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1

YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (YRBSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) was developed to monitor priority health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The YRBSS monitors six categories of behavio...

2

Colorado: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 1991, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to a sample of 1,412 high school students in Colorado public schools to collect information about priority health-risk behaviors among adolescents. Questionnaires were received from 1,170 students, a response rate of 83%. Classes in Colorado's 280 public schools were also selected to…

Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver.

3

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, United States, 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual report from the Centers for Disease Control "monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults -- behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity." Statistical tables in this report provide extensive data on the four leading causes of death for persons aged 10-24, accounting for 75 percent of all mortalities for this group: motor-vehicle accidents, other intentional injuries, homicide, and suicide.

4

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: 2011 National Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

5

Health risk behavior among thai youth: national survey 2013.  

PubMed

This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. PMID:25183211

Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

2015-01-01

6

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

7

Health and Risk Behaviors of Massachusetts Youth, 2007: The Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…

Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

2008-01-01

8

Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results, 1995. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An 84-item multiple choice Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 2,092 students in 62 public high schools in New Hampshire during the spring of 1995. The survey covered behaviors in six categories: (1) behaviors that result in unintentional or intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that…

New Hampshire State Dept. of Education, Concord.

9

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

2006-01-01

10

Perceptions of social support, empowerment and youth risk behaviors.  

PubMed

This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Among girls, lack of parent/teacher interactions regarding school increased odds for fighting, alcohol and tobacco use. Among boys, lack of empowerment increased odds of alcohol and tobacco use and lack of parent/teacher interactions regarding school increased odds for sexual activity. Community empowerment and perceived social support are uniquely associated with risk behaviors for girls and boys. Additionally, perceived social support from individuals most immediate to the youth are associated with protection against risk for some behaviors, while perceived social support from individuals more removed from youth have mixed association with risk behaviors. PMID:22302149

Reininger, Belinda M; Pérez, Adriana; Aguirre Flores, Maria I; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H

2012-02-01

11

Reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the test-retest reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire.Methods: A sample of 4619 male and female high school students from white, black, Hispanic, and other racial\\/ethnic groups completed the YRBS questionnaire on two occasions approximately two weeks apart. The questionnaire assesses a broad range of health risk behaviors. This study used a protocol that

Nancy D Brener; Laura Kann; Tim McManus; Steven A Kinchen; Elizabeth C Sundberg; James G Ross

2002-01-01

12

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

13

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

14

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

15

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Montana High Schools: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) report is a continuation of the surveillance and reporting system for adolescent risk behaviors developed by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of the Youth

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

16

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

17

Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…

Huff, C. Ronald

18

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 1993. CDC Surveillance Summaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Systems monitor six categories of priority health risk behaviors among youth and young adults: (1) behaviors that contribute to intentional or unintentional injuries; (2) tobacco use (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases;…

Kann, Laura; And Others

1995-01-01

19

A Cross-National Comparison of Externalizing Behaviors among High-Risk Youth and Youth Gang Members in Metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, and San Salvador, El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth interventions often focus on high-risk youth; however, little is known about the similarities and differences of these youth cross-nationally. This study examines externalizing behaviors of youth in Boston (n = 374) and San Salvador (n = 208) and compares several domains. Results reveal significant differences between populations; Salvadoran youth exhibited higher rates of violence and delinquency, marijuana use, and

René Olate; Christopher Salas-Wright; Michael G. Vaughn

2011-01-01

20

The impact of school-organized sport activities on the priority youth health-risk behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of school-organized sport activities on the priority youth health-risk behaviors.METHODS: Data were taken from The 1997 National School-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Measures of prevalence rates in six categories of priority health-risk behaviors defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were performed between participants and non-participants in school-organized sport activities. Then multiple logistic regression

C Sun; DD Dyck; VJ Guillory

2000-01-01

21

Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents. Part 3. Working with Youth at Risk: Behavioral Issues and Interventions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of Part 3 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. It includes six readings, each dealing with a specific behavior that places a young person at risk. "The Secret and…

Kempley, Frances A.; And Others

22

Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

2012-01-01

23

Students with Special Needs: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Special Education Assistance. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

2012-01-01

24

Suicide Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Attempted Suicide. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

2013-01-01

25

Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

2013-01-01

26

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry

27

Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

2014-01-01

28

Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.  

PubMed

We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well. PMID:24494349

Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

2013-12-01

29

Effects of At-School Victimization and Sexual Orientation on Lesbian, Gay, or Bisexual Youths' Health Risk Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the link between victimization at school and health risk behaviors using representative data comparing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths and heterosexual youths. Methods: Data from the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey taken in Massachusetts and Vermont were exam- ined. This sample included 9188 9th through 12th grade students; 315 of these students were identified as LGB.

DANIEL E. BONTEMPO; ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI

2002-01-01

30

The Relationship between Sexual Behavior and Non-sexual Risk Behaviors among Unmarried Youth in Three Asian Cities  

PubMed Central

Background: Health risk behaviors in adolescents and youth such as smoking, alcohol, drug use, violence, suicide, and unprotected sexual behavior are issues of major public health concern. Addressing the relationship between sexual behavior and non-sexual risk behaviors will make a significant contribution to the design of effective intervention programs for this population of adolescents and unmarried youth. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Asian cities with a common heritage of Confucian values: Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei. Data were collected in 2006 from 17,016 youth aged 15-24 years residing in both urban and rural districts of the three settings. The relationships between sexual behavior and seven non-sexual risk behaviors among unmarried adolescents were examined using ?2 tests, logistic regression models, Cox regression models, and cluster analysis. Results: Sexual behavior was associated with seven non-sexual risk behaviors, especially with smoking, drinking, drug use and running away from home. In terms of the age at initiation of risk behaviors, smoking and drinking were usually initiated before sexual intercourse. Sexual behavior and non-sexual risk behaviors co-occurred in the high risk group in all three cities. Youth having the highest risk of sexual behavior were more likely to have the highest risk of nearly all non-sexual risk behaviors, with the exception of fighting in Hanoi, and gambling in Shanghai and Taipei. Conclusion: Sexual behavior among unmarried youth is correlated with non-sexual risk behaviors but with different patterns across the three settings. Interventions aimed at reducing unprotected sex generally focus only on the sexual behavior; however, considering the correlations found here between sexual and non-sexual risk behaviors, they should target multiple risk behaviors. PMID:22340860

Tu, Xiaowen; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Li, Nan; Zabin, Laurie S.

2014-01-01

31

HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

2008-01-01

32

Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors among Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk behaviors was prospectively examined over the four…

Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

2010-01-01

33

The Influence of Knowing Someone with AIDS on Youth HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that knowing someone with HIV/AIDS is associated with greater perceived risk of contracting HIV and changes in sexual risk behaviors. The current study with a sample of 1,172 examined whether knowing someone with HIV/AIDS influenced sexual risk communication and youth engagement in sexual intercourse using the Philadelphia…

Cederbaum, Julie A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Hutchinson, M. Katherine

2007-01-01

34

Healthy Wyoming: Start with Youth Today. Results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior and School Health Education Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Wyoming School Health Education Survey (SHES). Thirty-five schools participated in the YRBS, with 3,513 students in grades 9-12; 92 public schools with students in grades 7-12 participated in the SHES. Statistical data from the YRBS are provided in the…

Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Behavior Lab.

35

Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

2015-01-01

36

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Middle School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This youth risk behavior survey was completed by 7,667 students at 127 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) middle schools. The document is organized around the six categories of behavior that contribute substantially to the leading causes of death, illness, and social problems in the United States: unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use;…

Everett, Sherry; Sussman, Michele; Ranslow, Steve; Shaughnessy, Lana

37

School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

2012-01-01

38

Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2003: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Palau  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territory, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories, and cities…

Balling, Allison; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Speicher, Nancy; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura

2005-01-01

39

An Examination of the Reliability, Data Screening Procedures, and Extreme Response Patterns for the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores psychometric characteristics of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS), one of the most widely used instruments to assess the prevalence of violent and other high-risk behaviors in secondary school settings. Response patterns were analyzed for a subset of 414 youths who indicated that they had carried a weapon to…

Furlong, Michael J.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Bates, Michael P.; Smith, Douglas C.

2004-01-01

40

Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.  

PubMed

Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth. PMID:19888644

Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

2010-10-01

41

Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

2012-01-01

42

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Middle School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from a spring 1997 survey of all middle-school students (grades 6-8) enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by 6,990 students in 115 of the 122 BIA-funded middle schools; the overall response rate was 74 percent.…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve

43

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on or near a Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

44

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students in Urban Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

45

Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,

Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström

2010-01-01

46

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 55, Number SS-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: October 2004-January 2006. Description of the System: The Youth Risk

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

2006-01-01

47

Reducing High Risk Behaviors among Street Living Youth: Outcomes of an Integrated Prevention Intervention.  

PubMed

Research efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk behavior among street living youth have shown disappointing outcomes, with few studies reporting reduced risk behaviors. The current study tested the impact of an integrated HIV prevention intervention, and predictors of change, for youth (N=270) between the ages of 14 to 20 years receiving substance use treatment through a drop-in center. Condom use, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners and behaviors associated with an overall HIV risk index were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Findings suggest that HIV prevention integrated with substance use treatment is associated with increased condom use and reduced sex partners. However, the effects on condom use were short lived and dissipated by 12 months post-baseline. Higher treatment attendance and baseline substance use predicted increased condom use. Although no significant change was observed in the overall HIV risk index, increases in depressive symptoms were associated with increases in the index score, as well as more sexual partners. Future research should determine whether successful intervention requires reinforcement of risk reduction behaviors while youth remain homeless. PMID:25104870

Carmona, Jasmin; Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Letcher, Amber

2014-08-01

48

Individual and social determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors among youth  

PubMed Central

Background Behavioral risk factors are known to co-occur among youth, and to increase risks of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality later in life. However, little is known about determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors, particularly among youth. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and carried out without a sound theoretical framework. Methods Using longitudinal data (n = 1135) from Cycle 4 (2000-2001), Cycle 5 (2002-2003) and Cycle 6 (2004-2005) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, a nationally representative sample of Canadian children who are followed biennially, the present study examines the influence of a set of conceptually-related individual/social distal variables (variables situated at an intermediate distance from behaviors), and individual/social ultimate variables (variables situated at an utmost distance from behaviors) on the rate of occurrence of multiple behavioral risk factors (physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and high body mass index) in a sample of children aged 10-11 years at baseline. Multiple behavioral risk factors were assessed using a multiple risk factor score. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.1, and SUDAAN, version 9.01. Results Multivariate longitudinal Poisson models showed that social distal variables including parental/peer smoking and peer drinking (Log-likelihood ratio (LLR) = 187.86, degrees of freedom (DF) = 8, p < .001), as well as individual distal variables including low self-esteem (LLR = 76.94, DF = 4, p < .001) increased the rate of occurrence of multiple behavioral risk factors. Individual ultimate variables including age, sex, and anxiety (LLR = 9.34, DF = 3, p < .05), as well as social ultimate variables including family socioeconomic status, and family structure (LLR = 10.93, DF = 5, p = .05) contributed minimally to the rate of co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors. Conclusions The results suggest targeting individual/social distal variables in prevention programs of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors among youth. PMID:22439966

2012-01-01

49

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for American Indian Students on Montana Reservations: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) report is a continuation of the surveillance and reporting system for adolescent risk behaviors developed by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of the YRBS is…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

50

Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... Recommendations from this Report What CDC Is Doing Health Risks Among Sexual Minority Youth Sexual minority youth—those ... Report , “ Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9–12 in ...

51

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, a second survey was conducted of all 9th through 12th graders enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). As in 1994, the survey instrument used was the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, developed by the Centers for Disease Control. Surveys were completed by 5,606 students out of a total high school population of 7,780.…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve

52

Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Alcohol Use: A Parallel Process Growth Model Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truant youths frequently experience family problems, emotional/psychological issues, substance misuse, and delinquency. They are likely engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate than the general youth population. Early intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. We present interim findings from an…

Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer

2014-01-01

53

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

2011-01-01

54

Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Risk Behaviors of Tobacco, Alcohol, Sexual Behaviors, and Diet and Physical Activity: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age (?14 years), and race/ethnicity. Results. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean?=?5.3 vs 3.8; P?risk behavior: odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.2, 1.4) to 4.0 (95% CI?=?3.6, 4.7), except for a diet low in fruit and vegetables (OR?=?0.7; 95% CI?=?0.5, 0.8). We found sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Conclusions. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities. PMID:24328632

Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Reisner, Sari L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle

2014-01-01

55

Attitudinal and behavioral characteristics predict high risk sexual activity in rural Tanzanian youth.  

PubMed

The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12-26 years of age) across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin), age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:24927421

Aichele, Stephen R; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; James, Susan; Grimm, Kevin

2014-01-01

56

Online Social Networking Technologies, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk and Testing Behaviors Among Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates associations between online social networking and sexual health behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles. We analyzed survey data from 201 homeless youth accessing services at a Los Angeles agency. Multivariate (regression and logistic) models assessed whether use of (and topics discussed on) online social networking technologies affect HIV knowledge, sexual risk behaviors, and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). One set of results suggests that using online social networks for partner seeking (compared to not using the networks for seeking partners) is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Supporting data suggest that (1) using online social networks to talk about safe sex is associated with an increased likelihood of having met a recent sex partner online, and (2) having online sex partners and talking to friends on online social networks about drugs and partying is associated with increased exchange sex. However, results also suggest that online social network usage is associated with increased knowledge and HIV/STI prevention among homeless youth: (1) using online social networks to talk about love and safe sex is associated with increased knowledge about HIV, (2) using the networks to talk about love is associated with decreased exchange sex, and (3) merely being a member of an online social network is associated with increased likelihood of having previously tested for STIs. Taken together, this study suggests that online social networking and the topics discussed on these networks can potentially increase and decrease sexual risk behaviors depending on how the networks are used. Developing sexual health services and interventions on online social networks could reduce sexual risk behaviors. PMID:20848305

Rice, Eric

2010-01-01

57

Heterogeneity in Patterns of Sexual Risk Behaviors among African-American Youth: Associations with General and Race-Specific Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study employed a within-groups analytic approach to examine patterns of sexual risk behavior and co-occurring general and race/ethnicity-specific risk and protective factors in a community sample of African-American youth (n = 436). Cluster analysis was used to classify young adults by levels of self-reported past year sexual risk

Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Gil, Andres G.

2007-01-01

58

Individual- and Family-Level Psychosocial Correlates of HIV Risk Behavior Among Youth in Rural Kenya  

PubMed Central

Associations between individual- and family-level psychosocial factors and sexual behavior were examined among 325 adolescents ages 10–18 in rural Kenya. History of sexual activity was reported by 51% of males and 30% of females. Among those reporting sex within the past year, 64% of males and 32% of females had multiple partners; 85% of males and 54% of females reported not using a condom at last sex. Multivariate logistic regression modeling demonstrated sexually active adolescents were significantly more likely to be older, male, more accepting of risky behavior, and have greater perceived HIV risk, caregiver social support, social support related to HIV, and emotional problems. Youths reporting high-risk behavior (unprotected sex or multiple partners) were significantly more likely to be younger, male, and have lower sex-related self-efficacy, lower caregiver monitoring, and more externalizing problems. Future studies should evaluate HIV prevention interventions targeting improvements in mental health and family relationships. PMID:20945157

Puffer, Eve S.; Meade, Christina S.; Drabkin, Anya S.; Broverman, Sherryl A.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

2012-01-01

59

Ethiopian origin high-risk youth: a cross-cultural examination of alcohol use, binge drinking, and problem behavior.  

PubMed

Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth. PMID:24853365

Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

2014-01-01

60

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: January-December 2007. Description of the System: The…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

2008-01-01

61

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 59, Number SS-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2008-December 2009. Description of the…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Whittle, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

2010-01-01

62

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 61, Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2010-December 2011. Description of the…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Flint, Katherine H.; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Lim, Connie; Wechsler, Howell

2012-01-01

63

Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

64

Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Perinatal HIV Infection in the United States: Predictors and Implications for Intervention Development  

PubMed Central

Background.?Factors associated with initiation of sexual activity among perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected (PHIV+) youth, and the attendant potential for sexual transmission of antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistant HIV, remain poorly understood. Methods.?We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of PHIV+ youth aged 10–18 years (mean, 13.5 years) enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study between 2007 and 2009. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) were used to collect sexual behavior information. Results.?Twenty-eight percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 23%–33%) (92/330) of PHIV+ youth reported sexual intercourse (SI) (median initiation age, 14 years). Sixty-two percent (57/92) of sexually active youth reported unprotected SI. Among youth who did not report history of SI at baseline, ARV nonadherence was associated with sexual initiation during follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.32–6.25). Youth living with a relative other than their biological mother had higher odds of engaging in unprotected SI than those living with a nonrelative. Thirty-three percent of youth disclosed their HIV status to their first sexual partner. Thirty-nine of 92 (42%) sexually active youth had HIV RNA ?5000 copies/mL after sexual initiation. Viral drug resistance testing, available for 37 of these 39 youth, identified resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 62%, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 57%, protease inhibitors in 38%, and all 3 ARV classes in 22%. Conclusions.?As PHIV+ youth become sexually active, many engage in behaviors that place their partners at risk for HIV infection, including infection with drug-resistant virus. Effective interventions to facilitate youth adherence, safe sex practices, and disclosure are urgently needed. PMID:23139252

Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Mellins, Claude; Kacanek, Deborah; Malee, Kathleen; Allison, Susannah; Hazra, Rohan; Siberry, George K.; Smith, Renee; Paul, Mary; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Seage, George R.

2013-01-01

65

A Multimodal Behavioral Intervention to Impact Adherence and Risk Behavior among Perinatally and Behaviorally HIV-Infected Youth: Description, Delivery, and Receptivity of Adolescent Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…

Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence

2011-01-01

66

Effects of 2 Prevention Programs on High-Risk Behaviors Among African American Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the efficacy of 2 programs designed to reduce high-risk behaviors among inner-city African American youth. Design Cluster randomized trial. Setting Twelve metropolitan Chicago, Ill, schools and the communities they serve, 1994 through 1998. Participants Students in grades 5 through 8 and their parents and teachers. Interventions The social development curriculum (SDC) consisted of 16 to 21 lessons per year focusing on social competence skills necessary to manage situations in which high-risk behaviors occur. The school/community intervention (SCI) consisted of SDC and school-wide climate and parent and community components. The control group received an attention-placebo health enhancement curriculum (HEC) of equal intensity to the SDC focusing on nutrition, physical activity, and general health care. Main Outcome Measures Student self-reports of violence, provocative behavior, school delinquency, substance use, and sexual behaviors (intercourse and condom use). Results For boys, the SDC and SCI significantly reduced the rate of increase in violent behavior (by 35% and 47% compared with HEC, respectively), provoking behavior (41% and 59%), school delinquency (31% and 66%), drug use (32% and 34%), and recent sexual intercourse (44% and 65%), and improved the rate of increase in condom use (95% and 165%). The SCI was significantly more effective than the SDC for a combined behavioral measure (79% improvement vs 51%). There were no significant effects for girls. Conclusions Theoretically derived social-emotional programs that are culturally sensitive, developmentally appropriate, and offered in multiple grades can reduce multiple risk behaviors for inner-city African American boys in grades 5 through 8. The lack of effects for girls deserves further research. PMID:15066879

Flay, Brian R.; Graumlich, Sally; Segawa, Eisuke; Burns, James L.; Holliday, Michelle Y.

2008-01-01

67

Sexual discounting among high-risk youth ages 18-24: Implications for sexual and substance use risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Youth under 25 show substantial sexual and substance use risk behaviors. One factor associated with risk behaviors is delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed outcomes. This study determined if delay discounting for sexual outcomes is related to sexual risk and substance use among 18-24 year olds. Females (70) and males (56) completed the Sexual Discounting Task, which assessed their likelihood of having unprotected immediate sex versus waiting for sex with a condom, at various delays, with 4 hypothetical sexual partners selected from photographs: the person they most wanted to have sex with, least wanted to have sex with, judged most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), and judged least likely to have an STI. They also completed instruments assessing HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, substance use, risk attitudes, inhibition, impulsivity, and sensation-seeking. Condom use likelihood generally decreased with increasing delay. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex was greater for partners whom participants most (vs. least) wanted to have sex with and judged least (vs. most) likely to have an STI. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex in the "most want to have sex with" and "least likely to have an STI" conditions was related to greater lifetime risky sexual partners, lifetime number of unique substances used, disregard of social approval/danger, disinhibition, and sensation/excitement-seeking. Males showed greater likelihood of unprotected sex than females when condom use was undelayed, but delay similarly affected condom use between sexes. Delay discounting should be considered in strategies to minimize youth risk behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25545764

Dariotis, Jacinda K; Johnson, Matthew W

2015-02-01

68

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Selected Steps Communities, United States, 2007 and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Pacific Island United States Territories, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "MMWR" contains the following studies: (1) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Selected Steps…

Shaw, Frederic E., Ed.

2008-01-01

69

Transgender Youth and Life-Threatening Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority status is a key risk factor for suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; however, it has not been studied among transgender youth. Fifty-five transgender youth reported on their life-threatening behaviors. Nearly half of the sample reported having seriously thought about taking their lives and one quarter reported suicide…

Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

2007-01-01

70

Programs-That-Work: CDC's Guide to Effective Programs that Reduce Health-Risk Behavior of Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated "Programs-That-Work" (PTW) in 1992 to identify health education programs with credible evidence of effectiveness and disseminate them to schools and youth agencies. Two tobacco use reduction programs and eight sexual risk behavior reduction programs were identified. This paper describes…

Collins, Janet; Robin, Leah; Wooley, Susan; Fenley, Dean; Hunt, Peter; Taylor, Julie; Haber, Deborah; Kolbe, Lloyd

2002-01-01

71

Individual and Social Network Sexual Behavior Norms of Homeless Youth at High Risk for HIV Infection.  

PubMed

Although previous research shows that homeless youth engage in numerous risky sexual behaviors, little is known about whether or not specific rules govern this conduct within their social networks and how group norms influence subsequent sexual actions. The current study utilizes 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate different elements of their sexual behavior. Findings reveal that their decision to have sex generally depends on chemistry and physical appearance whereas a potential partner's risky sexual history and heavy substance use discourages youth from engaging in sex. Both males and females discuss condom usage as it relates to unknown sexual history, availability, pregnancy, and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sixteen homeless youth indicate that they do not discuss safe sex practices with their partners or social network members. PMID:23162182

Tyler, Kimberly A; Melander, Lisa A

2012-12-01

72

Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

2013-01-01

73

Using Surveillance of Mental Health to Increase Understanding of Youth Involvement in High-Risk Behaviors: A Value-Added Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the potential utility of adding items that assessed youths' emotional and behavioral disorders to a commonly used surveillance survey. The goal was to evaluate whether the added items could enhance understanding of youths' involvement in high-risk behaviors. A sample of 3,331 adolescents in Grades 8, 10, and 12 from four…

Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.; Sharkey, Jill D.

2013-01-01

74

Cocaine Use and Delinquent Behavior among High-Risk Youths: A Growth Model of Parallel Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…

Dembo, Richard; Sullivan, Christopher

2009-01-01

75

A descriptive study of youth risk behavior in urban and rural secondary school students in El Salvador  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescence is an important stage of life for establishing healthy behaviors, attitudes, and lifestyles that contribute to current and future health. Health risk behavior is one indicator of health of young people that may serve both as a measure of health over time as well as a target for health policies and programs. This study examined the prevalence and distribution of youth health risk behaviors from five risk behavior domains–aggression, victimization, depression and suicidal ideation, substance use, and sexual behaviors–among public secondary school students in central El Salvador. Methods We employed a multi-stage sampling design in which school districts, schools, and classrooms were randomly selected. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire based on the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Sixteen schools and 982 students aged 12–20 years participated in the study. Results Health risk behaviors with highest prevalence rates included: engagement in physical fight (32.1%); threatened/injured with a weapon (19.9%); feelings of sadness/hopelessness (32.2%); current cigarette use (13.6%); and no condom use at last sexual intercourse (69.1%). Urban and male students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of most youth risk behaviors; female students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of feelings of sadness/hopelessness (35.6%), suicidal ideation (17.9%) and, among the sexually experienced, forced sexual intercourse (20.6%). Conclusion A high percentage of Salvadoran adolescents in this sample engaged in health risk behaviors, warranting enhanced adolescent health promotion strategies. Future health promotion efforts should target: the young age of sexual intercourse as well as low condom use among students, the higher prevalence of risk behaviors among urban students, and the important gender differences in risk behaviors, including the higher prevalence of reported feelings of sadness, suicidal ideation and forced sexual intercourse among females and higher sexual intercourse and substance use among males. Relevance of findings within the Salvadoran and the cross-national context and implications for health promotion efforts are discussed. PMID:16608519

Springer, Andrew E; Selwyn, BJ; Kelder, Steven H

2006-01-01

76

Health-Risk Behaviors among Our Nation's Youth: United States, 1992. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10: Data from the National Health Interview Survey. No. 192.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1992 National Health Interview Survey-Youth Risk Behavior Survey (NHIS-YRBS) studied 13,789 youth 12-21 years of age. This report presents the data according to sex, age, Hispanic origin, and race for youth of non-Hispanic origin. The 10 data tables cover: cigarette and other tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual experience, HIV/AIDS…

National Center for Health Statistics (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

77

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey High School Results and 2011 Comparative Report for: Grades 7-8; American Indian Students on or near a Reservation; American Indian Students in Urban Schools; Nonpublic Accredited Schools; Alternative Schools; Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

78

Psychiatric disorder symptoms, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among African-American out of school youth  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the association between symptoms of psychiatric disorder (i.e. depression, anxiety, and substance use) and sexual risk behavior in a sample of African-American adolescents and young adults in an employment training program. Methods Baseline data were used from a pilot study of an intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among youth disconnected from school and the workforce. Participants were recruited from two employment training programs in East and West Baltimore (N = 617; age 16–23 years). Data were collected through audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI). Mental health indicators were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of sexual risk behavior for each mental health condition and combinations of conditions. Results Lack of condom use at last sex was significantly associated with elevated anxiety symptoms. Number of sexual partners was associated with elevated depression symptoms and substance use. Early sexual debut was associated with substance use in the past 30 days. Also, there were differences in the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior comparing groups with different combinations of mental health problems to those with no symptoms of disorder or substance use. Conclusions The results demonstrate the need for HIV prevention programs that target out-of-school youth, as they are likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Our findings highlight the need to develop behavioral interventions that address disorder symptoms, substance use, and risky sexual behavior among youth in employment training programs. PMID:21145182

Turner, Alezandria K.; Latkin, Carl; Sonenstein, Freya; Tandon, S. Darius

2010-01-01

79

Youth-Initiated HIV Risk and Substance Use Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the first year of a novel HIV and substance use prevention program for inner city youth (Offering New Youth eXperiences--ONYX). Baseline and follow-up measures of knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors were administered seven months apart to 441 youth participating in the ONYX program. Youth (n=71) who provided data at both…

Goggin, K.; Metcalf, K.; Wise, D.; Kennedy, S.; Murray, T.; Burgess, D.; Reese-Smith, J.; Terhune, N.; Broadus, K.; Downes, A.; Buckendahl, H.

