Reischl, Thomas M

2011-05-01

153

Characteristics of Youth Seeking Emergency Care for Assault Injuries  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To characterize youth seeking care for assault injuries, the context of violence, and previous emergency department (ED) service utilization to inform ED-based injury prevention. METHODS: A consecutive sample of youth (14–24) presenting to an urban ED with an assault injury completed a survey of partner violence, gun/knife victimization, gang membership, and context of the fight. RESULTS: A total of 925 youth entered the ED with an assault injury; 718 completed the survey (15.4% refused); 730 comparison youth were sampled. The fights leading to the ED visit occurred at home (37.6%) or on streets (30.4%), and were commonly with a known person (68.3%). Fights were caused by issues of territory (23.3%) and retaliation (8.9%); 20.8% of youth reported substance use before the fight. The assault-injured group reported more peer/partner violence and more gun experiences. Assault-injured youth reported higher past ED utilization for assault (odds ratio [OR]: 2.16) or mental health reasons (OR: 7.98). Regression analysis found the assault-injured youth had more frequent weapon use (OR: 1.25) and substance misuse (OR: 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: Assault-injured youth seeking ED care report higher levels of previous violence, weapon experience, and substance use compared with a comparison group seeking care for other complaints. Almost 10% of assault-injured youth had another fight-related ED visit in the previous year, and ?5% had an ED visit for mental health. Most fights were with people known to them and for well-defined reasons, and were therefore likely preventable. The ED is a critical time to interact with youth to prevent future morbidity. PMID:24323994

Ranney, Megan; Newton, Manya; Woodhull, Whitney; Zimmerman, Marc; Walton, Maureen A.

2014-01-01

154

The SURVIVE Community Project: A Family-Based Intervention to Reduce the Impact of Violence Exposures in Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a family-based intervention designed to target the harmful effects of exposure to family and community violence on urban youth and their parents. The program, “Supporting Urban Residents to be Violence-Free in a Violent Environment (SURVIVE),” is a 12-week multiple family group (MEG) intervention modeled upon similar children’s mental health programs implemented with urban youth of color and their families in several major U.S. cities. The design and implementation of the SURVIVE Community Project were guided by a collaborative partnership between community members, including mental health professionals, teachers, and parents from the Bronx, and an interdisciplinary team of university-based researchers. In order to establish the feasibility and relevance of the program for urban communities, 25 families with children ages 7–11 participated in a pilot test of the curriculum. The description of the SURVIVE Community Project provided here is based on this work, and includes a discussion of facilitation issues. Implications for family-based intervention targeting urban children and families affected by violence are highlighted. PMID:21369343

DeVoe, Ellen R.; Dean, Kara; Traube, Dorian; McKay, Mary M.

2011-01-01

155

Examining Space–Time Interaction in City-Level Homicide Data: Crack Markets and the Diffusion of Guns Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the linkage between crack market activity and gunhomicide suggested by Blumstein (1995), who argues that the arrival ofcrack stimulated an increased availability of guns among juveniles. Thisgreater availability of guns, the argument continues, is responsible for thesharp upswing in juvenile homicide experienced in the United States in themid-1980s. Using city-level data on crack arrests and gun-related juvenilehomicide,

Daniel Cork

1999-01-01

156

Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…

Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

2013-01-01

157

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Gun Shows Work Buying and Selling What's for Sale Culture Politics Interventions v 1 11 55 91 159 219Preface Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching #12;#12;Inside Gun-Violence Effort. She put gun shows on my radar and is an ace straw-purchase spotter. Thanks also to Barbara Claire

Leistikow, Bruce N.

158

Youth Bulges, Busts, and Doing Business in Violence-Prone Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ascertain whether youth bulges are related to violent conflict and whether violent conflict falls off when youth bulges are followed by busts, we analyzed data from 1998-2005 covering 127 nations. Controlling for variables representing such factors as socio-development, macroeconomics, technology advancement, government capacity, and geo-politics, we find that youth bulges are related to violent conflict, but when youth bulges

Alfred A. Marcus; Mazhar Islam; John Moloney

2009-01-01

159

Exploring violence exposure, stress, protective factors and behavioral problems among inner-city youth.  

PubMed

This study examined relationships between violence exposure, other stressors, family support, and self-concept on self-reported behavioral problems among 320 urban adolescents (aged 11-18) referred for mental health treatment. Overall, participants reported high levels of violence exposure, with a median of six past encounters with violence as a witness, victim, or through the experiences of associates. All forms of violence exposure (witnessing, being a victim, knowing of victims) were correlated with internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems for males and females. Total violence exposure predicted behavioral problems among participants, even after controlling for the effects of other risk, demographic and protective factors. Family support and self-concept moderated the influence of life stress and cumulative risk on problem behavior outcomes, but these protective variables did not significantly moderate violence exposure. PMID:14570441

Youngstrom, Eric; Weist, Mark D; Albus, Kathleen E

2003-09-01

160

Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which were…

Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.

2007-01-01

161

Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2013-01-01

162

Risk Factors for Severe Inter-Sibling Violence: A Preliminary Study of a Youth Forensic Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perpetration of severe inter-sibling violence (SISV) remains a largely unexplored area of family violence. This article describes an investigation of risk factors for intentional SISV perpetration. A sample of 111 young people under the care of the Scottish criminal justice or welfare systems was studied. A SISV perpetration interview schedule…

Khan, Roxanne; Cooke, David J.

2008-01-01

163

The Effects of Family and Community Violence Exposure among Youth: Recommendations for Practice and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with other segments of the population, adolescents and, in particular, African Americans are disproportionately exposed to family and community violence. Research has consistently documented that exposure to such violence is often associated with psychological difficulties, poor educational and behavioral outcomes, and juvenile justice…

Voisin, Dexter R.

2007-01-01

164

Refining the Measurement of Exposure to Violence (ETV) in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Correlational analysis, classical test theory, confirmatory factor analysis, and multilevel Rasch modeling were used to refine a measure of adolescents' exposure to violence (ETV). Interpersonal violence could be distinguished from other potentially traumatic events; it was also possible to distinguish three routes of exposure (victimization,…

Brennan, Robert T.; Molnar, Beth E.; Earls, Felton

2007-01-01

165

Youth Violence and Illicit Drug Use. The NSDUH Report. Issue 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks youths aged 12 to 17 to report on their involvement in violent behaviors during the 12 months before the survey. This report presents the estimated number and percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who engaged in violent behavior in the past year. It further compares rates of violent behavior for…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

2006-01-01

166

Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles [pdf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Business improvement districts (BIDs) are a tool used by concerned members of the business community and politicians to enhance a commercial retail area's economic fortunes. As it turns out, they may also improve the social environment of their neighborhoods as well. Published in 2009, this study commissioned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was completed by the RAND Corporation. Throughout its 139-pages the study takes a critical look at how these BIDs have the potential "to reduce a youth's risk to neighborhood violence" and generally improve the social environment. The study was based on research performed in Los Angeles and the report itself is divided into six chapters. The study notes that the activities of BIDs can help increase informal social control, reducing visible signs of disorder and blight, and provide enriched employment opportunities.

MacDonald, John M. (John Michael), 1972-

167

Effectiveness of a Mentor-Implemented Violence Prevention Intervention for Assault-Injured Youth Presenting to the Emergency Department: Results of a Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Context The emergency department has been described as a promising setting to initiate interventions with assault-injured youth to reduce the risk of re-injury and reactive perpetration. Efforts to intervene have received little study. Objective To assess the impact of a mentor-implemented violence prevention intervention on reducing aggression, fighting and re-injury among assault-injured youth. Design Randomized controlled trial Setting Two large urban hospital emergency departments Participants Youth age 10–15 presenting with peer assault injury were recruited and randomly assigned to intervention and comparison groups. Intervention Intervention youth received a mentor who implemented a 6 session problem-solving curriculum while parents received 3 home visits with a health educator to discuss family needs and facilitate service use and parental monitoring. The comparison group received a list of community resources with 2 follow-up phone calls to facilitate service use. Main Outcome Measures Youth and parents were interviewed at baseline and 6 months to assess attitudes about violence, risk factors, fighting and repeat injury. Results 227 families were recruited with 23% refusing participation and 4% partial interview completion. 166 families were enrolled with 87 randomized to the intervention group and 79 in the comparison group; 118 (71%) completed both youth and parent follow-up interviews and 113 had usable data. Intervention and comparison groups were not significantly different at baseline on demographics or risk factors except for increased knife carrying and less deviant peers in the intervention group. After adjustment for baseline differences, there was a trend toward significant program effect including reducing misdemeanor activity (rate ratio 0.29, confidence interval 0.08–0.98), youth-reported aggression scores (rate ratio .63, 0.4–1.00) and increasing youth self efficacy (beta=2.28, p<.05). Program impact was associated with number of intervention sessions received. Conclusions A community-based, mentor-implemented program with assault-injured youth presenting to the ED trended in the direction of decreased violence with reduced misdemeanors and increased self efficacy. The ED may be an important contact location, and injuries an important context, for augmenting self efficacy for violence prevention. PMID:18977971

Cheng, Tina L.; Haynie, Denise; Brenner, Ruth; Wright, Joseph L.; Chung, Shang-en; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2008-01-01

168

Teen Dating Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: School Violence Data & Statistics Risk & Protective Factors Prevention Prevention Tools & ... suicide Additionally, youth who are victims of dating violence in high school are at higher risk for victimization during college. ...

169

The role of trait anxiety in reducing the relationship between childhood exposure to violence/victimization and subsequent violent behavior among male delinquent youth.  

PubMed

In this project, the authors examined the relationship trait anxiety has on incarcerated male adolescents' progression from childhood exposure to violence/victimization to violent behavior. Self-report survey data were analyzed to determine the youth's levels of trait anxiety, how the degree of childhood trauma was related to their level of anxiety, as well as whether their level of anxiety affected the relationship between trauma and subsequent frequency and severity of their delinquent acts using a moderation analysis. Anxiety significantly decreased the relationship between victimization and the commission of violence (F = 15.93, p < .001). PMID:22627688

Jencks, Jennifer W; Burton, David L

2013-08-01

170

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Executive Summary #12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence;Executive Summary Gun shows are surrounded by controversy. On the one hand, they are important economic

Nguyen, Danh

171

Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

172

Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.  

PubMed

Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup. PMID:21188487

Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

2011-08-01

173

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

174

A Delphi Approach to Reach Consensus on Primary Care Guidelines regarding Youth Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Anticipatory guidance is a cornerstone of modern pediatric practice. In recognition of its importance for child well being, injury prevention counseling is a standard element of that guidance. Over the last 20 years, there has been growing recognition that intentional injury or violence is one of the leading causes of morbidity and…

De Vos, Edward; Spivak, Howard; Hatmaker-Flanigan, Elizabeth; Sege, Robert D.

2007-01-01

175

Sexual Violence and Youth in South Africa: The Need for Community-Based Prevention Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: South Africa is reported to have one of the highest rates of sexual violence in the world, with adolescent girls between the ages of 12-17 being particularly at risk. Given that adolescence is considered a critical developmental period for establishing normative sexual behavior, this study explored multiple levels of risk influences…

Petersen, Inge; Bhana, Arvin; McKay, Mary

2005-01-01

176

Constructing Meaning About Violence, School, and Community: Participatory Action Research with Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I describe how a group of young adolescents negotiate their daily lives within the seeming permanence of a toxic environment, limited social services, poverty, crime, drugs, and inadequate educational resources. The world that the young people described in this paper inhabit is a world of despair and hope, chaos and silence, violence and peace, struggle and possibility—a

Alice McIntyre

2000-01-01

177

Youth Violence and the Language Arts: A Topic for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that by reading relevant literature, examining films, essays, and music lyrics, and listening closely to students themselves, both teachers and students can come to better understand violence. Reviews specific works of literature and subject areas covered in a lower-level college literature course and a high school English class. Includes…

Carey-Webb, Allen

1995-01-01

178

Educating Youth for a World beyond Violence: A Pedagogy for Peace. Education, Politics and Public Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a time of unprecedented social and economic crisis, this book represents a challenge to the orthodoxy that shapes the vision of educational purpose. It argues that now, more than ever, there is a moral imperative for educators to assume responsibility for helping to bring about a culture of peace and non-violence in both the nation and…

Shapiro, H. Svi

2010-01-01

179

Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and

Luc Malemo Kalisya; Paluku Lussy Justin; Christophe Kimona; Kavira Nyavandu; Kamabu Mukekulu Eugenie; Kasereka Muhindo Lusi Jonathan; Kasereka Masumbuko Claude; Michael Hawkes; James G. Scott

2011-01-01

180

Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... Look Ahead and Take Action 2015: Making a Difference for Youth Experiencing Homelessness – A National Perspective Partnerships ... and Community Service General Services Administration Office of Management and Budget U.S. Postal Service White House Office ...

181

Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence  

PubMed Central

The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

2013-01-01

182

Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Victimization. OJJDP Youth Violence Research Bulletin, February 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being a victim of crime is a relatively common experience for both adolescents and adults. However, victimization is more widespread among adolescents, and its relationship to various problem outcomes tends to be stronger among adolescent victims than adult victims. The study described in this Bulletin uses data from the National Youth Survey to…

Menard, Scott

183

Existential Theory: Helping School Counselors Attend to Youth at Risk for Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this article are (a) to introduce the existential perspective as a viable theoretical framework for school counselors to utilize when addressing possible violent behavior in youth; and (b) to present a case study that introduces possible school counselor case conceptualization and interventions designed to address the existential…

Carlson, Laurie A.

2003-01-01

184

The Relationship Between Gun and Gun Buyer Characteristics and Firearm Time-to-Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gun violence continues to be a major crime control problem in many metropolitan cities in America. To comprehend this problem more completely, this study seeks to develop an understanding of the dynamics of illegal firearm markets in one particular city: Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In particular, the characteristics of guns and gun buyers that are related to fast firearm time-to-crime are identified.

Steven G. Brandl; Meghan S. Stroshine

2011-01-01

185

"Like a family but better because you can actually trust each other": the Expect Respect dating violence prevention program for at-risk youth.  

PubMed

Expect Respect, a teen dating violence prevention program, was among four programs selected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to participate in an empowerment evaluation project. As one aspect of this project, a qualitative study was designed to investigate the effects of Expect Respect support groups for at-risk youth. The goal was to understand the "how and why" of the program's impact on participants. Group interviews were conducted with five boys' and five girls' support groups after completion of the program. Settings included public middle and high schools and alternative schools in juvenile detention. Participants were asked to describe significant learning experiences in support groups as well as changes in their relationships resulting from program participation. Youths across all groups reported learning new skills including improved communication, anger control, and alternatives to violence. They reported increased knowledge about healthy relationships and warning signs of dating violence and expanded awareness of their own and others' abusive behaviors. Changed relationship norms were uniquely expressed by a boys' group in juvenile detention. Findings indicate that the experience of emotional safety in groups and positive relationships among group members were instrumental in the learning process. PMID:19136445

Ball, Barbara; Kerig, Patricia K; Rosenbluth, Barri

2009-01-01

186

School Violence: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the school nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and development of violence prevention strategies in the school and community, offering an overview of school violence; risk factors for youth violence (gender, age, race, ethnicity, behavior, family, school, and community); risk factors for school shootings; and implications for…

Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper

2002-01-01

187

Guns, Southernness, and gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southerners have been found to have higher levels of gun ownership than persons who reside elsewhere. This may be due to cultural factors peculiar to the Southern region. If so, this would have interesting implications for gun control initiatives. Although the differential in gun ownership has been linked to varying support or opposition to gun control, the relationship between this

Pauline Gasdow Brennan; Alan J. Lizotte; David McDowall

1993-01-01

188

Releasing Their Stories: A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Histories of Mental Health Issues and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often the narratives of youth self-exploration and experience are lost in a drive to prevent, diagnose, or respond to youth-led crime. This exploratory qualitative study looks at and documents the life histories of youth concurrently involved in the juvenile justice system and in clinical treatment independent of the crimes they committed. A purposive sample of 9 male juvenile-justice-involved youth

Tina Maschi; Jennifer Perillo; Deborah Courtney

2011-01-01

189

Various Viewpoints on Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

Klemm, Bonita; And Others

1995-01-01

190

Gun Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... though guns are featured in many television shows, video games, computer games, and movies, it's important to know ... could only happen on TV, in movies, or video games. A real gun is never a toy, and ...

191

Violence in adolescents' romantic relationships: findings from a survey amongst school-going youth in a South African community.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a study of heterosexual adolescent dating violence among secondary school students in a South African community. Approximately half of the surveyed males, and just over half of the surveyed females reported involvement in a physically violent dating relationship either as a perpetrator and/or victim. The study found significant associations between the beliefs about violence in a romantic relationship, the witnessing of physical violence in friendship contexts, the use of alcohol and adolescent dating violence. A significant association between familial variables and adolescent dating violence was only found for male participants. No significant association was found between religious participation and adolescent dating violence. The implications for prevention are discussed in an attempt to demonstrate the potential of local information that identifies risk factors for the development of appropriate community- and schools-based intervention programmes. PMID:12175995

Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Stevens, Garth; Ricardo, Izabel

2002-08-01

192

Gun Safety  

MedlinePLUS

Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

193

Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

Kleck, Gary

1979-01-01

194

76 FR 62291 - National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...experience domestic violence are at a higher risk for failure in school, emotional disorders...perpetuate the cycle of violence themselves later...to play in ending violence against youth...and fathers, and schools and...

2011-10-07

195

TELEVISION VIOLENCE AND KIDS' BEHAVIOUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the televised violence on children and their exposure to television violence. Since children are very visual learners, they model both the positive and negative the behaviors they see. This paper also reviews the television violence effect on the child's youth, which can also affect his or her adulthood. Some psychologists and psychiatrists feel that continued exposure to

MIRZA JAN

196

Are medical societies developing a standard for gun injury prevention?  

PubMed Central

Context: Following heightened gun violence in the 1990s, many medical societies in the United States adopted policies on the topic. Objective: Identify points of firearm violence policy agreement among large medical organizations. Design: Fourteen national medical societies—clinical focus, demonstrated interest in gun injury prevention, >2000 members—were selected for policy review in 2002. Policies were categorized on areas covered and items within these. Consensus areas were addressed by ?7/14 societies.Consensus items were included by ?7/14 societies, shared items by 5–6. Results: There were five consensus areas: access prevention, gun commerce, research, public education, and clinical counseling. There were four consensus items: restricting gun access by enforcing existing laws, restricting access to all guns at the point of sale, restricting access to handguns at the point of sale, and creating a national database on gun injury and death. Shared items promote violence prevention, clinical education on risks of guns in the home, treating guns as consumer products, restricting gun access to children, bans on automatic weapons, and promoting trigger locks. Conclusions: Large medical societies in the United States agree on key approaches for reducing gun injury mortality and morbidity. Future research will be needed to track the evolution of this emerging standard for physician action, which now includes the consensus areas and items. It promises to be, in effect, a medical standard of care for gun injury prevention. The United States experience may be useful to others working on gun injury prevention. PMID:15178674

Longjohn, M; Christoffel, K

2004-01-01

197

Different Concepts of Ethnicity in a Cross-Atlantic Study of Violence and Drug Use among Deviant Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their common multi-ethnic populations, the meaning and application of the term ethnicity varies between the United States, Canada and the Netherlands. This paper attempts the construction of a racial\\/ethnic measure that enables meaningful cross-national comparisons. As part of the Drugs, Alcohol and Violence International (DAVI) project, the link between different measures of ethnicity and alcohol use, drug use, violence,

Annemieke Benschop; Lana D. Harrison; Dirk J. Korf; Patricia G. Erickson

2006-01-01

198

Building Community Capacity for Violence Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The capacity of communities to prevent violence is examined from three perspectives: youth violence, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence. The analysis suggests that community social control and collective efficacy are significant protective factors for all three types of violence, but these need to be further distinguished for their…

Sabol, William J.; Coulton, Claudia J.; Korbin, Jill E.

