... Data Quality, 1991-2013 YouthRiskBehavior & School Health Policy Fact Sheets Obesity Sexual RiskBehaviors Tobacco About ... Standard 8 Characteristics of an Effective Curriculum School Health Policies and Practices Study In Brief Fact Sheets & Results ...
Examined national YouthRiskBehavior Survey data and state and local surveys of high school students to investigate behaviors contributing to unintentional injuries, violence, substance use, age at initiation of riskbehaviors, substance abuse on school property, sexual behaviors contributing to pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases,…
Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Williams, Barbara; Ross, James G.; Lowry, Richard; Kolbe, Lloyd
This report presents a comprehensive analysis of trends in youthriskbehaviors in Lancaster County, as measured by the YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) administered in 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999. Our report covers five areas of health riskbehavior: unintentional and intentional injuries, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and
In April 1991, the YouthRiskBehavior Survey was administered to a sample of 1,412 high school students in Colorado public schools to collect information about priority health-riskbehaviors among adolescents. Questionnaires were received from 1,170 students, a response rate of 83%. Classes in Colorado's 280 public schools were also selected to…
The 1998 National Alternative High School YouthRiskBehavior Survey measured health riskbehaviors at alternative high schools. Many alternative students engaged in behaviors that made them high-risk for serious problems (e.g., motor vehicle safety, violence, nutrition, sexuality, exercise, and substance abuse). Their prevalence of high risk…
Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
This report discusses results of the Nevada Department of Education's fourth statewide administration of the YouthRiskBehavior Survey. Students in grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 (N=2,702) from 75 public high schools participated in the study. Nevada high school students reported behaviors that equaled or exceeded goals established in the national…
The YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to measure the major health riskbehaviors performed by youth. These health riskbehaviors include: behaviors that contribute to intentional and unintentional injuries; the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs; sexual behaviors that contribute…
The national YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-riskbehaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…
Problem\\/Condition: Alternative high schools serve approximately 280,000 students nationwide who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal activity or behavioral problems. Such settings provide important opportunities for delivering health promotion education and services to these youth and young adults. However, before this
Jo Anne Grunbaum; Laura Kann; Steven A. Kinchen; James G. Ross; Vani R. Gowda; Janet L. Collins; Lloyd J. Kolbe
Summarizes results from the 1997 YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance System and trends from 1991 to 1997 in selected riskbehaviors. Results indicate that many high school students still practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems, with some behaviors more likely among particular subgroups. Some behaviors vary considerably…
Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Williams, Barbara I.; Ross, James G.; Lowry, Richard; Hill, Carl V.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Blumson, Pamela S.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
An 84-item multiple choice YouthRiskBehavior Survey was administered to 2,092 students in 62 public high schools in New Hampshire during the spring of 1995. The survey covered behaviors in six categories: (1) behaviors that result in unintentional or intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that…
Alternative high schools serve approximately 280,000 students nationwide who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal activity or behavioral problems. Such settings provide important opportunities for delivering health promotion education and services to these youth and young adults. However, before this survey, the prevalence of health-riskbehaviors among students attending alternative high schools nationwide was unknown. The YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors the following six categories of priority health-riskbehaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The national Alternative High School YouthRiskBehavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the YRBSS; it was conducted in 1998 to measure priority health-riskbehaviors among students at alternative high schools. The 1998 ALT-YRBS used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12 in the United States who attend alternative high schools. The school response rate was 81.0%, and the student response rate was 81.9%, resulting in an overall response rate of 66.3%. This report summarizes results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS. The reporting period is February-May 1998. In the United States, 73.6% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10-24 years results from only four causes--motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS demonstrate that many students at alternative high schools engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes. During the 30 days preceding the survey, 51.9% had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, 25.1% had driven a vehicle after drinking alcohol, 32.9% had carried a weapon, 64.5% had drunk alcohol, and 53.0% had used marijuana. During the 12 months preceding the survey, 15.7% had attempted suicide, and 29.0% had rarely or never worn a seat belt. Substantial morbidity among school-aged youth and young adults also results from unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. ALT-YRBS results indicate that in 1998, a total of 87.8% of students at alternative high schools had had sexual intercourse, 54.1% of sexually active students had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse, and 5.7% had ever injected an illegal drug. Among adults aged > or = 25 years, 66.5% of all deaths result from two causes--cardiovascular disease and cancer. Most riskbehaviors associated with these causes of death are initiated during adolescence. In 1998, a total of 64.1% of students at alternative high schools had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey, 38.3% had smoked a cigar during the 30 days preceding the survey, 71.2% had not eaten > or = 5 servings of fruits and vegetables during the day preceding the survey, and 81.0% had not attended physical education (PE) class daily. Comparing ALT-YRBS results with 1997 national YRBS results demonstrates that the prevalence of most riskbehaviors is higher among students attending alternative high schools compared with students at regular high schools. Some riskbehaviors are more common among certain sex and racial/ethnic subgroups of students. ALT-YRBS data can be used nationwide by health and education officials to improve policies and programs designed to reduce riskbehaviors associated with the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among students attending alternative high schools. PMID:10697808
Grunbaum, J A; Kann, L; Kinchen, S A; Ross, J G; Gowda, V R; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J
Investigated relationships among youthriskbehaviors and demographic factors. Data on riskbehaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…
Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.
In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…
Priority health riskbehaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among youth and adults often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated. The YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health riskbehaviors among youth and youth adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors, dietary behaviors, and physical activity. The YRBSS includes a national, school-based survey conducted by CDC and state and local school-based surveys conducted by state and local education agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 24 state surveys, and nine local surveys conducted among high school students during February through May 1993. In the United States, 72% of all deaths among school-age youth and young adults are from four causes: motor vehicle crashes, other intentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1993 YRBSS suggest many high school students practice behaviors that may increase their likelihood of death from these four causes: 19.1% rarely or never use a safety belt, 35.3% had ridden during the 30 days preceding the survey with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, 22.1% had carried a weapon during the 30 days preceding the survey, 80.9% ever drank alcohol, 32.8% ever used marijuana, and 8.6% had attempted suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey. Substantial morbidity and social problems among adolescents also result from unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7637332
Kann, L; Warren, C W; Harris, W A; Collins, J L; Douglas, K A; Collins, M E; Williams, B I; Ross, J G; Kolbe, L J
This report presents the 2011 Montana YouthRiskBehavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…
This report presents the 2011 Montana YouthRiskBehavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…
Objectives By most reports, soccer (football) is among the most played and most popular sports in the world. This study prospectively examined behavioralrisk factors for youth soccer injury. Method Sixty 11- and 12-year-old boys who played on six teams in a suburban recreational soccer league were followed over the course of a season. Six predictors were assessed prior to
David C. Schwebel; Mark M. Banaszek; McCall McDaniel
Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health riskbehaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-riskbehaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with riskbehaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527
Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Priority health-riskbehaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-riskbehaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire, the addition of new populations, and the development of innovative methods for data collection. PMID:23446553
Objective: To examine the relationship between physical activity, TV watching, and weight in U.S. youth ages 14 to 18 years.Research Methods and Procedures: Data from a nationally representative sample of 15,143 U.S. high-school students participating in the 1999 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) YouthRiskBehavior Survey were examined. Prevalence rates of participation in moderate physical activity (MPA),
The 2005 YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) report is a continuation of the surveillance and reporting system for adolescent riskbehaviors developed by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of the Youth…
Many of the health problems experienced by youth are caused by preventable behaviors, such as alcohol abuse and unprotected sexual intercourse. The increasing cost of health care demands that youth be taught to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors. School health programs are essential to attaining this goal. The results of the 1995 Idaho Youth…
Idaho State Dept. of Health and Welfare, Boise. Div. of Consumer and Health Education.
A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-riskyouths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…
Priority health-riskbehaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among youth and adults, often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. This report covers data during February-December 2001. The YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-riskbehaviors among youth and young adults; these behaviors contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The YRBSS includes a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as state, territorial, and local school-based surveys conducted by education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 34 state surveys, and 18 local surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12 during February-December 2001. In the United States, approximately three-fourths of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from only four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2001 national YouthRiskBehavior Survey demonstrated that numerous high school students engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes: 14.1% had rarely or never worn a seat belt during the 30 days preceding the survey; 30.7% had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; 17.4% had carried a weapon during the 30 days preceding the survey; 47.1% had drunk alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey; 23.9% had used marijuana during the 30 days preceding the survey; and 8.8% had attempted suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey. Substantial morbidity and social problems among young persons also result from unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. In 2001, 45.6% of high school students had ever had sexual intercourse; 42.1% of sexually active students had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse; and 2.3% had ever injected an illegal drug. Two-thirds of all deaths among persons aged > or = 25 years result from only two causes: cardiovascular disease and cancer. The majority of riskbehaviors associated with these two causes of death are initiated during adolescence. In 2001, 28.5% of high school students had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey; 78.6% had not eaten > or = 5 servings per day of fruits and vegetables during the 7 days preceding the survey; 10.5% were overweight; and 67.8% did not attend physical education class daily. Health and education officials at national, state, and local levels are using these YRBSS data to analyze and improve policies and programs to reduce priority health-riskbehaviors among youth. The YRBSS data also are being used to measure progress toward achieving 16 national health objectives for 2010 and 3 of the 10 leading health indicators. PMID:12389372
Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A; Williams, Barbara; Ross, James G; Lowry, Richard; Kolbe, Lloyd
Priority health-riskbehaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among youth and adults often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated. The YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-riskbehaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors, unhealthy dietary behaviors, and physical inactivity. The YRBSS includes both a national school-based survey conducted by CDC and state and local school-based surveys conducted by state and local education agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 35 state surveys, and 16 local surveys conducted among high school students from February through May 1995. In the United States, 72% of all deaths among school-age youth and young adults result from four causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1995 YRBSS suggest that many high school students practice behaviors that may increase their likelihood of death from these four causes: 21.7% had rarely or never used a safety belt, 38.8% had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey, 20.0% had carried a weapon during the 30 days preceding the survey, 51.6% had drunk alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey, 25.3% had used marijuana during the 30 days preceding the survey, and 8.7% had attempted suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey. Substantial morbidity and social problems among school-age youth and young adults also result from unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection. YRBSS results indicate that in 1995, 53.1% of high school students had experienced sexual intercourse, 45.6% of sexually active students had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse, and 2.0% had ever injected an illegal drug. Among adults, 65% of all deaths result from three causes: heart disease, cancer, and stroke. Most of the riskbehaviors associated with these causes of death are initiated during adolescence. In 1995, 34.8% of high school students had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey, 39.5% had eaten more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content during the day preceding the survey, and only 25.4% had attended physical education class daily. YRBSS data are being used nationwide by health and education officials to improve national, state, and local policies and programs designed to reduce risks associated with the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. YRBSS data also are being used to measure progress toward achieving 21 national health objectives and one of eight National Education Goals. PMID:8981266
Kann, L; Warren, C W; Harris, W A; Collins, J L; Williams, B I; Ross, J G; Kolbe, L J
Objective: This exploratory study examines the reported dating violence and its association with sexual riskbehavior among Israeli adolescents, who are at risk for dropping out of school. Methodology: A convenience sample of 105 at-riskyouth (51 boys and 54 girls) completed self-administered anonymous, questionnaires in small same-gender groups.…