80

Ohio Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993: When, Why, and What Was Discovered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the survey answers Ohio high school students (N=2,314) reported about alcohol, tobacco, and other health risk behaviors. The survey contains questions relating to: (1) behaviors that result in intentional and non-intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that result in HIV…

Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

81

Sexual and Drug Use Behavior in Perinatally HIV? Infected Youth: Mental Health and Family Influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAs perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? infected (PHIV+) youths enter adolescence, they are at high risk for poor behavioral and health outcomes. This study examines relations between youth mental health problems and sexual and substance use risk behavior, the impact of caregiver mental health and family functioning on youth mental health and risk behavior outcomes, and the role of youth

Claude A. Mellins; Katherine S. Elkington; Jose A. Bauermeister; Elizabeth Brackis-Cott; Curtis Dolezal; Mary McKay; Andrew Wiznia; Mahrukh Bamji; Elaine J. Abrams

2009-01-01

82

High Risk Sexual Behaviors for HIV among the In-School Youth in Swaziland: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. Results The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Conclusions Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths. PMID:23861756

Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

2013-01-01

83

Use of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to Monitor Trends for Nutrition and Physical Activity in a Midwest City School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used by a city school district (approximately 11,000 students) in the upper Midwest to monitor trends for nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors both within and between years and to compare with national 2003 data. Methods: Independent random samples were obtained in 1999 (387 middle…

Edwards, Jane U.; Magel, Rhonda

2007-01-01

84

Screening for Alcohol Risk in Predominantly Hispanic Youths: Positive Rates and Behavioral Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined relationships between CAGE alcohol risk scores and predisposing factors for alcohol use, current alcohol use, and behavioral consequences in a large sample of secondary students. Students completed the CAGE, measures of demographics, potential predisposing factors, and consequences of alcohol use. More than 18% of students screened positive for potential alcohol risk using traditional CAGE criteria, and

Joe Tomaka; Rebekah A. Salaiz; Stormy Morales-Monks; Sharon Thompson; Sarah McKinnon; Kathleen ORourke

2012-01-01

85

Youth Football: Heat Stress and Injury Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This roundtable highlighted football-specific empirical data and practices that directly relate to heat stress effects and heat injury risk in youth football. The presentations underscored the operational issues and factors related to heat injury risk and prevention in this age group, with a specific emphasis on preseason practice. Discussions related to general physiological, clinical, and behavioral aspects of hydration, temperature

Michael F. Bergeron; Douglas B. McKeag; Douglas J. Casa; Priscilla M. Clarkson; Randall W. Dick; E. Randy Eichner; Craig A. Horswill; Anthony C. Luke; Frederick Mueller; Thayne A. Munce; William O. Roberts; Thomas W. Rowland

2005-01-01

86

Identifying sexual orientation health disparities in adolescents: analysis of pooled data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005 and 2007.  

PubMed

We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury. PMID:24328640

Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L

2014-02-01

87

Discotheques and the risk of hearing loss among youth: risky listening behavior and its psychosocial correlates.  

PubMed

There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs 'consideration of future consequences' and 'habit strength' as correlates of adolescents' unsafe discotheque-visiting behavior. We invited 1687 adolescents (12-19 years old) at Dutch secondary schools to complete questionnaires about music-listening behaviors, sociodemographic characteristics and psychosocial determinants of behavior. Over 70% of participants reported to have visited discotheques; 24.6% of them were categorized as visitors at risk for hearing loss due to estimated exposure of 100 dBA for 1.25 hours per week or more without the use of hearing protection. Compared with visitors not at risk for hearing loss, those at risk were more likely not to live with both parents and less likely to consider future consequences and for them visiting high-volume music discotheques was more habitual. Risky exposure to high-volume music in discotheques is associated with several sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, with habit strength being the strongest correlate. Voluntary behavior change among adolescents might be difficult to achieve, because visiting discotheques seems to be strongly linked to current adolescent lifestyle. PMID:20338977

Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein

2010-10-01

88

Screening for Alcohol Risk in Predominantly Hispanic Youths: Positive Rates and Behavioral Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined relationships between CAGE alcohol risk scores and predisposing factors for alcohol use, current alcohol use, and behavioral consequences in a large sample of secondary students. Students completed the CAGE, measures of demographics, potential predisposing factors, and consequences of alcohol use. More than 18% of…

Tomaka, Joe; Salaiz, Rebekah A.; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Thompson, Sharon; McKinnon, Sarah; O'Rourke, Kathleen

2012-01-01

89

Determining the Presence of a Problem: Comparing Two Approaches for Detecting Youth Behavioral Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universal screening has been routinely advised for determining the presence of problems for initiating problem-solving processes and models. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two screener development methods on the validity of score inferences for two teacher screeners of child behavioral and emotional risk. The reliability and…

Kamphaus, R. W.; DiStefano, Christine; Dowdy, Erin; Eklund, Katie; Dunn, Alnita Rettig

2010-01-01

90

Is This the Place...for Healthy Kids? Results of the 1991 Utah Youth Risk Behavior and School Health Education Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the results of two statewide surveys conducted during Spring, 1991: the 1992 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Utah School Health Education Survey (SHES). Sixty-three schools were randomly selected to participate in the state-level YRBS, and all 311 public and private schools with students in grades 7…

Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

91

Sadness, Suicide, and Their Association with Video Game and Internet Overuse among Teens: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 and 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…

Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale

2011-01-01

92

Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Selected Indicators. Findings for 9th-12th Grade Students from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…

Mikow, Victoria A.

93

A Snapshot of Homelessness in Massachusetts Public High Schools: 2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data collected by the Massachusetts Department of Education (Department) during the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) suggest that, despite significant efforts to identify homeless students, many are going undetected by their schools. Since the reauthorization of the McKinney Vento Homeless Assistance Education Improvement Act under the No…

Massachusetts Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

94

Kids, Schools, & Health: Where Do We Stand? Results of the 1993 New Mexico Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Native American Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the major results of a youth risk behavior survey administered to 1,549 students (grades 9-12) in 14 New Mexico schools identified as predominantly "Native American." The purpose of this report is to stimulate useful discussions into ways to increase informed support for effective, school-based comprehensive health education…

Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.

95

Maternal caregiving and girls’ depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth  

PubMed Central

Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), all of whom have had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from the home of their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having a biological mother who has experienced recurrent depression. Study analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls’ trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point across the study period. Results suggest increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for antisocial behavior, for girls at familial risk for depression, but decreasing trajectories for girls in foster care. A similar pattern of results was noted for antisocial behavior trajectories, controlling for depressive symptoms. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the identification of family level promotive factors aimed at reducing negative developmental trajectories among high-risk youth. PMID:25422973

Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

2014-01-01

96

Youth Perceptions of Their School Violence Risks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to gauge youth perceptions of school violence, this study links two perceptual bias literatures: third-person perception and optimistic bias. The intersection of the two literatures may be especially beneficial in understanding how adolescents process and interpret public health messages and subsequently engage in risk behaviors or…

Chapin, John

2008-01-01

97

Youth Risk Assessment in Complex Agency Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advancements in the delivery of community-based services and tight utilization management of high-cost treatment options result in youths with serious behavior problems receiving intervention in lower levels of care than was true ten or fifteen years ago. This shift in where services tend to be delivered necessitates enhancement of risk assessment…

Groner, Mark R.; Solomon, Jean

2007-01-01

98

Maternal caregiving and girls' depressive symptom and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth.  

PubMed

Past research has identified maternal depression and family of origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using a multilevel approach that pools the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary, longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), each of whom had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having biological mothers who experienced recurrent depression. Analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls' trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point. Results suggest increasing levels of depressive symptoms for girls at familial risk for depression but decreasing levels of depression for girls in foster care. Foster girls' antisocial behavior also decreased over time. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the benefits of applying multilevel (multisample, multiple outcome) approaches to identifying family-level factors that can reduce negative developmental outcomes in high-risk youth. PMID:25422973

Harold, Gordon T; Leve, Leslie D; Kim, Hyoun K; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

2014-11-01

99

Changing Health Behavior in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author considers the need for changing health behavior in youth. The author begins by discussing how people learn health behavior which could help educators in understanding the reasons why it is often difficult to effect changes--and how educators may succeed. If the aim of health educators is to change behavior, the author…

Hochbaum, Godfrey M.

2010-01-01

100

Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

2011-01-01

101

Changes in Risk-Taking among High School Students, 1991-1997: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on data from three major national surveys of teenagers's risk-taking behavior conducted by the US government and University-based social scientists, in June 2000 the Urban Institute released this report assessing the levels of teenagers's involvement in one or more identified risk-taking behaviors. These behaviors include "regular alcohol use, binge drinking, regular tobacco use, marijuana use, other illegal drug use, fighting, weapon carrying, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and risky sexual activity." The report indicates that risk-taking behavior has actually declined overall among adolescents from 1990 to 1997. However, for one demographic group, Hispanics, the levels have almost doubled. The reports also analyze teenagers's participation in "desirable family, school, or community activities" and conclude that "many risk-taking teens earn good grades, go to church, play sports, or spend quality time with their parents," suggesting, according to the researchers, that a more complicated understanding of vulnerable teens is required than the typical good/bad stereotypes often circulated.

Boggess, Scott.

2000-01-01

102

Violent Behavior among Urban Youth Attending Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined violent behavior and aggression among youth attending 10 urban alternative schools in Texas. Student surveys indicated that aggression significantly related to fighting and weapon carrying. The prevalence of violent behavior was lower among these nontraditional students than among students from the 1998 national alternative Youth Risk

Escobar-Chaves, S. Liliana; Tortolero, Susan R.; Markham, Christine; Kelder, Steve H.; Kapadia, Asha

2002-01-01

103

Relationships between Youth Sport Participation and Selected Health Risk Behaviors from 1999 to 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: How adolescents spend their out-of-school time represents one of the most important factors for predicting positive youth development. Sport participation relates to many beneficial outcomes. However, current economic conditions threaten high school sport programs around the United States. This investigation examined relationships by…

Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Donovan, Kristine A.

2010-01-01

104

Reliability and Validity of the Youth Version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) in the Assessment of Risk-Taking Behavior among Inner-City Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) for assessing adolescent risk behaviors among a sample of 98 inner-city African American adolescents (M age = 14.8, SD = 1.5). In addition to a relation with sensation seeking, BART-Y responding evidenced a significant relation with a…

Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will; Daughters, Stacey; Zvolensky, Michael; Kahler, Christopher; Gwadz, Marya

2007-01-01

105

Harm Reduction for the Prevention of Youth Gambling ProblemsLessons Learned from Adolescent High-Risk Behavior Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of adolescent problem gambling and other risky behaviors. The

Laurie M. Dickson; Jeffrey L. Derevensky; Rina Gupta

2004-01-01

106

Risk Comparison among Youth Who Report Sex with Same-Sex versus Both-Sex Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines risk behavior among youth attending support groups for sexual minority youth in Richmond, Virginia, using a structured survey, with particular attention to partner selection and its relationship to risk. Within this generally high-risk group, youth reporting sex partners of both sexes had significantly higher risk profiles,…

Moon, Martha W.; Fornili, Katherine; O'Briant, Amanda L.

2007-01-01

107

A prospective study of youth gambling behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the course and outcomes of adolescent gambling. This prospective study describes findings from a 3-wave (Time 1 (T1), Time 2 (T2), and Time 3 (T3)) assessment of gambling behaviors among youth (N 305). Stable rates of any gambling and regular gambling (weekly or daily) were observed across T1, T2, and T3. The rate of at-risk gambling

Ken C. Winters; Randy D. Stinchfield; Andria Botzet; Nicole Anderson

2002-01-01

108

At-Risk Youth: A Selected Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This select bibliography lists books, articles, and reports, almost all of which were published since 1980, on at-risk youth. The following areas are included: (1) general; (2) dropouts; (3) drug and alcohol abusers; (4) youth offenders; (5) teen parents; (6) young children at risk; and (7) unemployed youth. For each item the following information…

Crohn, Leslie

109

Sexual and Drug Use Risk Behaviors among Children and Youth in Street Circumstances in Porto Alegre, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess sexual and drug use risk in 161 children and youth in street circumstances\\u000a in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Median age was 14 and 79% were male. Overall, 59% reported ever having had sex; a significantly higher\\u000a proportion of males (66%) compared to females (30%). Overall, 39% reported illicit drug use in the last year,

Fernanda Torres de Carvalho; Lucas Neiva-Silva; Mauro Cunha Ramos; Jennifer Evans; Sílvia Helena Koller; Cesar Augusto Piccinini; Kimberly Page-Shafer

2006-01-01

110

Maternal Influence on Adolescent Self-Esteem, Ethnic Pride and Intentions to Engage in Risk Behavior in Latino Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between ethnic pride, self-esteem and adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and engage\\u000a in sexual intercourse. It also explored the influence of maternal levels of ethnic pride and self-esteem as indirect predictors\\u000a of adolescent risk intentions. Middle school youth were randomly selected from six schools in the Bronx, NY. A total of 1,538\\u000a adolescents and their

Vincent Guilamo-Ramos

2009-01-01

111

Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…

Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

2013-01-01

112

Neighborhood Structural Inequality, Collective Efficacy, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We draw on collective efficacy theory to extend a contextual model of early adolescent sexual behavior. Specifically, we hypothesize that neighborhood structural disadvantage--as measured by levels of concentrated poverty, residential instability, and aspects of immigrant concentration--and diminished collective efficacy have consequences for the…

Browning, Christopher R.; Burrington, Lori A.; Leventhal, Tama; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2008-01-01

113

Continued risky behavior in HIV-infected youth.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe and compare risky behaviors in HIV-infected youths and adults. METHODS: Records of HIV-infected outpatients were reviewed for the period January 1990 to February 1998. Youths (younger than 22 years at HIV diagnosis and younger than 25 years at study entry, n = 139) were compared with adults (22 years or older at HIV diagnosis or 25 years or older at study entry, n = 2880). Risky behaviors occurring after HIV diagnosis included unsafe sex and needle sharing. RESULTS: Female and male youths were more than twice as likely as adults to engage in risky behavior (adjusted odds ratios of 2.6 and 2.3, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Both youths and adults continue to engage in risky behaviors after HIV diagnosis. Prospective studies are needed, along with targeted public health campaigns, for youths with HIV and for those at risk of infection. PMID:10630148

Diamond, C; Buskin, S

2000-01-01

114

Teaching: Behaviorally Disordered Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication presents five articles dealing with research and methodology for teachers of behaviorally disordered children. In the first paper, R. Gable et al. describe "A Classroom-based Curriculum Validation Process for Teaching the Behaviorally Disordered," which focuses on static and dynamic evaluation of curricular materials. E. Anderson…

Zabel, Mary Kay, Ed.

115

Equipping School Psychologists to Address Another Risky BehaviorThe Case for Understanding Youth Problem Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

School psychologists are assuming an increasingly important role in ensuring youth have the mental and emotional health to succeed academically. Although considerable attention has been paid to a number of adolescent high-risk behaviors including drug and alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and sexually transmitted diseases, little attention has been paid to youth gambling behaviors. Youth problem gambling has been largely overlooked

Laurie Dickson; Jeffrey L. Derevensky

2006-01-01

116

Young People's Sexual Risk Behaviors in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in Nigeria are poorly documented. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in order to plan appropriate intervention measures. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey using…

Abdulraheem, I. S.; Fawole, O. I.

2009-01-01

117

Effects of Assets and Deficits on the Social Control of At-Risk Behavior among Youth: A Structural Equations Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested control theory using protective effects of personal and social assets and risk effects of personal deficits on deviant behaviors of drug use, delinquency, truancy, and weapons possession. Analyzed data from students in grades 6-12 using structural equations modeling. Second order factors of assets and deficits explained deviant behavior.…

Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.

2001-01-01

118

Effects of After-School Programs with At-Risk Youth on Attendance and Externalizing Behaviors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

The popularity, demand, and increased federal and private funding for after-school programs have resulted in a marked increase in after-school programs over the past two decades. After-school programs are used to prevent adverse outcomes, decrease risks, or improve functioning with at-risk youth in several areas, including academic achievement, crime and behavioral problems, socio-emotional functioning, and school engagement and attendance; however, the evidence of effects of after-school programs remains equivocal. This systematic review and meta-analysis, following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, examined the effects of after-school programs on externalizing behaviors and school attendance with at-risk students. A systematic search for published and unpublished literature resulted in the inclusion of 24 studies. A total of 64 effect sizes (16 for attendance outcomes; 49 for externalizing behavior outcomes) extracted from 31 reports were included in the meta-analysis using robust variance estimation to handle dependencies among effect sizes. Mean effects were small and non-significant for attendance and externalizing behaviors. A moderate to large amount of heterogeneity was present; however, no moderator variable tested explained the variance between studies. Significant methodological shortcomings were identified across the corpus of studies included in this review. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed. PMID:25416228

Kremer, Kristen P; Maynard, Brandy R; Polanin, Joshua R; Vaughn, Michael G; Sarteschi, Christine M

2014-11-22

119

Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Religion: Findings from a National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities…

Sinha, Jill W.; Cnaan, Ram A.; Gelles, Richard J.

2007-01-01

120

The Effects of a Mentoring Program on At-Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines an intensive mentoring program that focuses on youth deemed at-risk for juvenile delinquency or mental illness. Results indicate significant improvement in problematic behaviors for the intervention group. Mentoring appeared to affect African American youth differently than Caucasian and Latino youth. Findings support the positive…

Keating, Lisa M.; Tomishima, Michelle A.; Foster, Sharon; Alessandri, Michael

2002-01-01

121

SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL LEARNING: A FRAMEWORK FOR PROMOTING MENTAL HEALTH AND REDUCING RISK BEHAVIORS IN CHILDREN AND YOUTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many programs have been developed to help schools enhance their students' health and reduce the prevalence of problem behaviors such as drug use, violence, and high-risk sex. How should educators make selections among these? This article describes criteria based on theory, re- search, and best educational practice that identify key social and emotional learning (SEL) compe- tencies and program features

John W. Payton; Dana M. Wardlaw; Patricia A Graczyk; Michelle R. Bloodworth; Carolyn J. Tompsett; Roger P. Weissberg

2000-01-01

122

Sexual and Drug Use Behavior in Perinatal HIV-Infected Youth: Mental Health and Family Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study found that youth and caregiver mental health problem have greater impact than key environmental factors and family functioning on sex and drug use risk behaviors in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (PHIV+) and PHIV- youths. No differences in the rates of sexual risk behavior and substance use were observed between…

Mellins, Claude A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Dolezal, Curtis; McKay, Mary; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Abrams, Elaine J.

2009-01-01

123

Case Management with At-Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue attempts to provide some initial answers to questions about the use of case management in serving disadvantaged youth. "Case Management with At-Risk Youth" presents some basic lessons synthesized from a review of case management in employment programs and in services for teenage parents, the elderly, and the developmentally disabled. It…

Youth Programs, 1988

1988-01-01

124

Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents. Part 2. Examining the Causes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of Part 2 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. Part 2 contains five readings on causal factors related to at-risk behaviors. "The Harmful Effects of Dysfunctional Family…

Palmo, Artis J.; And Others

125

Boys Residential Youth Center (Effect of Innovative, Supportive Services in Changing Attitudes of "High Risk" Youth). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Residential Youth Center, based in the inner city, was established to house those "high risk" youths who were not being reached by existing manpower programs. The staff consisted of indigenous, nonprofessional personnel who worked intensively with families. The project was able to effect tremendous behavioral changes in dozens of 16-21 year…

Boys Residential Youth Center, New Haven, CT.

126

Models to Guide System Reform for At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy reform for at-risk youth is complicated by involvement of various service sectors. Issues related to coordinating systems of care in a dynamic policy environment are not new, but surprisingly little has been written to guide practitioners and policymakers in addressing them (Friedman in "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"…

McCarter, Susan A.; Haber, Mason G.; Kazemi, Donna

2010-01-01

127

Using the Information-Motivation Behavioral Model to Predict Sexual Behavior among Underserved Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…

Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.

2010-01-01

128

HIV Risk Profile and Prostitution Among Female Street Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors among female street youths involved in prostitution and those with no history of prostitution. Youths aged 14 to 25 years were recruited into the Montreal Street Youth Cohort. Semiannually, youths completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Statistical analyses comparing characteristics and HIV risk factors for girls involved in

Amy E. Weber; Jean-Francois Boivin; Lucie Blais; Nancy Haley; Elise Roy

2002-01-01

129

Youth often risk unsafe abortions.  

PubMed

The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to seeking safe abortion. Some countries lack adequately trained medical personnel and supplies. Mortality and morbidity declines are considered possible with legalization, more trained health personnel, and family planning programs for youth and education for parents. PMID:12287144

Barnett, B

1993-10-01

130

Service Use by At-Risk Youths after School-Based Suicide Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youths and parents. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youths identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools…

Gould, Madelyn S.; Marrocco, Frank A.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kleinman, Marjorie; Amakawa, Lia; Altschuler, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

131

Middle School Risk Behavior 1995 Survey Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Middle School Questionnaire, produced by the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was administered for the first time in North Carolina in 1995. The survey monitored high-priority health-risk behaviors, including: (1) weapons and violence; (2) suicide-related behaviors; (3) vehicle safety; (4)…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

132

Adverse Life Events, Coping and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Urban African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American youth residing in low income urban neighborhoods are at increased risk of experiencing negative life events in multiple domains, increasing their risk for internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, little is known about youth's differential responses to life event stress, or protective processes and coping strategies for…

Sanchez, Yadira M.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

2013-01-01

133

Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence  

PubMed Central

Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.

2013-01-01

134

Risky Sexual Behaviors in First and Second Generation Hispanic Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though official data document that Hispanic youth are at a great risk for early sexual intercourse, STDs, and teen pregnancy, only few etiological studies have been conducted on Hispanic youth; almost no work has examined potential generational differences in these behaviors, and thus, these behaviors may have been mistakenly attributed to…

Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

2009-01-01

135

Harm Reduction for the Prevention of Youth Gambling Problems: Lessons Learned From Adolescent High-Risk Behavior Prevention Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…

Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

2004-01-01

136

Population Density and Youth Antisocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretical models concerning how neighborhood contexts adversely influence juvenile antisocial behavior frequently focus on urban neighborhoods; however, previous studies comparing urban and rural areas on the prevalence of youth antisocial behavior have yielded mixed results. The current study uses longitudinal data on the offspring of a…

Harden, K. Paige; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol; Turkheimer, Eric; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

137

Listening to At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this chapter I describe the micro "risk society" of Limerick City and St. Augustine's Youth Encounter Project in terms of the social and cultural background of the interviewees, their perceived family and community identity, and their wider socialisation influences. The project is situated down one of the notorious Limerick lanes made famous in…

Child & Youth Services, 2007

2007-01-01

138

School-based behavioral interventions are recommended to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Youth  

Cancer.gov

School-based behavioral interventions are recommended to Increase Vegetable and Fruit Consumption Among Youth Consumption of five or more daily servings of vegetables and fruit is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure,

139

HIV Information and Behavioral Skills Moderate the Effects of Relationship Type and Substance Use on HIV Risk Behaviors Among African American Youth  

PubMed Central

Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic is disproportionately impacting young African Americans. Efforts to understand and address risk factors for unprotected sex in this population are critical in improving prevention efforts. Situational risk factors, such as relationship type and substance use before sex, are in need of further study. This study explored how established cognitive predictors of risky sexual behavior moderated the association between situational factors and unprotected sex among low-income, African American adolescents. The largest main effect on the number of unprotected sex acts was classifying the relationship as serious (event rate ratio=10.18); other significant main effects were alcohol use before sex, participant age, behavioral skills, and level of motivation. HIV information moderated the effect of partner age difference, motivation moderated the effects of partner age difference and drug use before sex, and behavioral skills moderated the effects of alcohol and drug use before sex. This novel, partnership-level approach provides insight into the complex interactions of situational and cognitive factors in sexual risk taking. PMID:23701198

Byck, Gayle R.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Henry, David; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle

2013-01-01

140

Risk Behaviors Associated with Cigarette Use among Asian American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. This study examined the association between several common youth risk behaviors, including cigarette use among Asian American adolescents, using data (N=408) from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The weighted univariate and multivariate logistic…

Kwon, Harry T.; Wang, Min Qi; Valmidiano, Lillian L.

2005-01-01

141

The Role of Families and Care Givers as Risk and Protective Factors in Preventing Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research which discusses the risk and protective functions that families and other caregivers provide in influencing the development of aggressive behavior in youth. Currently, there is an emphasis on providing violence prevention programs in the school environment, typically with little parental or caregiver involvement. By enhancing the role of families and caregivers in youth violence prevention programs,

Le'Roy E. Reese; Elizabeth M. Vera; Thomas R. Simon; Robin M. Ikeda

2000-01-01

142

A Risk Profile Comparison of Runaway and Non-Runaway Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of data from 1985 visits by 110 runaway and 655 non-runaway youth to an outpatient medical clinic reveals that runaway youth are at greater risk for a wide variety of medical problems and of health-compromising behaviors including suicide, depression, prostitution, and drug use. (Author/BJV)

Yates, Gary L.; And Others

1988-01-01

143

Case Management as a Significant Component of Usual Care Psychotherapy for Youth with Disruptive Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) represent the majority of youth served in usual care (UC) psychotherapy, and are at high risk for maladaptive outcomes. Little is known about UC psychotherapeutic strategies utilized with this population. Researchers and clinicians suggest that case management (CM) is a major activity occurring in…

Zoffness, Rachel; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Roesch, Scott

2009-01-01

144

Choking Game: CDC's Findings on a Risky Youth Behavior  

MedlinePLUS

... Media Publications Injury Center Research Update The Choking Game: CDC´s Findings on a Risky Youth Behavior Centers ... and Prevention. Unintentional Strangulation Deaths from "The Choking Game" Among Youths Aged 6 - 19 Years – United States, ...

145

Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey  

PubMed Central

Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

Cho, Kang-Ok

2014-01-01

146

Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey.  

PubMed

Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

Cho, Kang-Ok

2014-12-01

147

Education and Training Needs of School Staff Relevant to Preventing Risk Behaviors and Promoting Health Behaviors among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Questioning Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national-level needs assessment of high school psychologists, social workers, counselors, and nurses was conducted to identify training and educational resource material needs of these staff relevant to providing health and mental health services to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning (GLBQ) youth. Systematic sampling procedures were…

Sawyer, Richard J.; Porter, J. Davidson; Lehman, Thomas C.; Anderson, Clinton; Anderson, Karen M.

2006-01-01

148

Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for HIV Prevention among South African Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the efficacy of sexual risk reduction interventions among South African youth. Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify studies published between 2007 and early 2013. Studies were eligible if they (1) targeted youth age 9–26, (2) evaluated sexual risk reduction interventions and (3) reported at least one behavioral outcome. Independent raters coded study characteristics, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated; positive effect sizes indicated less sexual risk behavior and incident STIs. Results Ten studies (k = 11, N = 22,788; 54% female; 79% Black-African) were included. Compared to controls, interventions were successful at delaying sexual intercourse and, among sexually active youth, at increasing condom use. A single study found reductions in the incidence of herpes simplex virus-2, but not HIV. Conclusions Implementing behavioral interventions to delay sexual debut and improve condom use can help to reduce the transmission of HIV among South African youth. PMID:24476351

Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Walstrom, Paige; Harrison, Abigail; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.

2014-01-01

149

Risky decision-making: An fMRI study of youth at high risk for alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents with a family history of alcoholism (FHP) are at risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD), and some studies indicate that FHP individuals show deficits in executive functioning. The ability to make adaptive decisions is one aspect of successful executive functioning that is often measured during risk-taking tasks; however, this behavior has not been examined in FHP youth. Since impaired decision-making could predispose FHP youth to make poor choices related to alcohol use, the current study examined the neural substrates of risk-taking in FHP adolescents and their family history negative (FHN) peers. Methods Thirty-one (18 FHP, 13 FHN) youth between 13-15 years old were included in this study. All youth had used little to no alcohol prior to study involvement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the neural substrates of risk-taking during the Wheel of Fortune (WOF) decision-making task (Ernst et al., 2004) in FHP and FHN youth. Results FHP youth did not differ from FHN youth in risk-taking behavior, but showed less brain response during risky decision-making in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right cerebellar regions compared to FHN peers. Conclusions Despite no behavioral differences on the WOF decision-making task, FHP youth exhibited atypical neural response during risk-taking compared to FHN peers. Atypical brain activity, in regions implicated in executive functioning could lead to reduced cognitive control, which may result in risky choices regarding alcohol use. This could help explain the higher rates of AUDs seen in FHP adolescents. Further examination of risky behavior and associated brain response over the course of adolescence is necessary to characterize the vulnerabilities of FHP youth in the absence of alcohol abuse. PMID:22250647

Cservenka, Anita; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2011-01-01

150

Intervention Research with Youths at Elevated Risk for Suicide: Meeting the Ethical and Regulatory Challenges of Informed Consent and Assent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention research with youths at elevated risk for suicidal behavior and suicide--a vulnerable and high risk population--presents investigators with numerous ethical challenges. This report specifically addresses those challenges involving the informed consent and assent process with parents/guardians and youths. The challenges are delineated…

King, Cheryl A.; Kramer, Anne C.