2004-01-01

199

Violence in Adolescents' Romantic Relationships: Findings from a Survey amongst School-Going Youth in a South African Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study of heterosexual adolescent dating violence among secondary school students in a South African community. Approximately half of the surveyed males, and just over half of the surveyed females reported involvement in a physically violent dating relationship either as a perpetrator and/or victim. The study found…

Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Stevens, Garth; Ricardo, Izabel

2002-01-01

200

The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, drawing on approximately 1,100 males from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, demonstrates the importance of genetics, and genetic-environmental interactions, for understanding adolescent delinquency and violence. Our analyses show that three genetic polymorphisms--specifically, the 30-bp promoter-region variable…

Guo, Guang; Roettger, Michael E.; Cai, Tianji

2008-01-01

201

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

202

Developing ethical leadership in youth to reduce violence among them: a resource for the church and society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifeworlds and problems that lead some young people to lives of violence, crime, cognitive and academic deficiencies, substance and alcohol abuse and\\/or other anti-social behaviors is one of the most serious problems facing our nation as we enter the new millennium. In order to critically examine this problem attention is first given to the issue of identity formation, the

Gregory E. Coles

2001-01-01

203

Holocaust Youth and Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Holocaust study for youth becomes integrated into the U.S. educational structure, educators throughout the country are going to need resources that combine history and humanity to convey to young people the impact of tragedy and violence that World War II and the Holocaust had on the youth of a particular time in the 20th century. This paper…

Clark, Joanna

204

Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use,…

Sundaram, Vanita

2013-01-01

205

Prevention of youth injuries.  

PubMed Central

There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

1999-01-01

206

HUMAN CAPITAL Summer jobs reduce violence among  

E-print Network

as that of their white counterparts (5). Poverty scholar W. J. Wilson identifies one major cause of these racial violence arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. E very day

Napp, Nils

207

Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

McGee, Zina T.

1999-01-01

208

Gene Gun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the gene gun works to transform cells with new DNA. This is thesixth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of cropgenetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Modification. To go to the next animation, go to Backcross Breeding.)

209

Spectrometer gun  

DOEpatents

A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

1981-11-03

210

Spectrometer gun  

DOEpatents

A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

211

Building community capacity for violence prevention.  

PubMed

The capacity of communities to prevent violence is examined from three perspectives: youth violence, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence. The analysis suggests that community social control and collective efficacy are significant protective factors for all three types of violence, but these need to be further distinguished for their relationships to private, parochial, and state controls. It is argued that strong interpersonal ties are not the only contributor to collective efficacy and violence prevention. Weak ties, including those outside the community, and organizational ties are also seen as necessary. Violence prevention programs should be structured in ways that contribute to the communities' own capacity to prevent violence. PMID:15005995

Sabol, William J; Coulton, Claudia J; Korbin, Jill E

2004-03-01

212

Illinois Youth Summit, 2001. Resource Guide for Students and Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now in its seventh year, the Illinois Youth Summit focuses on issues of violence affecting youth. On December 5, 2000, representatives from 21 high school classrooms across Illinois met to determine youth safety issues of greatest relevance to students across the state. These students identified three sources of violence to address at the 2001…

Constitutional Rights Foundation, Chicago, IL.

213

Workplace and Family and Relationship Violence  

E-print Network

Workplace and Family and Relationship Violence Policy 7.05 Applies to: Faculty, staff, graduate/31/2006, renamed Workplace and Family and Relationship Violence Edited: 04/01/2006 Revised: 09/01/2011 #12;.pdf Choices for Victims of Domestic Violence 24 hour crisis/shelter (includes youth issues/referrals), 614

Howat, Ian M.

214

Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

2009-01-01

215

Violence in the Media  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many think that television and other media are primarily responsible for the aggressiveness of American youth and the youth of Western nations. Several experimental and longitudinal studies have provided considerable support to this claim. However, there are those who outright deny that the media has any influence on aggressive behavior. The debate over media violence and its impact on society is addressed in this chapter.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

216

Aggressive Behavior among Rural Minority Youth: Concerns for Schools and the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two cases of youth violence in southwestern New Mexico, one involving an Anglo youth and one a Mexican American youth, highlight the diversity of the area and the biased treatment of Mexican American youth. New Mexico demographics suggest a link between diversity and high rates of crime and violence. National reports clearly report the extent of…

French, Laurence Armand

217

Water gun vs air gun: A comparison  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

1984-01-01

218

1998 National Gun Policy Survey of the National Opinion Research Center: Research Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research in 1999 released a final report based on the research findings of a national survey on gun policies. The 64-page study reports on topics such as the regulation of firearms, gun ownership and use, knowledge and attitudes toward guns, gun violence, and safety issues. The report includes thirteen statistical tables and concludes that the American public strongly supports "legislation to regulate firearms, make guns safer, and reduce the accessibility of firearms to criminals and children."

Smith, Tom W.

219

A Cross-National Comparison of Externalizing Behaviors among High-Risk Youth and Youth Gang Members in Metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, and San Salvador, El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth interventions often focus on high-risk youth; however, little is known about the similarities and differences of these youth cross-nationally. This study examines externalizing behaviors of youth in Boston (n = 374) and San Salvador (n = 208) and compares several domains. Results reveal significant differences between populations; Salvadoran youth exhibited higher rates of violence and delinquency, marijuana use, and

René Olate; Christopher Salas-Wright; Michael G. Vaughn

2011-01-01

220

Gun Control vs. Gun Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website from opensecrets.org (see the July 30, 1999 Scout Report) summarizes the current state of the debate including the positions of the interest groups on both sides and, most revealingly, offers statistics on campaign contributions from both sides of the debate to Congress. In addition, links are provided to a congressperson-by-congressperson breakdown of voting records vis-a-vis contributions received. Such a site may not resolve the constitutional (and sometimes metaphysical) issues involved in the gun debate, but it gives us a more realistic picture of how the politics of influence impact this issue.

221

The Gun Dispute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)

Spitzer, Robert J.

1999-01-01

222

Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence  

PubMed Central

Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists. PMID:25641992

Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

2014-01-01

223

Attitudes toward Violence Scale: Psychometric Properties with a High School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence represents a serious problem affecting individuals, communities, and the larger society. Greater efforts aimed at the eradication of youth violence are necessary, and work in this field could be enhanced by psychometrically strong measures. The present study examined the factor structure of the Attitudes Toward Violence Scale (ATV)…

Davidson, M. Meghan; Canivez, Gary L.

2012-01-01

224

Aggression and Violence on the Move in Russian Schoolchildren.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of trends in aggression and violence in Russian youth identifies risk factors including political factors, economic factors, ecological factors, the crash of ideals and decrease of morality, cultural factors, family problems, educational aspects, mass media influences, and delinquent groups. Incidents of youth violence and aggression…

Pervova, Irina

1999-01-01

225

DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN COMMUNITY VIOLENCE EXPOSURE AND PERCEIVED NEIGHBORHOOD VIOLENCE  

PubMed Central

Community violence exposure (CVE) has been identified as a significant public health concern given its association with numerous mental health problems. Perceptions of neighborhood violence (PNV) also may adversely affect youth adjustment. In recognition that PNV may differ from individuals own experience of CVE, the current study utilized latent class analysis to examine the degree and consequences of consistency and discrepancy in adolescents community violence exposure and PNV. Participants included an epidemiologically-defined community sample of 456 African American adolescents (52% male; mean age=11.77). Results revealed three groups of youth: high CVE/high PNV, low CVE/low PNV, and low CVE/high PNV. Longitudinal analyses suggest that a discrepancy between CVE and PNV is important for understanding depressive and anxious symptoms among urban African American youth. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:23555155

Cammack, Nicole L.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

226

Pew Interactive Tools: Gun Rights versus Gun Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Research Center has tracked shifting public opinion on gun rights and gun control over the past 20 years. Explore our polling data below to discover how demographics influence public opinion on gun rights and gun control. 

Center, Pew R.

227

Characteristics of a gun exchange program, and an assessment of potential benefits  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To describe a gun exchange program and assess potential benefits for participants and host communities. Methods—Mail survey of participants in a Sacramento, California gun exchange program, August 1993; the response rate was 79%. Comparative data were obtained from nationwide polls of gun owners. Results—Most (62%) respondents were men; 40% were more than 55 years old; none was less than 25. Concern that children might find and use the gun was the most frequently cited reason for participating (46% of respondents). Of 141 firearms exchanged, 72% were handguns; 23% of respondents indicated that the guns they turned in were not in working order. Of respondents who owned a gun at the time of the program (rather than those who owned no guns and turned in a gun owned by someone else), 41% owned no guns after participating; the prevalence of handgun ownership declined from 79% to 32%. Those who continued to own guns were as likely as gun owners nationwide to keep a gun loaded in the house (odds ratio (OR) 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4 to 1.7) or to carry a gun with them (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.6 to 3.8). Conclusions—Gun exchange programs may reduce risk for firearm violence among some participants, but a number of factors limit their overall benefits to host communities. PMID:9788092

Romero, M.; Wintemute, G.; Vernick, J.

1998-01-01

228

No Safe Place: KIDS COUNT Report on Children and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing increasing concerns about rising youth-related crime in Missouri, this Kids Count report on children and violence examines the impact of community and family violence on young perpetrators and victims, and explores characteristics of successful programs to prevent or reduce family and community violence in Missouri. Data suggest that…

Hensley, Melissa; And Others

229

The Overlap of Youth Violence Among Aggressive Adolescents with Past-Year Alcohol Use—A Latent Class Analysis: Aggression and Victimization in Peer and Dating Violence in an Inner City Emergency Department Sample  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify overlap and violence types between peer and dating aggression and victimization using latent class analysis (LCA) among a sample of aggressive adolescents with a history of alcohol use and to identify risk and protective factors associated with each violence class. Method: From September 2006 to September 2009, a systematic sample of patients (14–18 years old) seeking care in an urban emergency department were approached. Adolescents reporting any past-year alcohol use and aggression completed a survey using validated measures including types of violence (severe and moderate aggression, severe and moderate victimization with both peers and dating partners). Using LCA, violence classes were identified; correlates of membership in each LCA class were determined. Results: Among this sample (n = 694), LCA identified three classes described as (a) peer aggression (PA) (52.2%), (b) peer aggression + peer victimization (PAPV) (18.6%), and (c) multiple domains of violence (MDV) (29.3%). Compared with those in the PA class, those in the PAPV class were more likely to be male, report injury in a fight, and have delinquent peers. Compared with the PA class, those in the MDV class were more likely to be female, African American, report injury in a fight, carry a weapon, experience negative consequences from alcohol use, and have delinquent peers and more family conflict. Compared with the PAPV class, those in the MDV class were likely to be female, African American, receive public assistance, carry a weapon, experience negative consequences from alcohol use, and use marijuana. Conclusions: There is extensive overlap of victimization and aggression in both peer and dating relationships. Also, those with high rates of violence across relationships have increased alcohol misuse and marijuana use. Thus, violence-prevention efforts should consider addressing concomitant substance use. PMID:23200158

Whiteside, Lauren K.; Ranney, Megan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Walton, Maureen A.

2013-01-01

230

Preventing Violence After a Natural Disaster  

MedlinePLUS

... Volunteer for work in the shelter, community or school. If you feel you are at risk for violence in your relationship or are concerned about other ... busy. Help others in your shelter, community or school. If you or someone you know is ... Youth Violence Respect others and value differences. Even if you ...

231

School Violence: Preventative, Restorative, and Educative Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently in many Canadian schools, escalated violence presents an evident threat. Rates of severe youth violence are considerably lower than sensational media coverage would have people believe, but at the same time, many young people, as well as adults, do not feel safe, respected, or constructively engaged as they should be. While schools cannot…

Bickmore, Kathy

2008-01-01

232

Seeking Solutions to Violence on Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television Programming on Black…

Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.

233

The Effect of Attachment on Adolescent Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence among American youth is a significant societal problem. The past decade witnessed juvenile arrests for violence, weapons, drugs, and curfew violations peak in the mid 90's. Analogous to the arrest trends for older juveniles, the arrest rate for young offenders rose 63% from 1987 until 1994 when it declined slightly. Since that time,…

Franke, Todd M.

2003-01-01

234

How to Say Things with Guns: Military Technology and the Politics of Robinson Crusoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friday may understand Robinson Crusoe’s gun better than Crusoe does. In the scene noted in the epigraph above, although Friday is innocent of the gun’s inner workings, he sees something that Crusoe has missed: Crusoe’s power to dispense violence, rather than cultural authority or friendship, has started Friday down the path towards civility and virtue. Conversely, Crusoe’s disavowal of his

Christopher F. Loar

2006-01-01

235

Teen Suicide and Guns  

MedlinePLUS

... Problems > Teen Suicide and Guns Health Issues Listen Teen Suicide and Guns Article Body Protect Your Teenager ... thinking of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of ...

236

Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems  

PubMed Central

The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal maternal and early childhood externalizing problems. Social competency and depression during middle childhood moderated the relationship between victimization and violent behaviors for girls, but not boys: Lower levels of social competency and depression served as risk factors for delinquency among teenage girls who experienced victimization during childhood. These findings have important implications for youth violence prevention programs. PMID:21720452

Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

2009-01-01

237

Pathways to Aggression in Urban Elementary School Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the pathways from violence exposure to aggressive behaviors in urban, elementary school youth. We utilized structural equation modeling to examine putative causal pathways between children's exposure to violence, development of posttraumatic stress symptoms, permissive attitudes towards violence, and engagement in aggressive…

Ozkol, Hivren; Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph

2011-01-01

238

"Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun": Getting Real in Upward Bound.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a teacher found literature for Upward Bound students. Presents Geoffrey Canada's "Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America" as a nonfiction work to provide clarity and connections that might not have been available in a fictional work, yet it had elements of literary fiction that made the text engaging. (SG)

Pace, Barbara G.; Adkins, Theresa A.

2002-01-01

239

Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

2004-01-01

240

School Experiences of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) youth are coming out at younger ages, but schools have not changed as fast as the culture, leaving many youth isolated and at risk of violence and harassment. For GLBT youth of color, these problems are exacerbated by racism and the risk of rejection by their ethnic community. Children of GLBT parents…

Holmes, Sarah E.; Cahill, Sean

2004-01-01

241

Inhalant Use by Canadian Aboriginal Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study followed youth who received treatment for inhalant abuse. Many came from backgrounds marked by isolation, poverty, family violence, and substance abuse. Average age the youths first used inhalants was 9.72 years. Model predicted those who abused inhalants immediately before admission, were described as unmotivated in treatment, and were…

Coleman, Heather; Charles, Grant; Collins, Jennifer

2001-01-01

242

Sex Role and Attitudes Toward Institutional Violence Among College Youth: The Impact of Sex-Role Identification, Parental Socialization, and Socio-Cultural Milieu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudinal differences between males and females on certain issues have been repeatedly documented through commercial public polls and academic studies. One of these differences is the greater reluctance on the part of females to support the use of institutional violence as an instrument of public policy. This paper empirically explores the…

Starr, Jerold M.; Cutler, Neal E.

243

Survey of SRF guns  

SciTech Connect

Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

Belomestnykh, S.

2011-07-25

244

Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of…

Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Padilla, Mark B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

2011-01-01

245

Putting Accelerator Technology to Work Fully Superconducting GunFully Superconducting Gun  

E-print Network

Putting Accelerator Technology to Work Fully Superconducting GunFully Superconducting Gun BNL PS Gun LANL/AES NC or AES FS gun e- 1.5-2.5 MeV 500-300 mA CW * e- 1.6-2.8 MeV 500-300 mA CW Beam cavity with low current beam * NC gun with derated gradient FS gun permits 25% higher current Ilan Ben

246

School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents papers from a 1998 conference on school violence in Valparaiso, Indiana. The papers include: "What is School Violence? An Integrated Definition" (Stuart Henry); "Violence in Schools: Rage against a Broken World" (J. Scott Staples); "Listening to What the Streets Say: Vengeance as Ideology?" (Ralph Cintron); "School Violence:…

Hinkle, William G., Ed.; Henry, Stuart, Ed.

2000-01-01

247

Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), showing gun mounting pad, wall rings, small niche, and opening to outside - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Battery Adair, Princeton Place, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

248

Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their\\u000a risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the\\u000a Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe

Lorena M. Estrada-MartinezMark; Mark B. Padilla; Cleopatra Howard Caldwell; Amy Jo Schulz

249

School Violence Continues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An expelled student dressed in all black and carrying two guns opened fire at Gutenberg Gymnasium School in the eastern German city of Erfurt Friday morning, killing 17 people before shooting himself. This tragic incident caused the death of two young girls, 14 teachers, a police officer who responded to the scene, and the gunman. According to police chief Manfred Grube, the gunman, armed with a handgun and a pump-action gun, stalked the corridors and rooms of the school around 9 am (GMT), seeking out adults and then gunning them down. Describing the scene as a "picture of horror," Grube said the 19-year-old gunman fled German commandos as they stormed the building, and shot himself in a classroom. A special church service is due to take place this Friday evening. All the city's bells are to be rung, and flags are being flown at half mast.German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said he was "staggered" by the shooting, and cancelled an election campaign planned to begin on Saturday. Approximately 750 students in grades 5-12 are enrolled at the school, which celebrated its 10th anniversary in December. The shooting came just hours before the German Parliament approved a new bill tightening the country's already strict gun control laws. For more information on this tragic shooting, users may access the first two articles. The third article provides information on the gun law recently passed by Germany's Parliament, and the fourth article provides data regarding the Gutenberg Gymnasium School and the city of Erfurt. Articles 5 through 7 all provide chronological listings of other school shootings around the world, and the last site offers risk factors for school violence compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Green, Marcia.