In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motorvehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that increased their likelihood of death from these 4 causes: 9.9% had driven a car or other vehicle when they had been drinking alcohol, 18.5% had carried a weapon, 43.3% had drunk alcohol, and 20.2% had used marijuana. In addition, during the 12 months preceding the survey, 35.9% of high school students had been in a physical fight and 8.4% had attempted suicide. Substantial morbidity and social problems among youth also result from unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. During 2005, a total of 46.8% of high school students had ever had sexual intercourse, 37.2% of sexually active high school students had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse, and 2.1% had ever injected an illegal drug. Among adults aged > or =25 years, 61% of all deaths result from 2 causes: cardiovascular disease and cancer. Results from the 2005 national YRBS indicated that riskbehaviors associated with these 2 causes of death were initiated during adolescence. During 2005, a total of 23.0% of high school students had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey, 79.9% had not eaten > or =5 times/day of fruits and vegetables during the 7 days preceding the survey, 67.0% did not attend physical education classes daily, and 13.1% were overweight. PMID:16918870
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths’ HIV riskbehaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14–21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug riskbehaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV riskbehaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19–21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV riskbehaviors with strangers than 14–18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths’ HIV riskbehaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV. PMID:23613136
In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the YouthRiskBehavior Survey. The survey examined youthbehaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…
We undertook the first broad-scale quasi-experimental evaluation of youth outcomes in communities using the Communities That\\u000a Care program (Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F., Jr. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass Inc, Publishers, 1992a), which targets\\u000a adolescent problem behaviors. We evaluated 15 risk factors and 6 outcomes (substance use and delinquent behaviors) for 38,107\\u000a youth in 2001 and 98,436 youth
Mark E. Feinberg; Mark T. Greenberg; D. Wayne Osgood; Jennifer Sartorius; Daniel Bontempo
We used the 2011 Arkansas YouthRiskBehavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well. PMID:24494349
Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick
This study investigates the interrelationships among childhood sexual abuse, other types of child maltreatment, emotional and behavioral problems, and HIV riskbehaviors in a sample of 167 adolescents, aged 15-19, participating in an independent living preparation program in one midwestern county. Thirty-three percent of the youths identified as white and 67% as youths of color. The sample was almost evenly split by gender (51% male and 49% female). Thirty-five percent of the youths (n = 59) reported some form of sexual abuse; 21 reported unwanted touching, with no unwanted intercourse, and 38 reported unwanted intercourse. Multivariate analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between the severity of sexual abuse and youths' recent HIV riskbehaviors, after accounting for the contribution of other childhood trauma and emotional and behavioral problems. The findings support the need for HIV prevention programs targeting sexually abused youths. PMID:11565596
Elze, D E; Auslander, W; McMillen, C; Edmond, T; Thompson, R
Using nationally representative data from students in grades 9 to 12 from the national YouthRiskBehavior Surveys (YRBS) of 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997, this study examined changes in high school students' participation in health riskbehaviors. Ten specific health riskbehaviors were identified, each of which poses potential immediate and…
Boggess, Scott; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Porter, Laura
Evidence has linked residential instability and engagement in high-riskbehaviors. This paper longitudinally examines the\\u000a relationship between changes in residential stability and changes in HIV riskbehaviors among Montréal street youth (SY).\\u000a Between April 2006 and May 2007, 419 SY (18–25 years old) were recruited in a cohort study. SY (using Montréal street youth\\u000a agencies services) were eligible if they had
Élise Roy; Marie Robert; Éric Vaillancourt; Jean-François Boivin; Jill Vandermeerschen; Isabelle Martin
Background: Health riskbehaviors in adolescents and youth such as smoking, alcohol, drug use, violence, suicide, and unprotected sexual behavior are issues of major public health concern. Addressing the relationship between sexual behavior and non-sexual riskbehaviors will make a significant contribution to the design of effective intervention programs for this population of adolescents and unmarried youth. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Asian cities with a common heritage of Confucian values: Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei. Data were collected in 2006 from 17,016 youth aged 15-24 years residing in both urban and rural districts of the three settings. The relationships between sexual behavior and seven non-sexual riskbehaviors among unmarried adolescents were examined using ?2 tests, logistic regression models, Cox regression models, and cluster analysis. Results: Sexual behavior was associated with seven non-sexual riskbehaviors, especially with smoking, drinking, drug use and running away from home. In terms of the age at initiation of riskbehaviors, smoking and drinking were usually initiated before sexual intercourse. Sexual behavior and non-sexual riskbehaviors co-occurred in the high risk group in all three cities. Youth having the highest risk of sexual behavior were more likely to have the highest risk of nearly all non-sexual riskbehaviors, with the exception of fighting in Hanoi, and gambling in Shanghai and Taipei. Conclusion: Sexual behavior among unmarried youth is correlated with non-sexual riskbehaviors but with different patterns across the three settings. Interventions aimed at reducing unprotected sex generally focus only on the sexual behavior; however, considering the correlations found here between sexual and non-sexual riskbehaviors, they should target multiple riskbehaviors. PMID:22340860
This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV-infected (PHIV+), HIV-affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV- caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV- youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV- youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22694193
Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A; Robbins, Reuben N; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A
Abstract This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV?infected (PHIV+), HIV?affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV? caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV? youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV? youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22694193
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J.; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A.
The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) riskbehaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual riskbehaviors that…
Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.
Research indicates that knowing someone with HIV/AIDS is associated with greater perceived risk of contracting HIV and changes in sexual riskbehaviors. The current study with a sample of 1,172 examined whether knowing someone with HIV/AIDS influenced sexual risk communication and youth engagement in sexual intercourse using the Philadelphia…
Cederbaum, Julie A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Hutchinson, M. Katherine
This study builds on existing criminological theories and examines the role of life satisfaction and self-control in explaining youth violence. Using data from a stratified cluster sample of 5,414 public high school students who responded to the South Carolina YouthRiskBehavior Survey, the study examines the relationship between adolescents'perceptions of life satisfaction, behavioral risky acts, and self-reported acts of
John M. MacDonald; Alex R. Piquero; Robert F. Valois; Keith J. Zullig
Sexual activity among high-school-aged youths has steadily increased since the 1970s, emerging as a significant public health concern. Yet, patterns of youth sexual riskbehavior are shaped by social class, race, and gender. Based on sociological theories of financial deprivation and collective socialization, we develop and test a model of the relationships among neighborhood poverty; family structure and social class position; parental involvement; prosocial activities; race; and gender as they predict youth sexual riskbehavior. We employ structural equation modeling to test this model on a cross-sectional sample of 370 sexually active high-school students from a midwestern city; 57 percent (n = 209) are males and 86 percent are African American. We find that family structure indirectly predicts sexual riskbehavior through neighborhood poverty, parental involvement, and prosocial activities. In addition, family class position indirectly predicts sexual riskbehavior through neighborhood poverty and prosocial activities. We address implications for theory and health promotion. PMID:9785696
Objectives To examine the prevalence and persistence of 20 HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) sexual and drug use riskbehaviors and to predict their occurrence in 4 mutually exclusive diagnostic groups of delinquent youth: (1) major mental disorders (MMD); (2) substance use disorders (SUD); (3) comorbid MMD and SUD (MMD+SUD); and (4) neither disorder. Methods At the baseline interview, HIV/STI riskbehaviors were assessed in 800 juvenile detainees, aged 10 to 18 years; youth were reinterviewed approximately 3 years later. The final sample (n = 689) includes 298 females and 391 males. Results The prevalence and persistence of HIV/STI riskbehaviors was high in all diagnostic groups. Youth with SUD at baseline were over 10 times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex at follow-up than youth with MMD+SUD (AOR=10.86, 95% CI=1.43–82.32; AOR=11.63, 95% CI=1.49–90.89, respectively) and four times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex than youth with neither disorder (AOR=4.20, 95% CI=1.06–16.62; AOR=4.73, 95% CI=1.21–18.50, respectively). Youth with MMD at baseline were less likely to have engaged in unprotected vaginal and oral sex at follow-up compared with youth with neither disorder (AOR=0.11, 95% CI=0.02–0.50; AOR=0.07, 95% CI=0.01–0.34, respectively), and with youth with SUD (AOR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02–0.50; OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02–0.47, respectively). Youth with MMD+SUD were less likely (AOR=0.28, 95% CI=0.09–0.92) to engage in unprotected oral sex compared with those with neither disorder. Conclusions Irrespective of diagnostic group, delinquent youth are at great risk for HIV/STIs as they age into adulthood. SUD increases risk. Because detained youth are released after approximately 2 weeks, their riskbehaviors become a community health problem. Pediatricians and child psychiatrists must collaborate with corrections professionals to develop HIV/STI interventions and ensure that programs started in detention centers continue after youth are released. PMID:18645421
Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.
Purpose To longitudinally examine the association between newly homeless youth individual factors (sociodemographic characteristics, depression, substance use) and structural factors, such as living situation (family, institution, non-family) with sexual riskbehaviors. Methods A cohort of newly homeless youth from Los Angeles County (N=261; ages 12–20 years) were interviewed at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. At each assessment youth were asked about symptoms of depression (using the Brief Symptom Inventory), substance use, living situation, and sexual riskbehaviors (number of sexual partners and condom use). Random effects models were used to determine the effects of predictors on the number of sexual partners and on condom use over time, by gender. Results At baseline, 77% of youth had been sexually active, increasing to 85% of youth at 24 months of follow-up. For predictors of multiple sexual partners, among male youth, these included living in non-family settings and using drugs; among females, living situation was not predictive of having multiple sexual partners but drug use was. For condom use, among females, living in a non-family setting and drug use decreased the odds of always using condoms; for males, no factors were found to be predictive of condom use. Conclusions Living with non-family members and drug use appear to be the most salient in explaining sexual risk among newly homeless youth. Our findings indicate that interventions aimed at reducing sexual riskbehaviors, and thereby reducing STDs and HIV among newly homeless youth, need to help youth in finding housing associated with supervision and social support (family and institutional settings) as well as aim to reduce drug use. PMID:18346666
Solorio, M. Rosa; Rosenthal, Doreen; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Weiss, Robert E.; Batterham, Philip J.; Gandara, Marla; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
Explores the intervention process of an indicated prevention program for high-riskyouth (N=106). Results showed that there were direct and/or indirect effects of teacher and peer group support on personal control, depression, and suicide riskbehaviors. The hypothesis that personal control mediates between support resources and reductions in…
Thompson, Elaine A.; Eggert, Leona L.; Herting, Jerald R.
Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…
The YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…
This youthriskbehavior survey was completed by 7,667 students at 127 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) middle schools. The document is organized around the six categories of behavior that contribute substantially to the leading causes of death, illness, and social problems in the United States: unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use;…
Everett, Sherry; Sussman, Michele; Ranslow, Steve; Shaughnessy, Lana
In the United States, approximately three-fourths of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from only four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from this 1999 national YouthRiskBehavior Survey demonstrate that numerous high school students engage in behaviors that increase the…
Background: Two riskbehaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Disparities in the prevalence of obesity in youth place minority and low socioeconomic status youth at increased risk for the development of chronic disease, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Contributing factors to the increases in obesity include a decline in positive health behaviors, such as making healthy dietary choices, engaging in physical activity, and limiting sedentary behaviors. Family and physical environmental contextual factors related to health behaviors are increasingly the focus of health behavior interventions in line with the bioecological model that encourages a system-focused perspective on understanding health behavior influences. Physical environmental characteristics, such as home and neighborhood characteristics and resources, provide the tangible means to support health behaviors and are important contextual variables to consider that may increase intervention effectiveness. Therefore, the current review seeks to highlight the importance of investigating influences of behavior beyond individual characteristics in understanding factors related to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in youth at high risk for developing chronic disease. The current study reviews the non-intervention literature on family and physical environmental factors related to health behaviors (i.e., diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) in youth who are considered to be at-risk for developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Results on 38 published articles of diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors showed support for the role of parenting and physical environmental factors, particularly parental monitoring and neighborhood context, such as social cohesion, as they relate to health behaviors in high-riskyouth. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:22282044
The present study examined the relationship between Berry’s acculturation typology and HIV riskbehaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry’s four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV riskbehaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV riskbehaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV riskbehaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV riskbehavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV riskbehaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population. PMID:22532299
This report presents the 2011 Montana YouthRiskBehavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…
This report presents the 2011 Montana YouthRiskBehavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…
This study sought to identify and compare variables associated with motivation to change alcohol, drug use, and HIV riskbehaviors among a sample of homeless youths. More frequent alcohol use, older age, and childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater motivation to change alcohol use; higher reported negative consequences of substance use were associated with higher motivation to reduce illicit
Data from the 1997 YouthRiskBehavior Survey was used to compare use of tobacco between athletes and nonathletes. Both female and male athletes were less likely to have smoked, which was truer for the more involved athletes. Both female and male athletes were more likely to have tried smokeless tobacco, with the effect greater for more involved…
Melnick, Merrill J.; Miller, Kathleen E.; Sabo, Donald F.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.