2008-01-01

151

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2012-01-01

152

Delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure abnormalities in youth with a family history of alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high-risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH?). Methods Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH? = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH? youth. Results FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH? youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower reaction times on the delay discounting task. Conclusion Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing, and may act as an intrinsic risk-factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-risk youth. PMID:20586754

Herting, Megan M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2011-01-01

153

The Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) Evaluation Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Cooperative Extension Service's Children, Youth, and Families at Risk initiative is being assessed by the Evaluation Collaboration's three projects: state-strengthening evaluation project (resources to help states evaluate community programs); NetCon (evaluation of electronic and other networks); and National Youth at Risk Sustainability Study…

Marek, Lydia I.; Byrne, Richard A. W.; Marczak, Mary S.; Betts, Sherry C.; Mancini, Jay A.

1999-01-01

154

Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

France, Alan

2008-01-01

155

Analysis of the Fiscal Resources Supporting At-Risk Youth, Ages 13-24, in Hawaii  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hawaii's largest populations of at-risk youth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…

Silloway, Torey; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dahlin, Melissa

2012-01-01

156

Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and…

Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

2013-01-01

157

A comparative study of selected agencies providing outdoor adventure programs for youth-at-risk  

E-print Network

tendency to relapse into a previous mode of behavior. For the purpose of this paper, the behavior is generally criminal. Status Offense ? an offense that is not a crime, but justifies court jurisdiction (e. g. , runaway, truancy). Youth-at-risk ? a...

Keck, Mary A.

1988-01-01

158

Cross-National Variations in Behavioral Profiles Among Homeless Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-national comparisons of homeless youth in Melbourne, Australia, and Los Angeles, CA, United States were conducted. Newly\\u000a (n = 427) and experienced (n = 864) homeless youth were recruited from each site. Compared to Australia, homeless youth in the United States were younger,\\u000a more likely to be in school or jail, demonstrated fewer sexual and substance use risk acts, fewer

Norweeta G. Milburn; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Eric Rice; Shelley Mallet; Doreen Rosenthal

2006-01-01

159

Exclusionary health policy: responding to the risk of poor health among sexual minority youth in Canada.  

PubMed

Measuring indicators of health status and demographics are essential in the population health approach. In Canada, sexual minority youth face increased risk for poor health outcomes in behavioral and mental health indicators, yet the health policy response has been severely lacking. The current population health approach exacerbates the social exclusion of a vulnerable, at-risk population. The authors examine health status through the social determinants of health to highlight the need for including sexual identity, attraction, and behavior in youth population health surveys. Additional interventions that address the social determinants of health are needed. PMID:24188299

Ylioja, Thomas; Craig, Shelley L

2014-01-01

160

A Dyadic Approach to Understanding the Relationship of Maternal Knowledge of Youths' Activities to Youths' Problem Behavior among Rural Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies that explore parental knowledge of youths' activities utilize parents' and youths' reports separately. Using a sample of 938 rural early adolescents (53% female; 84% White), we explore congruence between mothers' and youths' perceptions of maternal knowledge and its association with youth problem behaviors (delinquency, substance use,…

Lippold, Melissa A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E.

2011-01-01

161

Individual and Environmental Protective Factors for Risky Sexual Behavior among Homeless Youth: An Exploration of Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the current study was to identify potential individual and environmental protective factors for sex risk behavior\\u000a among homeless youth. We explored gender differences in the prediction of unprotected sex and number of sex partners. Data\\u000a were collected from 192 sexually active, homeless youth who were 14–21 years old. High rates of sex risk behavior were reported.\\u000a Significant gender

Heather D. Tevendale; Marguerita Lightfoot; Suzanne L. Slocum

2009-01-01

162

Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts  

PubMed Central

This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings. PMID:21414831

Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina

2011-01-01

163

Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth: Identifying Predictors of Risk  

PubMed Central

Objective Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality. Beyond associations with demographic factors and depression, do anxiety disorders increase risk for suicidality in youth? Given that not all anxiety-disordered youth experience suicidal ideation, potential predictors of risk also require investigation. Method The present study examined (a) the independent relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation and (b) emotion dysregulation and distress intolerance as predictors of risk for suicidal ideation in a sample of anxiety-disordered youth aged 7-17 (N = 86, M = 11.5). Youth and their parents reported on suicidality, emotion dysregulation, and distress intolerance. Distress tolerance was also measured by a computerized behavioral task. Results Results support an independent relationship between anxiety symptomatology and youth-reported suicidal ideation, controlling for depressive symptoms. Youth self-report of emotion dysregulation and distress intolerance predicted higher levels of suicidal ideation in univariate analyses. In a multivariate analysis including all significant predictors, only anxiety symptomatology uniquely predicted suicidal ideation. Conclusions Results provide recommendations for the assessment and treatment of suicidality in anxiety-disordered youth. Suggestions for future research investigating the relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation are offered. PMID:24156368

O'Neil Rodriguez, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

2014-01-01

164

Correlates of sexual risk among sexual minority and heterosexual South African youths.  

PubMed

We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149

Thurston, Idia B; Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M; Otwombe, Kennedy N; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E

2014-07-01

165

Youth Gambling Problems: Examining Risk and Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between several pre-examined risk factors for youth problem gambling, a number of potential protective factors for youth problem gambling, and the development of adolescent problem gambling. The sample consisted of 2179 students, ages 11–19. The results of analyses of variance revealed that lower family and school connectedness are associated with adolescent problem gambling. Further, an

LAURIE DICKSON; JEFFREY L. DEREVENSKY; RINA GUPTA

2008-01-01

166

[Risks of energy drinks in youths].  

PubMed

The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy episodic drinking is at risk of serious injury, sexual assault, drunk driving, and death. However, even after adjusting for alcohol consumption, students who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks had dramatically higher rates of serious alcohol-related consequences. It has been reported that the subjective perceptions of some symptoms of alcohol intoxication are less intense after the combined ingestion of the alcohol plus energy drink; however, these effects are not detected in objective measures of motor coordination and visual reaction time. PMID:20926266

Bigard, A-X

2010-11-01

167

Enhancing the educational achievement of at-risk youth.  

PubMed

This study examined a non-school program aimed at enhancing the educational performance of economically disadvantaged early adolescents who live in public housing. The educational enhancement program included discussions with adults, writing activities, leisure reading, homework, helping others, and games using cognitive skills. A three-arm research design juxtaposed program youth who received educational enhancements with comparison youth in affiliated facilities who did not receive the program and with control youth in other community programs without educational enhancements. From youths, follow-up data collected 2 1/2 years after baseline revealed uniformly positive outcomes for program youth on measures of reading, verbal skills, writing, and tutoring. Teacher reports at final follow-up favored program and comparison youth over controls on measures of reading, writing, games, overall school performance, and interest in class material. School grades were higher for program youth than for comparison and control youth for reading, spelling, history, science, and social studies. Overall grade averages were higher for program youth versus comparisons and controls, as was school attendance. Study data lend empirical support to the provision of educational enhancements in non-school settings for at-risk youths. PMID:11507794

Schinke, S P; Cole, K C; Poulin, S R

2000-03-01

168

Monitoring Risk & Health Behaviors  

Cancer.gov

The Applied Research Program supports surveys designed to assess the prevalence of individual and societal risk factors and health behaviors that mediate cancer incidence, morbidity, mortality, and survival.

169

Intervening with at-risk youth: evaluation of the youth empowerment and support program.  

PubMed

This study evaluated a community-based intervention, the Youth Empowerment and Support Program (YES-P), a theoretically-based program designed to decrease drug use and strengthen connections to school in at-risk youth living in high-risk environments. The YES-P included several interventions, such as providing mentor support and social skills training; growing a positive peer culture; and developing youth in leadership roles for community service. These interventions were delivered by 10 nursing students in a weekly, after school, 2-hour, group activity for 20 weeks for 13 inner-city youth ages 10-12 years (7 girls, 6 boys). One girl identified herself as Hispanic and the others as Caucasian. Using a pre/post one-group design, data were collected in 1999 from program participants to evaluate the YES-P. Results of a 1-year pilot study suggest that the multilevel interventions were associated with positive effects on at-risk youth. In particular, respondents at the posttest reported higher levels of self-esteem, mentor support, positive peer bonding, social skills attainment, and school attachment. Attitudes against underage drug use decreased from pre-test scores revealing areas for strengthening the program. These results lend empirical support to the positive evaluation of the YES-P with at-risk youth living in high-risk environments. PMID:12956545

Moody, Kimberly A; Childs, Janis C; Sepples, Susan B

2003-01-01

170

Suicide Risk in Youth with Intellectual Disability: The Challenges of Screening  

PubMed Central

Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), often diagnosed with co-morbid psychiatric disorders, are a vulnerable population who may be at risk for developing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that direct suicide screening can rapidly and effectively detect suicide risk and facilitate further clinical evaluation and management. Currently, there are no measures that screen for suicide risk designed specifically for individuals with ID. A review of the literature was conducted: 1) to estimate the prevalence of suicidal thoughts, behaviors and deaths by suicide in children and adolescents with ID; 2) to describe associations between youth with ID and suicide risk; 3) to identify the limitations of commonly used suicide screening measures developed for non-ID youth. The literature review confirms that suicide risk exists in this population; youth with ID think about, attempt and die by suicide. Standardized suicide risk screening is challenged by the lack of measures developed for this population. A summary of the findings is followed by a discussion of the practical clinical considerations surrounding the assessment of suicide risk in youth with ID. PMID:22668827

Ludi, Erica; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Greenbaum, Rachel; Pao, Maryland; Bridge, Jeffrey; Reynolds, William; Horowitz, Lisa

2012-01-01

171

The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked closely at the…

Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

2013-01-01

172

Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.  

PubMed

Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth. PMID:25047297

Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

2014-08-01

173

Youth Engagement and Suicide Risk: Testing a Mediated Model in a Canadian Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…

Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

2010-01-01

174

Offsetting Risks: High School Gay-Straight Alliances and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…

Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.

2011-01-01

175

Does Insurance Matter? Implementing Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Two Groups of Youth Engaged in Deliberate Self-harm.  

PubMed

This paper presents the outcomes of a Dialectical Behavior Treatment (DBT) program, implemented in intensive outpatient care with two groups of adolescents (n = 55 and n = 45), ages 12-18, who engaged in deliberate self-harm (DSH) but had different insurance/funding sources and risk backgrounds. This pre-post study examined variability in clinical functioning and treatment utilization between the two groups and investigated moderating risk factors. Findings support DBT's effectiveness in improving clinical functioning for youth with DSH regardless of insurance type. However, lower rates of treatment completion among youth without private insurance call for extra engagement efforts to retain high-risk youth in DBT. PMID:25199812

James, Sigrid; Freeman, Kim R; Mayo, Danessa; Riggs, Matt L; Morgan, Joshua P; Schaepper, Mary Ann; Montgomery, Susanne B

2014-09-01

176

Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

2005-01-01

177

Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

2013-01-01

178

Diversity within: Subgroup Differences of Youth Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…

Choi, Yoonsun

2008-01-01

179

A risk profile comparison of runaway and non-runaway youth.  

PubMed Central

All initial visits (N = 765) to an outpatient medical clinic during calendar year 1985 were analyzed. Six hundred and fifty-five of these visits made by non-runaway youth were compared to 110 visits made by runaways. Based on data from the Childrens Hospital Adolescent Risk Profile Interview, runaway street youth are at greater risk for a wide variety of medical problems and of health-compromising behaviors including suicide and depression, prostitution, and drug use. The implications for public health and social policy are discussed. PMID:3381958

Yates, G L; MacKenzie, R; Pennbridge, J; Cohen, E

1988-01-01

180

Practice Behaviors of Youth Soccer Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coaching youth athletes has much in common with teaching physical education. Over the past three decades there has been substantive research in physical education settings that has given educators empirical support for effective teaching practices to improve the learner's performance. However, little research has taken place in youth sport…

Smith, Robert C.; Ward, Phillip; Rodrigues-Neto, Manoel; Zhang, Peng

2009-01-01

181

Attempted Suicide and Associated Health Risk Behaviors among Native American High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide represents the second-leading cause of death among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth aged 15-24 years. Data from the 2001 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine the association between attempted suicide among high school students and unintentional injury and violence behaviors, sexual risk

Shaughnessy, Lana; Doshi, Sonal R.; Jones, Sherry Everett

2004-01-01

182

Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes.  

PubMed

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining changes in parenting and youth adjustment for the intervention and control groups between baseline and intervention termination approximately 5 months later. Findings provided strong evidence for the feasibility of delivering the intervention in a larger community context. The intervention produced benefits in both parenting outcomes (i.e., general parenting, skill encouragement, overall effective parenting) and youth outcomes (i.e., aggression, externalizing, likelihood of smoking and use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs). Differential effects of the intervention were based on youth nativity status. PMID:16287384

Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark

2005-10-01

183

Lowering the Risk of Secondary HIV Transmission: Insights From HIV-Positive Youth and Health Care Providers  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Both perinatally and behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth engage in sexually risky behaviors, and a better understanding of the perceptions of these youth and of health care providers regarding disclosure of HIV status and risk reduction would aid in the development of behavioral interventions for such youth. METHODS In spring 2007, some 20 HIV-positive inner-city youth (aged 13–24) and 15 health care providers who work with HIV-infected youth participated in in-depth, semistructured interviews. Youth were recruited at an HIV clinic, AIDS clinics and an AIDS service organization, and had received care from participating providers. Detailed contextual and thematic discourse analysis was performed on interview transcriptions. RESULTS Eighteen of the 20 youth had disclosed their HIV status to another individual at least once. Eleven reported being sexually active, and three of these had been perinatally infected. Qualitative analysis revealed four subthemes related to disclosure: stigma and emotions, trust issues, reasons for disclosing and strategies for addressing disclosure. Five subthemes were identifi ed related to sexual risk reduction: dating challenges, attitudes toward condom use, self-effi cacy for condom use negotiation, pregnancy attitudes and sexual risk reduction strategies. Providers reported that access to more engaging and interactive educational tools within the clinic setting could enhance their risk reduction counseling with HIV-positive youth. CONCLUSIONS HIV-positive youth experience multiple challenges regarding disclosure and sexual risk reduction, and health care providers need innovative tools that can be used in clinic settings to improve adolescents’ skills in reducing risky sexual behavior. PMID:20618750

Markham, Christine M.; Bui, Thanh; Shegog, Ross; Paul, Mary E.

2011-01-01

184

Service Use by At-Risk Youth after School-Based Suicide Screening  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program, and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youth and parents. Method We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youth identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools in New York State. The at-risk teenagers and their parents were interviewed approximately two years after the initial screen to assess service use during the intervening period and identify barriers that may have interfered with seeking treatment. Results At the time of the screen, 72% of the at-risk students were not receiving any type of mental health service. Of these students, 51% were deemed in need of services and subsequently referred by us to a mental health professional. Nearly 70% followed through with the screening’s referral recommendations. Youth and their parents reported perceptions about mental health problems, specifically relating to the need for treatment, as the primary reasons for not seeking service. Conclusions Screening appears to be effective in enhancing the likelihood that students at risk for suicidal behavior will get into treatment. Well developed and systematic planning is needed to ensure that screening and referral services are coordinated so as to facilitate access for youth into timely treatment. PMID:19858758

2009-01-01

185

Parental knowledge and youth risky behavior: a person oriented approach.  

PubMed

Most studies isolate the effects of one knowledge-related behavior on youth outcomes. This study explores the relationship between subgroups of mother-youth dyads that use specific combinations of parental knowledge-related behaviors and youth risky behavior. Using a sample of 796 rural 6th graders (53% female), we assessed mother and youth reports of maternal knowledge, active parent monitoring efforts, youth disclosure, parental supervision, and the amount of parent-youth communication to identify five knowledge latent classes: High-Monitors, Maternal Over-Estimators, Low-Monitors, Communication-Focused, and Supervision-Focused. Delinquency, antisocial peers, and substance use were associated with increased odds of membership in the Supervision-Focused class, relative to the High Monitors. Membership in the Low Monitors and Maternal Over-Estimators classes was associated with unhealthy attitudes towards substances and for Low Monitors, substance use. The discussion focuses on the value of using a person-oriented approach to understand parental knowledge and risky behavior during early adolescence and intervention implications. PMID:23269564

Lippold, Melissa A; Greenberg, Mark T; Collins, Linda M

2013-11-01

186

Pathways to Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Detained Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose Among a sample of detained youth, to investigate pathways that link witnessing community violence, in the 12 months prior to being detained, to drug and sexual risk behaviors, in the two months preceding detainment. Methods Using A-CASI technology, data was collected from 559 detained adolescents on demographics, family factors, peer influences, religiosity, witnessing community violence, and drug and sexual risk behaviors. Results Controlling for demographics and family variables, findings indicated positive associations between witnessing community violence and drug and sexual risk behaviors. Witnessing community violence was directly linked to sexual risk behaviors, and indirectly associated with these risk behaviors, through gang membership and perceived risky peer norms. Additionally, witnessing community violence was indirectly linked to substance use through gang membership and perceived risky peer norms. Conclusions Interventions targeting change in peer affiliations and perceived norms may be an effective strategy for reducing risky drug and sexual behaviors among detained youth. PMID:20228887

Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2010-01-01

187

America's Shame, America's Hope: Twelve Million Youth at Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The undereducation of at-risk youth is a critical issue overlooked by the education reform movement of the 1980s, as represented by the report, "A Nation At Risk." This group, whose members are predominantly economically, culturally, racially, and ethnically disadvantaged, is leaving school unprepared for further education or available work.…

Smith, R. C.; Lincoln, Carol A.

188

Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Risks Among Homeless Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…

Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.

2004-01-01

189

Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

Morgan, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

190

Trajectories of Youthful Antisocial Behavior: Categories or Continua?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitatively distinct trajectories of antisocial behavior could be identified in 1,708 children (843 boys, 865 girls) from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (NLSY-C). Repeated ratings were made on the Behavior Problems Index (BPI: Peterson and Zill "Journal of Marriage and…

Walters, Glenn D.; Ruscio, John

2013-01-01

191

Intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with meeting recommended physical activity among rural Latino youth.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with engaging in recommended levels of physical activity among rural Latino middle school youth. Data were from an anonymous survey of 773 Latino youth (51% female) about level of and barriers and motivators to physical activity, risk behaviors, and park use. Logistic regression models identified factors correlated with meeting recommended levels of physical activity (5 days or more 3 60 min/day). Thirty-four percent of girls and 41% of boys reported meeting this physical activity recommendation. Participation in an organized after school activity (p < .001) and in physical education (PE) classes 5 days a week (p < .001) were strongly associated with meeting recommended physical activity level. Making PE available 5 days a week and creating opportunities for organized after school physical activity programs may increase the number of rural Latino middle school youth who meet recommended physical activity level. PMID:22109778

Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brian E; Thompson, Beti

2011-11-01

192

Underdiagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder in at risk youth.  

PubMed

Three studies examined the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in agencies treating at risk youth. Studies 1 and 2 (1999) found that baseline PTSD diagnosis was rare in a residential and an outpatient agency (2.3% and 5.4%, respectively) whereas trauma-focused interviews identified PTSD in 47.7% and 44.6% of these clients. Subsequent training efforts increased awareness of PTSD and recognition of unique issues in assessing at risk youth. Study 3 (2009) reexamined PTSD diagnosis rates in these agencies 10 years later and found that the residential agency had an increased rate of PTSD diagnosis (10.8%), whereas PTSD diagnosis remained rare in the outpatient agency (4.0%). Suggestions are offered for increased accuracy in the diagnosis of PTSD and complex PTSD with at risk youth. PMID:20931661

Miele, Drew; O'Brien, Edward J

2010-10-01

193

DIVERSITY WITHIN: SUBGROUP DIFFERENCES OF YOUTH PROBLEM BEHAVIORS AMONG ASIAN PACIFIC ISLANDER AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS  

PubMed Central

This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, “other” API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American counterparts. Many of these differences remained after adjusting for parental education. Controlling for immigrant status explained only some of the subgroup differences. The results suggest several shortcomings to the “model minority” stereotype that is often applied to API American youth. Research and practice should not overlook the higher risk for problem behaviors among certain API American subgroups. The findings highlight the need for more resources for API Americans, especially for the API subgroups facing higher risks. PMID:18645632

Choi, Yoonsun

2008-01-01

194

A Systematic Review of Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for African American Youth at Risk for HIV\\/STI Infection, 1988–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the United States, African American youth are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually\\u000a transmitted infections (STIs). An estimated 1.2 million people are living with HIV\\/AIDS (Glynn & Rhodes, 2005). Data from\\u000a 33 states in the United States with confidential name-based reporting show that in 2006 African Americans of all ages represented\\u000a 49% of HIV\\/AIDS diagnosis, although

Khiya Marshall; Nicole Crepaz; Ann O’Leary

195

Are Mexican American Adolescents at Greater Risk of Suicidal Behaviors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reexamination of ethnicity as a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior, focusing on whether Mexican American youths are at increased risk, was undertaken. Data from a sample of 4,175 African, European, and Mexican Americans, aged 11-17, are presented. We examined lifetime attempts and past year attempts, thoughts, and plans. Odds ratios,…

Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

2007-01-01

196

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Youth  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Randomized clinical trials indicate that approximately two-thirds of children treated with CBT will be free of their primary diagnosis at posttreatment. Although several CBT treatment packages have been investigated in youth with diverse anxiety disorders, common core components have been identified. A comprehensive assessment, development of a good therapeutic relationship and working alliance, cognitive restructuring, repeated exposure with reduction of avoidance behavior, and skills training comprise the core procedures for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. PMID:21440852

Seligman, Laura D.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

197

Effects of Familial Attachment, Social Support, Involvement, and Self-Esteem on Youth Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.

2010-01-01

198

HIV risk profile of male street youth involved in survival sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare HIV risk factors of male street youth involved in survival sex with those of their never involved peers and to describe the sexual activities of the involved youths.Methods: From 2001 to 2003, street youth aged 14–23 years were recruited from street youth agencies in Montreal, Canada. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sexual behaviours.

N Haley; E Roy; P Leclerc; J-F Boudreau; J-F Boivin

2004-01-01

199

Predicting Youth Access to Tobacco: The Role of Youth Versus Store-Clerk Behavior and Issues of Ecological Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one 15- to 17-year-olds attempted to purchase cigarettes in 232 stores in the manner that confederates typically do in access studies, as well as in the manipulative ways (e.g., lying about their ages) that youth smokers do, thereby modeling youth access to tobacco within versus outside of studies, respectively. Youth typical-research versus manipulative behavior was contrasted with clerk behavior (requests

Elizabeth A. Klonoff; Hope Landrine

2004-01-01

200

Predictors of violence and delinquency among high risk youth and youth gang members in San Salvador, El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low future orientation, low empathy, educational difficulty, school expulsion, delinquent peers, gang membership, and low social support were found to be significant risk factors for violence and delinquency among a sample (N = 174) of high risk youth and youth gang members in San Salvador, El Salvador.

René Olate; Christopher Salas-Wright; Michael G. Vaughn

2012-01-01

201

Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…

Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

2011-01-01

202

NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY-NAÏVE YOUTH WITH BEHAVIORALLY ACQUIRED HIV  

PubMed Central

Purpose Youth living with HIV account for over one-third of new HIV infections and are at high risk of adverse psychosocial, everyday living, and health outcomes. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are known to affect health outcomes of HIV-infected adults even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Thus, the current study aimed to characterize the prevalence and clinical correlates of HAND in youth living with HIV. Here we report baseline neurocognitive data for behaviorally HIV-infected youth enrolled in a prospective study evaluating strategies of antiretroviral treatment initiation and use. Methods Two hundred twenty participants, age 18-24, naïve to treatment (except for prevention of mother to child HIV transmission; n=3), completed a comprehensive neurocognitive, substance use, and behavioral health assessment battery. Results 64.7% of youth met criteria for HAND (96.4% asymptomatic, 3.5% syndromic), with deficits in episodic memory and fine-motor skills emerging as the most commonly affected ability areas. Multivariable models showed that lower CD4 count, longer time since HIV diagnosis, and high risk alcohol use were uniquely associated with neurocognitive deficits. Conclusions Over two-thirds of youth with behaviorally acquired HIV evidence neurocognitive deficits, which have modest associations with more advanced HIV disease as well as other factors. Research is needed to determine the impact of such neuropsychiatric morbidity on mental health and HIV disease treatment outcomes (e.g., non-adherence) and transition to independent living responsibilities in HIV-infected youth, as well as its long-term trajectory and possible responsiveness to cognitive rehabilitation and pharmacotherapy. PMID:23972941

Nichols, Sharon L.; Bethel, James; Garvie, Patricia A.; Patton, Doyle E; Thornton, Sarah; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Ren, Weijia; Major-Wilson, Hanna; Puga, Ana; Woods, Steven P.

2013-01-01

203

Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

2005-01-01

204

Pregnancy Risk Among Older Youth Transitioning Out Of Foster Care  

PubMed Central

Youth served in the foster care system have higher rates of pregnancy than general population youth; yet we have little information about risk and protective factors to target in order to prevent early pregnancy in this population. We assessed early pregnancy risk and protective factors known for general population adolescents for their relevance to youth in the foster care system. Using data from a longitudinal study of 325 older youth from the foster care system, we examined bivariate and multivariate relationships between these factors and pregnancy between age 17 and 19 using logistic regression. Models examined risk for early parenting separately by gender. The pregnancy rate increased by 300% between ages 17 and 19. At 19, 55% of females had been pregnant, while 23% of males had fathered a child. Although this study assessed multiple known factors, few were significant for this high risk group. Females who were not sexually active at age 17 were less likely to become pregnant, but those who reported using birth control were as likely to become pregnant as those who did not. Also, females with a history of arrest were more likely to have a pregnancy between 17 and 19. Males who left the foster care system before their 19th birthday were more likely to make someone pregnant. Youth from the foster care system are at exceptional risk of early pregnancy, no matter their maltreatment history, religiosity, school connectedness, or academic achievement, particularly in the years between 17 and 19. This high risk group needs pregnancy prevention interventions and access to effective birth control. PMID:24489422

Narendorf, Sarah Carter; McMillen, J. Curtis

2013-01-01

205

Youth "At Risk"? Young People, Sexual Health and Consent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…

Powell, Anastasia

2007-01-01

206

Art as Agency: Exploring Empowerment of At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an art-based intervention program with at-risk youth that was inspired by the Project Self-Discovery model (Milkman, Wanberg, & Robinson, 1996). Twelve middle-school students from a small city in a mid-Atlantic state participated in the program. The program goals included making art in order to empower the participants…

Wallace-DiGarbo, Anne; Hill, David C.

2006-01-01

207

Lowering Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in High-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among children and youth who develop type 2 diabetes (T2DM) there are a number of genetic and environmental factors that lead to a combination of insulin resistance and relative-cell secretory failure of the pancreas. These factors include ethnicity (highest in American Indian youth), obesity, sedentary behavior, family history of T2DM, puberty,…

Bobo, Nichole; Schantz, Shirley; Kaufman, Francine R.; Kollipara, Sobha

2009-01-01

208

Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior.  

PubMed

Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

2014-12-22

209

Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior  

PubMed Central

Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth.

Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

2014-01-01

210

Using Path Analysis To Examine Adolescent Suicide Attempts, Life Satisfaction, and Health Risk Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined racial and gender differences in attempted suicide among South Carolina public high school students. Data on quality of life, life satisfaction, and six risk-behavior categories from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that specific associations among risk behaviors, mediating variables, and self- reported attempted suicide varied…

Thatcher, W. Gregory; Reininger, Belinda M.; Drane, J. Wanzer

2002-01-01

211

Internalizing Symptoms Linking Youths' Maltreatment and Delinquent Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines internalizing mental health symptoms (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder) as potential intervening factors in the relationship between maltreatment and delinquency using data from the National Survey for Child and Adolescent Well-Being (N = 1,179). Significant mediating effects indicated that youth at greater risk of…

Bender, Kimberly; Postlewait, Ariana W.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Springer, David W.