2002-01-01

250

Same-sex romantic attraction and experiences of violence in adolescence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Recent national attention to hate crimes committed against lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths has highlighted the need to understand this group's experiences of violence. Using nationally representative data, we examine the associations between romantic attraction and experiences of violence, as well as the risk of witnessing violence and perpetrating violence against others. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were examined. Youths reporting same-sex and both-sex romantic attractions were compared with those reporting other-sex attractions. Survey logistic regression was used to control for sample design effects. RESULTS: Youths who report same-sex or both-sex romantic attraction are more likely to experience extreme forms of violence than youths who report other-sex attraction. Youths reporting same-sex and both-sex romantic attractions are also more likely to witness violence. The higher incidence of violence perpetrated by youths attracted to the same sex is explained by their experiences of violence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide strong evidence that youths reporting same-sex or both-sex romantic attraction are at greater risk for experiencing, witnessing, and perpetrating violence. PMID:11392932

Russell, S T; Franz, B T; Driscoll, A K

2001-01-01

251

Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale County, Georgia"…

Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

252

Youth Participation in Youth Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently, adults organize and implement youth projects without involving youth in the process. However, youth should be involved in problem identification and program design because they understand the needs of their peers and how to reach them effectively. This paper examines youth participation as a process for bringing about effective youth

Kothari, Roshani

253

Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: II. Treatment  

PubMed Central

Interventions for youth exposed to family violence recently have incorporated a trauma focus with the objective of reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms along with alleviating other wide-ranging childhood disorders. This paper describes generally agreed-upon treatment components for youth exposed to violence in the home, including re-exposure interventions, education about violence and cognitive restructuring, processing of emotional cues, social problem-solving skills, and parenting interventions. Empirically evaluated treatment programs for different developmental stages (preschool, school-age, and adolescence) are summarized and remaining questions about how to best focus treatment efforts for youth traumatized by family violence are presented. PMID:20104253

Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

2010-01-01

254

Violence and HIV/AIDS prevention among female out-of-school youths in southwestern Nigeria: lessons learnt from interventions targeted at hawkers and apprentices.  

PubMed

Between 1997 and 2003, four studies on hawkers and apprentices in motor parks and work shops in south west, Nigeria were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing HIV infection and gender based violence (GBV). The studies were in 3 phases namely baseline survey, intervention and end line survey. Interventions consisting of:--development and distribution of education materials and training programmes for the police, judiciary, instructors, drivers, traders and apprentices/hawkers, including micro-credit facilities were implemented in some of the studies. The major lessons learnt were that: Young girls working in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy face dual risks of HIV infection and GBV and yet they are seldom targets of intervention; Many had been victims of GBV and did not seek redress either because they accept it is their lot, are afraid of being stigmatized or are put off the prolonged legal system; Perpetrators tend to deny their involvement in violence; Despite the challenges involved, interventions implemented among female apprentices and hawkers, especially those that involve multiple stakeholders, made a difference in protecting this group from dual risks of GBV and HIV/AIDS infection. We recommend more intervention programmes for this population, and regulation of activities in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy. PMID:15977443

Fawole, O I; Ajuwon, A J; Osungbade, K O

2004-12-01

255

Teen Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young ... death. An important risk factor for violence in teens is the behavior of their friends and classmates. ...

256

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening or controlling behavior imposed on a woman by an intimate partner ... an intimate relationship. What are the types of abuse? Abuse can take many forms. Some common types ...

257

Violence Exposure, Sleep Disturbance, and Poor Academic Performance in Middle School  

PubMed Central

Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth. PMID:23315234

Lepore, Stephen J.; Kliewer, Wendy

2013-01-01

258

Violence in America's public schools.  

PubMed

As part of MetLife's series of annual surveys of U.S. public school teachers, the latest survey examined the perceptions of teachers, students and law enforcement officials about violence in their respective schools during 1993. Members of each group recognized violence as a problem in their schools, but the perceived magnitude of the problem differed among the three survey populations. Students reported seeing and fearing violence more than the teachers. Although the majority of teachers and students reported feeling safe in school, 11 percent of teachers and 23 percent of students had been victims of violence. The level of violence reported by teachers and the proportions who reported that weapons were regularly brought to school increased as the perceived quality of the education provided in the school decreased, as the proportion of minority and/or low income students increased, and in urban versus rural/suburban schools. Lack of parental supervision at home and lack of family involvement in school were considered major factors contributing to school violence by at least two-thirds of the teachers and 83 percent or more of the law officers. Sixty-six percent of students reported that guns/knives were carried to school primarily to impress friends or to increase feelings of importance; 38 percent of teachers thought self-protection and/or attempts to impress friends explained why students carried weapons to school. PMID:8009422

Mushinski, M

1994-01-01

259

School Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

2006-01-01

260

Posttraumatic stress hyperarousal symptoms mediate the relationship between childhood exposure to violence and subsequent alcohol misuse in Mi'kmaq youth.  

PubMed

This study was part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Canadian Mi'kmaq community that examined the potential role of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom clusters in mediating the relationship between childhood exposure to violence (EV) and alcohol misuse in a sample of Mi'kmaq adolescents (N = 166). The study employed a cross-sectional design and used several well-validated self-report questionnaires. Path analytic results showed that when each PTS symptom cluster was independently investigated for mediating effects while controlling for depressive symptoms, age, and gender, only the PTS hyperarousal symptom cluster fully mediated the EV-alcohol misuse relationship. Results are discussed within the context of previous theory and research on the topic of PTS as a mediator between EV and alcohol misuse. PMID:21898600

Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H; Sherry, Simon B; Stevens, Doreen; Wekerle, Christine

2011-10-01

261

Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization among U.S. High School Students, 1999-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence is a serious form of violence that places students at risk for injury, death, and negative mental health sequelae. The current analysis presents data on the prevalence of dating violence over a 12-year period among a nationally representative sample of high school-attending youth in the United States, stratified by race and gender.…

Rothman, Emily F.; Xuan, Ziming

2014-01-01

262

Mental Health Service Use among High School Students Exposed to Interpersonal Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Violence-exposed youth rarely receive mental health services, even though exposure increases risk for academic and psychosocial problems. This study examines the association between violence exposure and mental health service contact. The 4 forms of violence exposure were peer, family, sexual, and witnessing. Methods: Data are from…

Green, Jennifer Greif; Johnson, Renee M.; Dunn, Erin C.; Lindsey, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

2014-01-01

263

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Reports of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among U.S. Adolescent Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study, based upon the national 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of U.S. high school students, provides the most current and representative data on physical dating violence among adolescent males (N = 6,528) The dependent variable was physical dating violence. The independent variables included four dimensions: violence, suicide,…

Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yah, Fang

2008-01-01

264

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Reports of Physical Dating Violence among U.S. Adolescent Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study, based upon the national 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of U.S. high school students, provides the most current and representative data on dating violence among adolescent females (N = 7,179). The dependent variable was physical dating violence. The independent variables included four dimensions: violence, suicide, substance…

Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yan, Fang

2007-01-01

265

Evaluating risk for targeted violence in schools: Comparing risk assessment, threat assessment, and other approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of recent school shootings, fear over violence in schools has prompted increased requests for psychologists, educators, and law enforcement professionals to assist in preventing future school violence incidents. We attempt to lay a foundation for developing effective assess- ment and prevention approaches by first distinguishing planned school-based attacks from other forms of school and youth violence. We

Marisa Reddy; Randy Borum; John Berglund; Bryan Vossekuil; Robert Fein; William Modzeleski

2001-01-01

266

Victories over Violence: The Quest for Safe Schools and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Periodic mass school shootings and the steady slaughter of youth on the streets of our cities are both products of cultures of violence. The authors highlight key factors that promote or prevent such acts, beginning with the little-known account of a young boy who perpetuated the most deadly school violence in history.

Mitchell, Martin L.; Brendtro, Larry K.

2013-01-01

267

Impact of violence exposure on urban middle school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to violence has reached epidemic proportions among youth in the United States in recent years (Fingerhut & Klemman, 1990; Finkelhor & Dzuiba-Leatherman, 1994). Recently, efforts to quantify violence exposure, both direct victimization and victimization through witnessing, have been initiated. Additionally, researchers have begun to explore the effect such exposure exerts on its victims. The present study was designed to

Carie Hand McGauley

1998-01-01

268

Preventing Violence in Schools. Information Capsule. Volume 0906  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on the causes and incidence of youth violence and summarizes violence prevention strategies used in schools across the country. Particular attention is devoted to the use of metal detectors in schools. It would cost an estimated $32.5 million to implement a metal detection program in all of the District's…

Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2009

2009-01-01

269

High Velocity Gas Gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

1988-01-01

270

RF Gun Optimization Study  

SciTech Connect

Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. RF and SRF gun design is further complicated because the bunches are space charge dominated and require additional emittance compensation. A genetic algorithm has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs for Cornell* and Jefferson Lab**, and we propose studying how the genetic algorithm techniques can be applied to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize gun designs that have been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

A. S. Hofler; P. Evtushenko; M. Krasilnikov

2007-08-01

271

Gas gun dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanics and thermodynamics of one- and two-stage gas guns are developed. Very high projectile muzzle speed can be obtained by the two-stage version. The physics of simple gas guns, such as air rifles, is accessible to undergraduates and the same level of presentation is used here to understand more complex designs. Numerical solutions to the equations of motion are shown, along with insightful analytic approximations.

Denny, Mark

2013-09-01

272

Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This yearbook compiles information on research findings on children and youth and media violence, as seen from the perspective of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child. The thematic focus of the yearbook is on the influence of children's exposure to media violence. Section 1 of the yearbook, "Children and Media on the UN…

Carlsson, Ulla, Ed.; von Feilitzen, Cecilia, Ed.

273

Does Parenting Mediate the Effects of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior? An Ecological-Transactional Model of Community Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three waves of longitudinal data from a high poverty sample of 1544 African American youth were used to test an ecological-transactional model of violence. SEM analyses were conducted to determine whether parenting (Time 2) mediated the effects of exposure to violence (Time 1) on violent behaviors (Time 3). Findings supported the specified model.…

Spano, Richard; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Bolland, John

2009-01-01

274

Prevention of Youth and Gang Violence. Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (June 13, 2005) S. Hrg. 109-77  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During this hearing, the Committee heard testimony on the issue of juvenile violence. Juvenile violence is a problem nationally of epidemic proportion, a very, very serious problem in the city of Philadelphia and in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. In the first five months of this year there has been an enormous increase in juvenile violence with…

US Senate, 2005

2005-01-01

275

What Canadian Youth Tell Us about Disclosing Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To report findings from a study of anonymous disclosures of abuse experiences among a national sample of youth in Canada who participated in violence prevention programming. Methods: A qualitative analysis was done of a purposeful sample of 1,099 evaluation forms completed following Red Cross RespectED violence prevention programming…

Ungar, Michael; Tutty, Leslie M.; McConnell, Sheri; Barter, Ken; Fairholm, Judi

2009-01-01

276

Firearm Retailers’ Willingness to Participate in an Illegal Gun Purchase  

PubMed Central

Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or “straw” purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99–21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun’s use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9489-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20803095

2010-01-01

277

Examining How Neighborhood Disadvantage Influences Trajectories of Adolescent Violence: A Look at Social Bonding and Psychological Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To understand how neighborhoods influence the development of youth violence, we investigated intrapersonal mediators of the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and youth violence trajectories between ages 11 and 18. The hypothesized mediators included indicators of social bonding (belief in conventional values, involvement…

Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.

2011-01-01

278

Belief in a just world as it relates to causal attributions for gun-related incidents and attitudes toward gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although belief in a just world (Lerner, 1978) has been studied extensively in the rape literature, and to a lesser extent in other instances of victimization, there have been no studies to date exploring the role of just world views on victim blaming in situations of gun violence. As such, this study examined the theoretical relationship between just world views

Joanna Gallant

2005-01-01

279

Youth Gangs and Schools: The Need for Intervention and Prevention Strategies. Occasional Paper #1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers an analysis of urban youth gangs and intervention and prevention strategies for schools, and describes an example of a Cleveland (Ohio) school-wide response. After reviewing the scope of the problem and recent attention to gangs and youth violence, the paper looks at why youth join gangs and lists 12 conditions. Another section…

Trump, Kenneth S.

280

Mole gun injury.  

PubMed

A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. PMID:23746826

Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

2013-09-01

281

Assessing and Managing Violence Risk in Juveniles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highly practical and accessible, this is an indispensable resource for any mental health practitioner working with adolescents at risk for violent behavior. Presented is a comprehensive framework for evaluating justice-involved youth or those whose behavior in school, therapy sessions, or other contexts raises concern about violence. Detailed case…

Borum, Randy; Verhaagen, David

2006-01-01

282

Aggression and Violence in the United States: Reflections on the Virginia Tech Shootings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggression and violence in the United States remain vexing problems that require several key responses. First, universal prevention programs and targeted treatment strategies for people at risk of aggressive behavior are needed to address the established link between mental illness and the potential for violence. Sadly, many perpetrators of gun

Jenson, Jeffrey M.

2007-01-01

283

Dating Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

Stader, David L.

2011-01-01

284

Violence reduction.  

PubMed

As one of the first violence-reduction nurses in the country, Alice Kershberg gathers data on the assaults against people who have presented to her emergency department, and works with the police and local councils to reduce violence in her local community. Here, Ms Kershberg talks to Erin Dean about her role and aspects of her career. PMID:24689483

Dean, Erin; Kershberg, Alice

2014-04-01

285

Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a general level, domestic violence can be defined as the means used by a man in order to assert his control and domination over his intimate partner, whether they are married or not (Mullender 1996). It can involve incidents of physical and sexual violence, as well as verbal, psychological and financial abuse. Though some of its manifestations may be

Simon Lapierre

2009-01-01

286

Violence Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Mental Health and Social Services (continued) Percentage of Schools Providing Violence Prevention Services in One-on-One or Small- ... Healthy and Safe School Environment • 30.6% of schools had or participated in a program to prevent gang violence. • The percentage of districts that required schools to ...

287

Glue Guns: Aiming for Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While glue guns are very useful, there are safety issues. Regardless of the temperature setting, glue guns can burn skin. The teacher should demonstrate and supervise the use of glue guns and have a plan should a student get burned. There should be an initial first aid protocol in place, followed by a visit to the school nurse. An accident report…

Roy, Ken

2010-01-01

288

Hot hollow cathode gun assembly  

DOEpatents

A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, J.D.

1983-11-22

289

Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly  

DOEpatents

A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1985-01-01

290

Reactions to Dating Violence among Latino Teenagers: An Experiment Utilizing the Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence is a serious problem among adolescents and young adults. Understanding teens' reactions to dating violence offers the potential to understand the factors that lead to perpetration of violent behavior and to elucidate prevention strategies. Knowledge concerning youth attitudes about dating violence is limited, and has largely come…

Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Jaycox, Lisa H.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Zander-Cotugno, Megan; Marshall, Grant N.; Shelley, Gene A.

2007-01-01

291

Rail Gun Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Rail Gun Model simulates a rail gun created by running current through long rods generating a magnetic field that accelerates a current-carrying cross-rod. The simulation shows the generated magnetic field. Users can adjust the current in the rails and rod as well as the spacing between the rails. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Rail Gun model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_RailGun.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Cox, Anne

2009-09-18

292

The Rail Gun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…

Stewart, Gay B.

1996-01-01

293

The Co-Occurrence of Physical and Cyber Dating Violence and Bullying Among Teens.  

PubMed

This study examined the overlap in teen dating violence and bullying perpetration and victimization, with regard to acts of physical violence, psychological abuse, and-for the first time ever-digitally perpetrated cyber abuse. A total of 5,647 youth (51% female, 74% White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey. Results indicated substantial co-occurrence of all types of teen dating violence and bullying. Youth who perpetrated and/or experienced physical, psychological, and cyber bullying were likely to have also perpetrated/experienced physical and sexual dating violence, and psychological and cyber dating abuse. PMID:25038223

Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela

2014-07-18

294

Violent Media, Guns and Moral Panics: The Columbine High School Massacre, 20 April 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in a historical perspective. Describes the shootings in Littleton and the high school shootings since 1996. Interprets the possible reasons for the Columbine shootings, such as the role of the high school, access to guns, and violence in the mass media. (CMK)

Springhall, John

1999-01-01

295

Developing a trauma-informed, emergency department-based intervention for victims of urban violence.  

PubMed

The Surgeon General's report on youth violence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other national organizations are calling for public health approaches to the issue of youth violence. Hospital-based violence intervention programs have shown promise in reducing recurrent violence and decreasing future involvement in the criminal justice system. These programs seldom address trauma-related symptoms. We describe a conceptual framework for emergency department-based and hospital-based violence intervention programs that intentionally addresses trauma. The intervention described--Healing Hurt People--is a trauma-informed program designed to intervene in the lives of injured patients at the life-changing moment of violent injury. This community-focused program seeks to reduce recurrent violence among 8- to 30-year-olds through opportunities for healing and connection. Healing Hurt People considers the adversity that patients have experienced during their lives and seeks to break the cycle of violence by addressing this trauma. PMID:21967178

Corbin, Theodore J; Rich, John A; Bloom, Sandra L; Delgado, Dionne; Rich, Linda J; Wilson, Ann S

2011-01-01

296

On Youth Crime and the Juvenile Court  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a thoughtful and provocative essay, Abbe Smith has provided a forceful defense of the juvenile court in response to critics who predict or advocate its demise. She tells a poignant and compelling story of urban youth deprived of their childhood and hope for the future by poverty and racism, drugs and violence, decaying neighborhoods and blighted housing, bad schools

Stephen Wizner

1995-01-01

297

Correlates of Polyvictimization Among African American Youth: An Exploratory Study.  

PubMed

African American adolescents are exposed to high rates of community violence, and recent evidence indicates that these youth may also be at high risk of polyvictimization. Guided by an ecological approach, this study explored individual, familial, and extra-familial correlates of single and multiple forms of violence exposures (i.e., witnessing verbal parental aggression, witnessing or being a victim of community violence exposures) among a sample of 563 urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated that boys reported higher levels of polyvictimization than girls. In addition, the correlates of violence exposures varied by typology and gender. These findings support the development and use of gender-oriented approaches for identifying youth at risk of various types of violence exposures. PMID:25392381

Elsaesser, Caitlin M; Voisin, Dexter R

2014-11-11

298

Beliefs about the risks of guns in the home: analysis of a national survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives—While epidemiological evidence suggests homes with guns are more likely to be the site of a suicide or homicide than homes without guns, the public's perception of these risks remains unknown. This study assesses the prevalence of the belief that homes with guns are safer than homes without guns, and factors associated with this belief. Methods—Telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 4138 registered voters in urban areas in the US. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess correlates of beliefs about the safety of keeping a gun in the home. Results—Twenty nine per cent of respondents believed keeping a gun in the home makes the home more safe, 40% said less safe, 23% said it depends, and 9% were unsure. The belief that a home is more safe with a gun was associated with being male, young, completing 12 years or fewer of education, having no children living at home, Republican party affiliation, and low levels of trust in the police for protection. Prior exposure to violence and fear of victimization were not associated with the outcome. Conclusions—Findings may increase understanding about the public's perception of the risk in keeping guns in the home and assist educational efforts to decrease the risk of these injuries. PMID:10628918

Howard, K. A.; Webster, D.; Vernick, J.

1999-01-01

299

Violence as a barrier to compliance for the hypertensive urban African American.  