This report presents findings from a spring 1997 survey of all middle-school students (grades 6-8) enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Centers for Disease Control YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by 6,990 students in 115 of the 122 BIA-funded middle schools; the overall response rate was 74 percent.…
Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve
Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,
Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström
Purpose There is growing interest in network-based interventions to reduce HIV sexual riskbehavior among both homeless youth and men who have sex with men (MSM). The goal of this study is to better understand the social network and individual correlates of sexual riskbehavior among homeless MSM youth in order to inform these HIV prevention efforts. Methods A multi-stage sampling design was used to recruit a probability sample of 121 homeless MSM youth (ages 16–24) from shelters, drop-in centers, and street venues in Los Angeles County. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Due to the different distributions of the three outcome variables, three distinct regression models were needed: ordinal logistic regression for unprotected sex; zero-truncated Poisson regression for number of sex partners; and logistic regression for any sex trade. Results Homeless MSM youth were less likely to engage in unprotected sex and had fewer sex partners if their networks included platonic ties to peers who regularly attended school, and had fewer sex partners if most of their network members were not heavy drinkers. Most other aspects of network composition were unrelated to sexual riskbehavior. Individual predictors of sexual riskbehavior included being older, Hispanic, lower education, depressive symptoms, less positive condom attitudes, and sleeping outdoors because of nowhere else to stay. Conclusions HIV prevention programs for homeless MSM youth may warrant a multi-pronged approach that helps these youth strengthen their ties to prosocial peers, develop more positive condom attitudes, and access needed mental health and housing services. PMID:22999840
Tucker, Joan S.; Hu, Jianhui; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.
Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…
Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda
The 2005 YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) report is a continuation of the surveillance and reporting system for adolescent riskbehaviors developed by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of the YRBS is…
Background Behavioralrisk factors are known to co-occur among youth, and to increase risks of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality later in life. However, little is known about determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioralrisk factors, particularly among youth. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and carried out without a sound theoretical framework. Methods Using longitudinal data (n = 1135) from Cycle 4 (2000-2001), Cycle 5 (2002-2003) and Cycle 6 (2004-2005) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, a nationally representative sample of Canadian children who are followed biennially, the present study examines the influence of a set of conceptually-related individual/social distal variables (variables situated at an intermediate distance from behaviors), and individual/social ultimate variables (variables situated at an utmost distance from behaviors) on the rate of occurrence of multiple behavioralrisk factors (physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and high body mass index) in a sample of children aged 10-11 years at baseline. Multiple behavioralrisk factors were assessed using a multiple risk factor score. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.1, and SUDAAN, version 9.01. Results Multivariate longitudinal Poisson models showed that social distal variables including parental/peer smoking and peer drinking (Log-likelihood ratio (LLR) = 187.86, degrees of freedom (DF) = 8, p < .001), as well as individual distal variables including low self-esteem (LLR = 76.94, DF = 4, p < .001) increased the rate of occurrence of multiple behavioralrisk factors. Individual ultimate variables including age, sex, and anxiety (LLR = 9.34, DF = 3, p < .05), as well as social ultimate variables including family socioeconomic status, and family structure (LLR = 10.93, DF = 5, p = .05) contributed minimally to the rate of co-occurrence of behavioralrisk factors. Conclusions The results suggest targeting individual/social distal variables in prevention programs of multiple chronic disease behavioralrisk factors among youth. PMID:22439966
Objectives. We examined whether the health riskbehaviors of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are determined in part by the religious composition of the communities in which they live. Methods. Data were collected from 31?852 high school students, including 1413 LGB students, who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens survey in 2006 through 2008. Supportive religious climate was operationalized according to the proportion of individuals (of the total number of religious adherents) who adhere to a religion supporting homosexuality. Comprehensive data on religious climate were derived from 85 denominational groups in 34 Oregon counties. Results. Among LGB youths, living in a county with a religious climate that was supportive of homosexuality was associated with significantly fewer alcohol abuse symptoms (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.40, 0.85) and fewer sexual partners (OR?=?0.77; 95% CI?=?0.60, 0.99). The effect of religious climate on health behaviors was stronger among LGB than heterosexual youths. Results remained robust after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusions. The religious climate surrounding LGB youths may serve as a determinant of their health riskbehaviors. PMID:22397347
This study examined the relationship between physical activity, physical education class, and sports participation on the substance use practices of adolescents. Data was derived from the 2009 YouthRiskBehavior Survey study of adolescent behaviors. The results of this study indicated that recreational physical activity, attending PE class, and participating in sports were independent protective factors for many cigarette use behaviors but not for smokeless tobacco use. Additionally, recreational physical activity and sports participation appears to be a protective factor for marijuana use among females but not males. On the other hand, recreational physical activity and sports participation appears to be a risk factor for alcohol use behaviors among males. PMID:25074297
Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other riskbehaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782
Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer
Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual riskbehavior in youth, suggesting additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship between psychological distress and sexual riskbehaviors was prospectively examined over the four high school years in a sample of urban youth (N = 850; 80% African American; 50% female). Growth curve modeling was used to estimate changes in sexual risk across adolescence and to test its association to psychological distress symptoms and frequency of substance use. Substance use was associated with psychological distress. Greater psychological distress was associated with increased sexual intercourse frequency, decreased condom use, and increased number of partners. Substance use fully mediated the relationship between psychological distress and intercourse frequency and condom use, and partially mediated the relationship between psychological distress and number of partners. We found no differences in mediation by sex or race/ethnicity and no evidence to support moderation of psychological distress and substance use on sexual risk. Findings suggest that psychological distress is associated with sexual risk because youth with greater psychological distress are also more likely to use substances. Practical implications for adolescent HIV/STI prevention are discussed. PMID:20229264
Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A; Zimmerman, Marc A
Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual riskbehavior in youth, suggesting additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship between psychological distress and sexual riskbehaviors was prospectively examined over the four high school years in a sample of urban youth (N=850; 80% African American; 50% female). Growth curve modeling was used to estimate changes in sexual risk across adolescence and to test its association to psychological distress symptoms and frequency of substance use. Substance use was associated with psychological distress. Greater psychological distress was associated with increased sexual intercourse frequency, decreased condom use, and increased number of partners. Substance use fully mediated the relationship between psychological distress and intercourse frequency and condom use, and partially mediated the relationship between psychological distress and number of partners. We found no differences in mediation by sex or race/ethnicity and no evidence to support moderation of psychological distress and substance use on sexual risk. Findings suggest that psychological distress is associated with sexual risk because youth with greater psychological distress are also more likely to use substances. Practical implications for adolescent HIV/STI prevention are discussed. PMID:20229264
Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
In 1997, a second survey was conducted of all 9th through 12th graders enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). As in 1994, the survey instrument used was the YouthRiskBehavior Survey, developed by the Centers for Disease Control. Surveys were completed by 5,606 students out of a total high school population of 7,780.…
Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve
Bullying is a common exposure in high school and more recently cyberbullying has become prevalent among teens. We used the 2011 Arkansas YouthRiskBehavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of school bullying and cyberbullying and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 11.6% of students reported only school bullying, 6.2% only cyberbullying, and 10.2% both forms of bullying. We determined "feeling unsafe at school" was a significant risk factor for depression and all suicide questions. We also found that being a victim of school bullying, cyberbullying, or both, increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, and plan. PMID:24383197
Objectives: To examine the rates of behavioral and adaptive functioning difficulties among youth who never had sleep disordered breathing (SDB), had remitted SDB, had incident SDB, or had persistent SDB; and to determine if there were increased odds of behavioral difficulties among youth with varying SDB histories relative to those who never had SDB. Methods: 263 youth had valid polysomnography and neurobehavioral data at two time points approximately 5 years apart from the prospective Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study. Primary outcomes were the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children-2nd Edition Parent Report Form (BASC-PRF) and Self-Report of Personality (SRP), and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-2nd Edition (ABAS-2). Results: Compared to those who never had SDB, individuals with persistent SDB had significant odds and met more cutoff scores on the BASC-2-PRF Externalizing Problems Composite (odds ratio [OR] 3.29; 8.92% vs. 35.3%), Behavioral Symptoms Index (OR 6.82; 7.4% vs. 35.3%) and Hyperactivity subscale (OR 6.82; 11.1% vs. 41.2%). Similarly, greater difficulties was seen for the group with persistent SDB (relative to never) on the ABAS-2 Social Domain (OR 3.39; 22% vs. 50%), and Communication (OR 4.26; 15% vs. 42.9%) and Self-Care subscales (OR = 2.97; 25.2% vs. 50%). Relative to youth who never had SDB, youth who developed SDB at Time 2 had compromised adaptive skills as evidenced by the BASC-2 PRF Adaptive Behavior Composite (OR 3.34; 15.6% vs. 38.1%) and the ABAS-2 General Adaptive Composite (OR 2.83; 20.5% vs. 42.1%). Conclusions: Youth with current SDB exhibited hyperactivity, attention problems, aggressivity, lower social competency, poorer communication, and/or diminished adaptive skills. Citation: Perfect MM; Archbold K; Goodwin JL; Levine-Donnerstein D; Quan SF. Risk of behavioral and adaptive functioning difficulties in youth with previous and current sleep disordered breathing. SLEEP 2013;36(4):517-525. PMID:23543901
Perfect, Michelle M.; Archbold, Kristen; Goodwin, James L.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Quan, Stuart F.
Truant youths frequently experience family problems, emotional/psychological issues, substance misuse, and delinquency. They are likely engaging in alcohol use and sexual riskbehavior at a higher rate than the general youth population. Early intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. We present interim findings from an…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer
The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12-26 years of age) across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin), age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:24927421
Aichele, Stephen R; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; James, Susan; Grimm, Kevin
Objective To examine the course of health riskbehaviors (HRBs) during a 3-year period after a parent’s death in bereaved youth compared with nonbereaved youth (control subjects). Design A longitudinal population-based study. Setting Bereaved families were recruited through coroner records and by advertisement. Control families were recruited using random-digit dialing and by advertisement. Participants Two hundred forty parentally bereaved offspring were compared with 183 nonbereaved control offspring. Main Exposure Sudden parental death due to accident, suicide, or sudden disease-related (natural) death. Main Outcome Measures The sum of the total number of HRBs at a clinically significant frequency threshold assessed 9, 21, and 33 months after the parent’s death. Results The bereaved group showed a higher number of HRBs over time compared with the nonbereaved group (univariate effect sizes, 0.22–0.52; P<.04), even after taking into account correlates of bereavement and of HRBs, such as youth aggression, as well as antisocial and anxiety disorders of the deceased parent. Conclusions Parental bereavement is associated with higher HRBs in youth over time, even after controlling for other covariates associated with bereavement and HRBs. Clinicians should be aware that bereaved youth may be vulnerable to HRBs. Further work is warranted on interventions to attenuate the negative effect of bereavement on HRBs. PMID:22393180
Hamdan, Sami; Mazariegos, David; Melhem, Nadine M.; Porta, Giovanna; Payne, Monica Walker; Brent, David A.