2011-01-01

212

Early Childhood Family Intervention and Long-term Obesity Prevention Among High-risk Minority Youth  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. METHODS: Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. RESULTS: Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ?95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. CONCLUSIONS: Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities. PMID:22311988

Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

2012-01-01

213

Antisocial Male Youth: Considering Patterns of Vulnerability and Problem Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains presentation slides from a study on antisocial male youth. The study sought to identify an antisocial taxon, and to demonstrate that taxon membership would possess external validity and predict antisocial behavior correlates (low school achievement, poor family relations, and internalizing problems). The results revealed 9…

Wekerle, Chris; Skilling, Tracey; Adlaf, Edward; Paglia, Angela; Leung, Eman

214

Statistical Analysis of Friendship Patterns and Bullying Behaviors among Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During adolescence, friendship affiliations and groups provide companionship and social and emotional support, and they afford opportunities for intimate self-disclosure and reflection. Friendships often promote positive psychosocial development, but some youth learn and adopt antisocial attitudes and deviant behaviors through their friendships.…

Espelage, Dorothy L.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Wasserman, Stanley

2007-01-01

215

Changing Health Behavior in Youth: Plus 40 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those in health education, the year 1969 marked the debut of "School Health Review," the forerunner to the current "American Journal of Health Education." The inaugural issue of "School Health Review," in September of 1969 included the article, "Changing Health behavior in Youth," by Dr. Godfrey M. Hochbaum. This article reviews the 1969…

Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Kammermann, Sandra K.

2010-01-01

216

Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

2014-01-01

217

Exploring Risk in Early Adolescent African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to explore the degree to which single- and multiple-risk profiles were evident in samples of African American early adolescents in low-income inner-city, rural, and suburban schools. Study 1 examined early adolescent risk status (i.e., single, multiple) in relation to later adjustment in a representative sample (70% European American, 30% African American). Youth who experienced a single

Thomas W. Farmer; LeShawndra N. Price; Keri K. O'Neal; Man-Chi Leung; Jennifer B. Goforth; Beverley D. Cairns; Le'Roy E. Reese

2004-01-01

218

Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

2003-01-01

219

Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining

J. Mark Eddy

2005-01-01

220

Empowering Youth-At-Risk with Skills for School and Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains papers from a conference on at-risk youth that focused on building strengths and empowering youth by giving them skills for school and life. Following an introduction titled "Motivational Strategies for Empowering Youth-At-Risk" by Dan Rea and Robert Warkentin, the papers are: (1) "The Role of Learning Environments: Social…

Rea, Dan, Ed.; Warkentin, Robert, Ed.

221

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for White Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

222

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for All Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

223

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for Black Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

224

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for Hispanic Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

225

Trends in Sexual Risk Behavior and Unprotected Sex among High School Students, 1991-2005: The Role of Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To determine the trends in sexual activity and unprotected sex among substance-using youth, we examined data from the 1991-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys on drug and alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors. Method: We examined the association of alcohol and illicit drug use with recent sexual activity and unprotected sex. We assessed…

Anderson, John E.; Mueller, Trisha E.

2008-01-01

226

PROBLEM PROFILES OF AT-RISK YOUTH IN TWO SERVICE PROGRAMS: A MULTI-GROUP, EXPLORATORY LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

Baseline data collected in two brief intervention projects (BI-Court and Truancy Project) were used to assess similarities and differences in subgroups of at-risk youth. Classifications of these subgroups were based on their psychosocial characteristics (e.g., substance use). Multi-group latent class analysis (LCA) identified two BI-Court subgroups of youth, and three Truant subgroups. These classes can be viewed as differing along two dimensions, substance use involvement and emotional/behavioral issues. Equality tests of means across the latent classes for BI-Court and Truancy Project youths found significant differences that were consistent with their problem group classification. These findings highlight the importance of quality assessments and allocating appropriate services based on problem profiles of at-risk youth. PMID:21966055

Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora; Gulledge, Laura; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Schmeidler, James; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven

2011-01-01

227

Thoughts of Self-Harm and Help-Seeking Behavior among Youth in the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between thoughts of self-harm and help-seeking among youth with symptoms of depression was examined. Data were drawn from the Health Behavior of School-aged Children Study ("n" = 15, 686), a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Analyses focused on comparing help-seeking behaviors among youth

Goodwin, Renee D.; Mocarski, Michelle; Marusic, Andrej; Beautrais, Annette

2013-01-01

228

Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth

Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

2011-01-01

229

Latent Classes of Externalizing Behaviors in Youth with Early Maltreatment Histories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent class analyses were used to identify subsets of 217 12-year-old youth with early maltreatment histories based on youth and caregiver reports of externalizing behavior problems. The identified classes were validated using symptom counts and diagnoses for disruptive behavior disorders collected from youth and caregiver reports 2 years later.…

Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Roesch, Scott C.

2012-01-01

230

Where Do Youth Smokers Get Their Cigarettes?  

MedlinePLUS

... of Cigarette Access for American Youth, 1997-2002,” Am J Prev Med , 27(4):267-276, 2004; CDC, “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, United States, 2013,” MMWR 63 (No. 4), June 23, 2014, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss6304.pdf; CDC, “Youth Risk Behavior ...

231

Change Trajectories for the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report: Identifying Youth at Risk for Treatment Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used longitudinal youth outcome data in routine mental health services to test a system for identifying cases at risk for treatment failure. Participants were 2,715 youth (M age = 14) served in outpatient managed care and community mental health settings. Change trajectories were developed using multilevel modeling of archival data. Expected change trajectories served as the basis for a warning

Jennifer A. N. Cannon; Jared S. Warren; Philip L. Nelson; Gary M. Burlingame

2010-01-01

232

Concordance between self-reported substance use and toxicology among HIV-infected and uninfected at risk youth  

PubMed Central

Background Substance use by youth living with HIV (YLWH) is a concern, given potential interactions with virus-associated immune suppression and adverse effects on risk behaviors, neurocognition, and adherence. Self-report substance use measures provide efficient cost-effective assessments. Analyses describe self-reported substance use among YLWH and examine agreement with toxicology assays. Methods Seventy-eight youth age 18–24 years (87% male, 71% African–American) with behaviorally acquired HIV-1 infection and 55 uninfected youth completed the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test to assess drug use frequency, including tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol, over the prior three months. Elisa-based toxicology assays were used to detect 27 substances in plasma. Chi-square tests compared substance use between YLWH and uninfected youth; Kappa statistics compared agreement between self-report and toxicology. Results YLWH reported marijuana (49%), tobacco (56%), and alcohol (87%) use, with 20%, 28% and 3% reporting daily use of each substance, respectively; other substance use was uncommon. Uninfected youth reported less tobacco use but otherwise similar substance use. All youth who reported daily use of marijuana or tobacco had positive plasma toxicology results, while concordance decreased with less frequent self-reported use. Among youth reporting no substance use, few tested positive (4% YLWH, 2% uninfected youth for cannabis; 8%YLWH for tobacco). Conclusions Youth report high rates of marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol use. Concordance between self-report and toxicology for marijuana and tobacco use, particularly for daily users, supports self-report as a valid indicator of substance use in research studies of youth with or without HIV-1 infection. PMID:24309297

Nichols, Sharon L.; Lowe, Amanda; Zhang, Xinrui; Garvie, Patricia A.; Thornton, Sarah; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Hou, Wei; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Sleasman, John W.

2014-01-01

233

Therapist Alliance-Building Behavior Within a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the specific behavior of therapists contributing to a child client's perception of a therapeutic alliance with youth (n = 56) who received a manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety disorders. The first 3 sessions were coded for 11 therapist behaviors hypothesized to predict ratings of alliance. Child, therapist, and observer…

Creed, Torrey A.; Kendall, Philip C.

2005-01-01

234

Feasibility of Adapting Multisystemic Therapy to Improve Illness Management Behaviors and Reduce Asthma Morbidity in High Risk African American Youth: A Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…

Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

235

Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

2013-01-01

236

Coaching Behavior of Girls Youth Softball Coaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined coaches' behavior and classified the types and rates of coaches' behavior by time of athletic season (early or late), win/loss record, and throughout the time frame within a single contest. Subjects included all the volunteer coaches in a 13 team, softball program for 10-12 year old girls. The season consisted of a double…

Rupnow, Allan; Stotlar, David

237

An Exploratory Study of College Health-Risk Behaviors: Implications for Campus Programs and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed six categories of college students' health risk behaviors. Student survey data indicated that respondents were engaging in risk behaviors that could impact educational achievement and lead to serious consequences. Youth tended to enter college with established patterns of risk. Most regularly consumed large amounts of alcohol. Differences…

Fetro, Joyce V.; Wood, Ralph; Drolet, Judy C.

2000-01-01

238

Quality of Parent Communication about Sex and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behavior among Youth in Psychiatric Care: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The number of HIV infections among adolescents is increasing, and youth in psychiatric care are at particular risk because of their high rates of risky sexual behavior. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study examining AIDS-risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care, this pilot study investigated the relationship…

Wilson, Helen W.; Donenberg, Geri

2004-01-01

239

Alcohol use and HIV risk behaviors among rural adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual be- haviors. As part of a randomized control effec- tiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20 years old) living in eight rural

L. M. Kaljee; B. L. Genberg; T. T. Minh; L. H. Tho; L. T. K. Thoa; B. Stanton

2005-01-01

240

The contributing role of physical education in youth’s daily physical activity and sedentary behavior  

PubMed Central

Background School physical education (PE) is considered as an effective channel for youth to accumulate moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and reduce sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to determine the contributing role of PE in daily MVPA and sedentary time among youth. Methods The study recruited 67 sixth grade children (29 boys; Mean age?=?11.75) from two suburban schools at a U.S. Midwest state, 48 of whom contributed ?10 hours of physical activity (PA) data per day were included for analysis. An objective monitoring tool (i.e., Sensewear armband monitor) was used to capture the participants’ MVPA and sedentary time for 7–14 days. Pearson product–moment correlation analysis (r), multi-level regression analyses, and analysis of variance were conducted for data analysis. Results MVPA and sedentary time in PE showed significant positive associations with daily MVPA and sedentary time, respectively (r?=?0.35, p?behavior in PE was associated with 2.04 minutes and 5.30 minutes increases in daily MVPA and sedentary behavior, respectively, after controlling for sex and BMI. The participants demonstrated a significantly higher level of MVPA (p?=?.05) but similar sedentary time (p?=?0.61) on PE days than on non-PE days. Boys had significantly more daily MVPA (p?youth. Active participation in PE classes increases the chance to be more active and less sedentary beyond PE among youth. PMID:24495714

2014-01-01

241

Youth At-Risk of Welfare Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes focuses on the tendency of children from low-income families to drop out of high school, become teen parents, become involved in drug-related activities, and become involved in other activities that place them at high risk of long-term welfare dependency. Section 1 offers the background.…

Kaplan, April

1999-01-01

242

Influence of Caring Youth Sport Contexts on Efficacy-Related Beliefs and Social Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding what factors influence positive youth development has been advocated by youth development researchers (P. L. Benson, 2006; J. S. Eccles & J. A. Gootman, 2002). Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine whether perceptions of a caring youth sport context influenced prosocial and antisocial behavior through…

Gano-Overway, Lori A.; Newton, Maria; Magyar, T. Michelle; Fry, Mary D.; Kim, Mi-Sook; Guivernau, Marta R.

2009-01-01

243

Psychometric Properties of a Youth Self-Report Measure of Neglectful Behavior by Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aimed to empirically assess psychometric properties of a multi-dimensional youth self-report measure of neglectful behavior by parents. Method: Data were gathered from 593 12-year-old youth participating in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) consortium; 272 also had data at age 14. Youth responded…

Dubowitz, Howard; Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Pitts, Steven C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Thompson, Richard; Black, Maureen M.; Runyan, Desmond

2011-01-01

244

An fMRI study of emotional face encoding in youth at risk for bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Face memory deficits may be a bipolar disorder (BD) endophenotype. BD (n=27) and unaffected youth at risk (n=13) exhibited middle frontal gyrus hypoactivation during successful vs. unsuccessful encoding. Parahippocampal gyrus dysfunction was found in BD and at-risk youth (vs. low-risk, n=37). Middle occipital gyrus hypoactivation was only present in BD. PMID:25172156

Tseng, W-L; Bones, B L; Kayser, R R; Olsavsky, A K; Fromm, S J; Pine, D S; Leibenluft, E; Brotman, M A

2015-01-01

245

Behavioral adaptation among youth exposed to community violence: a longitudinal multidisciplinary study of family, peer and neighborhood-level protective factors.  

PubMed

Several studies across fields have documented the detrimental effects of exposure to violence and, separately, the power of developmental assets to promote positive youth development. However, few have examined the lives of youth exposed to violence who demonstrate resilience (that is, positive adjustment despite risk), and hardly any have examined how developmental assets may shape resilient trajectories into adulthood for youth exposed to violence. What are these resources and relationships that high-risk youth can leverage to tip the balance from vulnerability in favor of resilience? We used generalized estimating equations to examine multilevel longitudinal data from 1,114 youth of ages 11-16 from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Behavioral adaptation was a dynamic process that varied over time and by level of violence exposure. In the short term, being a victim was associated with increased aggression and delinquency. In the long term though, both victims and witnesses to violence had higher odds of behavioral adaptation. Baseline family support and family boundaries, friend support, neighborhood support, and collective efficacy had positive main effects for all youth. Additionally, having family support, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities for participation modified the effect of exposure to violence and increased odds of behavioral adaptation over time. Policies, systems, and programs across sectors should focus on building caring relationships/supports with family members and friends, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities especially for witnesses and victims of violence, to promote behavioral resilience and related outcomes into adulthood for high-risk youth. PMID:23404664

Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

2013-12-01

246

Risk and protective factors associated with youth violence among secondary school students in a nationally representative sample in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

During the past decade, youth violence has received increasing attention as a major public health issue in Puerto Rico as well as in the United States. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors of youth violence in a representative sample of school adolescents in Puerto Rico. Risk and protective factors were grouped into five domains: individual, family, peer group, school and community. From a total of 2,385 participants, 10.7% reported at least one violent behavior and 3.4% reported two or more violent behaviors. In multiple regression analysis the risk factors identified were male gender, junior grade students, having a favorable attitude towards antisocial behavior, use of ecstasy, involvement with antisocial peers and reporting antisocial parents. Participation in family decisions was the only protective factor associated with violence. Findings from this study could have important implications for the development of preventive programs for the adolescent population in Puerto Rico. PMID:15803985

Reyes, J C; Moscoso, M; Vélez, C N; Rodríguez, F; Colón, H M; Robles, R; Parrilla, I; Ramos, G; Suárez, C M; Mercado, H; Suárez, R A

2004-01-01

247

Disordered Eating Behaviors in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: Prospective Pilot Assessment Following Initiation of Insulin Pump Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background There is risk for disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetes, especially related to insulin manipulation. Implementation of insulin pump therapy may encourage either normalization of eating behaviors or a greater focus on food intake due to renewed emphasis on carbohydrate counting. There is need for prospective studies to assess disordered eating behaviors upon implementation of pump therapy using diabetes-specific measurement tools. Subjects and Methods In a multicenter pilot study, 43 youth with type 1 diabetes, 10–17 years old, were assessed prior to pump initiation and after 1 and 6 months of pump therapy. Youth completed the Diabetes-specific Eating Problems Survey-Revised (DEPS-R), a validated measure of risk for both diabetes-specific and general disordered eating behaviors. Results Youth (45% female), 13.3 years old with diabetes for 2.1 years, had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.3±1.3% (68±14.5?mmol/mol) at baseline. DEPS-R scores decreased over time (P=0.01). Overall rate of high risk for eating disorders was low. Overweight/obese youth endorsed more disordered eating behaviors than normal-weight participants. DEPS-R scores were correlated with z-score for body mass index at all three time points and with hemoglobin A1c after 1 and 6 months. Hemoglobin A1c did not change significantly over the 6 months and was higher in overweight/obese compared with normal-weight participants. Conclusions Initiation of insulin pump therapy was associated with diminished endorsement of disordered eating behaviors in youth with type 1 diabetes. Longer follow-up studies are needed to assess the impact of insulin pump therapy on glycemic control, weight status, and disordered eating behaviors in this vulnerable population. PMID:23550556

Markowitz, Jessica T.; Alleyn, Cielo A.; Phillips, Roxanne; Muir, Andrew; Young-Hyman, Deborah

2013-01-01

248

The Youth Form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI--Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart" behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy…

Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Desmond, Frederic F.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Smith, Tasia M.

2012-01-01

249

A comparison of risk factors associated with suicide ideation/attempts in american Indian and white youth in montana.  

PubMed

We examined racial/ethnic and gender-specific associations between suicide ideation/attempts and risky behaviors, sadness/hopelessness, and victimization in Montana American Indian and White youth using 1999-2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in stratified racial/ethnic-gender groups. The primary results of this study show that although the American Indian youth had more statistically significant suicidal thoughts and attempts than the White youth, they had fewer statistically significant predictors compared to the White youth. Sadness/hopelessness was the strongest, and the only statistically significant, predictor of suicide ideation/attempts common across all four groups. The unhealthy weight control cluster was a significant predictor for the White youth and the American Indian/Alaska Native girls; the alcohol/tobacco/marijuana cluster was a significant predictor for the American Indian boys only. Results show important differences across the groups and indicate directions for future research targeting prevention and intervention. PMID:25010183

Manzo, Karen; Tiesman, Hope; Stewart, Jera; Hobbs, Gerald R; Knox, Sarah S

2015-01-01

250

Youth-caregiver agreement on clinical high-risk symptoms of psychosis.  

PubMed

Early identification of individuals who will go on to develop schizophrenia is a difficult endeavor. The variety of symptoms experienced by clinical high-risk youth make it difficult to identify who will eventually develop schizophrenia in the future. Efforts are being made, therefore, to more accurately identify at-risk individuals and factors that predict conversion to psychosis. As in most assessments of children and adolescents, however, both youth and parental report of symptomatology and resulting dysfunction are important to assess. The goals of the current study were to assess the extent of cross-informant agreement on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), a widely-used tool employed to determine clinical high-risk status. A total of 84 youth-caregiver pairs participated. Youth and caregiver raters displayed moderate overall agreement on SIPS-rated symptoms. Both youth and caregiver ratings of youth symptomatology contributed significantly to predicting conversion to psychosis. In addition, youth age and quality of youth-caregiver relationships appear to be related to cross-informant symptom ratings. Despite differences on individual SIPS domains, the majority of dyads agreed on youth clinical high-risk status. Results highlight the potential clinical utility of using caregiver informants to determine youth psychosis risk. PMID:24092494

Golembo-Smith, Shana; Bachman, Peter; Senturk, Damla; Cannon, Tyrone D; Bearden, Carrie E

2014-05-01

251

Youth-caregiver Agreement on Clinical High-risk Symptoms of Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Early identification of individuals who will go on to develop schizophrenia is a difficult endeavor. The variety of symptoms experienced by clinical high-risk youth make it difficult to identify who will eventually develop schizophrenia in the future. Efforts are being made, therefore, to more accurately identify at-risk individuals and factors that predict conversion to psychosis. As in most assessments of children and adolescents, however, both youth and parental report of symptomatology and resulting dysfunction are important to assess. The goals of the current study were to assess the extent of cross-informant agreement on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), a widely-used tool employed to determine clinical high-risk status. A total of 84 youth-caregiver pairs participated. Youth and caregiver raters displayed moderate overall agreement on SIPS-rated symptoms. Both youth and caregiver ratings of youth symptomatology contributed significantly to predicting conversion to psychosis. In addition, youth age and quality of youth-caregiver relationships appear to be related to cross-informant symptom ratings. Despite differences on individual SIPS domains, the majority of dyads agreed on youth clinical high-risk status. Results highlight the potential clinical utility of using caregiver informants to determine youth psychosis risk. PMID:24092494

Golembo-Smith, Shana; Bachman, Peter; Senturk, Damla; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

2014-01-01

252

Africentric youth and family rites of passage program: promoting resilience among at-risk African American youths.  

PubMed

This article examines the effects of an Africentric youth and family rites of passage program on at-risk African American youths and their parents. Data were obtained from a three-year evaluation of a youth rites of passage demonstration project using therapeutic interventions based on Africentric principles. At-risk African American boys between ages 11.5 and 14.5 years with no history of substance abuse were referred from the criminal justice system, diversion programs, and local schools. The evaluation revealed that participating youths exhibited gains in self-esteem and accurate knowledge of the dangers of drug abuse. Although the differences were not statistically significant, parents demonstrated improvements in parenting skills, racial identity, cultural awareness, and community involvement. Evidence from interviews and focus groups suggests that the program's holistic, family-oriented, Africentric, strengths-based approach and indigenous staff contributed to its success. PMID:14964519

Harvey, Aminifu R; Hill, Robert B

2004-01-01

253

The prevalence of eating behaviors among Canadian youth using cross-sectional school-based surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. Methods The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grades 5-12) from four regions in Canada. The regions were Hamilton and Thunder Bay (both in Ontario), the Province of Prince Edward Island, and the Province of Quebec. Results Consuming breakfast daily was reported by 70% of grade 5-8 students, and 51% of grade 9-12’s. Among students in grade 9-12, 52% reported eating with family members daily, compared with 68% in grade 5-8. Just over half of students in grade 5-8, and 70% in grade 9-12 reported eating at a fast-food place once a week or more. Among grade 5-8 students 68% reported eating in front of the television at least once per week, compared to 76% in grade 9-12. Obese students were more likely to watch TV while eating, and less likely to eat with a family member and eat breakfast. Conclusions The findings suggest that only a modest proportion of youth report dietary patterns that have previously been associated with healthy eating and reduced risk of obesity. Later adolescence may be a critical time for intervention in health-related behaviors. PMID:24708863

2014-01-01

254

Road Trauma in Teenage Male Youth with Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Population Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Teenage male drivers contribute to a large number of serious road crashes despite low rates of driving and excellent physical health. We examined the amount of road trauma involving teenage male youth that might be explained by prior disruptive behavior disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder). Methods and Findings We conducted a population-based case-control study of consecutive male youth between age 16 and 19 years hospitalized for road trauma (cases) or appendicitis (controls) in Ontario, Canada over 7 years (April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2009). Using universal health care databases, we identified prior psychiatric diagnoses for each individual during the decade before admission. Overall, a total of 3,421 patients were admitted for road trauma (cases) and 3,812 for appendicitis (controls). A history of disruptive behavior disorders was significantly more frequent among trauma patients than controls (767 of 3,421 versus 664 of 3,812), equal to a one-third increase in the relative risk of road trauma (odds ratio ?=? 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.22–1.54, p<0.001). The risk was evident over a range of settings and after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21–1.56, p<0.001). The risk explained about one-in-20 crashes, was apparent years before the event, extended to those who died, and persisted among those involved as pedestrians. Conclusions Disruptive behavior disorders explain a significant amount of road trauma in teenage male youth. Programs addressing such disorders should be considered to prevent injuries. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21125017

Redelmeier, Donald A.; Chan, William K.; Lu, Hong

2010-01-01

255

Youth Depression in the Family Context: Familial Risk Factors and Models of Treatment  

PubMed Central

Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of parent and family factors is associated with youth risk for depression, ranging from parental pathology to parental cognitive style to family emotional climate. Next, treatment approaches for youth depression that have been empirically tested are described and then summarized in terms of their level of parent inclusion, including cognitive–behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and family systems approaches. Families have mostly not been incorporated into clinical treatment research with depressed adolescents, with only 32% of treatments including parents in treatment in any capacity. Nonetheless, the overall effectiveness of treatments that involve children and adolescents exclusively is very similar to that of treatments that include parents as agents or facilitators of change. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings and directions for further research. PMID:16151618

Sander, Janay B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.

2006-01-01

256

Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

2014-01-01

257

The Authoritative Parenting Index: Predicting Health Risk Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health research demonstrates increasing interest in mobilizing parental influence to prevent health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. This research focuses on authoritative parenting, which previous studies suggest can prevent health risk behaviors among youth. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a new survey measure of authoritative parenting, data from studies of (1) substance use in a sample

Christine Jackson; Lisa Henriksen; Vangie A. Foshee

1998-01-01

258

History of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in Youth  

PubMed Central

Synopsis CBT represents a combination of behavioral and cognitive theories of human behavior and psychopathology, and a melding of emotional, familial, and peer influences. The numerous intervention strategies that comprise CBT reflect its complex and integrative nature and include such topics as extinction, habituation, modeling, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving, and the development of coping strategies, mastery, and a sense of self-control. CBT targets multiple areas of potential vulnerability (e.g., cognitive, behavioral, affective) with developmentally-guided strategies and traverses multiple intervention pathways. Although CBT is often considered the “first line treatment” for many psychological disorders in youth, additional work is necessary to address treatment non-responders and to facilitate the dissemination of efficacious CBT approaches. PMID:21440849

Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Settipani, Cara A.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Cummings, Colleen M.

2011-01-01

259

Associations of Dating Violence Victimization With Lifetime Participation, Co-Occurrence, and Early Initiation of Risk Behaviors Among U.S. High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association of victimization in a physically violent dating relationship with risk behaviors, age of risk behavior initiation, and co-occurrence of risk behaviors among students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Data were from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Nearly 9% of students reported experiencing dating violence victimization. Dating violence victimization

Danice K. Eaton; Kristen S. Davis; Lisa Barrios; Nancy D. Brener; Rita K. Noonan

2007-01-01

260

America's Shame, America's Hope: Twelve Million Youth at Risk. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an executive summary of a report asserting that the under-education of a body of students, known as "at-risk" youth, presents a crisis in American public education that has been overlooked by the educational reform movement of the 1980s. These youth are referred to as "at-risk" because they leave school unprepared for either…

Smith, R. C.; Lincoln, Carol A.

261

Who's Looking Out for At-Risk Youth: The States' Excellence in Education Commissions. A Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of state commissions concerned with educational excellence showed that the majority of these commissions are not involved with the problems of at-risk youth. The definition of at-risk youth includes the following: (1) young people from poor families of all races, including minorities and immigrants, who face discriminatory policies and…

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

262

Alternatives for Youth-At-Risk: Outdoor Experiences for a Special Population. An Occasional Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camping or other outdoor experience is seen as an alternative to incarceration for youth-at-risk, matching the excitement of the street-gang society or peer group, while simultaneously giving youth-at-risk a sense of the reason for teamwork, adherence to a group-respected value system, regard for skills and abilities of others, plus a…

Lingle, Kendall I.

1980-01-01

263

Youth Depression in the Family Context: Familial Risk Factors and Models of Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of parent and family factors is associated with youth risk

Janay B. Sander; Carolyn A. McCarty

2005-01-01

264

Psychosocial Functioning in Youths at High Risk to Develop Major Depressive Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…

Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

2004-01-01

265

Predicting the Onset of Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative Youths with HIV-Positive Mothers: The Role of Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Social-Interaction Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves.\\u000a Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables\\u000a on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and without HIV-positive mothers. Adolescents\\u000a and their mothers were interviewed

Claude A. Mellins; Curtis Dolezal; Elizabeth Brackis-Cott; Ouzama Nicholson; Patricia Warne; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg

2007-01-01

266

Risk Factors for Alcohol Use Among Inner-City Minority Youth: A Comparative Analysis of Youth Living in Public and Conventional Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

National survey data indicate that drug use among our nation's secondary school youth is once again on the rise. Nowhere is this concern more dramatic than with inner-city youth who seem disproportionately affected by the risks associated with drug use. Urban youth residing in public housing developments may be extremely vulnerable as a result of their exposure to high rates

Christopher Williams; Lawrence M. Scheier; Gilbert J. Botvin; Eli Baker; Nicole Miller

1997-01-01

267

Testing Theories of Dietary Behavior Change in Youth Using the Mediating Variable Model with Intervention Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…

Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom

2009-01-01

268

Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains digital age youth information behaviors from a holistic perspective. In order to bridge the empirical

Kyungwon Koh

2011-01-01

269

Bullies and victims in rural African American youth: behavioral characteristics and social network placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bullying and victimization are serious problems for youth of many ages and from a variety of backgrounds. These behaviors have not, however, been widely studied in rural minorities. The current work examined behavioral and social correlates of bullying and victimization in a sample of rural African American youth. Incidence rates of bullying, victimization, and aggressive victimization parallel those in other

David B. Estell; Thomas W. Farmer; Beverley D. Cairns

2007-01-01

270

A Systematic Review of Environmental Correlates of Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational…

van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, A.; Ferreira, I.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Giskes, K.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.