PubMed Central

Violence is now recognized as a health epidemic. Violence is especially prevalent in inner-city African-American communities. Most of the attention has focused on youths. However, the effects of violence extend to the communities' hypertensive patients. Patients are subjected to the emotional impact of violence on and individual level. Studies linking stress, with hypertension have not directly addressed the role of violence. As a group, they suffer from violence's diverting of funds in the health-care system. For this particular subgroup, violence is ingrained in their daily lives. Their coping mechanisms often place compliance with antihypertensive measures in jeopardy. Community intervention is needed to address the violence. However, primary care physicians in these communities must inquire about the impact violence has on their hypertensive patients to eliminate possible compliance barriers. PMID:7731070

Fong, R. L.

1995-01-01

300

The Relationship between Adolescents' Experience of Family Violence and Dating Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether experiences of familial victimization and aggression are potential risk factors for dating violence in male and female teenage relationships. The authors compare 471 adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the care of a youth protection agency and from a community sample. Results show that adolescents carry negative childhood…

Laporte, Lise; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra J.; Chamberland, Claire

2011-01-01

301

RF Gun Optimization Study  

SciTech Connect

Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

2007-07-03

302

The polarized SRF gun experiment.  

SciTech Connect

RF electron guns are capable of producing electron bunches with high brightness, which outperform DC electron guns and may even be able to provide electron beams for the ILC without the need for a damping ring. However, all successful existing guns for polarized electrons are DC guns because the environment inside an RF gun is hostile to the GaAs cathode material necessary for polarization. While the typical vacuum pressure in a DC gun is better than 10{sup -11} torr the vacuum in an RF gun is in the order of 10{sup -9} torr. Experiments at BINP Novosibirsk show that this leads to strong ion back-bombardment and generation of dark currents, which destroy the GaAs cathode in a short time. The situation might be much more favorable in a (super-conducting) SRF gun. The cryogenic pumping of the gun cavity walls may make it possible to maintain a vacuum close to 10{sup -12} torr, solving the problem of ion bombardment and dark currents. Of concern would be contamination of the gun cavity by evaporating cathode material. This report describes an experiment that Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in collaboration with Advanced Energy Systems (AES) is conducting to answer these questions.

Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Grover, R.; Todd, R.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

2007-09-10

303

The Polarized SRF Gun Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RF electron guns are capable of producing electron bunches with high brightness, which outperform DC electron guns and may even be able to provide electron beams for the ILC without the need for a damping ring. However, all successful existing guns for polarized electrons are DC guns because the environment inside an RF gun is hostile to the GaAs cathode material necessary for polarization. While the typical vacuum pressure in a DC gun is better than 10-11 torr the vacuum in an RF gun is in the order of 10-9 torr. Experiments at BINP Novosibirsk show that this leads to strong ion back-bombardment and generation of dark currents, which destroy the GaAs cathode in a short time. The situation might be much more favorable in a (super-conducting) SRF gun. The cryogenic pumping of the gun cavity walls may make it possible to maintain a vacuum close to 10-12 torr, solving the problem of ion bombardment and dark currents. Of concern would be contamination of the gun cavity by evaporating cathode material. This report describes an experiment that Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in collaboration with Advanced Energy Systems (AES) is conducting to answer these questions.

Kewisch, J?rg; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Rao, Triveni; Burrill, Andrew; Pate, David; Grover, Ranjan; Todd, Rob; Bluem, Hans; Holmes, Doug; Schultheiss, Tom

2008-02-01

304

Depressive symptoms among Jordanian youth: results of a national survey.  

PubMed

This study examines level of depression and factors associated with depression among female and male youth in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey conducted among a national sample of 14-25 year old youth attending educational institutions in Jordan (N = 8,129). On average, respondents reported frequently experiencing feelings of sadness (66 %), loss of joy (49 %) and loss of hope in living (43 %). Regression models demonstrated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were observed among females and among youth exposed to violence. Better parent-child relationships were associated with lower depression score. Among males depressive symptoms were associated with poor economic status, low assertiveness and a higher likelihood of alcohol use and smoking. There is a need for mental health prevention programs for youth in Jordan that enhance youth's social and emotional skills, strengthen parent-child relationships, and reduce violence in school, home and in the community. PMID:22820930

Ismayilova, Leyla; Hmoud, Olimat; Alkhasawneh, Esra; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila

2013-02-01

305

Friction in rail guns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

Kay, P. K.

1984-01-01

306

Improved DC Gun Insulator  

SciTech Connect

Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

2009-05-01

307

The ALS Gun Electronics system  

SciTech Connect

The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters.

Lo, C.C.

1993-05-01

308

Reducing firearm violence: a research agenda  

PubMed Central

In the United States, firearms are involved in tens of thousands of deaths and injuries each year. The magnitude of this problem prompted the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to issue a report in 2004 detailing the strengths and limitations of existing research on the relationship between firearms and violence. In response, a multidisciplinary group of experts in the field of firearms and violence formed the National Research Collaborative on Firearm Violence. The Collaborative met for 2?days in June 2005 to (1) critically review the main findings of the NAS report and (2) define a research agenda that could fill research and data gaps and inform policy that reduces gun?related crime, deaths and injuries. This article summarizes the Collaborative's conclusions and identifies priorities for research and funding. PMID:17446246

Weiner, Janet; Wiebe, Douglas J; Richmond, Therese S; Beam, Kristen; Berman, Alan L; Branas, Charles C; Cheney, Rose A; Coyne?Beasley, Tamera; Firman, John; Fishbein, Martin; Hargarten, Stephen; Hemenway, David; Jeffcoat, Robert; Kennedy, David; Koper, Christopher S; Lemaire, Jean; Miller, Matthew; Roth, Jeffrey A; Schwab, C William; Spitzer, Robert; Teret, Stephen; Vernick, Jon; Webster, Daniel

2007-01-01

309

Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?  

PubMed

Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths. PMID:24156172

Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

2013-09-01

310

America, guns and freedom: Part II — An international perspective  

PubMed Central

The need for reducing gun violence is discussed along with the necessity for citizens to assume some responsibility for protecting themselves, their families, and their property from criminal elements because the police cannot physically be everywhere to protect us all of the time. The problem of sensationalization of gun crimes by the media, multiple shootings by deranged individuals, accidents with firearms, suicide rates, and children with guns are discussed. The relationship of civilian disarmament in the context of tyrannical governments and genocide are also explored. Incidents in which liberty has been extinguished because firearms have been banned and citizens have been disarmed by increasingly oppressive governments, and the converse, countries where freedom has been preserved by armed citizens are also described. We conclude that guns in the hands of law-abiding citizens deter crimes, and nations that trust their citizens with firearms have governments that sustain liberty and affirm individual freedom. Governments that do not trust their citizens with firearms tend to be despotic and tyrannical, and are a potential danger to good citizens — and a peril to humanity. PMID:23227440

Faria, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

311

Understanding Youth  

E-print Network

Developmental stages of 4-H age youth have been divided into three age groups: 9 to 11, 12 to 14 and 15-19. The suggestions given for each of these groups below are to help volunteers work more effectively with youth: Ages 9 to 11 Physical development...

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

312

Empowering Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gulf of Maine Institute (GOMI) is striving to empower youth to take on stewardship roles in their communities. Through its Community Based Initiative (CBI) program, GOMI addresses environmental degradation by working with teams of students, teachers, and community members from around the Gulf of Maine to inspire youth to be stewards of the…

Miner, Jennifer; Elshof, Leo; Redden, Anna; Terry, John

2004-01-01

313

Introduction to Special Issue on Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juvenile justice system was created with good intentions: decisions were to be made in the best interests of the child. The hope was that the system would be a good parent; its parenting style would promote change through rehabilitation. The juvenile justice system has been criticized for being flawed and abandoning its original premise, but such criticisms can not

Steven M. Chermak

314

Focused Deterrence and the Prevention of Violent Gun Injuries: Practice, Theoretical Principles, and Scientific Evidence.  

PubMed

Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 36 is March 18, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates. PMID:25494051

Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

2014-12-10

315

Positive Approaches to Preventing School Violence: Peace Building in Schools and Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence-prevention measures at railroad crossings may not work at schools! This special issue highlights three approaches to dealing with youth violence: prevention (peace building); intervention (peace making); and security (peace keeping). The problem stems from incivility, lack of respect, and unconstructive communication. Diverse perspectives…

Plucker, Jonathan A.

2000-01-01

316

The role of sports for violence prevention: sport club participation and violent behaviour among adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth involvement in conflict and violence is a frequent problem in Germany as well as in many European countries. The European Commission's White Paper on Sport presumes that sport participation might be of help in preventing adolescents from delinquency and violence. It further claims that social norms inherent in the world of sport (e.g. fair play, team spirit) might foster

Michael Mutz; Jürgen Baur

2009-01-01

317

Exposure to Conflict and Violence Across Contexts: Relations to Adjustment Among Palestinian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive literatures on the impact on children of exposure to violence in families, neighborhoods, and peer groups, there has been relatively little effort evaluating their cumulative impact. There also has been less attention to the effects of exposure to political conflict and violence. We collected data from a representative sample of 600 Palestinian youths (3 age cohorts: 8, 11,

Eric F. Dubow; Paul Boxer; L. Rowell Huesmann; Khalil Shikaki; Simha Landau; Shira Dvir Gvirsman; Jeremy Ginges

2009-01-01

318

Ten-Year Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization?among?US?Adolescent?Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The study provides 10-year trend data on the psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence (PDV) victimization among females who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of US high school students between 1999 and 2009. Methods: The dependent variable was PDV. Independent variables included 4 dimensions: violence,…

Howard, Donna E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Wang, Min Q.

2013-01-01

319

Putting Research into Practice in School Violence Prevention and Intervention: How Is School Counseling Doing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…

McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon

2011-01-01

320

Teen Perceptions of Dating Violence, Help-Seeking, and the Role of Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From April 2007 to June 2008, focus groups with 41 Washington, DC youth, ages 11 to 19, were conducted by Break the Cycle. One group consisted of eight self-identified sexual minority teens. Participants were asked questions exploring their opinions on the prevalence of dating violence among teens, dating violence dynamics, seeking or providing…

Gallopin, Colleen; Leigh, Laila

2009-01-01

321

The Longitudinal Association of Adolescent Dating Violence with Psychiatric Disorders and Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the prevalence, correlates and mental health impacts of intimate partner violence are well documented in adolescents and young adults, fewer studies have considered physical dating violence among clinical samples of help-seeking young people. In a sample of 98 young people aged 15-24 years (54% females) referred to a specialist public youth

Brown, Adrienne; Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Killackey, Eoin; Purcell, Rosemary; Buckby, Joe; Yung, Alison R.

2009-01-01

322

Self-defense with guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choices of potential victims and of criminals with respect to weapons were analyzed in an economic game framework. It was found, using National Crime Victimization Study data, that victims who have and use guns have both lower losses and lesser injury rates from violent crime. It was also found that the victim's choice of having a gun is not

Lawrence Southwick

2000-01-01

323

The effects of exposure to violence and victimization across life domains on adolescent substance use.  

PubMed

This study uses longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effects of exposure to school violence, community violence, child abuse, and parental intimate partner violence (IPV) on youths' subsequent alcohol and marijuana use. We also examine the cumulative effects of being exposed to violence across these domains. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1,655 adolescents and their primary caregivers participating in the PHDCN. The effects of adolescents' exposure to various forms of violence across different life domains were examined relative to adolescents' frequency of alcohol and marijuana use three years later. Multivariate statistical models were employed to control for a range of child, parent, and family risk factors. Exposure to violence in a one-year period increased the frequency of substance use three years later, though the specific relationships between victimization and use varied for alcohol and marijuana use. Community violence and child abuse, but not school violence or exposure to IPV, were predictive of future marijuana use. None of the independent measures of exposure to violence significantly predicted future alcohol use. Finally, the accumulation of exposure to violence across life domains was detrimental to both future alcohol and marijuana use. The findings support prior research indicating that exposure to multiple forms of violence, across multiple domains of life, negatively impacts adolescent outcomes, including substance use. The findings also suggest that the context in which exposure to violence occurs should be considered in future research, since the more domains in which youth are exposed to violence, the fewer "safe havens" they have available. Finally, a better understanding of the types of violence youth encounter and the contexts in which these experiences occur can help inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing victimization and its negative consequences. PMID:23743232

Wright, Emily M; Fagan, Abigail A; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

2013-11-01

324

Parenting Control in Contexts of Political Violence: Testing Bi-directional Relations between Violence Exposure and Control in Post-Accord Belfast  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective The goal of the present study is to examine bi-directional relations between youth exposure to sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behavior and mothers’ efforts to control youth’s exposure to community violence in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Design Mother-child dyads (N=773) were interviewed in their homes twice over 2 years regarding youth’s exposure to sectarian (SAB) and nonsectarian (NAB) community antisocial behavior and mothers’ use of control strategies, including behavioral and psychological control. Results Youth’s exposure to NAB was related to increases in mothers’ use of both behavioral and psychological control strategies over time, controlling for earlier levels of these constructs. Reflecting bi-directional relations, mothers’ behavioral control strategies were associated with youth’s reduced exposure to both NAB and SAB over time, whereas psychological control was not related to reduced exposure. Conclusion Only nonsectarian community violence was associated longitudinally with mothers’ increased use of control strategies, and only behavioral control strategies were effective in reducing youth’s exposure to community antisocial behavior, including both sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. PMID:22523479

Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

2012-01-01

325

Beyond Participation: The Association between School Extracurricular Activities and Involvement in Violence across Generations of Immigration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in extracurricular activities is purported to protect the broad spectrum of youth from a host of behavioral risks. Yet, empirical research on the extent to which this assumption holds for involvement in violence by immigrant youth is limited. Thus, using data for 13,236 (51.8% female) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study…

Jiang, Xin; Peterson, Ruth D.

2012-01-01

326

Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quarterly publication, issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), contains articles dealing with family violence and alcohol abuse, children of alcoholic parents, training programs for counselors, and confidentiality of client records. The three articles on alcohol abuse suggest that: (1) there is a clear…

Sorgen, Carol, Ed.

1979-01-01

327

Money for guns: evaluation of the Seattle Gun Buy-Back Program.  

PubMed

Community involvement in local firearms policy is advocated to be an important component of efforts to curtail violence. This report describes the first evaluation of one such effort, a gun buy-back program conducted in Seattle, WA, during the fall of 1992. The evaluation included (a) surveys of 500 participants and a description of the firearms exchanged; (b) monitoring police reports, trauma center admissions, and medical examiners' data to assess short-term effects on the frequency of firearm-related events; and (c) an assessment of community beliefs by random-digit dialing telephone interviews of 1,000 residents. Of the 1,172 firearms relinquished, 95 percent were handguns, 83 percent were operational, and 67 percent were owned for more than 5 years. Twenty-five percent were exchanged by women. The mean age of participants in the exchange program was 51 years. Females and persons in older age groups were more likely than males (83 percent versus 70 percent, P < 0.01) and minors (88 percent versus 55 percent, P < 0.05) to select safe disposal as motivation to participate. Comparing firearm-related events per month before and after the program, crimes and deaths increased, and injuries decreased, but the changes were not statistically significant. Telephone interviews revealed broad support for publicly funded gun buy-back programs even among households (61 percent) with firearms. Gun buy-back programs are a broadly supported means to decrease voluntarily the prevalence of handguns within a community, but their effect on decreasing violent crime and reducing firearm mortality is unknown. PMID:8041845

Callahan, C M; Rivara, F P; Koepsell, T D

1994-01-01

328

Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.  

PubMed

Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations. PMID:25211757

McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

2014-11-01

329

"The Walking Wounded": Youth, Public Education, and the Turn to Precarious Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Echoing Henry Giroux's concerns for the current state of youth and education, this article seeks to provide a cultural history that focuses on the cycles of violence and non-violence happening within public education systems in North American democracies like Canada, with Ontario being the author's primary focus. More specifically, the author…

Fisher, Jennifer

2011-01-01

330

Workplace Violence Prevention Program  

E-print Network

Workplace Violence Prevention Program March 2011 Carleton University: committed to respect and safety in the workplace #12;Carleton University Workplace Violence Prevention Program Page 2 of 26 rev............................................................................................................................. 4 V. Roles and Responsibilities: Workplace Violence

331

Workplace Violence Prevention Program  

E-print Network

Workplace Violence Prevention Program January 2011 Carleton University: committed to respect and safety in the workplace #12;Carleton University Workplace Violence Prevention Program Page 2 of 27............................................................................................................................. 4 V. Roles and Responsibilities: Workplace Violence

332

Gas gun assembly  

SciTech Connect

A gas gun assembly, for measuring depths of reflectors in a well bore, includes a housing having a central chamber and bottom bulkhead through which a first valve bore extends. Coupling structure is provided to connect the housing to the well. A cap closure for the chamber has a second valve bore therethrough of diameter larger than the diameter of the first valve bore and is located in axial alignment with the first valve bore. A valve stem has one end axially movable within the second valve bore while closing the same and the other end movable into and out of the first valve bore. A predetermined pressure condition is established across the bulkhead. The valve stem is then released for rapid equalization of pressure across the bulkhead to produce an acoustic pulse in the well bore.

McCoy, J.N.

1983-10-11

333

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Epilogue #12;Inside Gun Shows;Epilogue In February 2010, I attended a Crossroads of the West gun show at the Arizona State Fairgrounds here an update on each of the Phoenix obser- vations made in the photo-essay portion of Inside Gun

Leistikow, Bruce N.

334

Paola CONCONI, ECARES Guns and votes  

E-print Network

Paola CONCONI, ECARES Guns and votes Why are U.S. congressmen often reluctant to support gun-election motives can help explaining why politicians often take a pro-gun stance, against the interests - and examine senators' voting behavior on gun control. In line with the model's predictions, we obtain three

Nesterov, Yurii

335

Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

336

Talking Story with Hawaii's Youth: Confronting Violent and Sexualized Perceptions of Ethnicity and Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated how at-risk youth in Hawaii experienced their own ethnicity and gender. Data from focus groups with diverse adolescents at youth centers indicated that theoretical frameworks must incorporate unique circumstances within differing communities, such as interethnic violence, sexual exploitation, and immigration patterns. (SM)

Mayeda, David Tokiharu; Chesney-Lind, Meda; Koo, Jennifer

2001-01-01

337

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry

338

Toward a Politics of Relevance: Race, Resistance and African American Youth Activism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, social science research about African American youth has focused almost entirely on understanding various causes of problem behavior such as violence, school failure, substance abuse and crime. While a deeper understanding of these social problems is indeed important, the narrow focus on problems obscures the complex ways in which youth respond, challenge and sometimes transform the conditions

Youth Activism; Shawn Ginwright

2006-01-01

339

Translating Research into Practice: Trans Youth Recommendations for Improving School Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trans youth are considered one of the most marginalized and oppressed populations. Many experience transphobia and violence based on their gender identity and expression. This qualitative study describes the school experiences of 24 trans youth in Philadelphia and presents their recommendations for school administrators and educators. To…

Sausa, Lydia A.