Although problematic parenting has been consistently associated with behavior problems in youths, prospective links between early parenting and childhood behavior problems are less well established. This study examined the association of maternal responsiveness (MRes) during infancy and behavior problems in middle childhood (N = 77). MRes was significantly associated with disruptive behavior problems but was unrelated to attention problems. Absence of MRes during infancy increased the risk of disruptive behavior problems in middle childhood, even with concurrent parenting and established risk factors for disruptive behavior controlled. MRes also interacted with concurrent family risk to predict disruptive behavior symptoms. These findings underscore the importance of early parenting for developmental pathways to disruptive behavior disorders in high-riskyouths. The identification of a relatively modifiable early risk factor for disruptive behavior problems has important implications for prevention. PMID:10082027
Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…
This study used the YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) to assess selected health behaviors of Texas high school and college students. The YRBS was administered during 1993 in paper and pencil form to 6,015 high school students representing 329 classrooms from 78 school districts. A total of 1,408 college students representing 23 college and universities were surveyed by telephone in 1993 using a modified version of YRBS. Texas college students reported a higher percentage who had experienced sexual intercourse (82% versus 55.4%), but Texas high school students reported a younger age of first sexual intercourse. High school students also initiated alcohol consumption at a younger age, although college students were more likely to binge drink (33.5% versus 31%). Regular cigarette use also was higher among college students (25.4% versus 19.3%), but was initiated at a younger age by high school students. Study results indicate that health education programs must begin much earlier than during the high school years. Due to early initiation of negative health behaviors, emphasis must be placed on abstinence and risk-reduction techniques for both populations. PMID:9048329
Describes five successful, ongoing programs that were designed to change the behavior of at-riskyouths, including: Drug Free Youth in Touch; At-Risk Programs Promoting Leisure Education; Youth-in-Action; the Mayor's Night Hoops Program; and Youth Outdoor Adventures. Interviews with program managers pointed to the marketing concept as the most…
Everett, Charlie; Chadwell, Jason; McChesney, Jon C.
This study evaluates associations between online social networking and sexual health behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles. We analyzed survey data from 201 homeless youth accessing services at a Los Angeles agency. Multivariate (regression and logistic) models assessed whether use of (and topics discussed on) online social networking technologies affect HIV knowledge, sexual riskbehaviors, and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). One set of results suggests that using online social networks for partner seeking (compared to not using the networks for seeking partners) is associated with increased sexual riskbehaviors. Supporting data suggest that (1) using online social networks to talk about safe sex is associated with an increased likelihood of having met a recent sex partner online, and (2) having online sex partners and talking to friends on online social networks about drugs and partying is associated with increased exchange sex. However, results also suggest that online social network usage is associated with increased knowledge and HIV/STI prevention among homeless youth: (1) using online social networks to talk about love and safe sex is associated with increased knowledge about HIV, (2) using the networks to talk about love is associated with decreased exchange sex, and (3) merely being a member of an online social network is associated with increased likelihood of having previously tested for STIs. Taken together, this study suggests that online social networking and the topics discussed on these networks can potentially increase and decrease sexual riskbehaviors depending on how the networks are used. Developing sexual health services and interventions on online social networks could reduce sexual riskbehaviors. PMID:20848305
Priority health-riskbehaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among youth and adults, often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. The YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-riskbehaviors among youth and young adults--behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The YRBSS includes a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as state, territorial, and local school-based surveys conducted by education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 33 state surveys, and 16 local surveys conducted among high school students during February through May 1999. In the United States, approximately three fourths of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from only four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1999 national YouthRiskBehavior Survey demonstrate that numerous high school students engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes--16.4% had rarely or never worn a seat belt; during the 30 days preceding the survey, 33.1% had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; 17.3% had carried a weapon during the 30 days preceding the survey; 50.0% had drunk alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey; 26.7% had used marijuana during the 30 days preceding the survey; and 7.8% had attempted suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey. Substantial morbidity and social problems among young persons also result from unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. In 1999, nationwide, 49.9% of high school students had ever had sexual intercourse; 42.0% of sexually active students had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse; and 1.8% had ever injected an illegal drug. Two thirds of all deaths among persons aged > or = 25 years result from only two causes--cardiovascular disease and cancer. The majority of riskbehaviors associated with these two causes of death are initiated during adolescence. In 1999, 34.8% of high school students had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey; 76.1% had not eaten > or = 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables during the 7 days preceding the survey; 16.0% were at risk for becoming overweight; and 70.9% did not attend physical education class daily. These YRBSS data are already being used by health and education officials at national, state, and local levels to analyze and improve policies and programs to reduce priority health-riskbehaviors among youth. The YRBSS data also are being used to measure progress toward achieving 16 national health objectives for 2010 and 3 of the 10 leading health indicators. PMID:10981282
Kann, L; Kinchen, S A; Williams, B I; Ross, J G; Lowry, R; Grunbaum, J A; Kolbe, L J
Purpose We evaluate the efficacy of a short family intervention in reducing sexual riskbehavior, drug use, and delinquent behaviors among homeless youth. Methods A randomized controlled trial of 151 families with a homeless adolescent aged 12 to 17 years. Adolescents were recruited from diverse sites in southern California from March 2006 through June 2009 and assessed at recruitment (baseline), 3, 6, and 12 months later. Families were randomly assigned to an intervention condition with five weekly home-based intervention sessions or a control condition (standard care). Main outcome measures reflect self-reported sexual, substance use and delinquent behaviors over the last 90 days. Results Sexual risk (e.g., mean number of partners) (p < .001), alcohol use (p = .003), hard drug use (p < .001), and delinquent behaviors (p = .001) decreased significantly more over 12 months in the intervention condition compared to the control condition. Marijuana use, however, significantly increased in the intervention condition compared to the control condition (p < .001). Conclusion An intervention to re-engage families of homeless youth has significant benefits in reducing risk over 12 months. PMID:22443839
Milburn, Norweeta G.; Iribarren, Francisco Javier; Rice, Eric; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Solorio, Rosa; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Desmond, Katherine; Lee, Alex; Alexander, Kwame; Maresca, Katherine; Eastmen, Karen; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Duan, Naihua
Identification of youth at risk for or with early psychosis has become the focus of many research and clinical initiatives, as early intervention may be linked to better long-term outcomes. Efforts to facilitate identification have led to the development of several self-report instruments that intend to quickly assess "attenuated" psychosis, potentially screening people for further evaluation. The widely used Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) includes the atypicality scale, a scale that may be useful for risk screening as it is designed to recognize emerging symptoms of psychosis. The current study aimed to evaluate the utility of the BASC-2 for identifying youth at high clinical risk or with early psychosis within a sample of 70 help-seeking participants aged 12-22. Atypicality scores were compared to risk status (low-risk, high-risk or early psychosis) as determined by the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). The relative accuracy of the atypicality scale was evaluated against three self-report screeners specifically designed to identify this population. Results indicate that the BASC-2 atypicality scale may be a useful tool for identifying youth in early stages of psychosis. Moreover, the atypicality scale is comparable if not superior to other specialized risk screening instruments in terms of predictive ability. Given the widespread use of the BASC-2 across educational and mental health settings, evidence for convergent validity between the BASC-2 atypicality scale and SIPS diagnoses has the potential to make screening available to a greater population and facilitate earlier detection and intervention. PMID:24119463
Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Pitts, Steven C; Schiffman, Jason
This descriptive study employed a within-groups analytic approach to examine patterns of sexual riskbehavior and co-occurring general and race/ethnicity-specific risk and protective factors in a community sample of African-American youth (n = 436). Cluster analysis was used to classify young adults by levels of self-reported past year sexual risk…
Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Gil, Andres G.
Evidence has linked residential instability and engagement in high-riskbehaviors. This paper longitudinally examines the relationship between changes in residential stability and changes in HIV riskbehaviors among Montréal street youth (SY). Between April 2006 and May 2007, 419 SY (18-25 years old) were recruited in a cohort study. SY (using Montréal street youth agencies services) were eligible if they had had at least one 24-hour episode of homelessness in the previous 30 days. Baseline and follow-up interviews, carried out every 3 months, included completion of a questionnaire (based on Life History Calendar Technique) assessing daily sleeping arrangements since the last interview, and monthly sexual and drug use behaviors. Using mixed-effects logistic regression method, we examined the association between various riskbehaviors and residential stability, reached when a youth resided in any of the following settings for a whole month: own place; friends'/partner's/parent's place; any types of housing service (excluding emergency shelters). Analyses were carried out controlling for gender, age, education level, lifetime duration of homelessness, childhood sexual trauma, and lifetime mental health disorders. As of January 2009, 360 SY (79% boys) had completed at least one follow-up interview, representing 4,889 months of follow-up. Residential stability was significantly associated with the following: sex exchange (adjusted odd ratio [AOR], 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.37), drug injection (AOR, 0.55; CI, 0.33-0.76), daily alcohol consumption (AOR, 0.58; CI, 0.42-0.74), polydrug consumption (AOR, 0.61; CI, 0.50-0.73), polydrug consumption excluding marijuana (AOR, 0.55; CI, 0.45-0.65), and multiple sex partners (?3 partners; AOR, 0.57; CI, 0.40-0.74). Our results suggest a reciprocal relationship between residential instability and HIV riskbehaviors. This calls for more integrated services combining both individual and structural-level interventions to improve the health of street youth. PMID:21494896
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 YouthRiskBehavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…
Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.
Youth sexual riskbehavior is often described in social terms, and there has been limited attention to date on how measures of the built environment, including access to municipal services, impact sexual riskbehavior, particularly in resource-limited countries. Using the Cape Area Panel Study, we assessed the impact of neighborhood conditions (six single items and a built environment index (BEI)), net of individual socio-demographic factors. The results suggest that built environment factors are associated with sexual riskbehavior. Also, the magnitude of associations between built environment factors and sexual riskbehavior was more pronounced for females than for males. PMID:22704913
Healthy Choices, a four-session motivational interviewing-based intervention, reduces riskbehaviors among US youth living with HIV (YLWH). We randomized 110 Thai YLWH (16–25 years) to receive either Healthy Choices or time-matched health education (Control) over 12 weeks. Riskbehaviors were assessed at baseline, 1, and 6 months post-session. The pilot study was not powered for between-group differences; there were no statistical differences in sexual risks, alcohol use, and antiretroviral adherence between the two groups at any visit. In within-group analyses, Healthy Choices group demonstrated decreases in the proportion of HIV-negative partners (20 vs 8.2 %, P = 0.03) and HIV sexual risk scores (4.3 vs 3.3, P = 0.04), and increased trends in the proportion of protected sex (57 vs 76.3 %, P = 0.07) from baseline to 1 month post-session. These changes were not sustained 6 months later. No changes were observed in Control group. Healthy Choices has potential to improve sexual risks among Thai YLWH. PMID:23325376
Objective: To assess whether adolescents with a history of sexual abuse were more likely than those with no such history to engage in sexual riskbehaviors. Methods: Data for this study were obtained through the 1997 Massachusetts YouthRiskBehavior Survey, a self-report questionnaire administered to a representative sample of 9th through 12th graders (N = 4014) to assess a
Background.?Factors associated with initiation of sexual activity among perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected (PHIV+) youth, and the attendant potential for sexual transmission of antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistant HIV, remain poorly understood. Methods.?We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of PHIV+ youth aged 10–18 years (mean, 13.5 years) enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study between 2007 and 2009. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) were used to collect sexual behavior information. Results.?Twenty-eight percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 23%–33%) (92/330) of PHIV+ youth reported sexual intercourse (SI) (median initiation age, 14 years). Sixty-two percent (57/92) of sexually active youth reported unprotected SI. Among youth who did not report history of SI at baseline, ARV nonadherence was associated with sexual initiation during follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.32–6.25). Youth living with a relative other than their biological mother had higher odds of engaging in unprotected SI than those living with a nonrelative. Thirty-three percent of youth disclosed their HIV status to their first sexual partner. Thirty-nine of 92 (42%) sexually active youth had HIV RNA ?5000 copies/mL after sexual initiation. Viral drug resistance testing, available for 37 of these 39 youth, identified resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 62%, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 57%, protease inhibitors in 38%, and all 3 ARV classes in 22%. Conclusions.?As PHIV+ youth become sexually active, many engage in behaviors that place their partners at risk for HIV infection, including infection with drug-resistant virus. Effective interventions to facilitate youth adherence, safe sex practices, and disclosure are urgently needed. PMID:23139252
Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Mellins, Claude; Kacanek, Deborah; Malee, Kathleen; Allison, Susannah; Hazra, Rohan; Siberry, George K.; Smith, Renee; Paul, Mary; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Seage, George R.