2007-01-01

271

Moving On: Transitions for Youth with Behavioral Disorders. Working with Behavioral Disorders: CEC Mini-Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet reviews the literature on transitional services for youth with behavior disorders, provides examples of successful programs and activities, and identifies key elements of successful programs. Specific sections of the monograph address the following areas: long-term life adjustment; transition studies; vocational assessment; social…

Bullis, Michael; Gaylord-Ross, Robert

272

Recognition for Positive Behavior as a Critical Youth Development Construct: Conceptual Bases and Implications on Youth Service Development  

PubMed Central

Recognition for positive behavior is an appropriate response of the social environment to elicit desirable external behavior among the youth. Such positive responses, rendered from various social systems, include tangible and intangible reinforcements. The following theories are used to explain the importance of recognizing positive behavior: operational conditioning, observational learning, self-determination, and humanistic perspective. In the current work, culturally and socially desirable behaviors are discussed in detail with reference to Chinese adolescents. Positive behavior recognition is especially important to adolescent development because it promotes identity formation as well as cultivates moral reasoning and social perspective thinking from various social systems. The significance of recognizing positive behavior is illustrated through the support, tutorage, invitation, and subsidy provided by Hong Kong's social systems in recognition of adolescent volunteerism. The practical implications of positive behavior recognition on youth development programs are also discussed in this work. PMID:22666155

Law, Ben M. F.; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

2012-01-01

273

Preventing Youth Incarceration Through Reading Remediation: Issues and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of court-involved youths have experienced academic failure, school exclusion, and dropout. Researchers have identified factors that increase a youth's risk for court involvement and incarceration. The risk factors include individual, family, community, peer, and school factors. Researchers actually have identified specific school-based policies and practices that may exacerbate the risks for delinquent behavior and incarceration among youths. For

Christine A. Christle; Mitchell L. Yell

2008-01-01

274

Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92) and boys (N = 110). Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1) overweight; (2) female; or (3) having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity. PMID:16566842

Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Schmalz, Dorothy L

2006-01-01

275

Conceptions of risk in the lives of club drug-using youth.  

PubMed

This paper describes current patterns of club drug use and local conceptions of risk among New York City area youth. The data is drawn from a NIDA-funded ethnographic study of club drug initiation among "Bridge and Tunnel" youth. The paper entails an examination of the harmony and discontinuity between folk models of risk within this population and professional models of risk. The author explores how club drug-using youth conceive of risks related to club drug use, specifically ecstasy, and how such conceptions compare and contrast with current professional models of risk. These conceptions of risk are crucial to understand, as they form an informal logic by which club drug practices are guided. Ultimately, the author examines how the relationship between folk models and professional models might inform health promotion efforts targeting youth. PMID:16048827

Kelly, Brian C

2005-01-01

276

Caudate responses to reward anticipation associated with delay discounting behavior in healthy youth  

PubMed Central

Background Choices requiring delay of gratification made during adolescence can have significant impact on life trajectory. Willingness to delay gratification can be measured using delay discounting tasks that require a choice between a smaller immediate reward and a larger delayed reward. Individual differences in the subjective value of delayed rewards are associated with risk for development of psychopathology including substance abuse. The neurobiological underpinnings related to these individual differences early in life are not fully understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in delay discounting behavior in healthy youth are related to differences in responsiveness to potential reward. Method Nineteen 10 to 14 year-olds performed a monetary incentive delay task to assess neural sensitivity to potential reward and a questionnaire to measure discounting of future monetary rewards. Results Left ventromedial caudate activation during anticipation of potential reward was negatively correlated with delay discounting behavior. There were no regions where brain responses during notification of reward outcome were associated with discounting behavior. Conclusions Brain activation during anticipation of potential reward may serve as a marker for individual differences in ability or willingness to delay gratification in healthy youth. PMID:24309299

Benningfield, Margaret M.; Blackford, Jennifer U.; Ellsworth, Melissa E.; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Martin, Peter R.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Zald, David H.

2014-01-01

277

Trends in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Behaviors among High School Students--United States, 1991-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors among high school students in the United States during 1991-2005. Data from 8 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted during that period were analyzed. During 1991-2005, the percentage of US high school students engaging in HIV-related sexual risk

Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Romero, Lisa

2006-01-01

278

Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

2012-01-01

279

Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

2014-06-01

280

Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group

C. W. Njue; H. A. C. M. Voeten; P. Remes

2011-01-01

281

Serving At-Risk Youth at Camp: Understanding This Population and Meeting Their Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines "at-risk youth." Describes characteristics of resilient children and their families, friends and mentors, schools, and communities. Discusses camp program practices that have been shown to promote resiliency: focus on youth development, intentional processes that target the personal domain, organizational elements borrowed from successful…

Grayson, Randall

2001-01-01

282

Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

2013-01-01

283

Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of

Alice PS Kong; Kai-Chow Choi; Albert MC Li; Stanley SC Hui; Michael HM Chan; YK Wing; Ronald CW Ma; Christopher WK Lam; Joseph TF Lau; Wing Yee So; Gary TC Ko; Juliana CN Chan

2010-01-01

284

Self Destructive Behaviors in American Indian and Alaska Native High School Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of responses of 10,251 high school students surveyed in the 1997 National School-Based Youth Risk Survey indicated that American Indian males more frequently carried weapons, attempted suicide, and used drugs than did White or Black youths. American Indian females more frequently attempted suicide and used cocaine than did White or Black…

Frank, Michael L.; Lester, David

2002-01-01

285

Do dopamine gene variants and prenatal smoking interactively predict youth externalizing behavior?  

PubMed Central

Externalizing behaviors (encompassing antisocial, impulsive, and substance use behaviors) are pervasive and impairing across a multitude of settings and developmental contexts. These behaviors, though often investigated separately, are highly comorbid. Prenatal tobacco exposure in interaction with various genetic influences has predicted later externalizing behavior, and recent evidence supports investigating sex differences in these patterns. In the current study, we extend this work by (a) examining two functional genetic markers in the dopamine system: the transporter gene (DAT1) and the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) in interaction with prenatal tobacco exposure to predict a latent composite of externalizing behavior and (b) testing whether these patterns differ by sex of youth in a community sample of adolescents (n=176). The relatively small sample is partially offset by high quality, multi-method prospective measurement. We assessed prenatal tobacco exposure using prospective repeated cotinine-corrected reports and externalizing behaviors were assessed utilizing multiple measures across three waves. The interaction between DAT1 (but not DRD4) and prenatal tobacco exposure was statistically significant in boys, and patterns appeared to differ by sex. Risk for externalizing behaviors for exposed boys increased linearly as a function of the 10r DAT1 allele. For exposed girls, there was a trend such that DAT1heterozygotes had a marginally higher risk than homozygotes. This pattern was not explained by passive gene-environment correlation. Elucidating sex-specific pathways through which early adverse exposures and genetic susceptibilities contribute to externalizing behavior can inform early targeted prevention efforts for those children at highest risk. PMID:24064458

O’Brien, T. Caitlin; Mustanski, Brian S.; Skol, Andrew; Cook, Edwin H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

2014-01-01

286

THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR OF YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE IN-SERVICE TRAINING GUIDE FOR YOUTH SERVICES PERSONNEL WAS DESIGNED TO AID PERSONNEL IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANTI-SOCIAL YOUTH BEHAVIOR. THIS PRACTICAL GUIDE AND TRAINING MANUAL PRESENTS A COMPENDIUM OF IDEAS, SUGGESTIONS, AND TECHNIQUES. THE INTRODUCTION PRESENTS THE BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURES OF THE GUIDE'S PUBLICATION AND…

PELEGRINO, DONALD A.; AND OTHERS

287

An Analysis of the Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors of Traumatized Urban Youth With and Without PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the differential validity of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) classification, 3 groups of youths (PTSD, traumatized PTSD negatives, and controls) were examined. Youth with major comorbid disorders were excluded. On the basis of an analysis of parent-derived Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings, significant variations in CBCL scores were associated with PTSD but not with exposure to exceptional stress

Philip A. Saigh; Anastasia E. Yasik; Richard A. Oberfield; Phill V. Halamandaris; Margaret McHugh

2002-01-01

288

Education and Services for Children and Youths with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To describe the current status of special education and services for children and youths with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in Singapore, the authors highlight the country's overall structure of special education and mental health, identification of and intervention with children and youths with E/BD, perspectives about E/BD, and…

Chen, Kaili; Soon, Tan Chee

2006-01-01

289

Increased Intrasubject Variability in Response Time in Youths with Bipolar Disorder and At-Risk Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intrasubject variability in response time (ISV-RT) was higher in youths with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with first-degree relatives with BD compared to youths without BD. ISV-RT may be a risk marker for BD.

Brotman, Melissa A.; Rooney, Melissa H.; Skup, Martha; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

2009-01-01

290

The Age of Initiation of Drug Use and Sexual Behavior May Influence Subsequent HIV Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk. PMID:24381791

Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael

2013-01-01

291

Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... Look Ahead and Take Action 2015: Making a Difference for Youth Experiencing Homelessness – A National Perspective Partnerships ... and Community Service General Services Administration Office of Management and Budget U.S. Postal Service White House Office ...

292

College Women and Breast Cancer: Knowledge, Behavior, and Beliefs regarding Risk Reduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…

Burak, Lydia; Boone, Barbara

2008-01-01

293

Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors in youth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to review the current evidence base of psychosocial treatments for suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) in youth. We reviewed major scientific databases (HealthSTAR, MEDLine, PsycINFO, PubMed) for relevant studies published prior to June 2013. The search identified 29 studies examining interventions for suicidal or nonsuicidal SITBs in children or adolescents. No interventions currently meet the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology standards for Level 1: well-established treatments. Six treatment categories were classified as Level 2: probably efficacious or Level 3: possibly efficacious for reducing SITBs in youth. These treatments came from a variety of theoretical orientations, including cognitive-behavioral, family, interpersonal, and psychodynamic theories. Common elements across efficacious treatments included family skills training (e.g., family communication and problem solving), parent education and training (e.g., monitoring and contingency management), and individual skills training (e.g., emotion regulation and problem solving). Several treatments have shown potential promise for reducing SITBs in children and adolescents. However, the probably/possibly efficacious treatments identified each have evidence from only a single randomized controlled trial. Future research should focus on replicating studies of promising treatments, identifying active treatment ingredients, examining mediators and moderators of treatment effects, and developing brief interventions for high-risk periods (e.g., following hospital discharge). PMID:25256034

Glenn, Catherine R; Franklin, Joseph C; Nock, Matthew K

2015-01-01

294

International note: Association between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours in homeless youth.  

PubMed

Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours. PMID:25575268

Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

2015-02-01

295

Meeting the Needs of Our Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Follows the lives of two men from their trajectories of antisocial behavior from youthful delinquency to adult criminality. Examines these case studies in ways to help shed light on how adults can prevent at-risk youth from engaging in criminal behavior and promote resilient behavior. (Author/MKA)

Van Bockern, Steve

1998-01-01

296

Storytelling Narratives: Social Bonding as Key for Youth at Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research used a structured storytelling narrative methodology to capture the lived experience of youth participants to identify effective factors that helped them in three programs in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California. Thirty-nine youth aged 8-17 participated in two storytelling protocols at their home sites; one was a written…

Nelson, Annabelle; McClintock, Charles; Perez-Ferguson, Anita; Shawver, Mary Nash; Thompson, Greg

2008-01-01

297

Risk indicators of suicide ideation among on-reserve First Nations youth  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Despite the known disparity in suicide rates in Canada, there is limited information on the independent risk indicators of suicide ideation among First Nations youth living on reserve. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and adjusted risk indicators for suicide ideation among on-reserve First Nations youth. METHODS: Saskatoon Tribal Council (Saskatchewan) First Nations students enrolled in grades 5 through 8 who were living on reserve were asked to complete a health survey using validated questionnaires. In total, 75.3% of the students completed the survey. The study was led by the Saskatoon Tribal Council with assistance from three departments at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan). RESULTS: Among on-reserve First Nations youth, 23% experienced suicide ideation within the past 12 months. In comparison, 8.5% of Saskatoon urban youth and 19% of Saskatoon urban Aboriginal youth within the same grades experienced suicide ideation. Wanting to leave home (OR 13.91 [95% CI 3.05 to 63.42]), having depressed mood (OR 2.98 [95% CI 1.16 to 7.67]) and not feeling loved (OR 3.85 [95% CI 1.49 to 9.93]) were independently associated with suicide ideation among on-reserve youth. None of the children with a father who was professionally employed reported suicide ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the independent risk indicators associated with suicide ideation among First Nations youth living on reserve will hopefully aid in appropriate interventions. PMID:24381486

Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John; Grant, Eisha

2013-01-01

298

Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

McGee, Zina T.

1999-01-01

299

Violent and aggressive behaviors in youth: a mental health and prevention perspective.  

PubMed

Aggressive behavior and violence leading to disciplinary and legal difficulties have reached epidemic proportions among our youth. The severity of problems and social and economic costs to society have increased markedly. In this article, the authors review the risk factors, situational concerns, and warning signs that are important in predicting school violence and in designing effective prevention and early intervention efforts. They then describe programs with which they are involved as mental health professionals that appear to be extremely promising and applicable to other communities. The prevention and intervention programs are distinctive in that they involve collaborations with law enforcement, including the police and criminal sheriff, and the juvenile court as well as parents and schools in their efforts to promote positive development. These clinical, educational, and public policy approaches offer mental health professionals increased opportunities to be of help in this critical area. PMID:11822206

Osofsky, H J; Osofsky, J D

2001-01-01

300

Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth  

PubMed Central

American Indian (AI) adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools in a sample of 24 AI adolescents. Participants experienced significant decreases in anxiety and PTSD symptoms, and avoidant coping strategies, as well as a marginally significant decrease in depression symptoms. Improvements in anxiety and depression were maintained 6 months post-intervention; improvements in PTSD and avoidant coping strategies were not. Feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability of CBITS are discussed in the context of efforts to develop culturally sensitive interventions for AI youth. PMID:21058132

Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Milford, Jaime

2011-01-01

301

Child Behavior Checklist Profiles of Children and Adolescents with and at High Risk for Developing Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than or equal to…

Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

2007-01-01

302

Beyond the "Model Minority" Stereotype: Trends in Health Risk Behaviors among Asian/Pacific Islander High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Asian/Pacific Islander (API) students have been stereotyped as the "model minority." The objective of this study was to examine the trends in health risk behaviors among API students who participated in the San Diego City Schools Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) between 1993 and 2005. Methods: High school students from the San Diego…

Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2009-01-01

303

Self-Injurious Behavior in Gifted and Talented Youth: What Every Educator Should Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) are increasing in the general adolescent population, giving rise to concerns about the impact these behaviors have on gifted and talented youth. Educators of the gifted may not have adequate understanding of these behaviors, limiting their effectiveness in supporting gifted students engaging in SIB. This article…

Wood, Susannah M.; Craigen, Laurie M.

2011-01-01

304

A Spatial Analysis of Risks and Resources for Reentry Youth in Los Angeles County  

PubMed Central

Research on youth reentering the community following incarceration has largely focused on individual risks for negative outcomes and in doing so, has overlooked the potential importance of the neighborhood context(s) where youth return. Addressing this research gap, this study explores associations between neighborhood risks and resources and rates of youth reentering the community following incarceration. Examining archival data from 272 zip codes in Los Angeles County, spatial analysis detected positive associations between rates of youth reentry and unemployment, poverty, and ethnic minority concentration. Reentry rates were also positively associated with neighborhood risks including density of off-premise alcohol outlets and level of community violence. Examining resources on their own, specifically designated youth services were positively associated with reentry rates, whereas education and mental health/substance abuse services were negatively associated. However, none of these resources were significantly associated with reentry rates when neighborhood risks were simultaneously considered. The results of this study highlight the relevance of neighborhood context in youth reentry research and lead to several directions for future study. PMID:23304429

Abrams, Laura S.; Freisthler, Bridget

2012-01-01

305

Asian\\/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center: Interpersonal Violence and Deviant Behaviors among Youth in Hawai‘i  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis study investigates the prevalence rates of violent and deviant behaviors among a sample of Filipino, Hawaiian, Japanese, and Samoan public high school students residing in Hawai‘i, and is the first relatively large-scale study of its kind regarding a disaggregated sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) youth. Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan adolescents were the chosen ethnic groups for

David T. Mayeda; Earl S. Hishinuma; Stephanie T. Nishimura; Orlando Garcia-Santiago; Gregory Y. Mark

2006-01-01

306

The Associations between Parents' References to Their Own Past Substance Use and Youth's Substance-Use Beliefs and Behaviors: A Comparison of Latino and European American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using primary socialization theory and theory of planned behavior, this study examined how targeted parent-child communication against substance use and parents' references to the negative consequences of their own past substance use (from the youth's perspective) directly and indirectly relate to Latino and European American youth's external…

Kam, Jennifer A.; Middleton, Ashley V.

2013-01-01

307

Association Between Life Satisfaction and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between perceived life satisfaction and sexual risk-taking behaviors were examined in a statewide sample of public high school students (n = 4,758) using the self-report CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Adjusted polychotomous logistic regression analyses and multivariate models (via SUDAAN) constructed separately, revealed a significant race by gender interaction for each race-gender group. Age of first intercourse (=13),

Robert F. Valois; Keith J. Zullig; E. Scott Huebner; Sandra K. Kammermann; J. Wanzer Drane

2002-01-01

308

Influence of caring youth sport contexts on efficacy-related beliefs and social behaviors.  

PubMed

Understanding what factors influence positive youth development has been advocated by youth development researchers (P. L. Benson, 2006; J. S. Eccles & J. A. Gootman, 2002). Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine whether perceptions of a caring youth sport context influenced prosocial and antisocial behavior through efficacy-related beliefs, that is, positive and negative affective self-regulatory efficacy (ASRE) and empathic self-efficacy (ESE). Multiethnic youths taking part in summer sport programs (N = 395) completed a questionnaire that measured perceptions of the caring climate, ESE, ASRE, and social behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether ASRE and ESE mediated the relationship between caring and social behaviors. Findings revealed that perceptions of caring positively predicted ASRE and ESE. In turn, positive ASRE positively predicted ESE. Prosocial behaviors were positively linked to ESE, whereas antisocial behaviors were negatively predicted by positive ASRE. The results suggest that caring influences prosocial and antisocial behavior because such contexts develop youths' ability to monitor, manage, and control positive affect, which in turn enhances their belief in their ability to empathize. PMID:19271822

Gano-Overway, Lori A; Newton, Maria; Magyar, T Michelle; Fry, Mary D; Kim, Mi-Sook; Guivernau, Marta R

2009-03-01

309

Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement  

MedlinePLUS

... and Academic Achievement What is the relationship between health-risk behaviors and academic achievement? Data presented below from ... Percentage of high school students who engaged in health-risk behaviors, by type of grades earned (mostly A’s, ...

310

Did youth smoking behaviors change before and after the shutdown of Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: No previous studies document the effects of both comprehensive tobacco control and its defunding on youth smoking. This study tests the effect of the youth-focused Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative (MYTPI) and its shutdown on youth smoking and determines whether these effects differed by age. Methods: The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort is a population-based, observational study designed to evaluate the MYTPI. The sample included cohorts of youth aged 12–16 years at baseline in Minnesota (N?=?3,636) and a comparison group in six other Midwestern states (n?=?605). Biannual surveys assessed youth smoking from October 2000, 5 months after the MYTPI launch, through October 2005, 2 years postshutdown. Adjusted piecewise linear trajectories predicted smoking stage (measured on a 1–6 continuum) comparing Minnesota with a comparison group during the MYTPI (Slope 1) and postshutdown (Slope 2) for each baseline age cohort. Analysis then compared baseline age cohorts with each other by centering their intercepts on age 16. Results: Neither slope of smoking stage differed between Minnesota and comparison groups, showing no period effects for the MYTPI or shutdown. However, younger cohorts, with early teen experience of MYTPI, smoked less than older cohorts by the same age. Mean smoking stage at age 16 differed by almost a half stage from the youngest (2.04) to the oldest (2.46) age cohort. Discussion: The study offers no evidence of period effects for the MYTPI or its shutdown. Design limitations, national or continued post-MYTPI statewide tobacco control efforts, or program flaws could explain the findings. PMID:19633274

Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.

2009-01-01

311

The Impact of Age and Type of Intervention on Youth Violent Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the impact of the Aban Aya Youth Project (AAYP; Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 158: 377–384,\\u000a 2004) social development classroom curriculum (SDC), school\\/family\\/community (SC) intervention curriculum, and a health enhancement\\u000a curriculum (HEC) attention placebo control on changes over time in violent behaviors among participating youth. Grade 5 pretest\\u000a and grades 5–8 posttest data were used to

Robert J. Jagers; Antonio A. Morgan-Lopez; Brian R. Flay

2009-01-01

312

Examining Externalizing Behavior Trajectories of Youth in Group Homes: Is there Evidence for Peer Contagion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concerns about peer contagion are often cited in critiques of group treatments for troubled youths, few studies have\\u000a examined the effects of exposure to deviant peers in residential group care settings. This study used administrative data\\u000a of youth served at Boys Town, a nationally-known group care provider. Using latent class growth analysis, this study identified\\u000a the externalizing behavior trajectories

Bethany R. Lee; Ron Thompson

2009-01-01

313

Youth Perspectives on Risk and Resiliency: A Case Study from Juiz De Fora, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work seeks to contribute to studies of cross-cultural risk and resiliency by presenting results from qualitative research with adolescents attending programs for at-risk youth in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. In 1990, Brazil introduced the Child and Adolescent Act (ECA), a significant piece of legislation that has had a direct impact on how…

Morrison, Penelope; Nikolajski, Cara; Borrero, Sonya; Zickmund, Susan

2014-01-01

314

Cumulative Risk for Early Sexual Initiation among American Indian Youth: A Discrete-Time Survival Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…

Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.

2007-01-01

315

Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of…

Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

2014-01-01

316

Working with Youth in High-Risk Environments: Experiences in Prevention. OSAP Prevention Monograph-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on prevention programs developed with support from the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention's (OSAP) High-Risk Youth Demonstration Grant Program. Included are an Introduction (Eric Goplerud and others) and the following reports: (1) "Athletes Coaching Teens for Substance Abuse Prevention: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Risk

Marcus, Carol E., Ed.; Swisher, John D., Ed.

317

Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence  

PubMed Central

The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

2013-01-01

318

Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth With Learning Disabilities and ADHD.  

PubMed

Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic status, we investigated the likelihood that youth with learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are obese, physically active, and sedentary using a nationally representative sample of 45,897 youth in the United States from 10 to 17 years of age. Results indicated that youth with comorbid LD/ADHD were significantly more likely than peers without LD or ADHD to be obese; that youth with LD only, ADHD only, and comorbid LD/ADHD were significantly less likely to meet recommended levels of physical activity; and that youth with LD only were significantly more likely to exceed recommended levels of sedentary behavior. Medication status mediated outcomes for youth with ADHD. We offer school-based recommendations for improving health-related outcomes for students with LD and ADHD. PMID:24449262

Cook, Bryan G; Li, Dongmei; Heinrich, Katie M

2014-01-21

319

Perceptions about Recovery Needs and Drug-Avoidance Recovery Behaviors among Youth in Substance Abuse Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Method Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. Results The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Conclusion Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met. PMID:24377168

Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M. Douglas; Glik, Deborah C.; Zavalza, Christina

2014-01-01

320

Risk-Taking Behavior among Adolescents with Prenatal Drug Exposure and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity  

PubMed Central

Objective High-risk environments characterized by familial substance use, poverty, inadequate parental monitoring, and violence exposure are associated with an increased propensity for adolescents to engage in risk-taking behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency). However, additional factors such as drug exposure in utero and deficits in inhibitory control among drug-exposed youth may further influence the likelihood that adolescents in high-risk environments will engage in risk-taking behavior. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure, inhibitory control, and sociodemographic/environmental risk factors on risk-taking behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Method Risk-taking behavior (delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity) was assessed in 963 adolescents (433 cocaine-exposed, 530 nonexposed) at 15 years of age. Results PCE predicted later arrests and early onset of sexual behavior in controlled analyses. Associations were partially mediated, however, by adolescent inhibitory control problems. PCE was not associated with substance use at this age. In addition, male gender, low parental involvement, and violence exposure were associated with greater odds of engaging in risk-taking behavior across the observed domains. Conclusions Study findings substantiate concern regarding the association between prenatal substance exposure and related risk factors and the long-term outcomes of exposed youth. Access to the appropriate social, educational, and medical services are essential in preventing and intervening with risk-taking behaviors and the potential consequences (e.g., adverse health outcomes, incarceration), especially among high-risk adolescent youth and their families. PMID:24220515

Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Lester, Barry M.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

2014-01-01

321

Protective School Climates and Reduced Risk for Suicide Ideation in Sexual Minority Youths  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether sexual minority students living in states and cities with more protective school climates were at lower risk of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts. Methods. Data on sexual orientation and past-year suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts were from the pooled 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Surveys from 8 states and cities. We derived data on school climates that protected sexual minority students (e.g., percentage of schools with safe spaces and Gay–Straight Alliances) from the 2010 School Health Profile Survey, compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students living in states and cities with more protective school climates reported fewer past-year suicidal thoughts than those living in states and cities with less protective climates (lesbians and gays: odds ratio [OR]?=?0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.47, 0.99; bisexuals: OR?=?0.81; 95% CI?=?0.66, 0.99). Results were robust to adjustment for potential state-level confounders. Sexual orientation disparities in suicidal thoughts were nearly eliminated in states and cities with the most protective school climates. Conclusions. School climates that protect sexual minority students may reduce their risk of suicidal thoughts. PMID:24328634

Birkett, Michelle; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Meyer, Ilan H.

2014-01-01

322

At Risk Youth: A Transitory State? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Briefing Paper 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By definition, youth transitions involve young people moving between school, post-school study and employment. It is a time of flux, as young people try out different school, post-school work and study options. But are those who don't find work immediately likely to make a poor transition? Given that many may well have a spell out of the labour…

Anlezark, Alison

2011-01-01

323

Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

2012-01-01

324

Religion's Role in Promoting Health and Reducing Risk Among American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although past research has long documented religion's salutary impact on adult health-related behaviors and outcomes, relatively little research has examined the relationship between religion and adolescent health. This study uses large, nationally representative samples of high school seniors to examine the relationship between religion and behavioral predictors of adolescent morbidity and mortality. Relative to their peers, religious youth are less

John M. Wallace; Tyrone A. Forman

1998-01-01

325

Reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist for the Assessment of Behavioral Problems of Children and Youth with Mild Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist with 42 children and youth with mild mental retardation. Use of kappa coefficients and intra-class correlations at item and syndrome levels indicated that the Child Behavior Checklist may not always represent a reliable checklist for the assessment of psychopathology in this…

Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

2000-01-01

326

Social Networks and Risk for Depressive Symptoms in a National Sample of Sexual Minority Youth  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N=14,212). Wave 1 (1994–1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents’ social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents. PMID:22771037

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Xuan, Ziming

2012-01-01

327

Youth alcohol use and risky sexual behavior: evidence from underage drunk driving laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research calls into question previous methods for estimating the relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior among youths [Rashad, I., Kaestner, R., 2004. Teenage sex, drugs and alcohol use: problems identifying the cause of risky behaviors. Journal of Health Economics 23, 493–503]. This paper provides new evidence on this question by using reductions in heavy alcohol use among

Christopher Carpenter

2005-01-01

328

Engagement, Residential Treatment Staff Cognitive and Behavioral Disputations, and Youths' Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the researchers examined the relationship between residential treatment staff members' use of cognitive and behavioral disputations and problem-solving skills just prior to discharge for 59 youths with emotional and behavioral disorders. The researchers also assessed the direct and indirect effects of engagement in treatment on…

Raftery, Jacquelyn N.; Steinke, Camela M.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

2010-01-01

329

The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2013-01-01

330

Personality Factors Underlying Suicidal Behavior Among Military Youth  

PubMed Central

Background: Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors. Objectives: One of the underlying factors in suicidal behavior is individuals' personality. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised of the Iranian Armed Forces. To recruit the sample of the research, 1659 soldiers were selected by multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Results: There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323) between neuroticism and suicide ideation; however, significant negative correlations existed between three other personality traits --extraversion [r = -0.306], agreeableness [r = -0.227], and conscientiousness [r = -0.271] and suicidal ideation. Unlike neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness personality factors could reduce significantly (as much 14% as are predicted) levels of suicidal ideation. Conclusions: Based on these results, neuroticism might increase suicide, but extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits are associated with a reduced risk of suicide. PMID:24910793

Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

2014-01-01

331

Barrios and Burbs: Residential Context and Health-Risk Behaviors among Angeleno Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing size of the Latino immigrant population in the United States underscores the need for a more complete understanding of the role that social context plays in influencing the health of immigrants and their children. This analysis explores the possibility that residential location influences the health-risk behaviors of Latino youth in…

Frank, Reanne; Cerda, Magdalena; Rendon, Maria

2007-01-01

332

Clustering of Internet Risk Behaviors in a Middle School Student Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Internet safety is a growing public concern especially among adults and youth who live in an "instant messaging" world of technological communication. To better understand how early adolescents are using the Internet, a study was undertaken to more clearly identify the online general use, safety knowledge, and risk behaviors of middle…

Dowell, Elizabeth B.; Burgess, Ann W.; Cavanaugh, Deborah J.