2005-01-01

340

Engaging youth in bullying prevention through community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

Few studies that engage youth in community-based participatory research (CBPR) focus on issues of safety/violence, include elementary school-aged youth, or quantitatively assess outcomes of the CBPR process. This article expands understanding of CBPR with youth by describing and evaluating the outcomes of a project that engaged fifth-grade students at 3 schools in bullying-focused CBPR. Results suggest that the project was associated with decreases in fear of bullying and increases in peer and teacher intervention to stop bullying. We conclude with implications for the engagement of elementary school-aged youth in CBPR to address bullying and other youth issues. PMID:25423250

Gibson, Jennifer E; Flaspohler, Paul D; Watts, Vanessa

2015-01-01

341

Pathways to early violent death: the voices of serious violent youth offenders.  

PubMed

Quantitative studies have uncovered factors associated with early violent death among youth offenders detained in the juvenile justice system, but little is known about the contextual factors associated with pathways to early violent death among youths detained in adult jails. We interviewed young Black male serious violent youth offenders detained in an adult jail to understand their experience of violence. Their narratives reveal how the code of the street, informal rules that govern interpersonal violence among poor inner-city Black male youths, increases the likelihood of violent victimization. Youth offenders detained in adult jails have the lowest rate of service provision among all jail populations. We have addressed how services for youth offenders can be improved to reduce the pathways to early violent death. PMID:23678923

Richardson, Joseph B; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Michelle

2013-07-01

342

The polarized SRF gun experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is under way to prove the feasibility of a super-conducting RF gun for the production of polarized electrons. We report on the progress of the experiment and on simulations predicting the possibility of success.

Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Shultheiss, T.

2008-10-01

343

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1997 Update on Violence. Statistics Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the second update to "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report" published in 1995. Drawing on new analysis of statistical series developed by various Federal agencies, it provides answers to the questions most often asked about trends in youth violence and victimization. This report provides information that the wave of…

Sickmund, Melissa; Snyder, Howard N.; Poe-Yamagata, Eileen

344

Alcohol Use and Violence among Adolescents in a Multiethnic Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the prevalence of drinking behaviors and violence (fighting, weapon carrying, being threatened and feeling unsafe) among Hawaiian, other Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI), and Caucasian students, using data collected from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Hawaii in 1997 and 1999 (N = 2,146). Native Hawaiians and…

Goebert, Deborah A.; Caetano, Raul; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Ramisettymikler, Suhasini

2004-01-01

345

Narrating Neighborhood: Denying Young Women's Public Voices about Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a youth-centered activist project with a group of young women in Brooklyn, NY, and the controversy surrounding it. In 1999 the young women created a neighborhood mural with anti-violence themes. Within 6 months of the mural's dedication, the mural was whitewashed by the corporate owner of the mural wall. Using content and…

Bertram, Corrine C.

2008-01-01

346

Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe. PMID:25463004

Akiyama, Cliff

2015-01-01

347

What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal  

E-print Network

2 How Gun Shows Work What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal. But other states have enacted more specific definitions as they acted to regulate gun shows themselves or gun sales at gun shows but not elsewhere (Table 2-1). In the parking lot of a gun show in Pharr, Texas

Leistikow, Bruce N.

348

Peer violence perpetration among urban adolescents: Dispelling the myth of the violent immigrant  

PubMed Central

Researchers have found an inverse relationship between immigrant status and violence perpetration. Most studies have examined Mexican immigrants, and few have assessed immigration factors other than nativity. Additionally, the majority have focused on the most serious forms of violence despite the fact that moderate violence is more common. Using data from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, we generated prevalence estimates of peer violence perpetration across immigration related factors, examined whether risk factors for peer violence differed by these variables, and explored the contribution of risk factors to peer violence perpetration. Recent immigrants had a significantly lower prevalence of peer violence compared to each other generations/time in U.S. group. Known risk factors for violence perpetration varied by generation/time in U.S.: compared to other groups, recent immigrants were less likely to have used substances, and were more likely earn A’s and B’s in school. Recent immigrants had a significantly lower risk of violence perpetration relative to U.S.-born (RR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.62). Adjusting for known risk factors did not attenuate differences in risk. While immigrant youth had a lower risk of peer violence, the protective effect was diminished among immigrants who had resided in the U.S. for >4 years. This pattern demonstrates that negative assimilation occurs within the first generation, not just across generations. Results suggest that perpetration of violence worsens with increased time in the U.S. Research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the acquisition of behaviors such as violence among recently arrived immigrant youth. PMID:21156691

Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; McNamara, Mariah; Gupta, Jhumka

2011-01-01

349

Sexuality and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

Sanctuary, Gerald

350

Violence and Crime Prevention  

E-print Network

Violence and Crime Prevention Where we stand: What can policymakers and public officials learn from research on violence prevention? Between 2000-2012, approximately 6,500 soldiers died on the battlefields as a result of violence and crime ­ an order of magnitude approximately 25 times greater. Violence remains one

Butler, Laurie J.

351

Family Violence: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family violence is a widespread problem; research has shown multiple factors are associated with family violence. Types of family violence include spouse abuse; elder abuse and neglect; child abuse and neglect; parent abuse; and sibling abuse. There are three types of spouse abuse: physical abuse, sexual violence, and psychological/emotional…

National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

352

Physicians among many participants in midst of Canada's emotional gun-control debate.  

PubMed Central

Because they are seen as advocates for public health and safety, physicians are also widely believed to be supporters of aggressive gun-control measures, but in reality there are strong feelings on both sides of the issue. "People assume that more gun control will mean less violence, but there are no hard data to support that," says Vancouver psychiatrist Joseph Noone, who argues that Canada already has highly restrictive firearms laws. Other physicians are puzzled by colleagues' opposition to the changes. "I don't understand why it's such a big deal," says Dr. Stephen Corber, medical officer of health for the Ottawa-Carleton region. He argues that registration would not be a deterrent to responsible gun use and ownership. Images p2025-a p2026-a PMID:7780910

LeBourdais, E

1995-01-01

353

Violence: a challenge to the public health community.  

PubMed Central

In the past 2 years, cities have reported skyrocketing rates of violence, crime, and abusive behavior including intrafamilial homicides. Of the 1838 homicide deaths last year among teenagers between the ages of 15 and 19, 71% involved the use of a firearm. Among black males in the same age group, 82% of the deaths were associated with guns. Since 1968, homicide has been among the leading causes of death for black teenagers. These and large volumes of other data clearly indicate that violence and abusive behavior is a compelling public health problem. PMID:1608060

Walker, B.; Goodwin, N. J.; Warren, R. C.

1992-01-01

354

International note: Association between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours in homeless youth.  

PubMed

Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours. PMID:25575268

Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

2015-02-01

355

The sustained impact of adolescent violence histories on early adulthood outcomes  

PubMed Central

A history of victimization and violence perpetration are well-established risk factors that hamper positive development in early adulthood, yet their separate and overlapping effects are rarely examined simultaneously, confounding understanding of their relative impacts. This study follows a diverse sample of at-risk adolescents (N=570) into early adulthood, comparing roles and resources, stress and distress, and maladaptive behaviors for those with a history of no violence, victimization only, perpetration only, and both perpetration and victimization. Results demonstrate four distinctive profiles, although all violence-exposed youth report more problems in the three assessed domains relative to those with no violence histories. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:23772203

Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A.

2013-01-01

356

"School Violence" as a Social Problem: Charting the Rise of the Problem and the Emerging Specialist Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, violence taking place in schools has entered both popular and academic discourse. Frequently, the term "school violence" is used as a catch-all concept to refer to disorder and disruption in schools, as well as the unruliness of contemporary youth. This is apparent not only in the North American context, but in highly…

Brown, Jane; Munn, Pamela

2008-01-01

357

Discourses on Violence in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua: National Patterns of Attention and Cross-border Discursive Nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become common to state that youth gangs and organized crime have seized Central America. For theories on contemporary Central American violence, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua present important test cases, demonstrating the need to differentiate the diagnosis. First, national discourses on violence differ from country to country, with varying threat levels, patterns of attention, and discursive leitmotivs.

Anika Oettler

2007-01-01

358

Adolescent Relationship Violence and Acculturation Among NYC Latinos.  

PubMed

Acculturation has been shown to positively and negatively affect Latino health. Little research investigates the overlap between acculturation and the different types of relationship violence among Latino youth and most research in this area predominantly involves Mexican-American samples. The current study examined associations between indices of acculturation (language use at home, chosen survey language, and nativity) and relationship physical violence and sexual coercion, both received and delivered, among predominantly Dominican and Puerto Rican adolescents from New York City. From 2006 to 2007, 1,454 adolescents aged 13-21 years in New York City completed an anonymous survey that included the Conflict in Adolescent Relationships Inventory which estimates experiences of physical violence and sexual coercion, both received and delivered, in the previous year. This analysis includes bivariate and multivariate methods to test the associations between language use at home, chosen survey language, and nativity with the different types of relationship violence. Among females, there is a significant association between language use at home and overall level of acculturation with delivering and receiving relationship physical violence; however, we did not find this association in delivering and receiving relationship sexual coercion. We found no association between acculturation and any type of relationship violence among males. Among Latina females, language spoken at home is an indicator of other protective factors of physical relationship violence. Future research in this area should explore the potential protective factors surrounding relationship violence among Latina females of various subgroups using comprehensive measures of acculturation, household composition and family engagement. PMID:25452217

DuPont-Reyes, Melissa; Fry, Deborah; Rickert, Vaughn; Davidson, Leslie L

2014-12-01

359

Cultural Alignment African American Male Youths and Violent Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four theories-racial inferiority, culture of poverty, racial discrimination, and political economy-are usually advanced to explain violence among African Americans. These theories, however, fail to underscore the deleterious influence that cultural oppression and cultural alienation have on African Americans generally and African American male youths specifically. To examine the role both cultural oppression and cultural alienation play in the lives of

Jerome H. Schiele

1998-01-01

360

Health risk behavior among thai youth: national survey 2013.  

PubMed

This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. PMID:25183211

Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

2015-01-01

361

The Rate of Cyber Dating Abuse among Teens and How It Relates to Other Forms of Teen Dating Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…

Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

2013-01-01

362

Adolescents at Risk for Violence: An Initial Validation of the Life Challenges Questionnaire and Risk Assessment Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initial validation was sought for the Life-Challenges Questionnaire-Teen Form, a 120-item youth-risk assessment tool. The questionnaire was administered to 99 students enrolled in an adolescent detention facility and a comparison group of 305 students attending high school. The survey items included correlates of youth violence and categorized…

Grinberg, Ilyse; Dawkins, Marva; Dawkins, Marvin P.; Fullilove, Constance

2005-01-01

363

A Clinical Model in Action in Intensive Residential Treatment: Meeting the Needs of Adolescent Boys Who Have Experienced Domestic Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Habitat Program at Wood's Homes, Calgary, Alberta, is an eight bed residential treatment program for conduct-disordered youth who have been exposed or subjected to high levels of violence in their family home. The program was based on the assumption that working effectively with such youth requires consideration of the background experiences…

Stewart, Janet; Todd, Nick; Kopeck, Cameron

2010-01-01

364

Violence in Teen-Rated Video Games  

PubMed Central

Context: Children's exposure to violence in the media remains a source of public health concern; however, violence in video games rated T (for “Teen”) by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) has not been quantified. Objective: To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence and blood in T-rated video games. According to the ESRB, T-rated video games may be suitable for persons aged 13 years and older and may contain violence, mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. Design: We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001 to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors for violence and blood assigned to these games. We randomly sampled 80 game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, and quantitatively assessed the content. Given the release of 2 new video game consoles, Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, and a significant number of T-rated video games released after we drew our random sample, we played and assessed 9 additional games for these consoles. Finally, we assessed the content of 2 R-rated films, The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, associated with the T-rated video game Enter the Matrix. Main Outcome Measures: Game genre; percentage of game play depicting violence; depiction of injury; depiction of blood; number of human and nonhuman fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters, killing characters, or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; and content that may raise concerns about marketing T-rated video games to children. Results: Based on analysis of the 396 T-rated video game titles, 93 game titles (23%) received content descriptors for both violence and blood, 280 game titles (71%) received only a content descriptor for violence, 9 game titles (2%) received only a content descriptor for blood, and 14 game titles (4%) received no content descriptors for violence or blood. In the random sample of 81 T-rated video games we played, 79 games (98%) involved intentional violence for an average of 36% of game play time, and 34 games (42%) contained blood. More than half of the games (51%) depicted 5 or more types of weapons, with players able to select weapons in 48 games (59%). We observed 37 games (46%) that rewarded or required the player to destroy objects, 73 games (90%) that rewarded or required the player to injure characters, and 56 games (69%) that rewarded or required the player to kill. We observed a total of 11,499 character deaths in the 81 games, occurring at an average rate of 122 deaths per hour of game play (range 0 to 1310). This included 5689 human deaths, occurring at an average rate of 61 human deaths per hour of game play (range 0 to 1291). Overall, we identified 44 games (54%) that depicted deaths to nonhuman characters and 51 games (63%) that depicted deaths to human characters, including the player. Conclusions: Content analysis suggests a significant amount of violence, injury, and death in T-rated video games. Given the large amount of violence involving guns and knives, the relative lack of blood suggests that many T-rated video games do not realistically portray the consequences of violence. Physicians and parents should appreciate that T-rated video games may be a source of exposure to violence and some unexpected content for children and adolescents, and that the majority of T-rated video games provide incentives to the players to commit simulated acts of violence. PMID:15208514

Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M. Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M

2004-01-01

365

Intimate Partner Violence 1 Running head: INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE  

E-print Network

identified many dozens of risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, but they have been count: 148 (Max = 150) Keywords I3 Theory, Intimate Partner Violence, Domestic Violence, AggressionIntimate Partner Violence 1 Running head: INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE Intimate Partner Violence Eli J

Reber, Paul J.

366

Action Alters Object Identification: Wielding a Gun Increases The Bias to See Guns  

E-print Network

Action Alters Object Identification: Wielding a Gun Increases The Bias to See Guns Jessica K. Witt influence an observer's ability to detect and categorize objects as guns. In light of recent work in action to the perceiver. In five experiments, participants determined whether another person was holding a gun

Stephens, Graeme L.

367

"It's the Worst Place to Live": Urban Youth and the Challenge of School-Based Civic Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the primary aims of education in the United States is to prepare youth to contribute to civic life in a democracy. Urban youth have daily school and community experiences with poverty, violence, and injustice that complicate their relationship with civic life. In this article the authors explore the ramifications of these experiences for…

Rubin, Beth C.; Hayes, Brian; Benson, Keith

2009-01-01

368

Understanding Alcohol Consumption and Its Correlates among African American Youths in Public Housing: A Test of Problem Behavior Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…

Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara

2011-01-01

369

The Evolution of Hip-Hop Culture and Its Influence upon the Sexual Views of Mainstream Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that contemporary hip-hop music may be dominant in worldwide youth culture. It has evolved from the violence of "gangsta rap" toward more broadly popular mainstream themes of retreat into drugs and illicit sexuality. States that adults need to engage youth in communication about the exploitative values inherent in these cultural messages.…

Larson, Scott J.

1998-01-01

370

Guns, Privacy, and Crime Alessandro Acquisti  

E-print Network

Guns, Privacy, and Crime Alessandro Acquisti and Catherine Tucker January 2, 2011 Abstract of crime. We find that crimes more likely to be affected by knowledge of gun ownership - such as burglaries - increased more significantly, after the database was publicized, in zip codes with fewer gun per- mits

Sadeh, Norman M.

371

Computer Optimized Design of Electron Guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of designing electron guns using computer optimization techniques. Several different design parameters are manipulated while considering multiple design criteria, including beam and gun properties. The optimization routines are described. Examples of guns designed using these techniques are presented. Future research is also described.

John David; R. Lawrence Ives; Hien T. Tran; Thuc Bui; Michael E. Read

2008-01-01

372

The Rail Gun Muad Al Khaldi  

E-print Network

The Rail Gun Muad Al Khaldi Department of Electrical Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Abstract- The rail gun is one of promising ways of launching projectiles. Recently, many. In this project, I am going to investigate the construction of electromagnetic rail guns, the way the function

Masoudi, Husain M.

373

Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…

Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II

2013-01-01

374

[Contempt and hatred: sociologic indications for an approach to current juvenile violence].  

PubMed

Violence is present in all forms of society that impose limits that must not be surpassed (murder, incest ...) in order for social life to be possible. But these limits are always broken. Youth are, in this respect, in a difficult situation, especially those from marginalized areas. Victims of contempt and exclusion, they react through violent acts; to violence experienced because of excessive constraints in school, they respond with violence. This juvenile violence calls for macro-social responses that return credibility to the institutional system often corrupt and responsible for hidden social violence. It also calls for micro-social actions, especially within the community. These actions may allow for awareness of violence generating phenomena, the discovery of obstacles to exercising rights, and the make-up of conflicts and their resolution in negotiation procedures. PMID:10361840

Goudet, B

1999-03-01

375

Pulsed power for electric guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed power requirements for electric guns are described and preferred technologies for energy storage and pulse compression are discussed. Primary approaches are rotating machines and capacitor based, pulse-forming networks, but alternative technologies that may offer some operational benefits are also discussed. These include linear magnetic flux compressors, cryogenically cooled, high-temperature superconducting inductors, novel dielectrics for energy storage, and pulsed magnetohydrodynamic

Ian R. McNab

1997-01-01

376

Developments in electron gun simulation  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss the developments in the electron gun simulation programs that are based on EGUN and its derivatives and supporting programs. Much of the code development has been inspired by technology changes in computer hardware; the implications on EGN2 of this evolution will be discussed. Some examples and a review of the capabilities of the EGUN family will be described.

Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

1994-05-01

377

Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is abuse by ...

378

Understanding Sexual Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... risky sexual activity. Why is sexual violence a public health problem? SV is a significant problem in the ... CDC uses a 4-step approach to address public health problems like sexual violence. Step 1: Define the ...

379

Gender violence and psychopathology.  

PubMed

The focus of this article is to show that in Italy nowadays it is not important to relate psychopathology with violence. That is because it seems that it is more important to study gender and domestic violence as a social and cultural phenomenon than analyzing its psychopathological issues. Obviously, in accord with the literature there is a relationship about psychopatholgy and violence and this relationship concerns only about 5% of the total violence reported. PMID:25413541

Anzallo, Calogero; Carmignani, Michela

2014-11-01

380

Parental violence and adolescent mental health.  