The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "MMWR" contains the following studies: (1) YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance--Selected Steps…
This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school drop-out. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the combined and unique contribution of risk and protective components spanning individual, peer/school, and family predictor domains, including victimization histories. Hierarchical regressions yielded significant overall explanation of violent behaviors as well as unique predictors within each of the three domains. Tests for sex differences and moderating effects suggested that levels of risk and protective factors differed for males and females, although the functional relationships to violence were the same for both sexes. Results are discussed relative to prevention and early intervention programs; particularly the importance of understanding adolescent violent behaviors within a context that addresses stress and distress. PMID:21769283
Objective To examine the transmission behavior among youth living with HIV (YLH), pre- and post-HAART. Methods Two cohorts were recruited: (1) 349 YLH during 1994 to 1996 and (2) 175 YLH during 1999 to 2000, after the wide availability of HAART. Differences in sexual and substance-use risk acts and quality of life were examined. Results Post-HAART YLH were more likely to engage in unprotected sex and substance use, to be more emotionally distressed, and to have lower quality of life than were pre-HAART YLH. Conclusions Targeted interventions for YLH that address reductions in transmission acts and aim to improve quality of life are still needed. PMID:15698983
Lightfoot, Marguerita; Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Comulada, W. Scott; Weiss, Robert
This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 YouthRiskBehavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…
This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 YouthRiskBehavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic performance, depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts and actions, and
Sexual minority status is a key risk factor for suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; however, it has not been studied among transgender youth. Fifty-five transgender youth reported on their life-threatening behaviors. Nearly half of the sample reported having seriously thought about taking their lives and one quarter reported suicide…
Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea YouthRiskBehaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…
Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu
Surveys are the primary information source about adolescents’ health riskbehaviors, but adolescents may not report their behaviors accurately. Survey data are used for formulating adolescent health policy, and inaccurate data can cause mistakes in policy creation and evaluation. The author used test-retest data from the YouthRiskBehavior Survey (United States, 2000) to compare adolescents’ responses to 72 questions about their riskbehaviors at a 2-week interval. Each question was evaluated for prevalence change and 3 measures of unreliability: inconsistency (retraction and apparent initiation), agreement measured as tetrachoric correlation, and estimated error due to inconsistency assessed with a Bayesian method. Results showed that adolescents report their sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco histories more consistently than other riskbehaviors in a 2-week period, opposite their tendency over longer intervals. Compared with other YouthRiskBehavior Survey topics, most sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco items had stable prevalence estimates, higher average agreement, and lower estimated measurement error. Adolescents reported their weight control behaviors more unreliably than other behaviors, particularly problematic because of the increased investment in adolescent obesity research and reliance on annual surveys for surveillance and policy evaluation. Most weight control items had unstable prevalence estimates, lower average agreement, and greater estimated measurement error than other topics. PMID:19363096
This report describes results from the 1997 Utah YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1996 Utah School Health Education Profile (SHEP). The YRBS surveyed 9th-12th graders in a random sample of schools about their behaviors that risk their health. Results indicated that students still engage in behaviors that put them at risk for injury or…
Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce riskbehavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a 12-session behavioral intervention incorporating individual and group components was designed to increase HIV knowledge, disease management and risk reduction skills, and motivate healthy lifestyles among HIV-infected adolescents. A standardized protocol was implemented at three sites in the northeastern United States. One hundred sixty-six HIV-positive youth, aged 13-21 (mean = 16.8 years), enrolled in the study were randomized to receive either the intervention (n = 83) or standard of care (n = 83). Participants were predominantly of minority race/ethnicity (94% African American or Hispanic); 53% were female and 59.6% were perinatally infected. Perinatally infected youth were significantly more likely to be young, had experienced HIV Class C-related symptoms and had CD4-positive T lymphocyte counts of fewer than 200 cells (all p values < .01). The mean number of sessions attended was 9.4, with most (83.3%) participants attending at least half (? 6) of the intervention sessions (86% perinatally infected, 78.6% behaviorally infected, p = .5). Participants' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics mirrored those of the larger HIV adolescent cohort in the United States Relatively high attendance rates suggest that youth were receptive to the program and its content. Through use of multiple intervention modalities, Adolescent Impact was able to accommodate a diverse group of clinic-attending HIV-positive youth and address the need for a compact intervention for use in the clinical setting. PMID:21696241
Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence
Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth are surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding the sexual development of PHIV+ youth is vital to providing them with developmentally appropriate HIV prevention programs. Using pooled data (N = 417) from two longitudinal studies focused on HIV among youth (51% female; 39% HIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+), we compared the rate of sexual onset during adolescence across four youth-caregiver combinations: PHIV+ youth with HIV+ caregivers (12%); PHIV+ youth with HIV? caregivers (27%); HIV? youth with HIV+ caregivers (34%); and HIV? youth with HIV-caregivers (27%). Youth with HIV? caregivers were more likely than other youth-caregiver groups to have had their sexual onset. Youth with HIV+ caregivers reported a slower rate of onset of penetrative sex across the adolescent years. We discuss our findings by highlighting the role that both youth and caregiver HIV status play in the onset of sexual behavior across adolescence. PMID:21797715
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude A.
Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth are surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding the sexual development of PHIV+ youth is vital to providing them with developmentally appropriate HIV-prevention programs. Using pooled data (N = 417) from two longitudinal studies focused on HIV among youth (51% female; 39% HIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+), the rate of sexual onset during adolescence across four youth-caregiver combinations was compared: PHIV+ youth with HIV+caregivers (12%), PHIV+ youth with HIV- caregivers (27%), HIV- youth with HIV+caregivers (34%), and HIV- youth with HIV- caregivers (27%). Youth with HIV- caregivers were more likely than other youth-caregiver groups to have had their sexual onset. Youth with HIV+ caregivers reported a slower rate of onset of penetrative sex across the adolescent years. Findings are discussed by highlighting the role that both youth and caregiver HIV status play in the onset of sexual behavior across adolescence. PMID:21797715
Bauermeister, José A; Elkington, Katherine S; Robbins, Reuben N; Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude A
This study examines whether parental investment and membership in social clubs are associated with safer sexual behaviors among South African youth. Participants comprised 4,800 randomly selected adolescents age 14 to 22 living in the Cape Town area in 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between measures of parental investment and associational membership with reported condom use at first
We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…
Tobacco use is very common among Vietnamese adolescents and youth. Despite the fact that tobacco is very harmful for health, the prevalence of current smokers among Vietnamese adolescents\\/youth is still high, especially in male adolescents and youth. In this thesis, I want to draw a brief over view about the current smoking behavior among adolescents\\/youth at CHILILAB - a research
Background Adolescence is an important stage of life for establishing healthy behaviors, attitudes, and lifestyles that contribute to current and future health. Health riskbehavior is one indicator of health of young people that may serve both as a measure of health over time as well as a target for health policies and programs. This study examined the prevalence and distribution of youth health riskbehaviors from five riskbehavior domains–aggression, victimization, depression and suicidal ideation, substance use, and sexual behaviors–among public secondary school students in central El Salvador. Methods We employed a multi-stage sampling design in which school districts, schools, and classrooms were randomly selected. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire based on the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention's YouthRiskBehavior Survey. Sixteen schools and 982 students aged 12–20 years participated in the study. Results Health riskbehaviors with highest prevalence rates included: engagement in physical fight (32.1%); threatened/injured with a weapon (19.9%); feelings of sadness/hopelessness (32.2%); current cigarette use (13.6%); and no condom use at last sexual intercourse (69.1%). Urban and male students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of most youthriskbehaviors; female students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of feelings of sadness/hopelessness (35.6%), suicidal ideation (17.9%) and, among the sexually experienced, forced sexual intercourse (20.6%). Conclusion A high percentage of Salvadoran adolescents in this sample engaged in health riskbehaviors, warranting enhanced adolescent health promotion strategies. Future health promotion efforts should target: the young age of sexual intercourse as well as low condom use among students, the higher prevalence of riskbehaviors among urban students, and the important gender differences in riskbehaviors, including the higher prevalence of reported feelings of sadness, suicidal ideation and forced sexual intercourse among females and higher sexual intercourse and substance use among males. Relevance of findings within the Salvadoran and the cross-national context and implications for health promotion efforts are discussed. PMID:16608519
Purpose To examine the association between sexual riskbehaviors and substance use, as well as the impact of caregiver characteristics and perceived peer norms among perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected and perinatally HIV-infected youth. Methods Using baseline data from a multi-site study of psychosocial behaviors in perinatally HIV-exposed urban youth (N = 340; 61% HIV+; 51% female; ages 9-16). We conducted interviews with youth-caregiver dyads. Using hierarchical logistic regression, we explored the association between lifetime sexual riskbehaviors, cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other drug use, caregiver relationship characteristics and peer influence. Results Cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana were significantly associated with HIV sexual riskbehavior; no youth reported other drug use. After accounting for peer norms, the relationship between substance use and risky sexual behaviors was somewhat diminished. Irrespective of substance use, perception that more peers were involved in risky sex was associated with sexual riskbehavior. Caregiver relationship characteristics had no effect on the association between substance use and risky sexual behavior. In all analyses, we found no effect across HIV status. Conclusion Regardless of HIV status, perinatally-exposed youth who use substances are more likely to engage in sexual riskbehaviors. While the current study shows that peer influence on risky sexual behavior is more robust, caregivers are still important. The pediatric and adolescent HIV community must develop multilevel prevention initiatives that target youth, their peers and families. PMID:19628139
Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude A.