2009-01-01

333

Risks, Assets, and Negative Health Behaviors among Arkansas' Hispanic Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between risk, assets, and negative health behaviors among a large sample of Hispanic adolescents. Data were collected from over 1,000 Hispanic youth in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 attending school in a moderate size school district in Northwest Arkansas. Logistic regression models examined the variation in the odds…

Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Choudary, Wendie; Kearney, Anne; Piko, Bettina F.

2013-01-01

334

Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors for Recidivism in Spanish Youth Offenders.  

PubMed

Although a large body of research has studied the factors associated to general recidivism, predictive validity of these factors has received less attention. Andrews and Bonta's General Personality and Social-Psychological Model attempts to provide an in-depth explanation of risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory was administered to 210 adolescents aged between 14 and 18 with a criminal record to analyse risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. Their possible differential contribution over a 2-year follow-up period was also examined. Risk factors showed good levels of recidivism prediction. The factors that emerged as the most discriminative were education/employment, leisure/recreation, and personality. Protective factors differentiated between recidivists and non-recidivists in all factors. Hence, results showed that not only individual but also social factors would be crucial in predicting recidivism. PMID:25406141

Cuervo, Keren; Villanueva, Lidón

2014-11-17

335

The Potential for PTSD, Substance Use, and HIV Risk Behavior among Adolescents Exposed to Hurricane Katrina  

PubMed Central

Adverse psychosocial outcomes can be anticipated among youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of this natural disaster and may suffer lasting consequences in the form of psychological morbidity and the development of negative health behaviors due to their exposure. We review existing literature on the effects of exposure to natural disasters and similar traumas on youth and, where data on youth are unavailable, on adults. The effect of natural disasters is discussed in terms of risk for three negative health outcomes that are of particular concern due to their potential to cause long-term morbidity: post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorder, and HIV-risk behavior. Where available, data from studies of the effects of Hurricane Katrina are included. PMID:19895305

WAGNER, KARLA D.; BRIEF, DEBORAH J.; VIELHAUER, MELANIE J.; SUSSMAN, STEVE; KEANE, TERENCE M.; MALOW, ROBERT

2014-01-01

336

High prevalence of HIV/AIDS risky sexual behaviors among street youth in gondar town: a community based cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Street youth are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS and all kinds of health risks. This study assessed HIV/AIDS risky sexual behaviors and its predictors among street youth in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted on 467 street youth living in Gondar town. A pre tested and structured questionnaire via interview was used to collect data. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of associations. Results A total of 288 (61.7%) respondents had sexual intercourse in their life time. Among these 264 (91.7%) had more than one lifetime sexual partners. In addition, 80.5% of them used condom inconsistently in the last 12 months. Khat chewing was found to be predictor of having multiple sexual partners. Rural former residence and longer duration of stay on the street are also identified as predictors of inconsistent condom use. Conclusion High prevalence of HIV/AIDS risky sexual behaviors were observed among street youth in Gondar town. Interventions aimed at reducing sexual risky behaviors among street youth should focus on reducing the duration of stay on the street and chat chewing. PMID:23767966

2013-01-01

337

Predicting Early Positive Change in Multisystemic Therapy With Youth Exhibiting Antisocial Behaviors.  

PubMed

This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n = 185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into midtreatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared with those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24866967

Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth

2014-05-26

338

Gender Differences in Monitoring and Deviant Peers as Predictors of Delinquent Behavior among Low-Income Urban African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Juvenile delinquency is an ongoing social problem particularly among low-income urban youth who are regularly exposed to numerous risk factors. Although much research has been conducted in this area, the most at-risk youth have been largely neglected. This study examines the role of peer deviance in mediating the influence of adult monitoring on…

O'Donnell, Philip; Richards, Maryse; Pearce, Steven; Romero, Edna

2012-01-01

339

Strengths-Based Counseling with At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now more than ever, counselors, teachers, community youth workers, and parents are striving to prevent individual and school-wide tragedy before it happens. Critical to the success of their efforts is a deep respect for the adolescent experience. In this book, author and social worker Michael Ungar takes a fresh, hopeful approach to challenging…

Ungar, Michael

2006-01-01

340

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disordered Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Child and Family Modalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This randomized clinical trial compared the relative efficacy of individual (child) cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT), family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT), and a family-based education/support/attention (FESA) active control for treating anxiety disordered youth ages 7-14 years (M = 10.27). Youth (N = 161; 44% female; 85% Caucasian, 9%…

Kendall, Philip C.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Suveg, Cynthia

2008-01-01

341

Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed…

Kennard, Betsy D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

2008-01-01

342

An Ecological Systems Comparison Between Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and Homeless Heterosexual Youths  

PubMed Central

This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexual minority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals ages 16-24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all variables: family, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use and sexual risk behaviors with the exception of school belonging. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly (e.g. lower satisfaction with family communication, experienced more stigma, used more drugs and alcohol) than their heterosexual counterparts. Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention if the youths are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems. PMID:23687399

Gattis, Maurice N.

2012-01-01

343

Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

2006-01-01

344

Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity  

SciTech Connect

Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical significance. In summary, airborne exposure to manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with increased risk of adjudication. Causality cannot be proven in observational studies such as this one, but the association warrants further examination in other research studies. Comprehensive epidemiologic investigations of metal exposure in pediatric populations should include social health outcomes, including measures of delinquent or criminal activity. Furthermore, the influence of metals on the neurotoxic pathway leading to delinquent activity should be further explored. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate the relationship between air pollutants and adjudication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with risk of adjudication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further research of metal exposure should include social health outcomes.

Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)] [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

2011-11-15

345

Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Impoverished Kenyan Youth: Factor Structure and Sex-Differences.  

PubMed

Data on youth emotional and behavioral problems from societies in Sub-Saharan Africa are lacking. This may be due to the fact that few youth mental health assessments have been tested for construct validity of syndrome structure across multicultural societies that include developing countries, and almost none have been tested in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Youth Self-Report (YSR), for example, has shown great consistency of its syndrome structure across many cultures, yet data from only one developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa have been included. In this study, we test the factor structure of YSR syndromes among Kenyan youth ages 11-18 years from an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya and examine sex-differences in levels of emotional and behavioral problems. We find the eight syndrome structure of the YSR to fit these data well (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=.049). While Kenyan girls have significantly higher internalizing (Anxious/Depressed, Withdrawn/Depressed, Somatic) problem scores than boys, these differences are of similar magnitude to published multicultural findings. The results support the generalizability of the YSR syndrome structure to Kenyan youth and are in line with multicultural findings supporting the YSR as an assessment of emotional and behavioral problems in diverse societies. PMID:25419046

Harder, Valerie S; Mutiso, Victoria N; Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Burke, Heather M; Rettew, David C; Ivanova, Masha Y; Ndetei, David M

2014-12-01

346

Risk behaviours and associated factors among medical students and community youths in Myanmar.  

PubMed

We conducted a cross-sectional study of the risk behaviours inherent in tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and premarital sex, among 400 medical students (186 males) from a medical university, Yangon, and 410 community youths (244 males) 15 to 24 years of age from selected townships in Myanmar. As a result, we found that 12.8% smoked, 34.5% consumed alcohol and 10.1% engaged in premarital sex, among medical students, whereas among community youths, the corresponding rates were 28.8%, 32.1% and 11.9%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of all risk behaviours between male and female respondents. Such risk behaviours were more dominant among males, while being very low among females. Among male respondents, the smoking rate was significantly higher among community youths (46.7%) than among medical students (26.9%); however, student alcohol consumption (58.5%) was greater than that of community youths (47.1%). Premarital sexual experience did not differ significantly between the two groups. These risk behaviours were correlated with one another. Having close friends who engaged in similar behaviours was found to be the major contributing factor for those kinds of risk among both groups. Our results highlighted the fact that, despite their relatively sophisticated knowledge of risks, the prevalence of risky behaviour among the medical students was no less frequent than among community youths. To diminish those risks, evaluations of actual conditions, behaviour modifications and specific preventive measures compatible with existing culture and changing lifestyles should be undertaken. Effective adolescent health programs at schools, colleges and universities should be revised and emphasized. PMID:20229705

Htay, San San; Oo, Myo; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

2010-02-01

347

Early Adolescent Risk Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Externalizing Behavioral Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…

Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard

2011-01-01

348

The Impact of Future Expectations on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior  

PubMed Central

Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8 % female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period. PMID:24357042

Sipsma, Heather L.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S.

2014-01-01

349

The Impact of Future Expectations on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior.  

PubMed

Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8 % female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period. PMID:24357042

Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S

2013-12-20

350

Relationship between number of sexual intercourse partners and selected health risk behaviors among public high school adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the relationship between number of sexual partners and selected health risk behaviors in a statewide sample of public high school students.Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used to secure usable sexual risk-taking, substance use, and violence\\/aggression data from 3805 respondents. Because simple polychotomous logistic regression analysis revealed a significant Race

Robert F Valois; John E Oeltmann; Jennifer Waller; James R Hussey

1999-01-01

351

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Youth with Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with nonexistent or slight defect(s) in appearance, usually begins during early adolescence and appears to be common in youth. BDD is characterized by substantial impairment in psychosocial functioning and markedly high rates of suicidality. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) tailored to BDD’s unique features is the best tested and most promising psychosocial treatment for adults with BDD. CBT has been used for youth with BDD, but it has not been systematically developed for or tested in this age group, and there is a pressing need for this work to be done. This article focuses on CBT for BDD in adults and youth, possible adaptations for youth, and the need for treatment research in youth. We also discuss BDD’s prevalence, clinical features, how to diagnose BDD in youth, recommended pharmacotherapy for BDD (serotonin-reuptake inhibitors), and treatments that are not recommended (surgery and other cosmetic treatments). PMID:21440856

Phillips, Katharine A.; Rogers, Jamison

2011-01-01

352

Resource and Risk: Youth Sexuality and New Media Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some contemporary moral panics orbit around youth sexuality and new media use. This article addresses those moral panics by\\u000a investigating teenagers’ practices regarding new media and sexuality. New media technologies are central parts of young people’s\\u000a social, romantic, and sexual lives. These communication technologies are important in their practices of meeting, dating,\\u000a and breaking up. New media technologies also provide

C. J. Pascoe

2011-01-01

353

Psychosis risk screening in clinical high-risk adolescents: a longitudinal investigation using the Child Behavior Checklist.  

PubMed

This is the first study to investigate whether parent-reported social and behavioral problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) can be used for psychosis risk screening and the identification of at-risk youth in the general population. This longitudinal investigation assessed 122 adolescent participants from three groups (at-risk, other personality disorders, non-psychiatric controls) at baseline and one year follow-up. The findings indicate that two individual CBCL rating scales, Withdrawn/Depressed and Thought Problems, have clinical and diagnostic utility as an adjunctive risk screening measure to aid in early detection of at-risk youth likely to develop psychosis. Furthermore, the findings shows that a cost-effective, general screening tool with a widespread use in community and pediatric healthcare settings has a promise to serve as a first step in a multi-stage risk screening process. This can potentially facilitate increased screening precision and reduction of high rate of false-positives in clinical high-risk individuals who present with elevated scores on psychosis-risk measures, but ultimately do not go on to develop psychosis. The findings of the present study also have significant clinical and research implications for the development of a broad-based psychosis risk screening strategy, and novel prevention and early intervention approaches in at-risk populations for the emergence of severe mental illness. PMID:25171857

Simeonova, Diana I; Nguyen, Theresa; Walker, Elaine F

2014-10-01

354

External Evaluation of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians' OSAP High Risk Youth Demonstration Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians' OSAP High Risk Youth Demonstration Program seeks to prevent substance abuse through experiences offered in an after-school program. In 1990-91 the program served 710 students in grades K-8 in 7 of the reservation's 8 schools, each of which tailors the program to its own needs. Five components were common to…

Fortune, Jim C.; Williams, John

355

Status of Oregon's Children: 1997 County Databook. Special Focus: Youth-at-Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count databook examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on youth at risk. The statistical report is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) juvenile arrests; (2) teen sexuality; (3) high school dropout rate; (4) teen suicide; (5) reading proficiency; (6) math proficiency; (7) child abuse and neglect;…

Children First for Oregon, Portland.

356

Childhood risk and protective factors and late adolescent adjustment in inner city minority youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined longitudinal relationships among childhood risk and protective factors and academic, social, and mental health outcomes in late adolescence. Data were drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a research project that has tracked a cohort of 1539 impoverished inner-city youth from birth to young adulthood. An ecological model containing information on child characteristics, family processes, early childhood intervention

Paul R. Smokowski; Emily A. Mann; Arthur J. Reynolds; Mark W. Fraser

2004-01-01

357

Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

2014-01-01

358

Preventing Family and Educational Disconnection through Wilderness-Based Therapy Targeting Youth at Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to address the issue of youth homelessness in Australia, Regional Extended Family Services (REFS) have developed a wilderness-based therapeutic intervention. REFS aim to provide early intervention services for young people at risk of homelessness, and their families. This study examined the outcomes of the REFS wilderness program by…

Ronalds, Lisa; Allen-Craig, Sandy

2008-01-01

359

At-Risk Youth in Australian Schools and Promising Models of Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The largest population of youth at risk for involvement in the juvenile justice system are those with disabilities and mental illness. There has been scant research into the pathways that these students take from home, school and the community to involvement in the justice system in Australia. This paper utilises insights from critical disability…

Cumming, Therese M.; Strnadová, Iva; Dowse, Leanne

2014-01-01

360

Are Blogs Putting Youth at Risk for Online Sexual Solicitation or Harassment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In light of public concern about the dangers to young people from maintaining online journals or "blogs," this exploratory paper examines whether bloggers are at increased risk for online sexual solicitation or harassment. Method: A national telephone survey of 1,500 youth Internet users, ages 10-17, conducted between March and June…

Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

2008-01-01

361

Experiences of Being Homeless or at Risk of Being Homeless among Canadian Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study was undertaken with four groups -- immigrants, youths, Aboriginal people, and landlords -- in order to explore, compare, and contrast diversity issues among the homeless population and those at risk of homelessness in a larger Canadian city (Calgary, Alberta) with a smaller city (Lethbridge, Alberta), to better understand their…

Miller, Pamela; Donahue, Peter; Este, Dave; Hofer, Marvin

2004-01-01

362

Accident, Illness and Liability Coverage Risk Management in the 4-H Youth Development Program  

E-print Network

1 Accident, Illness and Liability Coverage Risk Management in the 4-H Youth Development Program insurance or any other coverage. It is limited to injuries due to an accident while performing volunteer passengers to obtain accident and illness insurance, see One-Time, Special Activities Coverage for other

Tullos, Desiree

363

Detection of Markers of Cardiovascular and Renal Risk in Cuba: Isle of Youth Study (ISYS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic vascular diseases constitute a growing global health problem. Objectives: To (a) determine marker positivity for renovascular damage in the total adult population of the Isle of Youth, Cuba; (b) describe marker association with common risk factors for renal and related chronic vascular conditions, and (c) identify best predictors of renovascular damage. Methods: Previous informed consent was obtained, the population

R. Herrera; M. Almaguer; J. Chipi; X. Toirac; O. Martínez; O. Castellanos; J. Bacallao; R. M. Licourt; P. Mulet; I. Velásquez; L. Diéguez; M. C. Hernández; W. Caballero; P. Urra; N. Rodríguez-Triana

2011-01-01

364

Washington Latinos at the Crossroads: Passages of At-Risk Youths from Adolescence to Adulthood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study describes the influence of family, friends, community organizations, and school on the educational and employment experiences of 146 immigrant adolescent Latinos in Washington (District of Columbia) between 1982 and 1988. All had attended a special high school for at-risk immigrant youth. The following key findings are…

Ready, Timothy

365

Invitational Theory and Practice Applied to Resiliency Development in At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resilience development is a growing field of study within the scholarly literature regarding social emotional achievement of at-risk students. Developing resiliency is based on the assumption that positive, pro-social, and/or strength-based values inherent in children and youth should be actively and intentionally developed. The core values of…

Lee, R. Scott

2012-01-01

366

Culturally Competent Intervention with Families of Latino Youth at Risk for Drug Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A culturally specific intervention for families with children at risk for substance abuse was implemented by Proyecto Juventud (Youth Project), a community-based family services program located in the rural southwestern United States. This intervention, incorporating culturally appropriate language, beliefs, values, and principles, provided substance abuse education to families. Participants were pretested at intake and posttested at one year, utilizing one

Dhira Crunkilton; Juan J. Paz; David P. Boyle

2005-01-01

367

Risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Hispanic Youth with BMI > or = 95th percentile  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To characterize children at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to explore possible mechanisms underlying the development of NAFLD in Hispanic youth with a body mass index > or =95th percentile. Hispanic nonoverweight (n = 475) and overweight (n = 517) children, ages 4 to 19 y, wer...

368

Democratic Adult and At-Risk Youth Participations through Interactive Radio Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactive Radio Programs (IRPs) forge effective participations between adults (communicational and pedagogical workers and parents) and at-risk youth (jeopardizing their present and future adjustments) to explore their engagements with community activism engaging in building their communities. IRPs are vital for them to be engaged citizens,…

Kurubacak, Gulsun; Yuzer, T. Volkan

2006-01-01

369

MacMentoring: Using Technology and Counseling with At-Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The MacMentoring Project was designed to "hook" disenfranchised youth back into school by building self-esteem while teaching them transferable computer skills. The project was conceived with two key assumptions: adolescents have poor attendance, poor school behavior, and low self-esteem due, in part, to their poor response to previous teaching…

Casey, John A.; Ramsammy, Rima

370

Existential Theory: Helping School Counselors Attend to Youth at Risk for Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this article are (a) to introduce the existential perspective as a viable theoretical framework for school counselors to utilize when addressing possible violent behavior in youth; and (b) to present a case study that introduces possible school counselor case conceptualization and interventions designed to address the existential…

Carlson, Laurie A.

2003-01-01

371

Understanding Pregnancy-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Mixed-Methods Study of Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Pregnancy rates are substantially higher among homeless youth than in the general population of youth, yet little is known about homeless adolescents’ and young adults’ pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors. METHODS Pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors were examined among two samples of sexually active homeless 13–24-year-olds in Los Angeles County. Data from 37 semistructured interviews conducted in March–April 2011 were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Data from a structured survey with 277 respondents, conducted between October 2008 and August 2009, were analyzed primarily using regression modeling. RESULTS More than half of interview respondents held ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy, and ambivalent youth reported less contraceptive use than others. The interviews identified several potential influences on pregnancy attitudes: barriers associated with homelessness, readiness to settle down, desire to achieve goals, belief that a child would create something positive in life, and family and partners. In the survey, having positive attitudes toward pregnancy was positively associated with duration of homelessness (odds ratio, 1.6), contact with relatives (1.1) and relationship commitment (1.8); it was negatively associated with frequency of drinking (0.9). Relationship commitment was positively associated with nonuse of an effective contraceptive method at last sex (1.5). CONCLUSIONS Effective and accessible pregnancy prevention and family planning programs for homeless youth are needed. Youths’ ambivalence toward pregnancy and feelings of relationship commitment warrant attention as possible areas for programs to address. PMID:23231333

Tucker, Joan S.; Sussell, Jesse; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Kennedy, David P.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

2012-01-01

372

Brief Intervention Impact on Truant Youth Attitudes to School and School Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths’ substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths’ attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths’ attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027

Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James

2014-01-01

373

Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text presents 13 chapters on the assessment of students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders for the purpose of making educational placement and programming decisions consistent with federal and state diagnostic guidelines. Chapters are grouped into four sections focusing on: basic considerations for assessment of youth in this…

Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

374

Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

2010-01-01

375

Reading Instruction in Secondary Day Treatment and Residential Schools for Youth with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to obtain the first national picture of the characteristics of special educators who provide reading or English instruction in secondary day treatment and residential schools for youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) as well as their approach to reading instruction. Also, information was collected concerning…

Wilkerson, Kimber L.; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan; Cakiroglu, Orhan

2012-01-01

376

NLM Director’s Comments Transcript - Callous, Unemotional Youth Behaviors: New Insights  

MedlinePLUS

... NLM Director’s Comments Transcript Callous, Unemotional Youth Behaviors: New Insights – 02/09/2015 To use the sharing ... U.S. National Library of Medicine. Here is what's new this week in MedlinePlus. Recent findings about brain ...

377

Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

Koh, Kyungwon

2011-01-01

378

Validity and Reliability of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (2nd Edition): Youth Rating Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article reports findings of three studies addressing convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Youth Rating Scale of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition (BERS-2). Method: Pearson product-moment correlations were used in all three studies, the first two addressing convergent validity and the third…

Epstein, Michael H.; Mooney, Paul; Ryser, Gail; Pierce, Corey D.

2004-01-01

379

Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: Feasibility and Initial Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed and evaluated a brief (8-session) version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxiety disorders in youth ages 6 to 13. This report describes the design and development of the BCBT program and intervention materials (therapist treatment manual and child treatment workbook) and an initial evaluation of child treatment outcomes.…

Crawley, Sarah A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Wei, Chiaying; Beidas, Rinad S.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Mauro, Christian

2013-01-01

380

Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

2010-01-01

381

Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

2014-01-01

382

Applying systems principles to models of social information processing and aggressive behavior in youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems perspectives view development as the product of hierarchically-organized levels of varied life processes that are continually changing and interacting as time passes. This theoretical approach may be of considerable importance to developing research programs in child social cognition, particularly since multilevel, multiprocess models of social information processing and aggressive behavior in youth are still in relatively formative stages. This

Reid Griffith Fontaine

2006-01-01

383

Sexual Behavior and Perceived Peer Norms: Comparing Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Affected Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51%…

Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann

2009-01-01

384

Social and Health Behaviors in Youth of the Streets of Ibadan, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This study documents the extent and impact of perceived patterns of behavior in a sample of youths of the streets of Ibadan, Nigeria, with the purpose of implementing a Life Skills Educational (LSE) intervention. Method: The study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. Qualitatively, two Focus Group…

Olley, B. O.

2006-01-01

385

Improving Feeding Skills and Mealtime Behaviors in Children and Youth with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A single-subject multiple treatment design counterbalanced across nine participants with moderate to severe and multiple disabilities was used to determine the efficacy of a school-based multi-treatment package (a combined dysphagia treatment and positive reinforcement behavior management program) for children and youth (ages 4-17) with feeding…

Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

2005-01-01

386

Profiles in the Development of Behavior Disorders among Youths with Family Maltreatment Histories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violent conduct by youths ranks among the types of inappropriate behavior generally originating in difficult family and social contexts. A proper understanding of the development of violent conduct must consider the situation taken as a whole. This article documents the results of a qualitative study which aimed to determine the psychosocial…

Desbiens, Nadia; Gagne, Marie-Helene

2007-01-01

387

A Multivariate Analysis of Selected Psychosocial Variables on the Development of Subsequent Youth Smoking Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze interaction effects of selected psychosocial variables on the development of subsequent smoking behavior among youth who had originally identified themselves on a survey as never having smoked. The subjects were seventh grade students who had participated in a total of three surveys over a two…

Allegrante, John P.; And Others

388

The Impact of Age and Type of Intervention on Youth Violent Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the impact of the Aban Aya Youth Project (AAYP; Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 158: 377-384, 2004) social development classroom curriculum (SDC), school/family/community (SC) intervention curriculum, and a health enhancement curriculum (HEC) attention placebo control on changes over time in violent behaviors

Jagers, Robert J.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Flay, Brian R.

2009-01-01

389

Socioenvironmental Risk and Adjustment in Latino Youth: The Mediating Effects of Family Processes and Social Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct and mediated effects of socioenvironmental risk on internalizing and externalizing problems among Latino youth\\u000a aged 10–14 were examined using prospective analyses. Participants in this study were 464 Latino mother and child dyads surveyed\\u000a as part of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. It was hypothesized that socioenvironmental risk (i.e., maternal psychological distress, maternal parenting stress,

Hazel M. Prelow; Alexandra Loukas; Lisa Jordan-Green

2007-01-01

390

“Research Chemicals”: Tryptamine and Phenethylamine Use Among High-Risk Youth  

PubMed Central

Tryptamines and phenethylamines are two broad categories of psychoactive substances with a long history of licit and illicit use. Profiles of users of recently emerging tryptamines and phenethylamines are nonexistent, however, since surveillance studies do not query the use of these substances. This manuscript describes the types, modes of administration, onset of use, and context of use of a variety of lesser known tryptamines and phenethylamines among a sample of high-risk youth. Findings are based upon in-depth interviews with 42 youth recruited in public settings in Los Angles during 2005 and 2006 as part of larger study examining health risks associated with injecting ketamine. Youth reported that their use of tryptamines and phenethylamines was infrequent, spontaneous, and predominately occurred at music venues, such as festivals, concerts, or raves. Several purchased a variety of these “research chemicals” from the Internet and used them in private locations. While many described positive experiences, reports of short-term negative health outcomes included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, disorientations, and frightening hallucinations. These findings, based upon pilot study data, move toward an epidemiology of tryptamine and phenethylamine use among high-risk youth. PMID:18365939

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Hathazi, Dodi

2008-01-01

391

Parental Suicidality as a Risk Factor for Delinquency among Hispanic Youth  

PubMed Central

Several studies have examined the factors associated with juvenile delinquency, but this literature remains limited largely because it has not moved beyond traditional factors generally and because of the lack of research conducted on minority—especially Hispanic—youth. This study seeks to overcome these two limitations by using data from a longitudinal study of 2,491 Hispanic (Puerto Rican) youth ages 5-13 (48.5 percent female) socialized in two different cultural contexts, Bronx, New York and San Juan, Puerto Rico, in an effort to examine the relationship between parental suicidality and offspring delinquency. Results indicate that while traditional risk/protective factors and parental mental health issues relate to delinquency in expected ways, youths whose parents attempted suicide engaged in more frequent and varied delinquency over time. Implications for theory and future research are addressed. PMID:19657728

Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Canino, Glorisa

2011-01-01

392

Predictors of Medication Adherence in High Risk Youth of Color Living with HIV  

PubMed Central

Objective?To test predictors of medication adherence in high-risk racial or ethnic minority youth living with HIV (YLH) using a conceptual model of social cognitive predictors including a continuous measure of motivational readiness.?Methods?Youth were participants in a multi-site clinical trial examining the efficacy of a motivational intervention. Racial-minority YLH (primarily African American) who were prescribed antiretroviral medication were included (N = 104). Data were collected using computer-assisted personal interviewing method via an Internet-based application and questionnaires.?Results?Using path analysis with bootstrapping, most youth reported suboptimal adherence, which predicted higher viral load. Higher motivational readiness predicted optimal adherence, and higher social support predicted readiness. Decisional balance was indirectly related to adherence.?Conclusions?The model provided a plausible framework for understanding adherence in this population. Culturally competent interventions focused on readiness and social support may be helpful for improving adherence in YLH. PMID:19755495

MacDonell, Karen E.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Murphy, Debra A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Harper, Gary W.

2010-01-01

393

Altered Development of White Matter in Youth at High Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study white matter (WM) development in youth at high familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD). WM alterations are reported in youth and adults with BD. WM undergoes important maturational changes in adolescence. Age-related changes in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics in healthy…

Versace, Amelia; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

2010-01-01

394

The Academic and Functional Academic Skills of Youth Who Are at Risk for Language Impairment in Residential Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Undiagnosed language impairment (LI) for youth in residential care is a concern as similar populations have shown elevated levels of language delays. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to identify the percentage of youth in residential care who are at risk for LI and to compare the demographic, academic achievement, and functional…

Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; DeSalvo, Cathy; Gehringer, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.