PubMed

Being the target of parental violent acts decreases child adjustment and increases the likelihood of mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Our study analyses how different types of parental violence ranging from verbal threats and swearing to hitting and kicking a child, are associated with child adjustment, indicated by strengths and difficulties scale (SDQ) total problem score, internalizing and externalizing problems as well as prosocial behaviour. We also study whether girls and boys and youths in two Nordic countries respond differently to parental violence. The data consists of a large-scale community sample of 15-16-year old Finnish (n = 5,762) and Danish (n = 3,943) adolescents. The representative data of continental Finland and its Finnish and Swedish speaking ninth graders as well as representative data of Danish ninth grade pupils were collected by the Police College of Finland and in Denmark by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. The results show a clear dose-response effect between parental violent behaviour and the adolescent's problems. The more severe forms of parental violence were associated with higher levels of SDQ total difficulties and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was also a connection between parental violence and the deterioration of prosocial behaviour. The association was gender and nationality specific. The findings imply a high prevalence of parental violence and adverse mental health among the affected Finnish and Danish adolescents. Though the laws have been set in motion to prevent the use of parental physical violence the challenges remain in several domains of child protection, general health care, prevention and intervention. PMID:20821263

Peltonen, Kirsi; Ellonen, Noora; Larsen, Helmer B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

2010-11-01

381

Drug Offers as a Context for Violence Perpetration and Victimization  

PubMed Central

Objective Drug use has been linked empirically with aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai`i samples. However, the nature of this link and its implications for prevention are unclear. Therefore, this paper explores the intersection of drugs with aggression and violence by using the drug offer context as the unit of analysis. Method Native Hawaiian youth are sampled because substance use rates tend to be higher and onset tends to be earlier than their non-Hawaiian peers. Fourteen sex-specific focus group discussions were held with rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N=64). Students discussed what they thought they would do in terms of drug refusal strategies in a variety of drug offer contexts. Results While aggression and violence were perceived to be socially inappropriate, students nonetheless felt drug use would be less socially competent. Narrative analyses indicated aggression and violence were perceived to function as potential drug refusal strategies. As proximal drug resistance, aggression and violence perpetration served as an immediate deterrent to the drug offerer, and thus drug use. As distal drug resistance, victimization served as a rationale for avoiding drug using contexts. Conclusions Implications are discussed in terms of prevention policy and practice, specifically in terms of a school-based prevention curriculum. Future research in Hawaiian epistemology and gendered approaches are warranted. PMID:24564559

Helm, Susana; Okamoto, Scott; Kaliades, Alexis; Giroux, Danielle

2014-01-01

382

Adolescent Conflict as a Developmental Process in the Prospective Pathway from Exposure to Interparental Violence to Dating Violence  

PubMed Central

Within a developmental psychopathology framework, the current study examined adolescent conflict (age 16) with families, best friends, and dating partners as mediators in the prospective pathway from exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early childhood (0–64 months) to dating violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood (age 23). Adolescent conflict was predicted to partially mediate EIPV and dating violence with significant direct paths from EIPV to dating violence, given the extant literature on the salience of early childhood EIPV for later maladjustment. Participants (N = 182; 99 males, 83 females; 67% Caucasian, 11% African-American, 18% other, 4% unreported) were drawn from a larger prospective study of high-risk mothers (aged 12–34 years) that followed their children from birth through adulthood. EIPV and adolescent conflict were rated from interviews with mothers and participants, and dating violence (physical perpetration and victimization) was assessed with the Conflict Tactics Scale. Path analyses showed that EIPV in early childhood (a) directly predicted dating violence perpetration in early adulthood and (b) predicted conflict with best friends, which in turn predicted dating violence perpetration. Although mediation of best friend conflict was not evident, indirect effects of EIPV to dating violence were found through externalizing behaviors in adolescence and life stress in early adulthood. Findings highlight that conflict with best friends is affected by EIPV and predicts dating violence, suggesting that it may be a promising target for relationship-based interventions for youth with EIPV histories. Furthermore, deleterious early experiences and contemporaneous risk factors are salient predictors of dating violence. PMID:23979004

Narayan, Angela J.; Englund, Michelle M.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Egeland, Byron

2013-01-01

383

Children and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume documents the rise in violence in our communities and explores its impact on children's physical, psychological, and social development. Focal themes are: the necessity for better information about the kinds of violence to which children are exposed, the necessity of beginning to build intervention strategies aimed at violence, and the…

Reiss, David, Ed.; And Others

384

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE HUMAN RESOURCES  

E-print Network

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE HUMAN RESOURCES POLICY Human Resources | One Washington Square | San José, CA 95192-0046 | 408-924-2250 408-924-1701 (fax) SUBJECT: WORKPLACE VIOLENCE POLICY DATE: April 2008 that is free from intimidation, acts and/or threats of violence against life, health, well-being, and

Su, Xiao

385

Youth Activists, Youth Councils, and Constrained Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a critical examination of a common form of adult attempts to promote civic engagement among young people, namely, youth advisory councils. While youth councils have been widely celebrated as an effective way to integrate young people into political processes, little research has explored why some politically active youth

Taft, Jessica K.; Gordon, Hava R.

2013-01-01

386

School and Community Influences on the Long Term Post-Disaster Recovery of Children and Youth Following Hurricane Georges  

PubMed Central

Disasters affect the school and community microsystems in which children and youth recover. This study explored characteristics of the school (school violence, teachers’ attitudes) and community microsystem (neighborhood climate, neighborhood monitoring, community violence) that may affect the disaster exposure and internalizing psychopathology relationship in children and youth 12–27 months after Hurricane Georges hit Puerto Rico. A representative sample (N=1,637) of caregivers and children/youth completed structured interviews in Spanish. Controlling for gender and perception of poverty, for children (age 6–10 years), hurricane exposure increased risk for internalizing psychopathology, but the school and community variables did not have an influence. For all youth (age 11–17 years), witnessing community violence and poor teacher attitudes increased the risk of psychopathology. In addition, neighborhood climate and school violence were moderators. For non-exposed youth, poor neighborhood climate and perceiving greater school violence increased the risk of internalizing psychopathology, whereas for exposed youth it did not. PMID:25414531

Felix, Erika; You, Sukkyung; Canino, Glorisa

2014-01-01

387

Violence and the Prevention of Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this collection put forth many contemporary theoretical ideas about violence in society. All agree that finding ways to prevent violence is critical and that living in peace means acceptance of diversity. The following chapters are included: (1) "Motivational Approach to Violent Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Perspective: (Sergei V.…

Adler, Leonore Loeb, Ed.; Denmark, Florence L., Ed.

388

Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.  

PubMed

Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth. PMID:25047297

Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

2014-08-01

389

Detroit's Youth Service Corps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of the Youth Service Corps (YSC) are: to offer poor youth the opportunity to earn money through police-related employment; to improve the police-community relationship, especially between black youth and the Police Department; to interest youth from minority groups in police careers and other governmental positions; to encourage such…

Neighborhood Service Organization, Detroit, MI.

390

Moving beyond Youth Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study combines research documenting the benefits of positive relationships between youth and caring adults on a young person's positive development with studies on youth voice to examine the mechanisms through which participation in youth programs contributes to positive developmental outcomes. Specifically, the study explores whether youth's…

Serido, Joyce; Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.

2011-01-01

391

Urban Teens and Young Adults Describe Drama, Disrespect, Dating Violence and Help- seeking Preferences  

PubMed Central

Objectives Adolescent dating violence is increasingly recognized as a public health problem. Our qualitative investigation sought input from urban, African-American adolescents at risk for dating violence concerning (1) dating violence descriptions, (2) preferences for help-seeking for dating violence, and (3) recommendations for a teen dating violence resource center. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with urban, African American adolescents (n=32) aged 13 to 24 recruited from an urban adolescent clinic's community outreach partners. Qualitative analysis was conducted. Results Participants assigned a wide range of meanings for the term “relationship drama”, and used dating violence using language not typically heard among adults, e.g., “disrespect”. Participants described preferences for turning to family or friends before seeking formal services for dating violence, but reported barriers to their ability to rely on these informal sources. When asked to consider formal services, they described their preferred resource center as confidential and safe, with empathetic, non-judgmental staff. Teens also gave insight into preferred ways to outreach and publicize dating violence resources. Conclusions Findings inform recommendations for youth-specific tailoring of violence screening and intervention efforts. Current evidence that slang terms, i.e., “drama”, lack specificity suggests that they should not be integrated within screening protocols. These data highlight the value of formative research in understanding terminology and help-seeking priorities so as to develop and refine dating violence prevention and intervention efforts for those most affected. PMID:21611717

Martin, Caitlin Eileen; Houston, Avril Melissa; Mmari, Kristin N.

2012-01-01

392

Associations of Dating Violence Victimization With Lifetime Participation, Co-Occurrence, and Early Initiation of Risk Behaviors Among U.S. High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association of victimization in a physically violent dating relationship with risk behaviors, age of risk behavior initiation, and co-occurrence of risk behaviors among students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Data were from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Nearly 9% of students reported experiencing dating violence victimization. Dating violence victimization

Danice K. Eaton; Kristen S. Davis; Lisa Barrios; Nancy D. Brener; Rita K. Noonan

2007-01-01

393

78 FR 40459 - Applications for New Awards; Technical Assistance and Dissemination To Improve Services and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...variety of drug- abuse- and violence-prevention activities focused primarily on school- age youths. Priorities...Now Is The Time, to make schools safer from gun violence and create positive school climates. Grants would...

2013-07-05

394

Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood  

PubMed Central

The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562

Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

395

Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.  

PubMed

The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562

Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

2013-04-01

396

Public opinion about guns in the home  

PubMed Central

Objectives—(1) Determine the frequency of gun ownership, acquisition, and transfer; (2) assess gun storage practices; and (3) compare the views of firearm owning and non-owning adults regarding the protective value of keeping a gun in the home. Setting and methods—Over three different time periods (1995, 1996, and 1999) stratified, random digit telephone surveys were conducted in a five county area of metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Five hundred adults (aged 21+ years) responded to each survey. Results—The proportion of Atlanta area households reporting firearm ownership was generally stable over this interval (38%, 40%, and 35% respectively). The percentage of gun owning households containing a handgun (approximately 75%) was stable as well. In 1995, more than half of gun owning households kept one or more guns unlocked; since that time, the trend has been gradually downward. In 1995, 44% of gun owning respondents kept one or more guns loaded, compared with 38% in 1996 and 40% in 1999. A majority of respondents to all three surveys (55%) agreed with the statement "A home with a gun is less secure than a home without a gun, because a gun can be involved in an accidental shooting, suicide or family homicide". Among five home security measures, respondents rated a burglar alarm most effective, and keeping a gun in the home least effective. Conclusions—In Atlanta, many households keep a firearm for protection, but they are ambivalent about the associated risks. These findings suggest that education about gun safety should include a discussion of the risks of unsafe storage, and non-lethal alternatives for home security. PMID:11003183

Kellermann, A.; Fuqua-Whitley, D.; Sampson, T.; Lindenmann, W.

2000-01-01

397

Perforating gun charge carrier improvements  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a perforating gun for perforating a casing located downhole in a cased borehole, the gun having a housing, shaped charges in the housing spaced from one another and connected to a detonation means, each shaped charge having a flange means on one end of a body portion, the other end of the body portion being the detonator end, the combination with the housing, charges, and detonation means of a charge carrier assembly. The charge carrier assembly comprises charge holders connected together along the longitudinal axis of the gun; each charge holder describes a polyhedron, each polyhedron being described by relatively thin wall surfaces joined together by lateral edges which extend parallel to the axial centerline of the gun and provide opposed fasteners for the shaped charge. Each charge holder has lateral faces, one of the faces is apertured to telescopingly receive a shaped charge therewithin, adjacent charge holders have means for orienting the shaped charges of alternate charge holders in different radial directions; and means for capturing a shaped charge within an aperture of a charge holder. The body portion of the shaped charge is received within the aperture of the charge holder with the flange means of the shaped charge abutting a lateral of the charge holder, and having the opposed fasteners extending towards an opposed fastener located on an alternate charge holder to capture the flange between two opposed fasteners and the lateral face of the charge holder so that the inner detonator end of the charge is positioned near the geometrical center of the charge holder.

Vann, R.R.; Colle, E.A. Jr.

1986-07-08

398

Nepal: Back to the Gun  

E-print Network

-balance and on the defensive. The RNA hopes to use improved training, an upgraded arsenal and a revamped approach to intelligence to inflict heavy casualties. That more than 500 have died since the ceasefire ended, including a relative lull during the Dashain holiday... ASIA Briefing Kathmandu/Brussels, 22 October 2003 NEPAL: BACK TO THE GUN I. OVERVIEW With the collapse of the ceasefire and peace talks between government and Maoist insurgents, Nepal appears to be in for months more of bloody fighting...

International Crisis Group

2003-10-22

399

A Supersonic Ping Pong Gun  

E-print Network

The Ping Pong gun or Ping Pong bazooka has been a popular and compelling tool for physics education. However, the design necessarily means the ball emerges at subsonic speed. The design has been modified to include a pressure chamber and a convergent-divergent nozzle, similar to the design of some supersonic wind tunnels. This modification results in supersonic speeds. The current design has achieved a launch speed of 406 m/sec, about Mach 1.23.

French, Mark; Stratton, Jim

2013-01-01

400

Violence against women.  

PubMed

This article discusses the prevalence of violence against women in Uganda. The incidence of violence against women has been increasing despite efforts by law enforcement orders. In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical integrity or freedom of movement. Violence against women is considered as an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Moreover, the act violates and impairs women's rights and fundamental freedoms. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, limit the ability to make choices on women's lives. PMID:12290444

Keizire, J

1995-01-01

401

Vacant Properties and Violence in Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Objectives Violence remains a significant public health issue in the United States. To determine if urban vacant properties were associated with an increased risk of assaultive violence and if this association was modified by important neighborhood institutions (e.g., schools, parks/playgrounds, police stations, and alcohol outlets). Methods Longitudinal ecologic study of all 1816 block groups in Philadelphia. Aggravated assault and vacant property data were compiled yearly from 2002 to 2006 and linked to block groups. A mixed effects negative binomial regression model examined the association of vacant properties and assaults between and within block groups. Results Among all block groups, 84% experienced at least one vacant property, 89% at least one aggravated assault, and 64% at least one gun assault. Between block groups, the risk of aggravated assault increased 18% for every category shift of vacant properties (IRR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.25, P < 0.001). Parks/playgrounds and alcohol outlets potentially modified the association between vacant properties and aggravated assaults but only at low levels of vacancy. Conclusions Increasing levels of vacancy were associated with increased risk of assaultive violence in urban block groups. PMID:23814668

Branas, Charles C.; Rubin, David; Guo, Wensheng

2013-01-01

402

Exposure to violence, social cognitive processing, and sleep problems in urban adolescents.  

PubMed

Exposure to violence is associated with elevated levels of sleep problems in adolescence, which contributes to poor mental and physical health and impaired academic performance. However, reasons underlying the associations between exposure to violence and sleep difficulty have not been examined. This study tested a social cognitive processing path model linking experiences of witnessing and directly experiencing community violence and sleep problems. Participants were 362 early adolescents (M age = 12.45 years, SD = 0.59; range 11-14 years; 48.9 % male; 51 % Latino/a; 34 % black) from urban communities enrolled in a middle-school-based intervention study on the east coast of the United States that was designed to reduce the negative effects of exposure to violence. All youth in the current study reported witnessing or directly experiencing community violence. Adolescents completed four school-based assessments over an 18-month period, reporting on their exposure to community violence, sleep problems, intrusive thoughts about and social constraints in talking about violence, and life events. A path model that included both victimization and witnessing violence revealed that wave 1 witnessing violence, but not victimization, was associated with elevated social constraints in talking about violence at wave 2, which was associated with elevated intrusive thoughts at wave 3, which was associated with poor sleep quality at wave 4. Prior levels of all constructs were controlled in the analysis, in addition to life events, single parent household status, children's age and sex, intervention condition, and school. Youth exposed to violence may benefit from help in processing their experiences, thus reducing social constraints in talking about their experiences and associated intrusive thoughts. This is turn may improve sleep outcomes. PMID:25218396

Kliewer, Wendy; Lepore, Stephen J

2015-02-01

403

Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

2011-01-01

404

Summary of Gun Study Jang-Hui Han  

E-print Network

Summary of Gun Study Jang-Hui Han FLASH meeting, 15 May 2007 · Dark current · Cathode damage #12;Dark Current Measurement Faraday cups at 2GUN & 3GUN #12;March 2006 DC Measurement (cont) #12;DC Measurement (cont) Measurement at 3GUN on 07 Dec 2005 #12;DC Measurement (cont) Measurement at 2GUN with SASE

405

X-Band RF Gun Development  

SciTech Connect

In support of the MEGa-ray program at LLNL and the High Gradient research program at SLAC, a new X-band multi-cell RF gun is being developed. This gun, similar to earlier guns developed at SLAC for Compton X-ray source program, will be a standing wave structure made of 5.5 cells operating in the pi mode with copper cathode. This gun was designed following criteria used to build SLAC X-band high gradient accelerating structures. It is anticipated that this gun will operate with surface electric fields on the cathode of 200 MeV/m with low breakdown rate. RF will be coupled into the structure through a final cell with symmetric duel feeds and with a shape optimized to minimize quadrupole field components. In addition, geometry changes to the original gun, operated with Compton X-ray source, will include a wider RF mode separation, reduced surface electric and magnetic fields.

Vlieks, Arnold; Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC; Anderson, Scott; Hartemann, Fred; Marsh, Roark; /LLNL, Livermore

2012-06-22

406

A Longitudinal Test of Video Game Violence Influences on Dating Violence, Aggression and Bullying: A 3Year Longitudinal Study of Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn 2011 the field of video game violence experienced serious reversals with repudiations of the current research by the US Supreme Court and the Australian Government as non-compelling and fundamentally flawed. Scholars too have been calling for higher quality research on this issue. The current study seeks to answer this call by providing longitudinal data on youth aggression and dating

Christopher J. Ferguson; Claudia San Miguel; Adolfo Garza; Jessica Jerabeck

407

Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

Cunningham, W.

1986-01-01

408

Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions  

PubMed Central

Objective Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. Method The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. Results After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Conclusions Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites’ paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions. PMID:24204867

O’Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

2013-01-01

409

Theory of a multistage light gas gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of multistage kinetic energy transfer is applied to the acceleration of a light projectile in a light gas gun (LGG). It is argued that a better overall gun efficiency can be obtained if the kinetic energy 1/2M1V12 of the first piston is not directly transferred to the light projectile but proceeds via an intermediate stage transfer mediated by a second piston M2. Application of such a gun to satellite or robot craft launching is outlined as well as some new technological features in the gun design.

Linhart, J. G.; Cattani, F.

2007-10-01

410

Safe Youth. Safe Schools.  

MedlinePLUS

... can often lead to serious injury or death. School Violence While US schools remain relatively safe, any amount ... an important role in monitoring trends in lethal school violence, identifying risk factors, and assessing the effects of ...

411

Empowering Youth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gulf of Maine Institute (GOMI) is striving to empoweryouth to take on stewardship roles in their communities.Through its Community Based Initiative (CBI) program,GOMI addresses environmental degradation by workingwith teams of students, teachers, and community membersfrom around the Gulf of Maine to inspire youth tobe stewards of the gulf and its watershed. In preparingyoung enthusiastic leaders who will take on these stewardshiproles in their communities, GOMI provides solidtraining in environmental sciences and civic engagement.As a result, students become more environmentally awareand actively contribute to environmental initiatives intheir hometowns. This bioregional approach helps participantsfrom urban, suburban, and rural communitiesin Canada and the United States relate to one another asthey learn about the interconnectedness of their watershedand their dependence on its continued health.