Objective To examine the maintenance of effects of Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) shown to improve riskbehaviors and viral load in youth living with HIV (YLH) immediately posttreatment. Methods Sixty-five youth (ages 16-25 years) were randomized to Healthy Choices or a waitlist control. Frequency of substance use, frequency of unprotected intercourse, and viral load were obtained at baseline, 3, and
Sylvie Naar-King; Phebe Lam; Bo Wang; Kathryn Wright; Jeffrey T. Parsons; Maureen A. Frey
We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse–funded study.The results of our analysis of the cocaine use and delinquency parallel-process
Psychological stress reactivity is associated with atherogenesis in youth. The novel hypothesis is that stress promotes atherogenic behaviors, including snacking on energy-dense food and reducing physical activity, and increases adiposity. Stress also increases systolic blood pressure cardiovascular reactivity, which also may be atherogenic. Exercise dampens stress reactivity and may be one mechanism by which it protects against the development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25061998
Roemmich, James N; Lambiase, Maya J; Balantekin, Katherine N; Feda, Denise M; Dorn, Joan
This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N=849) of adolescents at-risk for school dropout. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the combined and unique contribution of risk and protective components spanning individual, peer\\/school, and family
Patricia Logan-Greene; Paula S. Nurius; Jerald R. Herting; Carole L. Hooven; Elaine Walsh; Elaine Adams Thompson
This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school dropout. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the…
The growing rate of violence and aggression among children in the West Jackson Community continues to perpetuate a cycle of at-riskbehavior. This cycle has contributed to an increase in chronic behavior patterns such as delinquency, depression, drug and alcohol abuse, school failure and incarceration. High levels of exposure to violent and aggressive behavior often characterize youth in this community's
Homeless and runaway youth face a variety of health, risks, including those related to substance abuse and use of unsterile\\u000a needles. During 1998–1999, we recruited 201 Minneapolis homeless youths aged 15–22 years; these youths were interviewed by\\u000a experienced street outreach workers from settings where street youth were known to congregate. Respondents spent a median\\u000a of 6 months in the previous
Few studies have examined the context of a wide range of riskbehaviors among emerging adults (ages 18–25 years), approximately\\u000a half of whom in the USA enroll in post-secondary educational institutions. The objective of this research was to examine behavioral\\u000a patterning in weight behaviors (diet and physical activity), substance use, sexual behavior, stress, and sleep among undergraduate\\u000a students. Health survey data
Melissa Nelson Laska; Keryn E. Pasch; Katherine Lust; Mary Story; Ed Ehlinger
Background Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. Results The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Conclusions Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths. PMID:23861756
The present study examined relationships between CAGE alcohol risk scores and predisposing factors for alcohol use, current alcohol use, and behavioral consequences in a large sample of secondary students. Students completed the CAGE, measures of demographics, potential predisposing factors, and consequences of alcohol use. More than 18% of students screened positive for potential alcohol risk using traditional CAGE criteria, and
Joe Tomaka; Rebekah A. Salaiz; Stormy Morales-Monks; Sharon Thompson; Sarah McKinnon; Kathleen ORourke
A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' riskbehavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk…
Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride
Multi-problem youth undergoing treatment for substance use problems are at high behavioralrisk for exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Specific risk factors include childhood adversities such as maltreatment experiences and subsequent forms of psychopathology. The current study used a person-centered analytical approach to examine how childhood maltreatment experiences were related to patterns of psychiatric
Multi-problem youth undergoing treatment for substance use problems are at high behavioralrisk for exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Specific risk factors include childhood adversities such as maltreatment experiences and subsequent forms of psychopathology. The current study used a person-centered analytical approach to examine how childhood maltreatment experiences were related to patterns of psychiatric
Brief self-report screening can help facilitate early identification of individuals at risk for or in early stages of psychosis. Existing screening tools focus on self-reported attenuated positive symptoms to detect potential risk; however, parent reports may also be helpful for assessing symptoms, especially in younger patients. Recent evidence has shown that the "atypicality" scale within the self-report form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) may be useful for identifying high-riskyouth within a more clinically comprehensive and potentially minimally stigmatizing format. The BASC-2 parent report form also includes the atypicality scale, but no research has investigated the relation of this scale to psychosis risk. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the association of parent along with youth reports of BASC-2 atypicality with attenuated positive symptoms as assessed by the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS), in a sample of help-seeking adolescents (n=63). Results indicate that both parent and youth reports of atypicality predict clinician-rated symptoms. Moreover, the combination of parent and youth report significantly improved prediction of SIPS scores over either single-informant scale. These findings suggest that parent report scales, as ascertained through part of a larger, commonly used measure, may help identify youth at risk for psychosis, particularly if used in conjunction with youth self-report. PMID:24630261
Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Pitts, Steven C; Bussell, Kristin; Schiffman, Jason
We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury. PMID:24328640
Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L
The present study examined relationships between CAGE alcohol risk scores and predisposing factors for alcohol use, current alcohol use, and behavioral consequences in a large sample of secondary students. Students completed the CAGE, measures of demographics, potential predisposing factors, and consequences of alcohol use. More than 18% of…
Universal screening has been routinely advised for determining the presence of problems for initiating problem-solving processes and models. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two screener development methods on the validity of score inferences for two teacher screeners of child behavioral and emotional risk. The reliability and…
Although problematic parenting has been consistently associated with behavior problems in youths, prospective links between early parenting and childhood behavior problems are less well established. This study examined the association of maternal responsiveness (MRes) during infancy and behavior problems in middle childhood (N = 77). MRes was significantly associated with disruptive behavior problems but was unrelated to attention problems. Absence
Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are riskbehaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 YouthRiskBehavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581
Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), all of whom have had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from the home of their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having a biological mother who has experienced recurrent depression. Study analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls’ trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point across the study period. Results suggest increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for antisocial behavior, for girls at familial risk for depression, but decreasing trajectories for girls in foster care. A similar pattern of results was noted for antisocial behavior trajectories, controlling for depressive symptoms. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the identification of family level promotive factors aimed at reducing negative developmental trajectories among high-riskyouth. PMID:25422973
Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan
Multifaceted, sustained efforts are needed to reduce early pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among high-risk adolescents. An important area for research is testing youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful and few efforts have rigorously evaluated a dual approach of building protective factors while addressing risk. This article presents findings from a pilot
Renee E. Sieving; Debra H. Bernat; Michael D. Resnick; Jennifer Oliphant; Sandra Pettingell; Shari Plowman; Carol Skay
Using official school data, this study examined a sample of 447 at-risk students enrolled over a 10-year period in a youth-based mentoring program. The primary objective of the program was to ensure high school graduation. Participants were identified by indices of academic and school behaviors that rendered them less likely to graduate from high…
A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 YouthRiskBehavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…
This report describes the results of two statewide surveys: (1) The 1991 YouthRiskBehavior Survey; and (2) The 1992 New Mexico School Health Education Survey. These findings are intended to be used by educators across New Mexico to help focus the development of effective school-based comprehensive health education programs. Childrens' health…
Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.
This report summarizes the major results of a youthriskbehavior survey administered to 1,549 students (grades 9-12) in 14 New Mexico schools identified as predominantly "Native American." The purpose of this report is to stimulate useful discussions into ways to increase informed support for effective, school-based comprehensive health education…
Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.
This report describes the results of two statewide surveys conducted during Spring, 1991: the 1992 Utah YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Utah School Health Education Survey (SHES). Sixty-three schools were randomly selected to participate in the state-level YRBS, and all 311 public and private schools with students in grades 7…
We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…
This study examined the relationship between ethnic pride, self-esteem and adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and engage in sexual intercourse. It also explored the influence of maternal levels of ethnic pride and self-esteem as indirect predictors of adolescent risk intentions. Middle school youth were randomly selected from six schools in the Bronx, NY. A total of 1,538 adolescents and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed self-administered questionnaires about self-esteem and ethnic pride. Adolescents completed self-administered questionnaires about their intentions to engage in riskbehaviors, as well as items about community connectedness, language spoken at home, self-esteem and ethnic pride. Results suggest that adolescent ethnic pride had protective effects on risk intentions through the mediator of self-esteem as well as independent of it. Maternal ethnic pride was associated with adolescent ethnic pride and, in turn, risk intentions, but the effect was weak in magnitude. Speaking Spanish at home was not significantly associated with ethnic pride. Both age and gender were related to ethnic pride, with ethnic pride diminishing as adolescents became older and females having higher levels of ethnic pride than males. PMID:19475509
Background Ethiopia is a developing country with a demographic profile dominated by young population with in the ages of 15–24, constituting one third of the total population. Only little has been explored about the role of parenting process and peers in protecting youths from risky sexual behaviors. Thus, this study tried to assess risky sexual behaviors, risk perception and the influences of family and peers for possible interventions among youths in western Ethiopia. Methods The study applied a comparative cross-sectional design triangulated with qualitative study. A pre-tested, structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to gather data. SPSS software version 20 was used to perform descriptive statistics, univariate, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Over one third of in-school and 41.4% out-of-school youths reported unprotected sex during the 12 months period prior to interview. More than one third of in-school youths (37.1%) reported to have two and more than two lifetime sexual partners compared to 32.6% of out-of-school youths. Out-of-school youths feel that they are at higher risk of getting HIV than in-school youths (AOR?=?2.93; 95% CI: 1.45, 4.35). Youths who had high family connectedness were less likely to commence sexual activity and have multiple sexual partners than their counterparts (AOR?=?1.98; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94) and (AOR?=?2.79; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.43) respectively. Having pressure from peer to have sex was significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners (AOR?=?2.82; 95% CI: 1.62, 2.49). Conclusion A substantial proportion of out-of-school youths engaged in risky sexual behaviors than in-school youths. Parents and peers play a role in shaping the behavior of youths. Consequently, the dimension of good parental process and positive peer factors has to be strengthened. PMID:24690489
Drawing on data from three major national surveys of teenagers's risk-taking behavior conducted by the US government and University-based social scientists, in June 2000 the Urban Institute released this report assessing the levels of teenagers's involvement in one or more identified risk-taking behaviors. These behaviors include "regular alcohol use, binge drinking, regular tobacco use, marijuana use, other illegal drug use, fighting, weapon carrying, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and risky sexual activity." The report indicates that risk-taking behavior has actually declined overall among adolescents from 1990 to 1997. However, for one demographic group, Hispanics, the levels have almost doubled. The reports also analyze teenagers's participation in "desirable family, school, or community activities" and conclude that "many risk-taking teens earn good grades, go to church, play sports, or spend quality time with their parents," suggesting, according to the researchers, that a more complicated understanding of vulnerable teens is required than the typical good/bad stereotypes often circulated.
Boggess, Scott.; Lindberg, Laura D.; Porter, Laura.
This study examined the reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) for assessing adolescent riskbehaviors among a sample of 98 inner-city African American adolescents (M age = 14.8, SD = 1.5). In addition to a relation with sensation seeking, BART-Y responding evidenced a significant relation with a composite of riskbehaviors across substance use, sexual behavior, delinquency, and health domains. BART-Y responding also explained unique variance in a composite of these riskbehaviors above and beyond demographic variables and risk-related personality constructs, including sensation seeking and impulsivity. PMID:17206886
Advancements in the delivery of community-based services and tight utilization management of high-cost treatment options result in youths with serious behavior problems receiving intervention in lower levels of care than was true ten or fifteen years ago. This shift in where services tend to be delivered necessitates enhancement of risk assessment…
New Mexico ranks high in youth violence, substance abuse, poverty, teen pregnancies, and school dropout rates. In response, Western New Mexico University developed a special master's program in bilingual special education, attended primarily by minority-group school personnel, and implemented a program to address the cycle of poverty by training…
This study examined the reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) for assessing adolescent riskbehaviors among a sample of 98 inner-city African American adolescents (M age = 14.8, SD = 1.5). In addition to a relation with sensation seeking, BART-Y responding evidenced a significant relation with a…
Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors appear to be quite common in youth, and overweight youth have been identified as a subset of the population at particularly high risk for endorsing such symptoms. Overweight and eating disorder (ED) symptomatology independently confer significant threats to one's physical and psychosocial health, showing strong links with body weight gain and risk for ED development.
Andrea B. Goldschmidt; Vandana Passi Aspen; Meghan M. Sinton; Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Denise E. Wilfley
... be prevented. Youth across America are affected by suicide, be it in families, at school, or in their own lives. The cost is immeasurable, but help is available. Friends are often the ... where to find help. For 15-24 year-olds, suicide was the 2nd leading cause of death in ...