2010-01-01

395

Risk and protective factors for recent alcohol use among African-American youth.  

PubMed

A total of 7488 7th-12th grade African-American students completed a survey assessing factors associated with recent alcohol use. Results indicated that 13.6% used alcohol in the past month. A series of odds ratios revealed that making good grades, participating in school activities, attending church, and having parents/teachers talk about the dangers of alcohol and set/enforce rules regarding alcohol were associated with decreased recent use. Participating in risky behaviors such as getting into trouble, skipping school, and having friends who use alcohol and other drugs was directly related to recent use. Prevention specialists should encourage parents/teachers to engage youth in family, school, and community activities to deter alcohol use. Results may assist youth health professionals in developing prevention programs aimed at African-American youth. PMID:21381466

Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A

2010-01-01

396

Behavioral and Emotional Strengths among Youth in Systems of Care and the Effect of Race/Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral and emotional strengths are important to consider when understanding youth mental health and treatment. This study examined the association between youth strengths and functional impairment and whether this association is modified by race/ethnicity. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of strengths on…

Barksdale, Crystal L.; Azur, Melissa; Daniels, Amy M.

2010-01-01

397

Associations between Bullying and Engaging in Aggressive and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth: The Moderating Role of Connectedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these…

Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine

2014-01-01

398

Understanding Alcohol Consumption and Its Correlates among African American Youths in Public Housing: A Test of Problem Behavior Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…

Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara

2011-01-01

399

Youth Characteristics Associated with Behavioral and Mental Health Problems during the Transition to Residential Treatment Centers: The Odyssey Project Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine what youth characteristics were associated with emotional and behavioral problems exhibited within the first three months of placement in residential treatment centers (RTCs) in a sample of youth from 20 agencies in 13 states. Two primary research questions were addressed: 1) What characteristics were associated with…

Baker, Amy J. L.; Archer, Marc; Curtis, Patrick

2007-01-01

400

Drinking Behavior and Sources of Alcohol: Differences Between Native American and White Youths*  

PubMed Central

Objective: We investigated drinking behavior and sources of alcohol among Native American and White youths, as well as how underage drinking behavior and sources of alcohol may be related to environmental factors. Method: Survey data from a sample of 18,916 youths (8th, 10th, and 12th grades) from Montana were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Survey data were supplemented with county-level economic and census data. Results: Native American youths were more likely than White youths to report drinking and heavy episodic drinking and initiate drinking at a younger age. Native Americans were less likely than Whites to get alcohol from home or from someone younger than age 21 but were more likely to get it from other social sources or through theft from a store. Living in a county with more Native Americans was inversely related to access to alcohol for both White and Native American youths, as well as reduced lifetime, 30-day, and heavy episodic drinking. Living in a county with more single-parent households was positively related to lifetime drinking, 30-day drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and increased access to alcohol through someone younger than age 21 or a stranger. Median income was negatively related to lifetime drinking and ease of access to alcohol and was positively related to accessing alcohol from home without permission, theft, or purchase with a fake ID. Conclusions: Because Native American and White youths have different drinking patterns and obtain alcohol from different sources, strategies to prevent alcohol problems in these groups should take these differences into consideration. PMID:21138711

Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Seninger, Steve; Paschall, Mallie I.; Moore, Roland S.

2011-01-01

401

Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research  

PubMed Central

Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB. PMID:24273368

Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

2013-01-01

402

Similarity of risk and protective behaviors among African-American pre- and early adolescent members of naturally occurring friendship groups.  

PubMed Central

To determine whether self-reported risk and protective behaviors, expectations, and attitudes are more similar among African-American early adolescents within a community-based friendship group than across groups, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 382 African-American youth 9 through 15 years of age forming 76 community-based groups of 3 through 10 same-gender friends. Each member of the friendship group reported his/her own past involvement in nine risk behaviors (sexual intercourse, substance abuse, drug-trafficking, and other delinquent activities) and two protective behaviors (high academic performance and regular church attendance) and their expectations and feelings regarding several of these behaviors. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated overall and by gender and age. Members were generally more similar within friendship groups than across groups with regard to several risk behaviors and expectations including sexual intercourse and drug-trafficking. Particularly striking was the similarity among members of "junior" friendship groups (e.g., median age of youth < 11 years) of both risk and protective behaviors and expectations. The finding of enhanced similarity of risk behaviors and expectations among members within groups suggests that intervention delivery through community-based friendship groups may be a useful approach for risk prevention efforts targeting pre-adolescent African-American youth living in low-income settings. PMID:8982522

Fang, X.; Stanton, B.; Li, X.; Romer, D.; Galbraith, J.; Feigelman, S.

1996-01-01

403

Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities.  

PubMed

Behavior change can curtail the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, 104 gay men with a history of frequent AIDS high-risk behavior completed self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures related to AIDS risk. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental intervention provided AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and attention to the development of steady and self-affirming social supports. Experimental group participants greatly reduced their frequency of high-risk sexual practices and increased behavioral skills for refusing sexual coercions, AIDS risk knowledge, and adoption of "safer sex" practices. Change was maintained at the 8-month follow-up. PMID:2925974

Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T L

1989-02-01

404

Will it help? Identifying socialization discourses that promote sexual risk and sexual health among african american youth.  

PubMed

Because much of the existing research examining sexual communication to African American youth focuses on demographic and parental factors predicting sexual risk behaviors, less is known about factors predicting sexual health, and little is understood about the contributions of peer communications. The current study aimed to expand existing approaches by assessing which socialization discourses communicated by parents and peers contribute to sexual risk and health outcomes (sexual assertiveness, positive sexual affect, and condom self-efficacy). Participants were 631 African American undergraduates (73% female) who indicated the extent to which they had received from their parents and peers each of 28 messages representing four cultural discourses: abstinence, relational sex, sex positive, and gendered sexual roles. As expected, parents were perceived to emphasize relational sex and abstinence messages more than peers, and peers were perceived to communicate sex-positive and gendered sex role messages more than parents. Greater exposure to abstinence messages predicted lower levels of sexual experimentation, whereas exposure to sex-positive messages predicted higher levels. In addition, exposure to relational sex and sex-positive messages predicted higher levels of sexual assertiveness and positive sexual affect. Implications are discussed concerning sexual communications that could help Black youth develop healthy sexual perspectives. PMID:24417331

Fletcher, Kyla Day; Ward, L Monique; Thomas, Khia; Foust, Monica; Levin, Dana; Trinh, Sarah

2015-02-01

405

The Mediating Roles of Stress and Maladaptive Behaviors on Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among Runaway and Homeless Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and…

Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

2013-01-01

406

Averting the perfect storm: addressing youth substance use risk from social media use.  

PubMed

Adolescents are developmentally sensitive to pathways that influence alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. In the absence of guidance, their routine engagement with social media may add a further layer of risk. There are several potential mechanisms for social media use to influence AOD risk, including exposure to peer portrayals of AOD use, socially amplified advertising, misinformation, and predatory marketing against a backdrop of lax regulatory systems and privacy controls. Here the authors summarize the influences of the social media world and suggest how pediatricians in everyday practice can alert youth and their parents to these risks to foster conversation, awareness, and harm reduction. PMID:25290130

Salimian, Parissa K; Chunara, Rumi; Weitzman, Elissa R

2014-10-01

407

Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

2014-01-01

408

Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors that differentiate obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders in youth.  

PubMed

Abstract The current study examined specific emotional, behavioral, and cognitive variables that may distinguish obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoP), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in youth. Youth with OCD (n=26) and other anxiety disorders (ADs; n=31), aged 7-12 years (56.1% males), and their parents participated. The study compared the two anxious groups on levels of emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning, as well as impairment associated with the disorder. Results indicated that in comparison to youth with GAD, SoP, or SAD, youth with OCD were found to have poorer emotion regulation skills, as well as greater oppositionality, cognitive problems/inattention, and parent impairment associated with the disorder. The findings suggest that there are unique characteristics of OCD that may differentiate this disorder from other ADs in youth. Potential clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21512917

Jacob, Marni L; Morelen, Diana; Suveg, Cynthia; Brown Jacobsen, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

2012-03-01

409

At-Risk Youth: Theory, Practice, Reform. Source Books on Education, Volume 49. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 1021.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To reduce the number of school dropouts and youth homicides and to change poor social outcomes for children and youth at risk, it is necessary to consider socially imposed risk factors and reconceptualize ways of thinking about risk. Chapters in this collection discuss risk factors and show that schools can become supportive environments that…

Kronick, Robert F., Ed.

410

Sustaining clinician penetration, attitudes and knowledge in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety  

PubMed Central

Background Questions remain regarding the sustainment of evidence-based practices following implementation. The present study examined the sustainment of community clinicians’ implementation (i.e., penetration) of cognitive-behavioral therapy, attitudes toward evidence-based practices, and knowledge of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety two years following training and consultation in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety. Methods Of the original 115 participants, 50 individuals (43%) participated in the two-year follow-up. A t- test examined sustainment in penetration over time. Hierarchical linear modeling examined sustainment in knowledge and attitudes over time. Time spent in consultation sessions was examined as a potential moderator of the change in knowledge and attitudes. Results Findings indicated sustained self-reported penetration of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth, with low fidelity to some key CBT components (i.e., exposure tasks). Follow-up knowledge was higher than at baseline but lower than it had been immediately following the consultation phase of the study. Belief in the utility of evidence-based practices was sustained. Willingness to implement an evidence-based practice if required to do so, appeal of evidence-based practices, and openness toward evidence-based practices were not sustained. Participation in consultation positively moderated changes in knowledge and some attitudes. Conclusions Sustainment varied depending on the outcome examined. Generally, greater participation in consultation predicted greater sustainment. Implications for future training include higher dosages of consultation. PMID:25030651

2014-01-01

411

Working with Asian American Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: A Case Illustration  

PubMed Central

The idea of a clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis has focused attention on early intervention to prevent or attenuate psychosis. However, many clinicians may still not be very familiar with the concept of CHR. Current studies have not allowed for an in-depth examination of the challenges and strategies of working with youth from the range of racial/ethnic minority families, Asian American families in particular. The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, we critically review Asian cultural values and beliefs about mental illness, psychosis in particular, while highlighting specific challenges that Asian American families encounter. Second, we provide a clinical case to illustrate these challenges and inform clinical practice when working with Asian youth at risk for psychosis and their families. Third, practical and easy-to-follow clinical strategies are provided. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are presented. PMID:23689196

Li, Huijun; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Min, Grace; Granato, Andréa Gnong; Seidman, Larry J.

2013-01-01

412

Do Specific Transitional Patterns of Antisocial Behavior during Adolescence Increase Risk for Problems in Young Adulthood?  

PubMed

Latent transition analysis was used to identify patterns and trajectories of antisocial behavior (ASB) and their association with young adult outcomes in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N?=?5,422; 53.9 % female). Participants were on average 13.96 years of age (SD?=?1.06) at wave 1 of the study. Latent class analysis identified four classes of ASB including a non-ASB class, an aggressive class, a petty theft class, and a serious ASB class. In general, youth who were classified as serious stable ASB were the most at risk for problematic functioning in young adulthood. Youth who escalated to more serious patterns of ASB or reduced involvement also were at greater risk of negative outcomes in young adulthood compared to stable non-ASB youth, although they generally fared better than youth involved in stable patterns of more serious ASB. Gender differences indicated that involvement in ASB was a greater risk factor for alcohol use among boys and a greater risk factor for depression among girls in young adulthood. Results are discussed in terms of the predictive validity of classes of ASB to functioning in young adulthood and the implications of this research for prevention efforts. PMID:24893667

Cook, Emily C; Pflieger, Jacqueline C; Connell, Arin M; Connell, Christian M

2015-01-01

413

Hip-Hop to Prevent Substance Use and HIV among African-American Youth: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the…

Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O.; Rhodes, Warren A.; Harper, P. Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L.

2008-01-01

414

The association between adolescent sexting, psychosocial difficulties, and risk behavior: integrative review.  

PubMed

When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes beyond intervention. They can also play an important role in the prevention of sexting and its related risks. This article reviews the links between adolescent sexting, other types of risk behavior, and its emotional and psychosocial conditions. Seven databases were examined and nine studies remained for further review. The review of the literature shows that adolescent sexting is cross sectionally associated with a range of health-risk behaviors. Youth who engage in sexting are also found to experience peer pressure and a range of emotional difficulties. The results can guide school nurse education and practice. PMID:25027261

Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

2015-02-01

415

Psychosocial Problems Associated With Homelessness in Sexual Minority Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minorities are overrepresented among homeless youths, and this is often related to reactions to their status as sexual minorities. While on the streets, they are at increased risk for victimization, substance and alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and mental health issues compared to homeless heterosexual youths. This article uses ecological systems theory to examine psychosocial problems associated with homelessness

Maurice N. Gattis

2009-01-01

416

Head, face and neck injury in youth rugby: incidence and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesIn this study, the incidence of head, neck and facial injuries in youth rugby was determined, and the associated risk factors were assessed.DesignData were extracted from a cluster randomised controlled trial of headgear with the football teams as the unit of randomisation. No effect was observed for headgear use on injury rates, and the data were pooled.SettingGeneral school and club-based

A S McIntosh; P McCrory; C F Finch; R Wolfe

2010-01-01

417

Early Intervention for Symptomatic Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Randomized Trial of Family-Focused Therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective Depression and brief periods of (hypo)mania are linked to an increased risk of progression to bipolar I or II disorder (BD) in children of bipolar parents. This randomized trial examined the effects of a 4-month family-focused therapy (FFT) program on the 1-year course of mood symptoms in youth at high familial risk for BD, and explored its comparative benefits among youth in families with high vs. low expressed emotion (EE). Method Participants were 40 youth (mean 12.3 ± 2.8 years, range 9–17) with BD not otherwise specified, major depressive disorder, or cyclothymic disorder who had a first-degree relative with BD I or II and active mood symptoms (Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS] > 11 or Child Depression Rating Scale > 29). Participants were randomly allocated to FFT–High Risk version (FFT-HR; 12 sessions of psychoeducation and training in communication and problem-solving skills) or an education control (EC; 1–2 family sessions). Results Youth in FFT-HR had more rapid recovery from their initial mood symptoms (hazard ratio = 2.69, p = .047), more weeks in remission, and a more favorable trajectory of YMRS scores over 1 year than youth in EC. The magnitude of treatment effect was greater among youth in high-EE (vs. low-EE) families. Conclusions FFT-HR may hasten and help sustain recovery from mood symptoms among youth at high risk for BD. Longer follow-up will be necessary to determine if early family intervention has downstream effects that contribute to the delay or prevention of full manic episodes in vulnerable youth. Clinical trial registration information—Early Family-Focused Treatment for Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00943085. PMID:23357439

Miklowitz, David J.; Schneck, Christopher D.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Taylor, Dawn O.; George, Elizabeth L.; Cosgrove, Victoria E.; Howe, Meghan E.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Garber, Judy; Chang, Kiki D.

2012-01-01

418

Generic and Diabetes-specific Parent-Child Behaviors and Quality of Life Among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate associations among parent-child behaviors and generic and diabetes-specific health- related quality of life (HRQOL) in a multi-site sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. Method One hundred and twenty-one youth and their primary caregivers completed measures of parent-child behaviors, child HRQOL, and participated in an observed family interaction task. Results Diabetes-specific parent-child variables were associated significantly with

Jill Weissberg-Benchell; Tonja Nansel; Grayson Holmbeck; Rusan Chen; Barbara Anderson; Tim Wysocki; Lori Laffel

2009-01-01

419

Relation between parent psychiatric symptoms and youth problems: moderation through family structure and youth gender.  

PubMed

Links between parents' psychiatric symptoms and their children's behavioral and emotional problems have been widely documented in previous research, and the search for moderators of this association has begun. However, family structure (single versus dual-parent households) has received little attention as a potential moderator, despite indirect evidence that risk may be elevated in single-parent homes. Two other candidate moderators-youth gender and age-have been tested directly, but with inconsistent findings across studies, perhaps in part because studies have differed in whether they used youth clinical samples and in which informants (parents vs. youths) reported on youth problems. In the present study, we examined these three candidate moderators using a sample of exclusively clinic-referred youths (N?=?333, 34 % girls, aged 7-14,) and assessing youth problems through both parent- and youth-reports. Both family structure and youth gender emerged as robust moderators across parent and youth informants. Parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing and externalizing problems in single-parent but not dual-parent homes; and parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing problems among boys, but not girls. The moderator findings suggest that the risks associated with parent psychopathology may not be uniform but may depend, in part, on family structure and youth gender. PMID:24014160

Schleider, Jessica L; Chorpita, Bruce F; Weisz, John R

2014-02-01

420

Trajectories of Change in Youth Anxiety During Cognitive-Behavior Therapy.  

PubMed

Objective: To evaluate changes in the trajectory of youth anxiety following the introduction of specific cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) components: relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, and exposure tasks. Method: Four hundred eighty-eight youths ages 7-17 years (50% female; 74% ? 12 years) were randomly assigned to receive either CBT, sertraline (SRT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo (PBO) as part of their participation in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Youths in the CBT conditions were evaluated weekly by therapists using the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity (CGI-S; Guy, 1976) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS; Shaffer et al., 1983) and every 4 weeks by blind independent evaluators (IEs) using the Pediatric Anxiety Ratings Scale (PARS; RUPP Anxiety Study Group, 2002). Youths in SRT and PBO were included as controls. Results: Longitudinal discontinuity analyses indicated that the introduction of both cognitive restructuring (e.g., changing self-talk) and exposure tasks significantly accelerated the rate of progress on measures of symptom severity and global functioning moving forward in treatment; the introduction of relaxation training had limited impact. Counter to expectations, no strategy altered the rate of progress in the specific domain of anxiety that it was intended to target (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxious self-talk, avoidance behavior). Conclusions: Findings support CBT theory and suggest that cognitive restructuring and exposure tasks each make substantial contributions to improvement in youth anxiety. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25486372

Peris, Tara S; Compton, Scott N; Kendall, Philip C; Birmaher, Boris; Sherrill, Joel; March, John; Gosch, Elizabeth; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James T; Keeton, Courtney P; Sakolsky, Dara; Suveg, Cynthia; Aschenbrand, Sasha; Almirall, Daniel; Iyengar, Satish; Walkup, John T; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John

2014-12-01

421

Parents of older at-risk youth: a retention challenge for preventive intervention.  

PubMed

We examined data from 162 families who participated in the prevention program Parents and Youth with Schools, which targeted at-risk high school youth and parents, to understand parent retention in the 15-session Parents as Partners program. We obtained reports from youth, parents and parent interventionists, which included both time-invariant and time-varying data regarding demographic factors; parent, youth and family characteristics; and parents' response to intervention. Utilizing event history analysis, we examined data sequentially in order to determine those variables that predicted continued parent attendance. In the model examining all areas simultaneously, the predictors of parent retention across the full program were parent minority status and age, teen anger and parent-teen conflict over school attendance, as well as parents' reports of group support and interventionists' report of parents' commitment. Overall, the analyses indicated that participants' characteristics, as well as their measureable response to the intervention, can alert researchers to potential program disengagement. Monitoring indicators of disengagement will help researchers focus resources early in the intervention process in order to maximize parent attendance and increase the success of prevention programs. PMID:23975209

Hooven, Carole; Pike, Kenneth; Walsh, Elaine

2013-12-01

422

Development of Inhibitory Control Among Prenatally Cocaine Exposed and Non-Cocaine Exposed Youths from Late Childhood to Early Adolescence: The Effects of Gender and Risk and Subsequent Aggressive Behavior  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present investigation was to characterize the development of inhibitory control, an aspect of executive functions, in a sample of prenatally cocaine exposed (CE; n = 165) children compared to an at risk, but prenatally cocaine unexposed (NCE; n = 119) sample across time (i.e. 7.5 to 11.5 years of age). Gender and cumulative risk, a combination of postnatal medical (i.e. low birth weight and APGAR scores) and demographic risk, indexed by maternal educational attainment, were examined as predictors of change in inhibitory control across time and aggression was modeled as an outcome when children reached 14 years of age. Multiple group latent growth models indicated that CE children made more errors at 7.5 years of age during a standard Stroop interference task, however, over time CE children had greater age-related improvements, narrowing the initial gap, with NCE children in the ability to inhibit errors. Gender effects at 7.5 years within the NCE group were identified with NCE boys making initially more errors than NCE girls; both NCE and CE girls improved faster across development compared to NCE and CE boys, respectively. Greater cumulative risk was associated with more errors at 7.5 years in the CE and NCE groups. No differences were observed between CE and NCE children on time to complete the Stroop task at 7.5 years. However, NCE children had greater age-related improvements in their time to complete the Stroop interference task relative to their CE counterparts. NCE girls improved the fastest over time relative to NCE boys; a similar trend emerged (p < .10) with CE girls improving faster over time than CE boys. Although all participants improved across development, higher cumulative risk in both groups was associated with slower age-related improvements (i.e. higher slopes) in the time to complete the Stroop task across development. After accounting for gender and cumulative risk, findings in both groups indicated that those who made more errors at 7.5 years of age and/or who had slower age-related changes (i.e. higher slopes) of time to complete the Stroop task across development were more aggressive as rated by caregivers at 14 years of age. Although qualified by gender and cumulative risk, these findings are consistent with reduced cognitive processing efficiency and executive function difficulties in CE children relative to NCE children. Findings suggest that executive function difficulties in CE children may be subtle as development continues to unfold over time. Furthermore, these findings indicate that development of inhibitory control may be an important mechanism linking prenatal cocaine exposure, gender, and cumulative risk to later adverse outcomes. PMID:21256424

Bridgett, David J.; Mayes, Linda C.

2010-01-01

423

Severe Behavior Disorders of Children and Youth. Monograph in Behavioral Disorders. Volume 7. Selected Papers Presented at the Annual ASU/TECBD Conference on Severe Behavior Disorders of Children and Youth (7th, Tempe, Arizona, November, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve author-contributed papers representing a cross-section of resarch, practice, and professional opinion are presented from a conference on severe behavior disorders of children and youth. The keynote paper, "In Search of Excellence in Special Education" by T. Lovitt is followed by these papers: "Autism: Some Commonly Accepted Presumptions"…

Rutherford, Robert B., Jr., Ed.; Nelson, C. Michael, Ed.

424

[Depression and risk behavior in adolescence].  

PubMed

Adolescence is a vulnerable period which is associated with a heightened risk for the development of depressive disorders. Risk-behaviors like alcohol or illicit drug abuse, excessive use of media, school absenteeism and lack of sleep are also frequently occurring during this period; it is often suggested that such behaviors may be associated with mental health problems. This article includes a selective overview of literature to investigate the relation between depression and risk-behavior in adolescence; these results are compared with the results from a representative sample of German pupils who were examined in the context of the European school study SEYLE. Data from a school-based sample of 1,434 pupils with a mean age of 14.7 years (SD = 0.8) was used. Most risk-behaviors tend to be associated with increased likelihood for the development of depression and are correlated with the severity of depressive symptomatology. In this sample, alcohol abuse, smoking, media use, lack of physical activity, risky sexual behavior, school absenteeism, and sleeping problems showed an impact on the level of depression which was consistent with previous research. Illicit drug abuse showed no significant impact on depressive symptoms of young people. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the directional relationship between depression and risk behavior in adolescence. The potential value of adolescent risk-behavior as a possible warning sign for early detection of depressive symptoms also warrants further investigation. PMID:24707767

Heger, Johanna Pia; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

2014-01-01

425

Urban and Rural Differences in Sedentary Behavior among American and Canadian Youth  

PubMed Central

We examined relationships between urban-rural status and three screen time behaviors (television, computer, video games), and the potential mediating effect of parent and peer support on these relationships. Findings are based on American (n=8563) and Canadian (n=8990) youth in grades 6–10 from the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey. Weekly hours of individual screen time behaviors were calculated. Urban-rural status was defined using the Beale coding system. Parent and peer support variables were derived from principal component analysis. In comparison to the referent group (non-metro adjacent), American youth in the most rural areas were more likely to be high television users and less likely to be high computer users. Conversely, Canadian youth in medium and large metropolitan areas were less likely to be high television users and more likely to be high computer users. Parent and peer support did not strongly mediate the relationships between urban-rural status and screen time. These findings suggest that interventions aiming to reduce screen time may be most effective if they consider residential location and the specific screen time behavior. PMID:21565545

Carson, Valerie; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

2011-01-01

426

Trajectories of Multiple Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors in a Low-Income African American Population  

PubMed Central

This study examined interdependent trajectories of sexual risk, substance use, and conduct problems among 12–18 year-old African American youth who were followed annually as part of the Mobile Youth Study (MYS). We used growth-mixture modeling (GMM) to model the development of these three outcomes in the 1406 participants who met the inclusion criteria. Results indicate that there were four distinct classes: normative low risk (74.3% of sample); increasing high risk takers (11.9%); adolescent-limited conduct problems and drug risk with high risky sex (8.0%); and early experimenters (5.8%) The higher risk classes had higher rates of pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) diagnoses than the normative sample at each of the ages we examined. Differing somewhat from our hypothesis, all of the non-normative classes exhibited high sexual risk behavior. While prevention efforts should be focused on addressing all three risk behaviors, the high rate of risky sexual behavior in the 25% of the sample that fall into the three non-normative classes, underscores an urgent need for improved sex education, including teen pregnancy and HIV/STI prevention, in this community. PMID:24229555

Mustanski, Brian; Byck, Gayle R.; Dymnicki, Allison; Sterrett, Emma; Henry, David; Bolland, John

2014-01-01

427

AIDS Knowledge, Condom Attitudes, and Risk-Taking Sexual Behavior of Substance-Abusing Juvenile Offenders on Probation or Parole.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual risk taking behavior among 193 juvenile offenders on probation or parole who were substance abusers. Surveys indicated that most youths were sexually active. Many reported unsafe sexual practices. General attitudes toward condoms and reported use of condoms at first sexual intercourse were the…

Robertson, Angela; Levin, Martin L.

1999-01-01

428

The Power of Aspirations and Expectations: The Connection Between Educational Goals and Risk Behaviors Among African American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies and interventions have been designed to either reduce the prevalence of risky behaviors (substance use, sexual activity, etc.) or increase the level of educational activity for adolescents. Research suggests that these two constructs may be related yet little is known about this relationship among African American youth. Archival data from the Risk Reduction Project was used to explore

Chris M. Kirk; Rhonda K. Lewis; Felecia A. Lee; David Stowell

2011-01-01

429

Dating Violence Victimization: Associated Drinking and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Caucasian High School Students in Hawaii  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethnic minority groups such as Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs) and native populations in Hawaii are seldom studied in the area of intimate relationships. Using the 1999 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey, this study examined gender and ethnic differences in experiencing physical dating violence and whether drinking (early initiation, binge…

Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Goebert, Deborah; Nishimura, Stephanie; Caetano, Raul

2006-01-01

430

Executive Functions and Parenting Behaviors in Association With Medical Adherence and Autonomy Among Youth With Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

Objective?This study was designed to examine whether executive functions and parenting behaviors (acceptance, behavioral control, and psychological control) are associated with medical adherence and autonomy among preadolescents and adolescents with spina bifida (SB).?Methods?Questionnaire and observational data were collected from a sample of 8–15 year olds with SB (N = 140) and their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Youth also completed neuropsychological testing.?Results?Youth with SB demonstrated impairment on measures of executive functions, based on questionnaire and test data. Executive functions (questionnaire data only) and parenting behaviors were associated with medical adherence, but only executive functions (test data only) were associated with medical autonomy. Analyses also suggest that maternal and paternal behavioral control and paternal psychological control moderate relations between executive functions and adherence.?Conclusions?Interventions that target executive functions and parenting behaviors may facilitate positive health care behavior outcomes among youth with SB. PMID:23428651

Holmbeck, Grayson N.

2013-01-01

431

Neighborhoods and adolescent health-risk behavior: An ecological network approach.  