Miner, Jennifer; Elshof, Leo

2007-04-01

412

Step-Up: Promoting Youth Mental Health and Development in Inner-City High Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

African American and Latino youth who reside in inner-city communities are at heightened risk for compromised mental health,\\u000a as their neighborhoods are too often associated with serious stressors, including elevated rates of poverty, substance abuse,\\u000a community violence, as well as scarce youth-supportive resources, and mental health care options. Many aspects of disadvantaged\\u000a urban contexts have the potential to thwart successful

Stacey Alicea; Gisselle Pardo; Kelly Conover; Geetha Gopalan; Mary McKay

413

Preschool Children's Cardiac Reactivity Moderates Relations Between Exposure to Family Violence and Emotional Adjustment  

PubMed Central

This study examined relations between cardiac reactivity, family violence exposure (i.e., child maltreatment [CM] and inter-partner violence [IPV]), and preschool children's emotional adjustment. A sample of 92 mother–preschooler dyads was drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which children's Electrocardiograph (ECG) monitoring occurred during a resting baseline, joint-challenge, and individual emotional and cognitive tasks. Mothers consented to review of Children & Youth Services (CYS) records for CM and completed an IPV measure. Mothers rated children's emotional adjustment, and observers rated children on their frustration and positive affect. Children's vagal suppression was shown to moderate relations between family violence exposure and emotional adjustment. Findings indicated that children greater in vagal suppression showed better emotional adjustment when from families low in violence. However, regardless of children's level of vagal suppression, all children showed poorer emotional adjustment when from families high in violence. PMID:21593016

Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

414

Preschool children's cardiac reactivity moderates relations between exposure to family violence and emotional adjustment.  

PubMed

This study examined relations between cardiac reactivity, family violence exposure (i.e., child maltreatment [CM] and inter-partner violence [IPV]), and preschool children's emotional adjustment. A sample of 92 mother-preschooler dyads was drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which children's Electrocardiograph (ECG) monitoring occurred during a resting baseline, joint-challenge, and individual emotional and cognitive tasks. Mothers consented to review of Children & Youth Services (CYS) records for CM and completed an IPV measure. Mothers rated children's emotional adjustment, and observers rated children on their frustration and positive affect. Children's vagal suppression was shown to moderate relations between family violence exposure and emotional adjustment. Findings indicated that children greater in vagal suppression showed better emotional adjustment when from families low in violence. However, regardless of children's level of vagal suppression, all children showed poorer emotional adjustment when from families high in violence. PMID:21593016

Cipriano, Elizabeth A; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M

2011-08-01

415

Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own developmental symptom histories and other predictors of psychopathology. This study used latent difference score structural equation modeling to test if witnessing home violence and/or experiencing harsh physical discipline predicted changes in psychopathology symptoms among 2,925 youth aged 5 – 16 years previously exposed to violence. Results demonstrated that harsh physical discipline predicted child-specific changes in externalizing symptoms, whereas witnessing violence predicted child-specific changes in internalizing symptoms across time. Implications for research and policy are discussed. PMID:18826538

Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

2013-01-01

416

Cross-Gender Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Early Adolescents and Associations with Attitudes toward Dating Conflict  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization (ranging from mild, e.g., push, to severe, e.g., assault with a knife or gun) and attitudes toward dating conflict, among an urban sample of 601 early adolescents (78% African-American). Comparisons across gender groups for cross-gender (e.g.,…

Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

2009-01-01

417

Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

Elliott, David G.

1991-01-01

418

The Xygra gun simulation tool.  

SciTech Connect

Inductive electromagnetic launchers, or coilguns, use discrete solenoidal coils to accelerate a coaxial conductive armature. To date, Sandia has been using an internally developed code, SLINGSHOT, as a point-mass lumped circuit element simulation tool for modeling coilgun behavior for design and verification purposes. This code has shortcomings in terms of accurately modeling gun performance under stressful electromagnetic propulsion environments. To correct for these limitations, it was decided to attempt to closely couple two Sandia simulation codes, Xyce and ALEGRA, to develop a more rigorous simulation capability for demanding launch applications. This report summarizes the modifications made to each respective code and the path forward to completing interfacing between them.

Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Lamppa, Derek C.; Aubuchon, Matthew S.; Shirley, David Noyes; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Russo, Thomas V.

2008-12-01

419

Pulses inside the pulse mode of operation at RF Gun  

E-print Network

Pulses inside the pulse mode of operation at RF Gun V. Vogel, V. Ayvazyan, K. Floettmann, D. Lipka a PiP mode of operation at RF Gun · What we need, to operate FLASH in the PiP mode · PiP study-Universitaet Bochum) Alternative: SC GUN DC GUN Cold GUN in PiP mode Cold Traveling wave GUN Why we need a PiP mode

420

Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure and School Engagement Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Roles of Psychological Problem Behaviors and Gender  

PubMed Central

This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13 to 19 years) completed questionnaires which assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., PTSD symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth. PMID:21219276

Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hunnicutt, Shannon

2010-01-01

421

Toward Kuleana (Responsibility): A Case Study of a Contextually Grounded Intervention for Native Hawaiian Youth and Young Adults1  

PubMed Central

As a minority ethnic group, Native Hawaiian youth and young adults face an array of issues associated with colonization, such as persistent structural discrimination and the loss of land and indigenous ways of knowing. They are also at risk for a wide range of negative behaviors, including interpersonal violence, suicide, substance use, and juvenile delinquency. This article explores how community youth development, critical pedagogies, and Hawaiian epistemology can help Native Hawaiian young adults cope with such issues. It begins with a brief discussion of critiques on conventional youth violence prevention programs. To address these critiques, three bodies of literature are introduced: 1) community youth development, 2) critical pedagogy, and 3) community epistemology. Data were derived from a single case study of a community-based youth program. The program, located in an impoverished, rural community in Hawai‘i, entailed running an organic farm. Seventeen participants were involved in the study. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Utilizing critical indigenous qualitative research, a content analysis of the interviews was conducted to build a working conceptual model. Preliminary findings suggest that a program with key processes of community youth development, critical pedagogies, and Hawaiian epistemology may serve as a vehicle for health and wellness, thus preventing a host of negative behaviors, such as violence. Based on the findings, a critical contextually based approach to violence prevention that focuses on providing opportunities for Native Hawaiian young adults to take an active participatory role in promoting health is proposed. PMID:20161447

Trinidad, Alma M.O.

2009-01-01

422

Experiments and Demonstrations with Soldering Guns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the essential electrical characteristics of a particular model of soldering gun. Presents four classroom demonstrations that utilize the soldering gun to test the following geometrics of wire loops as electromagnets: (1) the original tip; (2) a single circular loop; (3) a Helmholtz coil; and (4) the solenoid. (MDH)

Henry, Dennis C.; Danielson, Sarah A.

1993-01-01

423

An electron gun for physical research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electron gun with a cold cathode is developed for physical research with energy to 300 keV. The gun operates in the pulsed mode. Current amplitude is to 100 A, and pulse duration is 100 ns. The first results of the experimental investigation are represented.

Drozdovsky, A. A.; Bogdanov, A. V.; Gavrilin, R. O.; Golubev, A. A.; Drozdovsky, S. A.; Kantsyrev, A. V.; Ladygina, E. M.; Savin, S. M.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Khudomyasov, A. V.; Yanenko, V. V.

2014-09-01

424

Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter  

DOEpatents

Gas gun with reduced timing jitter. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile.

Laabs, Gary W. (Los Alamos, NM); Funk, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Asay, Blaine W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

425

Specific traces in stun gun deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stun guns are electric shocking devices that can be deployed as defensive or offensive weapons. The aim of this study was the identification of several types of trace evidence for corroborating deployment and providing clues to the weapon actually used. In a series of some 250 tests, the after-effects of firing a stun gun were studied under the differential influence

Bert Schmiederer; Alfred Du Chesne; Peter Fritz Schmidt; Bernd Brinkmann

2005-01-01

426

Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter  

DOEpatents

Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

1998-06-09

427

Bullying and LGBT Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... LGBT Youth Youth With Special Needs Create a Gay-Straight Alliance Watch a video of Arne Duncan , ... of Education, in a speech supporting GSAs for Gay-Straight Alliance Day. Add this to... Bookmark Bullying ...

428

VIOLENCE IN INDIA: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE  

PubMed Central

Intraspecific violence is now established as a biological phenomenon intrinsic to living nature. Ethologists maintain that culturally moulded programs of aggression which can be released by certain environmental triggers exist in the nervous system among higher animals. Evidence also suggests that there co-exists a biological capacity for morality and empathy. A child by the age of two is endowed with the capacity to refrain from hurting another person purely by identifying himself with the other. This moral faculty is strengthened by parental training, appropriate role models and a nurturing society. In India today, the weakening of cultural values due to rapid social change and the inability of elders and leadership to present a clear set of values which tliey themselves live by has induced a sense of alienation, powerlessness and meaninglessness among the youth. This makes them extremely susceptible to programs of aggression, all the while weakening their empathic and moral inclinations. The paper attempts an in-depth psychological examinations of these issues and also other factors responsible for violence in India. Psychologically rooted strategies to tackle the problem of violence in India are also discussed. PMID:21743695

Kapur, R.L.

1994-01-01

429

Electron gun jitter effects on beam bunching  

SciTech Connect

For routine operation of Beijing Electron Positron Collider II (BEPCII) linac, many factors may affect the beam bunching process directly or indirectly. We present the measurements and analyses of the gun timing jitter, gun high voltage jitter, and beam energy at the exit of the standard acceleration section of the linac quantitatively. Almost 80 mV and more than 200 ps of gun high voltage and time jitters have ever been measured, respectively. It was analyzed that the gun timing jitter produced severe effects on beam energy than the gun high voltage jitter, if the timing jitter exceeded 100 ps which eventually deteriorates both the beam performance and the injection rate to the storage ring.

Liu, M. S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Iqbal, M., E-mail: muniqbal.chep@pu.edu.pk [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 45590 (Pakistan)

2014-02-15

430

Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles  

DOEpatents

Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

Lacy, Jeffrey M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-15

431

Electron gun jitter effects on beam bunching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For routine operation of Beijing Electron Positron Collider II (BEPCII) linac, many factors may affect the beam bunching process directly or indirectly. We present the measurements and analyses of the gun timing jitter, gun high voltage jitter, and beam energy at the exit of the standard acceleration section of the linac quantitatively. Almost 80 mV and more than 200 ps of gun high voltage and time jitters have ever been measured, respectively. It was analyzed that the gun timing jitter produced severe effects on beam energy than the gun high voltage jitter, if the timing jitter exceeded 100 ps which eventually deteriorates both the beam performance and the injection rate to the storage ring.

Liu, M. S.; Iqbal, M.

2014-02-01

432

Marijuana use among minority youths living in public housing developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youths residing in public housing developments appear to be at markedly heightened risk for drug use because of their constant\\u000a exposure to violence, poverty, and drug-related activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model of marijuana\\u000a etiology with adolescents (N=624) residing in public housing. African-American and Hispanic seventh graders completed questionnaires\\u000a about their marijuana use,

Christopher Williams; Jennifer A. Epstein; Gilbert J. Botvin; Michelle Ifill-Williams

1999-01-01

433

Daily violent video game playing and depression in preadolescent youth.  

PubMed

Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among youth. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 5,147 fifth-grade students and their primary caregivers who participated in Wave I (2004-2006) of Healthy Passages, a community-based longitudinal study conducted in three U.S. cities. Linear regression was conducted to determine the association between violent video game exposure and number of depressive symptoms, while controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, peer victimization, witnessing violence, being threatened with violence, aggression, family structure, and household income level. We found that students who reported playing high-violence video games for ?2 hours per day had significantly more depressive symptoms than those who reported playing low-violence video games for <2 hours per day (p<0.001). The magnitude of this association was small (Cohen's d=0.16), but this association was consistent across all racial/ethnic subgroups and among boys (Cohen's d values ranged from 0.12 to 0.25). Our findings indicate that there is an association between daily exposure to violent video games and number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth. More research is needed to examine this association and, if confirmed, to investigate its causality, persistence over time, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications. PMID:25007237

Tortolero, Susan R; Peskin, Melissa F; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan L; Lewis, Terri H; Banspach, Stephen W; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A

2014-09-01

434

Making the Peace. A 15-Session Violence Prevention Curriculum for Young People. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Making the Peace" curriculum is a complete program offering everything needed to address violence prevention in the classroom, after-school program, residential program for youth, or juvenile justice setting. The curriculum can be adapted to various time frames and parts may be incorporated into social studies, health, or other courses.…

Kivel, Paul; Creighton, Allan

435

Peaceful Solutions: Teacher's Guide. Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Strategies. Professional Development, Grades 5-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide has been developed for use with the Peaceful Solutions video series. It provides information for educators who want to learn more about how to prevent or reduce youth violence. Through video, print, and on-line components, Peaceful Solutions is intended to increase awareness about educational practices that help promote peace.…

Cochran, Kathleen Mayo; Kathleen Mayo

436

Violence Exposure Mediates the Relation between Callous-Unemotional Traits and Offending Patterns in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The link between callous-unemotional (CU) traits in youth and delinquent, aggressive and violent behavior is well-replicated in the literature. However, the mediating effects of violence exposure on this relationship are unclear. The current study addresses this important gap in the literature with a sample of 88 detained, primarily ethnic…

Howard, Aisha L.; Kimonis, Eva R.; Munoz, Luna C.; Frick, Paul J.

2012-01-01

437

Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

Chanmugam, Amy

2011-01-01

438

Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was…

Yan, Fang A.; Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth H.; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa

2010-01-01

439

Tobacco, Violence and Nutrition Health Behaviors Among Adolescents in Rural Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract English: This study examined tobacco, violence, and nutrition health behaviors in adolescents living in rural Ukraine using a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 478 adolescents ages 13-18 attending schools in Veliky Berezny, Ukraine participated. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square analyses were used to find associations between ,the independent variables gender and age, and the dependent variables tobacco,

Susan C. Hill; Linda Stonecipher; Michael D. Barnes; Ray M. Merrill

440

Violence and Hate in the Family and Neighborhood: New Perspectives, Policy and Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is accumulating research in diverse areas about the social conditions that are likely to promote violent environments, and the effects of these environments upon the development of children and youth. This series of papers on violence and hate traces abusive relationships through childhood and into adulthood, suggesting how these…

Johnston, Janet R., Ed.

441

Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

2012-01-01

442

Why Youth Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…

Cintron, Ralph

2010-01-01

443

Summer Youth Forestry Institute  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Summer Youth Forestry Institute (SYFI) was developed to inspire youth through experiential learning opportunities and early work experience in the field of natural resources. Declining enrollments in forestry and other natural resource careers has made it necessary to actively engage youth and provide them with exposure to careers in these…

Roesch, Gabrielle E.; Neuffer, Tamara; Zobrist, Kevin

2013-01-01

444

Values and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every social studies teacher must consciously move to relate his course to the value dilemmas of youth and the value-laden issues of our time. A variety of writings by youth have been included to serve as source materials for classroom teachers and to provide significant insights into the values of youth. The section, Values in the Classroom:…

Barr, Robert D., Ed.

445

Australia's regional youth exodus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I report on preliminary findings arising from a more extensive doctoral project on Australia's regional youth exodus. One aim of this project is to stress the political moment lost in technical socio-demographic accounts of youth migration. Here, I examine the ‘taken for granted’ assumptions that frame conversations about regional youth migration, as well as the exclusionary limits

M. Gabriel

2002-01-01

446

Youth Development: Maori Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the innovative approach of the Youth Development Strategy Aotearoa and the applicability of its Rangatahi Development Package, the diverse realities and experiences of Maori youth are still presenting unique challenges to national policy in Aotearoa New Zealand. A Maori youth research approach that utilised a combination of action research…

Ware, Felicity; Walsh-Tapiata, Wheturangi

2010-01-01

447

National Youth Court Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth courts provide communities with an opportunity to impose immediate consequences for first time youthful offenders, while providing a peer operated disposition mechanism that constructively allows young people to take responsibility, be held accountable, and make amends for violating the law. Dispositions hold youth accountable in part…

Godwin, Tracy M.

448

ACTS OF VIOLENCE ANNEX V ACTS OF VIOLENCE  

E-print Network

ANNEX V ACTS OF VIOLENCE #12;ANNEX V ­ ACTS OF VIOLENCE 07/25/2012 v.1.0 Page V-1 PROMULGATION STATEMENT Annex V: Acts of Violence, and contents within, is a guide to how the University conducts an emergency response specific to an act of violence. The Annex is written in support of the TAMU Emergency

449

Public Lecture Violence Research  

E-print Network

when women are killed: most women who are murdered are killed by an intimate partner or ex-partner. What can be done to address the disturbingly widespread levels of intimate partner violence and murder criminal history more likely to commit intimate partner violence and murder? What is the influence

Strathclyde, University of

450

Violence in Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing violence in sports is deplored, and a warning is issued on an apparent trend toward antisocial behavior. Contact sports such as hockey and football are cited as typically engendering aggression among athletes, but spectator sports (boxing, car racing, basketball, and baseball) are also singled out as eliciting increasing violence on the…

Cooper, Donald L.

451

The Worst School Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author recalls many acts of school violence. He states that while the dramatic school killings at Colorado's Columbine High School in 1999 and at Minnesota's Red Lake Reservation in 2005 were tragic, the most horrific school violence in history, measured by loss of life, occurred nearly a half century ago at Our Lady of the…

Brendtro, Larry K.

2005-01-01

452

Understanding Teen Dating Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... R, Ellis W, Stitt L, Donner A. A school based program to prevent adolescent violence: a cluster randomized trial. Archives of Pediatric and ... Shifting Boundaries: an experimental evaluation of a dating violence prevention program in middle schools. Prevention Science 2013; 14:64-76. 11. Foshee ...

453

The War on Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversial article that attempts to cover everything from the definition of violence ( violence is not gentleness; it is not friendly persuasion;...") to the Warren Commission Report ( Study of this chapter..suggests that they might as well have consulted the entrials of sheep.") (MF)

Drinnon, Richard

1970-01-01

454

Methamphetamine use and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research analyzed the relationship between methamphetamine use and violence. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 205 respondents. The research was based on life history interviews with individuals who used methamphetamine for a minimum of three months and who resided in Los Angeles County. Of the 205 respondents, 55 (26.8%) had committed violence while under the influence of

Ira Sommers; Deborah Baskin

2006-01-01

455

[Violence against children].  

PubMed

The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue. PMID:17966730

Daher, Michel

2007-01-01

456

Video game violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of video games, especially violent video games, has reached phenomenal proportions. The theoretical line of reasoning that hypothesizes a causal relationship between violent video-game play and aggression draws on the very large literature on media violence effects. Additionally, there are theoretical reasons to believe that video game effects should be stronger than movie or television violence effects. This

Karen E. Dill; Jody C. Dill

1998-01-01

457

Preventing School Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

2011-01-01

458

Psychometric Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version Among Portuguese Juvenile Delinquents.  