Sensation seeking, anxiety sensitivity, and hopelessness are personality risk factors for alcohol use disorders, each associated with specific risky drinking motives in adolescents. We developed a set of interventions and manuals that were designed to intervene at the level of personality risk and associated maladaptive coping strategies,…
Conrod, Patricia J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Comeau, Nancy; Maclean, A. Michael
While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8-2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality. PMID:24768228
There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit strength" as…
Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein
Little is known about the course and outcomes of adolescent gambling. This prospective study describes findings from a 3-wave (Time 1 (T1), Time 2 (T2), and Time 3 (T3)) assessment of gambling behaviors among youth (N 305). Stable rates of any gambling and regular gambling (weekly or daily) were observed across T1, T2, and T3. The rate of at-risk gambling
Ken C. Winters; Randy D. Stinchfield; Andria Botzet; Nicole Anderson
Associations between individual- and family-level psychosocial factors and sexual behavior were examined among 325 adolescents\\u000a ages 10–18 in rural Kenya. History of sexual activity was reported by 51% of males and 30% of females. Among those reporting\\u000a sex within the past year, 64% of males and 32% of females had multiple partners; 85% of males and 54% of females reported
Eve S. Puffer; Christina S. Meade; Anya S. Drabkin; Sherryl A. Broverman; Rose A. Ogwang-Odhiambo; Kathleen J. Sikkema
This article describes the results of a study on interagency collaboration required to make major systemic changes in order to address the needs of emotionally and behaviorally disturbed youth. Interviews were conducted with practitioners from a cross-section of agencies that worked with high-risk gang youth. The intent was to examine both the…
The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and were more likely to have HIV risk and anti-social peers. A longer time homeless predicted fewer pro-social peers, more anti-social peers, and more HIV risk peers. Heterosexual youth reported fewer HIV risk peers and more pro-social peers. Youth recruited at agencies were more likely to report pro-social peers. Having pro-social peers predicted less HIV sex riskbehavior and less anti-social behavior. Having HIV risk peers predicted all problem behavior outcomes. Anti-social peers predicted more anti-social behavior. Once the association between anti-social and HIV risk peers was accounted for independently, having anti-social peers did not independently predict sex or drug riskbehaviors. PMID:18076981
Risk and protective factors predictive of adolescent problem behaviors such as substance abuse and delinquency are promising targets for preventive intervention. Community planners should assess and target risk and protective factors when designing prevention programs. This study describes the development, reliability, and validity of a self-report survey instrument for adolescents ages 11 to 18 that measures an array of risk
Michael W. Arthur; J. David Hawkins; John A. Pollard; Richard F. Catalano; A. J. Baglioni
Group work is a useful approach for working with the “youth-at-risk”. Common characteristics of unattached youth groups are identified in this article. Also, several principles of working with this clientele in groups are suggested.
Like many other southern states, Alabama faces serious social and economic challenges. The 1993 YouthRiskBehavior Survey, undertaken to assess the prevalence of health-riskbehaviors among students grades 9 through 12 across the United States, found that of all Alabama students: 18.2% reported that someone had offered, sold or given them illegal…
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Washington, DC. School Improvement Programs.
Using data from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,500 youth Internet users (ages 10 to 17), this study explores differences in Internet use characteristics between high riskyouth and other Internet users. Those youth who engaged in aggressive behavior online and those who used the Internet on a cell phone were about twice
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18). We analyzed national data from the Korea YouthRiskBehavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was <7 hours, and when the time of sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years. PMID:24015253
Kwon, Jeoung A; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12–18). We analyzed national data from the Korea YouthRiskBehavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007–2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was <7 hours, and when the time of sleep was later than 24?00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years. PMID:24015253
Kwon, Jeoung A.; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol
There has been a surge in the rates of adolescents who are becoming infected with HIV. This study of 214 at risk clients being treated on an inpatient psychiatric hospitalization basis examines why such clients continue to engage in high-riskbehaviors. Results and suggestions for a psychoeducational curriculum for professionals are included.…
This study investigated the relationship between level of stress in middle and high school students aged 12–18 and risk of atopic dermatitis. Data from the Sixth Korea YouthRiskBehavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-VI), a cross-sectional study among 74,980 students in 800 middle schools and high schools with a response rate of 97.7%, were analyzed. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis with severity. A total of 5,550 boys and 6,964 girls reported having been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. Younger students were more likely to have atopic dermatitis. Interestingly, the educational level of parents was found to be associated with having atopic dermatitis and having more severe condition. In particular, girls with mothers with at least college education had a 41% higher risk of having atopic dermatitis and severe atopic condition (odds ratio (OR))?=?1.41, 95% CI, 1.22–1.63; P<0.0001) compared with those with mothers who had attended middle school at most. Similar trend was shown among both boys and girls for their father's education level. The stress level was found to be significantly associated with the risk of atopic dermatitis. Compared to boys with who reported “no stress”, boys with “very high” stress had 46% higher the risk of having more severe atopic dermatitis (OR?=?1.46, 95% CI, 1.20–1.78; P<0.0001), 44% higher (OR?=?1.44, 95% CI, 1.19–1.73; P<0.0001) with “high” stress, and 21% higher (OR?=?1.21, 95% CI, 1.00–1.45; P?=?0.05) with “moderate” stress. In contrast, we found no statistically significant relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis in girls. This study suggests that stress and parents' education level were associated with atopic dermatitis. Specifically, degree of stress is positively correlated with likelihood of being diagnosed with this condition and increasing the severity. PMID:23940513
Kwon, Jeoung A.; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Sohee
Study examines the relationship between sexual orientation and youth suicide risk. The suicide risk demonstrated by sexual minorities in this study was no greater than that of their heterosexual peers. Youth who reported more external support demonstrated lower overall suicide risk and, specifically, lower levels of hostility, hopelessness, and…
Examines national trends in the consequence of youth and adult behavior in four areas: violent crime arrests, violent deaths, total births, and alcohol-indicated fatal traffic crashes. Statistics indicate that youth mirror parents and society, responding better to measures which reduce problem behavior in both youth and adults. (SM)
This study examined multiple risk factor models of links among callous-unemotional traits, aggression beliefs, social information\\u000a processing, impulsivity, and aggressive behavior in a sample of 150 antisocial adolescents. Consistent with past research,\\u000a results indicated that beliefs legitimizing aggression predicted social information processing biases and that social information\\u000a processing biases mediated the effect of beliefs on aggressive behavior. Callous-unemotional traits accounted
Timothy R. Stickle; Neil M. Kirkpatrick; Lauren N. Brush
Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youthriskbehaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and riskbehaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths’ participation in religious activities from a parent or caretaker. Based on a national random sample
This investigation examines teacher-student relationships among African American youth from low-income backgrounds (N = 193). Students and their teachers completed measures of teacher-student relationship quality and measures pertaining to emotional, behavioral, and school-related adjustment. Results indicated that African American youth who fell…
Many programs have been developed to help schools enhance their students' health and reduce the prevalence of problem behaviors such as drug use, violence, and high-risk sex. How should educators make selections among these? This article describes criteria based on theory, re- search, and best educational practice that identify key social and emotional learning (SEL) compe- tencies and program features
John W. Payton; Dana M. Wardlaw; Patricia A Graczyk; Michelle R. Bloodworth; Carolyn J. Tompsett; Roger P. Weissberg
This article outlines several preventive health strategies for reducing the health risks of homeless youth related to emotional distress, alcohol and other drug use/abuse, risky sex, and victimization, all of which are well documented as major health risks for homeless youth living on the street. These health risks interrupt normal adolescent development and are primary obstacles to exiting the street culture and lifestyle. Research indicates that risk exposures among adolescents can be moderated and/or buffered by a focus on individual strengths and environmental protective factors such as community support and mentoring. PMID:14734963
The acquisition of affect regulation skills is often impaired or delayed in youth with mental health problems but the relationship between affect dysregulation and riskbehaviors has not been well studied. Baseline data from adolescents (N =418; ages 13–19) recruited from therapeutic school settings examined the relationship between affect dysregulation, substance use, self-cutting, and sexual riskbehavior. Analyses of covariance demonstrated that adolescents who did not use condoms at last sex, ever self-cut, attempted suicide, used alcohol and other drugs and reported less condom use self-efficacy when emotionally aroused were significantly more likely (p < .01) to report greater difficulty with affect regulation than peers who did not exhibit these behaviors. General patterns of difficulty with affect regulation may be linked to HIV riskbehavior, including condom use at last sex. HIV prevention strategies for youth in mental health treatment should target affect regulation in relation to multiple riskbehaviors. PMID:22669595
Once believed to be a poor inner city neighborhood characteristic, youth violence and crime are now recognized as problems in rural areas as well (Osgood and Chambers 2000). Studies on their etiology remain scarce, particularly with a focus on minority youth. Given the importance of individual characteristics and a positive future orientation (educational aspirations) during adolescence, the current study tested
ELIZABETH TREJOS-CASTILLO; ALEXANDER T. VAZSONYI; DUSTY D. JENKINS
A study found that youth and caregiver mental health problem have greater impact than key environmental factors and family functioning on sex and drug use riskbehaviors in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (PHIV+) and PHIV- youths. No differences in the rates of sexual riskbehavior and substance use were observed between…
Mellins, Claude A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Dolezal, Curtis; McKay, Mary; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Abrams, Elaine J.
"After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The intermediaries--Boston After…
Objective As perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth enter adolescence, they are at high risk for poor behavioral and health outcomes. This study examines relationships between youth mental health problems and sexual and substance use riskbehavior, the impact of caregiver mental health and family functioning on youth mental health and riskbehavior outcomes, and the role of youth HIV status in this process. Method Participants were recruited from four medical centers. Individual interviews were administered to 193 PHIV+ and 127 perinatally HIV exposed, but uninfected (PHIV?) 9–16 year old boys and girls and their primary caregivers. Participants were primarily African American and Latino. The interview assessed child sexual and drug riskbehavior, child and caregiver mental health and family functioning. Results Exploratory latent-variable structural equation modeling revealed no differences in rates of sexual riskbehavior or substance use between PHIV+ and PHIV? youth. However, adolescent mental health was significantly associated with sexual riskbehavior and substance use. Caregiver mental health was associated with youth mental health and indirectly with sexual riskbehavior and drug use through its impact on youth mental health. Family functioning did not significantly predict youth outcomes. Conclusions Over and above other key environmental factors and family functioning, youth and caregiver mental health problems are related to sex and drug use riskbehaviors in PHIV+ and PHIV-youth. Given high rates of youth and caregiver mental health problems in this population, family-based mental health interventions may be a key component of HIV prevention programs for perinatally-HIV-exposed youth. PMID:19564801
Mellins, Claude A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; McKay, Mary; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Abrams, Elaine J.
Background: Adolescents with asthma are at risk for psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to determine whether high school students with asthma are at increased risk for bullying in school and cyberspace, and to explore the role of depressive symptoms in moderating this association. Methods: A secondary data analysis was…
Gibson-Young, Linda; Martinasek, Mary P.; Clutter, Michiko; Forrest, Jamie
Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual riskbehaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…
Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.
Medical record abstraction was conducted at an ethnic-specific mental health outpatient clinic to identify correlates of suicidal behaviors in a sample of 285 Asian American youths. Some risk factors, such as parent-child conflict and age, which have been associated with suicidality in majority group youths, predicted suicidality in this sample, whereas other risk factors, such as gender, did not generalize to this sample. Acculturation interacted with the risk factor of parent-child conflict to predict suicidality. Less acculturated Asian youths were at proportionally greater risk for suicidality under conditions of high parent-child conflict than were their more acculturated counterparts. This finding underscores the importance of culture as a context for determining the relevance of stressors for potentiating psychopathology. PMID:12143098
Lau, Anna S; Jernewall, Nadine M; Zane, Nolan; Myers, Hector F
Commissioned papers by a work group on risk factors for youth suicide, which examined environmental, behavioral, socio-cultural, biological, and psychological factors associated with an increased likelihood of suicide among young people are presented in this document. The following papers are presented: (1) "Sociodemographic, Epidemiologic, and…
This Independent Learning Project (ILP) discusses the best practices in educational technology to improve the behavior, instruction, and learning of at-riskyouth, for whom technology offers unique opportunities. Research is compiled from numerous scholarly print and online sources. A guide for teachers provides detailed strategies, software…
Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…
Policy reform for at-riskyouth is complicated by involvement of various service sectors. Issues related to coordinating systems of care in a dynamic policy environment are not new, but surprisingly little has been written to guide practitioners and policymakers in addressing them (Friedman in "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"…
McCarter, Susan A.; Haber, Mason G.; Kazemi, Donna
Objectives. We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City YouthRiskBehavior Survey (n?=?8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results. The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions. Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812
Using data from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,500 youth Internet users (ages 10 to 17), this study explores differences in Internet use characteristics between high riskyouth and other Internet users. Those youth who engaged in aggressive behavior online and those who used the Internet on a cell phone were about twice as likely to be classified as high risk (having experienced high parent conflict or child maltreatment) as compared to other Internet users. Those youth who talked with known friends online were significantly less likely to be included in the high risk group. Controlling for demographic and Internet use characteristics, youth who received an aggressive sexual solicitation were almost 2.5 times as likely to report experiencing physical abuse, sexual abuse or high parent conflict. Implications for prevention are discussed, including avenues for reaching high risk populations of youth. PMID:18349302
African American youth residing in low income urban neighborhoods are at increased risk of experiencing negative life events in multiple domains, increasing their risk for internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, little is known about youth's differential responses to life event stress, or protective processes and coping strategies for…
Sanchez, Yadira M.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele
Though official data document that Hispanic youth are at a great risk for early sexual intercourse, STDs, and teen pregnancy, only few etiological studies have been conducted on Hispanic youth; almost no work has examined potential generational differences in these behaviors, and thus, these behaviors may have been mistakenly attributed to…
Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.