PubMed

This study integrates insights from social network analysis, activity space perspectives, and theories of urban and spatial processes to present an novel approach to neighborhood effects on health-risk behavior among youth. We suggest spatial patterns of neighborhood residents' non-home routines may be conceptualized as ecological, or "eco"-networks, which are two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through socio-spatial overlap in routine activities. We further argue structural configurations of eco-networks are consequential for youth's behavioral health. In this study we focus on a key structural feature of eco-networks - the neighborhood-level extent to which household dyads share two or more activity locations, or eco-network reinforcement - and its association with two dimensions of health-risk behavior, substance use and delinquency/sexual activity. Using geographic data on non-home routine activity locations among respondents from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS), we constructed neighborhood-specific eco-networks by connecting sampled households to "activity clusters," which are sets of spatially-proximate activity locations. We then measured eco-network reinforcement and examined its association with dimensions of adolescent health risk behavior employing a sample of 830 youth ages 12-17 nested in 65 census tracts. We also examined whether neighborhood-level social processes (collective efficacy and intergenerational closure) mediate the association between eco-network reinforcement and the outcomes considered. Results indicated eco-network reinforcement exhibits robust negative associations with both substance use and delinquency/sexual activity scales. Eco-network reinforcement effects were not explained by potential mediating variables. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to neighborhood effects on youth, our findings highlight the importance of intersecting conventional routines for adolescent behavioral health. PMID:25011958

Browning, Christopher R; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L

2015-01-01

432

Do Parents and Peers Matter? A Prospective Socio-Ecological Examination of Substance Use and Sexual Risk among African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the direct contribution of parent and peer risk and promotive factors on youth condom use trajectories, in addition to the indirect influence of these factors via youth's substance use over four years in a sample of urban, African American youth (N = 679; 51% female; M = 14.86 years; SD = 0.65). Growth curve modeling was used to…

Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

2011-01-01

433

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2) Parent and Youth Rating Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We confirmed the factor structure of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2nd Edition (BERS-2) with a normative parent and youth sample. The BERS-2, based on the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (BERS), is a standardized instrument that assesses children's emotional and behavioral strengths. The original BERS was renormed to create a…

Buckley, Jacquelyn A.; Ryser, Gail; Reid, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.

2006-01-01

434

Applicability of the Social Development Model to Urban Ethnic Minority Youth: Examining the Relationship between External Constraints, Family Socialization, and Problem Behaviors  

PubMed Central

The development of preventive interventions targeting adolescent problem behaviors requires a thorough understanding of risk and protective factors for such behaviors. However, few studies examine whether different cultural and ethnic groups share these factors. This study is an attempt to fill a gap in research by examining similarities and differences in risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. The social development model has shown promise in organizing predictors of problem behaviors. This article investigates whether a version of that model can be generalized to youth in different racial and ethnic groups (N = 2,055, age range from 11 to 15), including African American (n = 478), Asian Pacific Islander (API) American (n = 491), multiracial (n = 442), and European American (n = 644) youth. The results demonstrate that common risk factors can be applied to adolescents, regardless of their race and ethnicity. The findings also demonstrate that there are racial and ethnic differences in the magnitudes of relationships among factors that affect problem behaviors. Further study is warranted to develop a better understanding of these differential magnitudes. PMID:21625351

Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Catalano, Richard F.

2011-01-01

435

Fatness, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk factors among sixth grade youth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to examine whether cardio metabolic risk factors are predicted by fitness or fatness among adolescents. Participants are 4955 (2614 female) 6th grade students with complete data from 42 US middle schools. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, high d...

436

Educators and Programs Reaching Out to At-Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents examples of how using technology can help raise self-esteem and improve academic performance for students who are identified as being at-risk. Topics discussed include the use of computer labs, filmstrips, and videos to strengthen academic skills, and to deal with such social issues as drop-outs, alcoholism, pregnancy, and suicide. Two…

Lee, M. Linda

1990-01-01

437

Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls should be empowered how to negotiate safe sex, and their poverty should be addressed through income-generating activities. PMID:21824393

2011-01-01

438

Developing Emotional Literacy: Transition Planning for Youth at Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transition is a term typically used in education to refer to the significant shifts that students encounter before, during, and after their school experience. These changes can occur on a daily basis, as in the transition between classes and the associated behavioral outcomes that might be seen, or changes can be experienced on a larger scale when…

Fleischer, Leonard

2010-01-01

439

Disco funerals, a risk situation for HIV infection among youth in Kisumu, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the so called ‘disco funeral’ phenomenon in Kisumu, Kenya, whereby community members including adolescents congregate at the home of the deceased for several days, accompanied by music and dancing. We explored whether disco funerals are a risk situation for HIV/STI infection among youth. Design Cross-sectional qualitative study. Methods We conducted 44 in-depth interviews with male and female adolescents aged 15 to 20 in Kisumu municipality in Nyanza Province, Kenya. We also made observations during 6 disco funerals. Results Disco funerals were an important place for young people to hang out; they increased the opportunities to meet and engage in (risky) sexual activities. Many adolescents reported having casual sex on these occasions, sometimes with multiple partners, and mostly without condoms. Some girls were forced into sex, and there were several accounts of gang rape. Sex in exchange for money was reported frequently. Drugs and alcohol seemed to facilitate unprotected, multiple-partner, coerced, and transactional sex. Conclusions In Kisumu, a town with a generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic, the high AIDS mortality leads to frequent disco funerals. Because many adolescents are having unprotected, transactional, or coerced sex at these occasions, disco funerals might contribute to the high HIV prevalence among youth, especially among adolescent girls. HIV interventions urgently need to include outreach actions to youth who hang out at disco funerals, and link up with parents and funeral organizers to reduce risk situations. PMID:19165086

Njue, Carolyne; Voeten, Helene ACM; Remes, Pieter

2009-01-01

440

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Usual Clinical Care for Youth Depression: An Initial Test of Transportability to Community Clinics and Clinicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community clinic therapists were randomized to (a) brief training and supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth depression or (b) usual care (UC). The therapists treated 57 youths (56% girls), ages 8-15, of whom 33% were Caucasian, 26% were African American, and 26% were Latino/Latina. Most youths were from low-income families…

Weisz, John R.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Gordis, Elana B.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.; Chu, Brian C.; Langer, David A.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Updegraff, Alanna; Weiss, Bahr

2009-01-01

441

BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (BRFSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the world's largest telephone survey, tracks health risks in the United States. Information from the survey is used to improve the health of the American people. Since the early 1980s, BRFSS data have been used to identify e...

442

Young Parents’ Relationship Characteristics, Shared Sexual Behaviors, Perception of Partner Risks, and Dyadic Influences  

PubMed Central

Rising rates of heterosexually-transmitted HIV among youth and young adults, particularly from ethnic minorities, create an urgent need to understand risk factors and perceptions of risk within the context of couple relationships. This study examined reports of young mothers and fathers (predominantly Latino) about background characteristics, relationship quality and length, HIV-related risk factors, and perceptions of partners’ behaviors and personal history. Higher concordance was found for relationship characteristics and partners’ personal history (e.g., incarceration) than on shared sexual behaviors. Most males and females stated that they were monogamous; however, those whose partners reported concurrency were unaware of this. Many were unaware of their partners’ HIV testing status. Relationship quality was higher when females accurately perceived their partners’ self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Length of the relationship did not influence concordance. Findings support the need for HIV prevention programs to promote open discussion about condom use and HIV testing within sexual partnerships. PMID:19337935

Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Huang, Rong; Lesser, Janna; González-Figueroa, Evelyn; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Cumberland, William G.

2010-01-01

443

Smoking rates and risk factors among youth in the Republic of the Marshall Islands: results of a school survey.  

PubMed

Rapidly increasing tobacco use in developing countries will result in a large and increasing burden of tobacco-related illnesses as their populations age. The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is an island nation in the Pacific with a 1999 census population of 50,840, of whom more than fifty percent were under twenty years of age. There are limited data on the prevalence of smoking among youth in the RMI. A school survey of 3,294 RMI students in grades 5 through 12 was conducted in 2000. Urban and outer atoll schools were included in the sample. Demographic data and information on tobacco use and risk factors were collected. The overall smoking rate in this school sample was 10.6%. There were significantly higher smoking rates in the high school age group; the rate of smoking among 18 year olds was 33.5%. Smoking rates were higher among males compared to females (18.7% vs. 3.4%) and higher among outer atoll students compared to urban students (14.5% vs. 9.4%). The most prominent risk factors for smoking were: age, male gender, receiving or wearing tobacco-labeled equipment or clothing and willingness to participate in other high-risk behaviors. The survey provides an estimate of smoking rates among Marshallese school students and identifies and quantifies significant risk factors for smoking. This information can assist in guiding a comprehensive tobacco control strategy in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. PMID:16281687

Chen, Tai-Ho; Ou, Alan C; Haberle, Heather; Miller, Vincent P; Langidrik, Justina R; Palafox, Neal A

2004-09-01

444

Lessons Learned from a Community Based Lifestyle Intervention for Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Purpose This pilot study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a peer led diabetes prevention intervention for youth in an underserved community. Methods Children and adolescents randomized to the intervention group participated in a one year program which included peer support, physical activity, and family nutrition, and behavior modification sessions. Participants were asked about their satisfaction with the study and possible benefits, what they learned, and whether they would recommend participation to a friend. Youth randomized to the control group received monthly healthy lifestyle educational materials through the mail. Results Children and adolescents (n=67) with an average age of 12.5 years and BMI greater than or equal to 85 percentile for age and sex were enrolled in the study. The average monthly participation rate varied between 90 and 50 percent with a mean rate of 82 percent. Ninety four percent of parents reported being very satisfied with the program and all (100%) reported they would recommend the program to a friend. All the children and adolescents (100%) reported that they enjoyed working with the youth peer coaches and 94% felt their assigned coach was a good role model. The observed changes in BMI z-score trended towards improvement in the intervention group, but this study was underpowered to detect differences between groups. Conclusion The peer led diabetes prevention program was feasible and acceptable and demonstrated potential for improving health behaviors. PMID:24353925

Vivian, Eva M; Colbert, Lisa H; Remington, Patrick L

2013-01-01

445

Adolescent Risk Behavior Subgroups: An Empirical Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories and prior research have outlined a constellation of adolescent risk behaviors that tend to co-occur, reflecting a general pattern. Although their generality has largely been supported, there is some question about how to best study and portray the relationship among these behaviors. This study used data from a survey administered to high…

Sullivan, Christopher J.; Childs, Kristina K.; O'Connell, Daniel

2010-01-01

446

Decreased amygdala-insula resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth.  

PubMed

The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) adopts a dimensional approach for examining pathophysiological processes underlying categorically defined psychiatric diagnoses. We used this framework to examine relationships among symptom dimensions, diagnostic categories, and resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth selected from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study (n=42) and healthy control youth (n=18). Region of interest analyses examined relationships among resting state connectivity, symptom dimensions (behavioral and emotional dysregulation measured with the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10 Item Mania Scale [PGBI-10M]; dimensional severity measures of mania, depression, anxiety), and diagnostic categories (Bipolar Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, and Disruptive Behavior Disorders). After adjusting for demographic variables, two dimensional measures showed significant inverse relationships with resting state connectivity, regardless of diagnosis: 1) PGBI-10M with amygdala-left posterior insula/bilateral putamen; and 2) depressive symptoms with amygdala-right posterior insula connectivity. Diagnostic categories showed no significant relationships with resting state connectivity. Resting state connectivity between amygdala and posterior insula decreased with increasing severity of behavioral and emotional dysregulation and depression; this suggests an intrinsic functional uncoupling of key neural regions supporting emotion processing and regulation. These findings support the RDoC dimensional approach for characterizing pathophysiologic processes that cut across different psychiatric disorders. PMID:25433424

Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele; Chase, Henry; Dwojak, Amanda; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge; Perlman, Susan Beth; Versace, Amelia; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Sunshine, Jeffrey; Holland, Scott; Kowatch, Robert; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah; Frazier, Thomas; Arnold, Lawrence Eugene; Fristad, Mary; Youngstrom, Eric; Findling, Robert; Phillips, Mary Louise

2015-01-30

447

Sexting: serious problems for youth.  

PubMed

Youth engaging in sexting (texting plus sex) includes behaviors such as sending, receiving, or forwarding of nude or partially nude images via cell phones. The true prevalence of tweens and teens engaging in sexting is unclear. This might be because of the general secrecy of the behavior, the rapid advances in technology, and the lack of a clear definition that accounts for the added developmental factors (e.g., peak sexual development, impulsivity). Additionally, there is a lack of recognition of the consequences and increased risks of sexting (e.g., shame and guilt, earlier sexual behavior, bullying, incarceration, substance abuse, depression, suicide) for youth as a vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to examine sexting behaviors among youth by exploring factors specific to today's adolescent population that may influence the prevalence and outcomes of sexting behavior. Implications for nursing practice, including the assessment, intervention, and evaluation that is needed to treat adolescents affected by sexting, are discussed. PMID:23668382

Ahern, Nancy R; Mechling, Brandy

2013-07-01

448

Risk for Arrest: The Role of Social Bonds in Protecting Foster Youth Making the Transition to Adulthood  

PubMed Central

This study examines a sample of foster youth at the onset of the transition to adulthood and explores how social bonds are related to the risk of arrest during adulthood. Drawing from official arrest records, event history models are used to examine the time to arrest. Because individuals may be at risk for different types of crime, competing risk regression models are used to distinguish among arrests for drug-related, nonviolent, or violent crimes. Between the ages of 17–18 and 24, 46% of former foster youth experience an arrest. Arrests were evenly distributed across drug, nonviolent, and violent crimes columns. Although findings fail to support the significance of social bonds to interpersonal domains, bonds to employment and education are associated with a lower risk for arrest. Child welfare policy and practice implications for building connections and protections around foster youth are discussed. PMID:22239390

Cusick, Gretchen Ruth; Havlicek, Judy R.; Courtney, Mark E.

2012-01-01

449

Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

450

Youth Problem Behaviors Eight Years after Implementing the Communities That Care Prevention System in a Community-Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Importance Community-based efforts to prevent adolescent problem behaviors are essential to promote public health and achieve collective impact community-wide. Objective To test whether the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system reduced levels of risk and adolescent problem behaviors community-wide 8 years after implementation of CTC. Design A community-randomized trial. Setting Twenty-four small towns in 7 states, matched within state, assigned randomly to control or intervention group in 2003. Participants All fifth-grade students attending public schools in study communities in 2003-04 who received consent from their parents to participate (76.4% of eligible population). A panel of 4407 fifth graders was surveyed through 12th grade with 92.5% of the sample participating at the last follow-up. Intervention A coalition of community stakeholders received training and technical assistance to install CTC, used epidemiologic data to identify elevated risk factors and depressed protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors in the community, and implemented tested and effective programs for youths aged 10 to 14, their families, and schools to address their community's elevated risks. Main Outcome Measures Levels of targeted risk; sustained abstinence and cumulative incidence by grade 12 and current prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use, delinquency, and violence in 12th grade. Results By spring of 12th grade, students in CTC communities were more likely than students in control communities to have abstained from: any drug use (RR=1.32; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.63); drinking alcohol (RR=1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.58); smoking cigarettes (RR=1.13; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.27), and engaging in delinquency(RR=1.18; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26). They were also less likely to ever have committed a violent act (RR=0.86; 95% CI 0.76 to 0.98). There were no significant differences by intervention group in targeted risks, the prevalence of past-month or past-year substance use, or past-year delinquency or violence. Conclusions and Relevance Using the CTC system continued to prevent the initiation of adolescent problem behaviors through 12th grade, 8 years after implementation of CTC and 3 years after study-provided resources ended, but did not produce reductions in current levels of risk or current prevalence of problem behavior in 12th grade. PMID:24322060

Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina; Brown, Eric C.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.

2013-01-01

451

Family Management and Deviant Peer Association as Mediators of the Impact of Treatment Condition on Youth Antisocial Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of family management skills (i.e., supervision, discipline, and positive adult–youth relationship) and deviant peer association on youth antisocial behavior was examined within the context of a randomized clinical trial contrasting multidimensional treatment foster care and services-as-usual group care. Participants were male adolescents with histories of chronic and serious juvenile delinquency who were mandated into residential care by the

J. Mark Eddy; Patricia Chamberlain

2000-01-01

452

Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors that differentiate obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders in youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined specific emotional, behavioral, and cognitive variables that may distinguish obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoP), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in youth. Youth with OCD (n=26) and other anxiety disorders (ADs; n=31), aged 7–12 years (56.1% males), and their parents participated. The study compared the two anxious groups on levels of

Marni L. Jacob; Diana Morelen; Cynthia Suveg; Amy M. Brown Jacobsen; Stephen P. Whiteside

2011-01-01

453

Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors that differentiate obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders in youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined specific emotional, behavioral, and cognitive variables that may distinguish obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoP), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in youth. Youth with OCD (n=26) and other anxiety disorders (ADs; n=31), aged 7–12 years (56.1% males), and their parents participated. The study compared the two anxious groups on levels of

Marni L. Jacob; Diana Morelen; Cynthia Suveg; Amy M. Brown Jacobsen; Stephen P. Whiteside

2012-01-01

454

Early Intervention for Symptomatic Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Randomized Trial of Family-Focused Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Depression and brief periods of (hypo)mania are linked to an increased risk of progression to bipolar I or II disorder (BD) in children of bipolar parents. This randomized trial examined the effects of a 4-month family-focused therapy (FFT) program on the 1-year course of mood symptoms in youth at high familial risk for BD, and explored…

Miklowitz, David J.; Schneck, Christopher D.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Taylor, Dawn O.; George, Elizabeth L.; Cosgrove, Victoria E.; Howe, Meghan E.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Garber, Judy; Chang, Kiki D.

2013-01-01

455

Partners for Valued Youth: Dropout Prevention Strategies for At-Risk Language Minority Students. A Handbook for Teachers and Planners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides information about an innovative model, Partners for Valued Youth (PVY), that encourages "at-risk" students to stay in school and to set broader goals for themselves through a cross-age tutoring experience in which at-risk middle school students tutor younger, elementary school students. After a preface, the following…

Robledo, Maria del Refugio

456

Efficacy Trial of a Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents: Effects at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, 341 at-risk youths were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Wade, Emily

2010-01-01

457

Impact of a Classroom Behavior Management Intervention on Teacher Risk Ratings for Student Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom behavior management interventions have been used successfully with drug prevention programs to prevent subsequent antisocial behavior and substance use among youth. This article presents results from implementation of the All Stars Challenge, a classroom-based behavior management component to a drug prevention program for fifth graders.…

Hansen, William B.; Bishop, Dana C.; Jackson-Newsom, Julia

2010-01-01

458

Delinquent Risks of Parental Abuse at the Age of 11 Years among At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parental abuse is supposedly objectionable because it is the instigation of the child's delinquency. This instigation is likely to stem from the impairment of parental control arising from parental abuse, with respect to social control theory. For the substantiation of this likelihood, the present study surveyed 229 users of youth social work…

Cheung, Chau-kiu

2014-01-01

459

Adolescent Health-Risk Sexual Behaviors: Effects of a Drug Abuse Intervention  

PubMed Central

Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or to an integrated behavioral and family therapy (IBFT) condition, involving individual and family sessions. The HIV-specific intervention was not associated with change. IBFT and CBT were both efficacious in reducing HIV-risk behaviors from intake to the 18-month follow-up for high-risk adolescents. For low-risk adolescents, CBT (versus IBFT) was more efficacious in suppressing HRSB. These data suggest that drug abuse treatments can have both preventative and intervention effects for adolescents, depending on their relative HIV-risk. PMID:21833690

Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly B.; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W.; Brody, Janet L.; Barrera, Manuel

2011-01-01

460

The Impact of Youth and Family Risk Factors on Service Recommendations and Delivery in a School-Based System of Care  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the impact of child and family risk factors on service access for youth and families in a school-based system of care. Regression analyses examined the relationships between risk factors and services recommended, services received, and dosage of services received. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between risk factors and whether or not youth received specific types of services within the system of care. Results revealed that youth with a personal or family history of substance use had more services recommended than youth without these risk factors, while youth with a family history of substance use received more services. Youth with a history of substance use received a significantly higher dosage of services overall. Finally, history of family mental illness was associated with receiving mental health and operational services (e.g., family advocacy, emergency funds). Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:20165927

Whitson, Melissa L.; Connell, Christian M.; Bernard, Stanley; Kaufman, Joy S.

2010-01-01

461

Psychometric properties of questionnaires measuring associations between behavioral factors and diabetes care for youth with type 2 diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of the recency of the large numbers of youth diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D), measures of adherence behavior and family response to diabetes have not been developed or tested. The objective of this study is to identify whether questionnaires on personal and family behaviors regarding th...

462

Identity, Intimacy, Status and Sex Dating Goals as Correlates of Goal-Consistent Behavior and Satisfaction in Australian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most common dating goals of adolescents are identity, intimacy, status and sex. In this study of Australian youth (16-30 years, N = 208), dating goals were expected to explain goal-consistent behavior in each domain. Also, goals coupled with consistent behavior were expected to be associated with greater satisfaction in each domain. Age,…

Kelly, Marguerite; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Boislard-P., Marie-Aude

2012-01-01

463

Explaining homeless youths' criminal justice interactions: childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets?  

PubMed

Homeless youth are at increased risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. This study investigated childhood trauma as a risk factor for arrest or jail among a sample of youth seeking services at drop in, shelter, and transitional housing settings, while controlling for more established risk factors including: substance use, peer deviance, and engagement in survival behaviors. Standardized and researcher developed measures collected quantitative data through face-to-face interviews with youth (N = 202). Two sequential logic regression models identified significant predictors of arrest and jail, with a particular interest in the effects of childhood maltreatment. Youth with a history of physical abuse were nearly twice as likely to be arrested and to be jailed compared to non-abused youth, controlling for the significant influence of drug use and survival behaviors. These findings suggest the need for trauma screening and trauma-informed services for homeless youth at risk of illegal behavior. PMID:24337524

Yoder, Jamie Rae; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Haffejee, Badiah

2014-02-01

464

Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

2014-06-01

465

Predictors of African American adolescents' condom use and HIV risk behavior.  

PubMed

This study evaluated predictors of risky and safer behavior in a sample of low-income African American adolescents, assessed their perceptions of the risk associated with their sexual behavior, and examined differences between adolescents who used condoms consistently, inconsistently, or engaged only in unprotected intercourse. African American adolescents (N = 312) completed measures related to AIDS knowledge, frequency of condom use, attitudes toward condoms, and sexual behavior over the preceding 2 months. Multiple regression analyses for the sexually active youths (N = 114) revealed that lower self-efficacy, higher perceived risk, and male gender were associated with high-risk behavior. Positive attitudes toward condoms and younger age had the strongest association with condom use. Consistent condom users were more knowledgeable and held more positive attitudes toward condoms, and nonusers were older. Regardless of their behavior, the adolescents generally did not perceive themselves to be a risk for HIV infection. The findings suggest that precautionary practices (condom use) and high-risk behavior (unprotected sex with multiple partners) may have different correlates. In addition, the data indicate that theoretical models developed with homosexual male populations may also be generalizable to African American adolescents' sexual behavior. PMID:9010510

Reitman, D; St Lawrence, J S; Jefferson, K W; Alleyne, E; Brasfield, T L; Shirley, A

1996-12-01

466

Underage youth trading sex in the Philippines: trafficking and HIV risk.  

PubMed

This study examines the socio-structural sexual health risks of female youth (aged 14-17) working in bar/spa venues and brothels in the Philippines, compared to their older counterparts. Aside from this study, few female sex work studies have interviewed youth under 18. On four southern Philippines islands, 770 female sex workers (FSWs), aged 14-48, were recruited from bar/spa venues and brothels to participate in a socio-structural HIV prevention study. Controlling for the effects of a larger HIV prevention intervention study involving 1484 female bar/spa workers, the minors, compared to older FSWs, had less education (AOR: 0.81, CI: 0.70-0.94), less children (AOR: 0.19, CI: 0.10-0.37), and were more likely to work in illegal brothels (AOR: 4.60, CI: 1.66-12.75) and to be high on drugs during sex (AOR: 2.26, CI: 1.39-3.67). It was less likely that anyone talked to them about HIV prevention (AOR: 0.32, CI: 0.15-0.72), but more likely they were recruited by venue owners (AOR: 5.67, 1.56-20.56) and were told by their managers to have sex without a condom (AOR: 6.80, CI: 2.06-22.39). Results suggest a need for organizational and policy level interventions to protect adolescent females from working in unsafe environments in the Philippines and to prevent youth from being recruited into high-risk situations. PMID:25068199

Urada, Lianne A; Silverman, Jay G; Cordisco Tsai, Laura; Morisky, Donald E

2014-01-01

467

The relation between perceived parent-created sport climate and competitive male youth hockey players' good and poor sport behaviors.  

PubMed

The authors examined achievement goal orientation (J. L. Duda & J. G. Nicholls, 1992), parental influence (M. L. Babkes & M. R. Weiss, 1999), and the parent-initiated motivational climate (S. A. White, 1996, 1998) in combination to broaden understanding of competitive male youth hockey players' (N = 259) perceptions of the parent-created sport climate and its relation to their self-reported good and poor sport behaviors (GPSB). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a multidimensional measure of GPSB. Multiple regression analyses indicated that athletes' GPSB were significantly predicted by different forms of parental influence. Canonical correlations revealed a complex picture of the contributions of goal orientation and the parent-created sport climate on boys' GPSB in youth hockey. Results expand knowledge of the influence that parents have in youth sport and emphasize the importance of understanding how children's interpretations of parental beliefs and behaviors affect their choices to engage in good and poor sport behaviors. PMID:18959221

LaVoi, Nicole M; Stellino, Megan Babkes

2008-09-01

468

Meta-Analysis of Olfactory Function in Schizophrenia, First-Degree Family Members, and Youths At-Risk for Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous research has provided compelling support for olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia patients, their first-degree relatives, and youth at-risk for psychosis. A previous meta-analysis revealed large effect sizes across olfactory tasks but was limited to 2 olfactory tasks and did not examine moderator variables. Thus, the current meta-analysis was undertaken to incorporate additional studies, risk cohorts, olfactory test domains, and moderator variable analyses. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted on 67 publications examining olfactory function in schizophrenia patients and 15 publications examining olfactory functioning in youth at-risk for psychosis, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, and individuals with schizotypy. Results: Results revealed medium-to-large olfactory deficits in schizophrenia patients though significant heterogeneity was evident. Several variables moderated overall study effects. At-risk youths similarly demonstrated medium-to-large effect sizes, whereas first-degree relatives and individuals with schizotypy showed small effects. Conclusions: Findings suggest robust olfactory deficits in schizophrenia and at-risk youths. In schizophrenia, several variables had significant impact on these deficits and warrant consideration in prospective studies. Our findings also indicate that olfactory measures may be a useful marker of schizophrenia risk status. PMID:23641047

Moberg, Paul J.

2014-01-01

469

Aggressive Behavior among Rural Minority Youth: Concerns for Schools and the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two cases of youth violence in southwestern New Mexico, one involving an Anglo youth and one a Mexican American youth, highlight the diversity of the area and the biased treatment of Mexican American youth. New Mexico demographics suggest a link between diversity and high rates of crime and violence. National reports clearly report the extent of…

French, Laurence Armand

470

Critical Issues Facing Youths with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders during the Transition to Adulthood. Fifth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Meeting the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with E/BD--Evidence-Based Programs and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph examines issues in the transition of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders to adulthood. It describes transition as a process by which youth with disabilities are systematically equipped with skills necessary for realizing valued postsecondary outcomes. The subject of transition is examined within the historical,…

Morningstar, Mary E.; Benitez, Debra

471

Correlates of depressive symptoms among at-risk youth presenting to the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Objective The study's objective was to identify correlates of depressive symptoms among at-risk youth in an urban emergency department (ED). Method A systematic sample of adolescents (ages 14–18) in the ED were recruited as part of a larger study. Participants reporting past-year alcohol use and peer aggression self-administered a survey assessing: demographics, depressive symptoms, and risk/protective factors. Logistic regression identified factors associated with depressive symptoms. Results Among 624 adolescents (88% response rate) meeting eligibility criteria, 22.8% (n=142) screened positive fordepressive symptoms. In logistic regression, depressive symptoms were positively associated with female gender (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.78–4.51), poor academic performance (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.01–2.44), binge drinking (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.21–2.91), community violence exposure (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.59–3.18), and dating violence (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.36–3.38), and were negatively associated with same sex mentorship (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29–0.91) and older age (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.34–0.89). Including gender interaction terms did not significantly change findings. Conclusions Screening and intervention approaches for youth in the urban ED should address the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms with peer and dating vio