PubMed

The main aim of the present study was to examine some psychometric properties of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) among Portuguese juvenile delinquents. With forensic sample of 192 incarcerated male participants, the Portuguese version of the PCL:YV demonstrated promising psychometric properties of the three-factor model of youth psychopathy, internal consistency, convergent validity, concurrent validity, and retrospective validity that generally justify its use among Portuguese youths. Statistically significant associations were found with age of criminal onset, frequency of crimes, number of victims, and use of physical violence. PMID:24876633

Pechorro, Pedro; Barroso, Ricardo; Maroco, João; Vieira, Rui Xavier; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa

2014-05-29

459

Trafficking among youth in conflict with the law in São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Engagement in drug trafficking may place a child or youth at risk for exposure to severe violence, drug abuse, and death.\\u000a However, little is know about the nature of youth involvement in drug trafficking. The purpose of this study is to describe\\u000a drug trafficking behaviour of delinquent youth and identify adverse experiences as potential predictors of trafficking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional sample of

John D. McLennan; Isabel Bordin; Kathryn Bennett; Fatima Rigato; Merlin Brinkerhoff

2008-01-01

460

UCSD WORKPLACE VIOLENCE EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK  

E-print Network

UCSD WORKPLACE VIOLENCE EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK (Understanding & Preventing) TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION of violence or actual violence. To the extent that a better informed community is a safer community, this handbook has been prepared to aid in the understanding and prevention of workplace violence. You

Jun, Suckjoon

461

Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

462

Specifying the Interrelationship Between Exposure to Violence and Parental Monitoring for Younger Versus Older Adolescents: A Five Year Longitudinal Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to examine the\\u000a interrelationship between exposure to violence and parenting during adolescence. Semi-parametric group based modeling was\\u000a used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results from these analyses revealed:\\u000a (1) a trajectory of declining parental

Richard Spano; Craig Rivera; Alexander T. Vazsonyi; John M. Bolland

463

Pediatric air gun shot injury.  

PubMed

Air guns (AGs) use air or another compressed gas to propel a projectile. Different injuries may occur in children due to their body structure, which is less-resistant with thin soft tissue coverage that can be easily penetrated by an AG shot. We present 3 cases of pediatric AG shot injury. The first-case had right lumber deep tissue penetration of AG pallet without internal damage, the second-case had a complex course of pellet into the perineum, and the third-case was shot in the left shoulder. All cases were accidentally shot. The shooters were all children, and relatives of the victims. All patients were generally stable on arrival. Two cases were operated, and one received conservative management. On follow up, no complications were noted.  At first sight, AGs and air rifles may appear relatively harmless, but they are potentially lethal and children should not be allowed to play with them.  PMID:25491217

Khan, Ubaid U; Kamal, Naglaa M; Mirza, Shazia J; Sherief, Laila M

2014-12-01

464

Understanding and Using Informants Reporting Discrepancies of Youth Victimization: A Conceptual Model and Recommendations for Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discrepancies often occur among informants' reports of various domains of child and family functioning and are particularly common between parent and child reports of youth violence exposure. However, recent work suggests that discrepancies between parent and child reports predict subsequent poorer child outcomes. We propose a preliminary…

Goodman, Kimberly L.; De Los Reyes, Andres; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

2010-01-01

465

How Family Religious Involvement Benefits Adults, Youth, and Children and Strengthens Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of empirical research demonstrates that a family's religious involvement directly benefits adults, children and youth in many ways. Divorce rates are lower and marital satisfaction and quality scores highest among religiously involved couples. Religious practices are linked with family satisfaction, closer father-child relationships, and closer parent-child relationships. There is less domestic violence among religious couples and religious

David C. Dollahite; Jennifer Y. Thatcher; M. S. Brigham

466

Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

2013-01-01

467

CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS*  

E-print Network

CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS* Charles K. Sinclair # , Cornell voltage DC electron guns with photoemission cathodes are a natural choice for generating the beams gradient in these guns. The photocathode operational lifetime is limited by the gun vacuum and by ion back

468

Automation of the Gun M.Grecki, MSK Group  

E-print Network

Automation of the Gun M.Grecki, MSK Group #12;GUN at FLASH normal conducting cavity power ­ works perfectly in steady-state conditions ­ long transients when RF power fluctuates #12;Gun temperature regulation #12;GUN temperature & klystron power (steady-state, FF+FB) temperature [°C] reflected

469

MODEL D650 INDUSTRIAL SOLDERING GUN PRODUCT DESCRIPTION  

E-print Network

MODEL D650 INDUSTRIAL SOLDERING GUN PRODUCT DESCRIPTION The Weller® D650 Industrial Soldering Gun is a multipurpose heavy duty tool boasting the highest power output of the Weller® soldering gun product line. The D INSTRUCTIONS The D650 Industrial Soldering Gun is designed for intermittent use with a duty cycle of one minute

Kleinfeld, David

470

Automation of the Gun M.Grecki, MSK Group  

E-print Network

Automation of the Gun M.Grecki, MSK Group #12;GUN at FLASH normal conducting cavity no probe power fluctuates #12;Field calibration for RF-Gun Vfield = Vfor + Vref Vfield = A1*ei1 (Vm_for + A2 *ei2 #12;Fitting data to resonance curve #12;Before calibration After calibration RF Gun field measurement

471

Correlates of Gun Involvement and Aggressiveness among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated adolescents' aggressiveness in relation to their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes concerning gun use, also noting family composition, relationships with parents, and emotionality as correlates of gun involvement and aggression. Student surveys indicated links between gun ownership and recreational use, beliefs about gun use, and…

Ding, Cody S.; Nelsen, Edward A.; Lassonde, Cynthia T.

2002-01-01

472

Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

Birnbaum, Robert

2013-01-01

473

Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

1993-01-01

474

Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

Simon, Robert I.

2007-01-01

475

THE OPERATION OF THE BNL/ATF GUN-IV PHOTOCATHODE RF GUN AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE  

E-print Network

THE OPERATION OF THE BNL/ATF GUN-IV PHOTOCATHODE RF GUN AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE * S (SASE) process is nearing completion. Recently, an rf photoinjector gun system was made available, and integration of this gun with the APS will be discussed. 1 INTRODUCTION The Advanced Photon Source (APS

Brookhaven National Laboratory

476

Prop Guns in DePaul Digital Cinema Student Films There are two cardinal rules regarding guns  

E-print Network

Prop Guns in DePaul Digital Cinema Student Films There are two cardinal rules regarding guns: 1. Real Guns are NEVER permitted in ANY DePaul Student Film. 2. Live Ammunition is NEVER permitted in ANY DePaul Student Film. The appearance of a prop gun in a student film must be approved prior

Schaefer, Marcus

477

Environmental, Social, and Personal Correlates of Having Ever Had Sexual Intercourse Among American Indian Youths  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the correlates of having ever had sexual intercourse among American Indians aged 13 to 18 years in Minnesota. Methods. To assess key environmental, social, and individual correlates of sexual experience, we analyzed data from 4135 American Indian youths who participated in the 1998 and 2001 Minnesota Student Surveys. Results. Forty-two percent of those aged 13 to 15 years and 69% of those aged 16 to 18 years reported that they had ever had sexual intercourse. Correlates of sexual experience varied by age and gender. School connections had the strongest negative associations with sexual experience in young girls, and living with a father had negative associations with sexual experience for younger, but not older, youths. Sexual experience was most strongly and positively associated with risk behaviors such as substance use, violence exposure, and violence perpetuation. Conclusions. The strongest correlates of sexual experience for American Indian youths were high-risk behaviors and exposure to violence. Future work is needed to develop and employ measures that reflect youth assets and that specifically reflect the experiences of American Indian youths. PMID:17077401

Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Rhodes, Kristine L.; Garwick, Ann

2006-01-01

478

Intimate Partner Violence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released earlier this summer, this report on intimate partner violence from the Bureau of Justice Statistics "provides information on violence by intimates (current or former spouses, girlfriends, or boyfriends) since the redesign of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)." "The report covers trends in intimate violence, characteristics of victims (race, sex, age, income, ethnicity, and whether the victims live in urban, suburban, or rural areas), type of crime (physical assault, verbal threats), and trends for reporting to police. Intimate victimizations measured include rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. Data on murder by intimates are also given." Data for the report came from the NCVS and the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports.

Rennison, Callie M.; Welchans, Sarah.

2000-01-01

479

Aesthetes in the marketplace: Collectors in the gun business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketplaces can provide settings for the appreciation of beauty and the creation of community. The author examines how gun\\u000a collectors who buy and sell guns continue to see themselves as aesthetes rather than dealers. Gun collector-dealers turn economic\\u000a encounters at commercial gun shows into occasions for teaching others the symbolic uses of guns — as artifacts, curios, andobjets d'art. Economic

Barbara Stenross

1994-01-01

480

Arc Plasma Gun With Coaxial Powder Feed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Redesigned plasma gun provides improved metallic and ceramic coatings. Particles injected directly through coaxial bore in cathode into central region of plasma jet. Introduced into hotter and faster region of plasma jet.

Zaplatynsky, Isidor

1988-01-01

481

Lightweight, High-Current Welding Gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lighweight resistance-welding, hand-held gun supplies alternating or direct current over range of 600 to 4,000 A and applies forces from 40 to 60 lb during welding. Used to weld metal sheets in multilayered stacks.

Starck, Thomas F.; Brennan, Andrew D.

1989-01-01

482

Direct launch using the electric rail gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

Barber, J. P.

1983-01-01

483

The electric rail gun for space propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic feasibility investigation of an electric propulsion concept for space application is described. In this concept, quasistatic thrust due to inertial reaction to repetitively accelerated pellets by an electric rail gun is used to propel a spacecraft. The study encompasses the major subsystems required in an electric rail gun propulsion system. The mass, performance, and configuration of each subsystem are described. Based on an analytic model of the system mass and performance, the electric rail gun mission performance as a reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is analyzed and compared to a 30 cm ion thruster system (BIMOD) and a chemical propulsion system (IUS) for payloads with masses of 1150 kg and 2300 kg. For system power levels in the range from 25 kW(e) to 100 kW(e) an electric rail gun OTV is more attractive than a BIMOD system for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit transfer durations in the range from 20 to 120 days.

Bauer, D. P.; Barber, J. P.; Vahlberg, C. J.

1981-01-01

484

Arc-driven rail gun research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The equations describing the performance of an inductively-driven rail gun are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. The effect of frictional heat dissipation on the bore of the gun is calculated. The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a dc rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

Ray, P. K.

1984-01-01

485

Youth Asset Mapping: Showcasing Youth Empowerment and Positive Youth-Adult Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth and adult partners participated in youth asset mapping, a form of action research, to assess community assets and youth involvement opportunities. Qualitative data were analyzed to examine youths' feelings of empowerment and experiences with adult partners. Asset mapping contributed to youth empowerment, especially when adults were engaging…

Handy, Deborah J.; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Schwieterman, Tiffany Anne

2011-01-01

486

Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

Allen, Peter B.

1993-01-01

487

Development of a mobile gas gun  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories Division 9122 is completing construction of a portable, 6'' bore, high performance, single stage compressed gas (air/helium) gun. The gun was developed to accommodate direct penetration tests into geologic media at a variety of impact and incidence angles freeing users of reverse ballistic and/or target simulation methods. It is designed to propel projectiles (5 lbs.) up to 2500 ft/sec. Initial operation and performance evaluation began in August 1988. The gun will be fully operational in October 1988. The gas gun is mounted on a 50' by 8' trailer. In addition, all ancillary equipment, compressor, electrical generator, two 25 cubic foot storage tanks and one 7 cubic foot power chamber tank, valves, and pressure control are mounted on the trailer. The trailer is tethered to an IBM PC with a 4 conductor cable to accommodate remote firing. Several test series have already been scheduled for this gun in FY89. These include a lateral loading benchmarking study with 10 lb. projectiles instrumented with 6 channels of acceleration and strain data, a controlled depth of burial study for 40 lb. runway penetrators, and a scale model study of multilayered target penetration. The last two series are being done under the Joint DOD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program. In this paper we will discuss the design, development and operational capability of this new mobile gas gun. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Lundgren, R.G.; Hightower, M.M.; Christensen, B.K.

1988-01-01

488

The video violence debate.  

PubMed

Some researchers and theorists are convinced that graphic scenes of violence on television and in movies are inextricably linked to human aggression. Others insist that a link has not been conclusively established. This paper summarizes scientific studies that have informed these two perspectives. Although many instances of children and adults imitating video violence have been documented, no court has imposed liability for harm allegedly resulting from a video program, an indication that considerable doubt still exists about the role of video violence in stimulating human aggression. The author suggests that a small group of vulnerable viewers are probably more impressionable and therefore more likely to suffer deleterious effects from violent programming. He proposes that research on video violence be narrowed to identifying and describing the vulnerable viewer. PMID:8462940

Lande, R G

1993-04-01

489

[Family violence and generations].  

PubMed

Starting with a description of the place and function of violence inside families, the author raises than the topics of the professional's ethic and responsibility when working with family violence. It is not always easy for professionals to evaluate responsibilities particularly when they try to take into account as many contextual factors as possible. They could worry to become too Manichean and to see themselves as following only a linear causality. PMID:21089424

Goldbeter-Merinfeld, E

2010-09-01

490

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: DETERRING PERPETRATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In recent years a coercive criminal justice response has been promoted,as the appropriate response to control and deter perpetrators of domestic violence . In varying degrees, across western democracies, pro-arrest and mandatory arrest policies, no-drop prosecution, and tougher penalties have been proposed and implemented. However, recent literature and research on domestic violence has questioned the underlying assumption that the

Anna Stewart

491

TESLA FEL Report 200602 Finite Element Analyses for RF Photoinjector Gun Cavities  

E-print Network

TESLA FEL Report 200602 Finite Element Analyses for RF Photoinjector Gun ..............................................................................................................................................................19 3.1. DESY GUN 2..................................................................................................................................................19 3.2. DESY GUN 4

492

Do Parenting Practices and Pro-social Peers Moderate the Association between Intimate Partner Violence Exposure and Teen Dating Violence?  

PubMed Central

Objective Teen dating violence (TDV) affects the lives of millions of adolescents each year. The current study examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and TDV perpetration and victimization. In addition, positive parenting practices and pro-social peer relationships were examined as potential moderators of the association between IPV and TDV. Method Participants were 41 adolescents (ages 12–15) and their caregivers. Youth were currently or recently in an out-of-home placement due to maltreatment. Youth reported on their exposure to violence, involvement in TDV, and association with pro-social peers. Caregivers reported on their parenting practices. Results There was a significant, positive association between IPV exposure and TDV victimization, but not between IPV and TDV perpetration. In addition, positive parenting practices and pro-social peer relationships moderated the association between IPV and TDV perpetration, such that there was a positive association between IPV exposure and TDV perpetration at lower, but not higher levels of these moderators. Similarly, there was a positive association between IPV exposure and TDV victimization at lower, but not higher levels of positive parenting practices. Conclusions These results highlight the importance positive parenting practices and pro-social peers as key protective factors that may attenuate TDV involvement for high-risk adolescents.

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.

2014-01-01

493

Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

2011-01-01

494

Police crackdowns on illegal gun carrying: a systematic review of their impact on gun crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systematic review of the impact of police strategies to reduce illegal possession and carrying of firearms on gun crime, including directed patrols, monitoring of probationers and parolees, weapon reporting hotlines, and others. Four studies met the inclusion criteria, reporting a total of seven nonrandomized tests of directed patrols focused on gun carrying in three American cities

Christopher S. Koper; Evan Mayo-Wilson

2006-01-01

495

Southwest Border Violence: Issues in Identifying and Measuring Spillover Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] There has been a recent increase in the level of drug trafficking-related violence within and between the drug trafficking organizations in Mexico. This violence has generated concern among U.S. policy makers that the violence in Mexico might spill over into the United States. Currently, U.S. federal officials deny that the recent increase in drug trafficking-related violence in Mexico has

Kristin M Finklea; Jennifer E Lake; Celinda Franco; Chad C Haddal; William J Krouse; Mark A Randol

2010-01-01

496

A Positive Domestic Violence Screen Predicts Future Domestic Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to determine if a brief screen for domestic violence (DV) predicts future violence. We conducted a cohort study of adult women who presented to an inner-city emergency department during an 8-week study period. Participants were screened for DV using the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). At 4 months, follow-up telephone…

Houry, Debra; Feldhaus, Kim; Peery, Benjamin; Abbott, Jean; Lowenstein, Steven R.; al-Bataa-de-Montero, Sameerah; Levine, Saul

2004-01-01

497

The Interactive Relationship among Adolescent Violence, Street Violence, and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has shown community violence to be detrimental to adolescent well-being, yet relatively little is known about how adolescents respond to violence in their community. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the interactive associations among exposure to street violence, adolescent…

Latzman, Robert D.; Swisher, Raymond R.

2005-01-01

498

Women Domestic Violence Offenders: Lessons of Violence and Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examined female domestic violence offenders via structured interviews with 13 women referred for treatment in batterers' intervention programs in a major metropolitan area. The majority of women were victims of childhood abuse and\\/or witnessed violence between their parents. Most reported feeling cut-off from their mothers, left their childhood homes before the age of 18, and experienced violence

Cindy L. Seamans; Linda J. Rubin; Sally D. Stabb

2007-01-01

499

Sex, Violence and Movie Viewing  

MedlinePLUS

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Sex, Violence and Movie Viewing HealthDay October 20, 2014 ... Transcript Are parents becoming desensitized to violence and sex in movies targeting kids? Researchers recruited 1,000 ...

500

Violence against women.  

PubMed

This essay opens its discussion of violence against women by referring to the 1994 television broadcast of a 10-year-old Egyptian girl undergoing female genital mutilation (FGM) without benefit of infection control measures or anesthesia at the hands of a local barber. After presenting a brief description of FGM, its various justifications, and its impacts on its victims, the official Egyptian policy is described as ambiguous, and the broadcast is shown to have caused influential religious leaders and medical personnel to defend FGM and, thus, led to postponement of a bill to outlaw FGM. The next section of the essay shows that Egypt's response to FGM reflects the international debate on all forms of violence against women emerging from and reinforcing the social relationships that give men power over women. These forms of violence include domestic violence in almost all societies; the dowry-related, bride-burning homicides that claim 5000-12,000 lives each year in India; son preference that leads to abortion of female fetuses and female infanticide; and crimes such as rape, sexual abuse, and forced prostitution. The essay continues with a look at the costs of violence hidden in the damage to women that increases health care costs substantially and reduces economic productivity. Violence towards women, which occurs throughout the world and can prevent women from participating in public life or from controlling their fertility, is a male tool to inhibit women from gaining autonomy outside the home. The essay concludes that victims of violence are beginning to break the silence that surrounded these deeds and are seeking legislative protection. Laws may not result in real-life changes, but the movement to eliminate FGM may prove to be the first success in women's efforts to achieve human rights. An example is the important precedent being set in the US by a woman seeking asylum to avoid facing an arranged marriage and FGM in her native Togo. PMID:12291323

Nelson, T

1996-01-01