Both clinical and epidemiological literature point to elevated rates of suicidal behaviors in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth (GLBY). Recent North American and New Zealand studies of large populations (especially the US YouthRiskBehavior Surveys from several states) indicate that gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents (males in particular) can have rates of serious suicide attempts at least four times
Theoretical models concerning how neighborhood contexts adversely influence juvenile antisocial behavior frequently focus on urban neighborhoods; however, previous studies comparing urban and rural areas on the prevalence of youth antisocial behavior have yielded mixed results. The current study uses longitudinal data on the offspring of a…
Harden, K. Paige; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol; Turkheimer, Eric; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.
This study examines the rates of depressive symptoms and service use among caregivers whose children receive treatment for disruptive behavior disorders. Descriptive analyses examined preliminary baseline data from the Family Groups for Urban Youth with Disruptive Behaviors study for 212 caregivers to determine rates of caregiver depressive symptoms and lifetime mental health service use. Findings indicate that caregivers manifest substantially
Geetha Gopalan; Kara Dean-Assael; Kathryn Klingenstein; Anil Chacko; Mary M. Mckay
Objective: We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youths and parents. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-riskyouths identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools…
Gould, Madelyn S.; Marrocco, Frank A.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kleinman, Marjorie; Amakawa, Lia; Altschuler, Elizabeth
CONTEXT: Youth in alternative high schools engage in risky sexual behavior at higher rates than do their peers in regu- lar schools, placing themselves at an increased risk of sexually transmitted disease and unintended pregnancy. Family connectedness is associated with reduced adolescent sexual risk-taking, although this association has not been tested among alternative school youth. METHODS: A sample of 976
Christine M. Markham; Susan R. Tortolero; S. Liliana Escobar-Chaves; Guy S. Parcel; Ronald Harrist; Robert C. Addy
Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. This study examined the association between several common youthriskbehaviors, including cigarette use among Asian American adolescents, using data (N=408) from the 2001 YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS). The weighted univariate and multivariate logistic…
Kwon, Harry T.; Wang, Min Qi; Valmidiano, Lillian L.
This information sheet addresses suicide prevention among youth in foster care. It is written for professionals and volunteers who interact with foster children or work with their caregivers. Every year in the United States, more than 4,800 children, teens, and young adults ages 0–24 die by suicide (CDC, 2010). Approximately 175,800 others are treated in emergency departments for injuries from self-harm (CDC, 2012). Although suicide can occur in any family, youth in foster care are at higher risk for attempting or seriously considering suicide (Pilowsky & Wu, 2006). Fortunately, there are steps that foster caregivers can take to identify and get help for youth who are at risk. Many young people who are thinking of killing themselves show warning signs. Knowing the warning signs and risk factors can help foster caregivers intervene and get the young person connected with assistance. Foster caregivers can also help address underlying mental health issues and strengthen the factors that protect against suicide. Suicidal Behavior and Youth in Foster Care Most youth who die by suicide have a mental disorder, such as depression, or a substance use disorder.
Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health riskbehaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youthriskbehaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…
Five articles address current teaching and programming practices in the education and treatment of behaviorally disordered youth. In "Down the Up Staircase: The Teacher as Therapist," P. Nichols explores the premise that teachers should not limit their potential as child helpers by excluding counseling and psychotherapeutic interventions.…
This paper reviews research which discusses the risk and protective functions that families and other caregivers provide in influencing the development of aggressive behavior in youth. Currently, there is an emphasis on providing violence prevention programs in the school environment, typically with little parental or caregiver involvement. By enhancing the role of families and caregivers in youth violence prevention programs,
Le'Roy E. Reese; Elizabeth M. Vera; Thomas R. Simon; Robin M. Ikeda
Examination of data from 1985 visits by 110 runaway and 655 non-runaway youth to an outpatient medical clinic reveals that runaway youth are at greater risk for a wide variety of medical problems and of health-compromising behaviors including suicide, depression, prostitution, and drug use. (Author/BJV)
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea YouthRiskBehaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity.
Increasingly, youth placed in residential treatment facilities demonstrate violent. aaaressive behavior. Research on national, regional and local levels consistently demonstrate that youth referred for residential placement evidence violent and aggressive ideation and behavior. Tpically, such youth have experienced abuse and come from families of origin characterized by violence as well as probable sexual and substance abuse. Trends in the provision
This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth, and that multiple-form victimization held the greatest jeopardy to development. Youth with multiple-form victimization reported significantly elevated risk factors (emotional distress, life stress, suicide risk, risky behaviors) and lower protective factors (social support, school engagement, family structure) than both single-form and never-exposed youth. Implications are discussed for preventive and early intervention programming and for examining the transition of at-riskyouth into young adulthood. PMID:21494415
Nurius, Paula S; Russell, Patricia L; Herting, Jerald R; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A
Purpose: To: (a) identify risk and protective factors for behaviors that expose Zambian youth to risk of HIV infection and, (b) assess whether research findings from the United States concerning protective factors in “high-risk” environments might apply to other settings.Methods: A community-based sample of 2328 youth ages 10–24 years residing in Lusaka, Zambia was interviewed. Multivariate statistical methods were used
Robert J Magnani; Ali Mehryar Karim; Lisa A Weiss; Katherine C Bond; Musonda Lemba; Gwendolyn T Morgan
This study examines the rates of depressive symptoms and service use among caregivers whose children receive treatment for disruptive behavior disorders. Descriptive analyses examined preliminary baseline data from the Family Groups for Urban Youth with Disruptive Behaviors study for 212 caregivers to determine rates of caregiver depressive symptoms and lifetime mental health service use. Findings indicate that caregivers manifest substantially higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to national norms. Of those caregivers with clinically significant depressive symptoms, less than half reported ever receiving mental health services. Findings suggest that greater attention should be paid to identifying and treating caregiver depression among children receiving treatment for disruptive behavior disorders. PMID:21278845
Gopalan, Geetha; Dean-Assael, Kara; Klingenstein, Kathryn; Chacko, Anil; McKay, Mary M.
Multiracial youth are thought to be more vulnerable to peer-related risk factors than are single-race youth. However, there have been surprisingly few well-designed studies on this topic. This study empirically investigated the extent to which multiracial youth are at higher risk for peer influenced problem behavior. Data are from a representative and longitudinal sample of youth from Washington State (N = 1,760, mean age = 14.13, 50.9% girls). Of those in the sample, 225 youth self-identified as multiracial (12.8%), 1,259 as White (71.5%), 152 as Latino (8.6%), and 124 as Asian American (7.1%). Results show that multiracial youth have higher rates of violence and alcohol use than Whites and more marijuana use than Asian Americans. Higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage and single-parent family status partly explained the higher rates of problem behaviors among multiracial youth. Peer risk factors of substance-using or antisocial friends were higher for multiracial youth than Whites, even after socioeconomic variables were accounted for, demonstrating a higher rate of peer risks among multiracial youth. The number of substance-using friends was the most consistently significant correlate and predictor of problems and was highest among multiracial youth. However, interaction tests did not provide consistent evidence of a stronger influence of peer risks among multiracial youth. Findings underscore the importance of a differentiated understanding of vulnerability in order to better target prevention and intervention efforts as well as the need for further research that can help identify and explain the unique experiences and vulnerabilities of multiracial youth. PMID:22395776
Choi, Yoonsun; He, Michael; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Toumbourou, John W.
Cigarette smoking almost always begins in the adolescent years and smoking at early ages increases the risk of becoming ill or dying from causes attributable to smoking. This report uses data from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey of YouthRiskBehavior and presents prevalence estimates for selected unhealthy behaviors among adolescents in…
Objectives To examine the efficacy of sexual risk reduction interventions among South African youth. Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify studies published between 2007 and early 2013. Studies were eligible if they (1) targeted youth age 9–26, (2) evaluated sexual risk reduction interventions and (3) reported at least one behavioral outcome. Independent raters coded study characteristics, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated; positive effect sizes indicated less sexual riskbehavior and incident STIs. Results Ten studies (k = 11, N = 22,788; 54% female; 79% Black-African) were included. Compared to controls, interventions were successful at delaying sexual intercourse and, among sexually active youth, at increasing condom use. A single study found reductions in the incidence of herpes simplex virus-2, but not HIV. Conclusions Implementing behavioral interventions to delay sexual debut and improve condom use can help to reduce the transmission of HIV among South African youth. PMID:24476351
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Walstrom, Paige; Harrison, Abigail; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.
Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the gaps between disclosed high-riskbehaviors in low-income, mainly Hispanic youth and the identification of these risks by health care providers. Methods. This cross-sectional study included youth 13–19 years old who participated in a study on latent tuberculosis treatment. Youth were interviewed at baseline by bilingual research assistants; the provider visit was assessed by the chart review. Results. Of 221 youth, the majority (96%) were identified as Hispanic, 45% were foreign-born, and 46% were male. A total of 399 riskbehaviors were revealed to research staff by the participants; only 24 riskbehaviors were revealed to providers. Conclusions. The majority of riskbehaviors based on the chart review were neither queried nor disclosed to the physicians. Physicians providing care to adolescents should consider strategies to improve disclosure as a necessary precursor to interventions. PMID:23710357
Hill, Linda L.; Hovell, Melbourne; Kelley, Norma; Baird, Sara; Sipan, Carol; Schmitz, Katharine; Friedman, Lawrence
Though official data document that Hispanic youth are at a great risk for early sexual intercourse, STDs, and teen pregnancy,\\u000a only few etiological studies have been conducted on Hispanic youth; almost no work has examined potential generational differences\\u000a in these behaviors, and thus, these behaviors may have been mistakenly attributed to cultural differences. The current study\\u000a examined the relationships between
This monograph outlines early prevention efforts that can decrease the development of destructive behaviors in at-riskyouth. The text provides those who work with young people the information they need to identify individuals with the highest potential for "at-riskness." Such care givers also need to understand the causal factors for at-risk…
Objective:The purpose of this study was to examine the combined influence of physical activity (PA) and television viewing (TV) on the risk of overweight in US youth ages 14–18 years.Research design and methods:Cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample of approximately 13 600 US high school students participating in the 2001 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention YouthRiskBehavior
J C Eisenmann; R T Bartee; D T Smith; G J Welk; Q Fu
"Positive Support" examines potential benefits of matching high-riskyouth with faith-based mentors. Drawing on surveys and interviews with young people who participated in the National Faith-Based Initiative, we found that mentored youth were less likely to show signs of depression than the youth who were not matched with a mentor. This in turn…
Background: The relative contributions to risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection resulting from unsafe sexual behaviours and exposures to blood (e.g., tattooing, body piercing and injection drug use) among youths at risk are not well known. We interviewed street youths about risk factors for HCV infection and docu- mented their HCV antibody status. Methods: From December 1995 to September
Background Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high-risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH?). Methods Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH? = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH? youth. Results FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH? youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower reaction times on the delay discounting task. Conclusion Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing, and may act as an intrinsic risk-factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-riskyouth. PMID:20586754
Herting, Megan M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.
Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…
Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.
This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent riskbehaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and riskbehaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of…
Lescano, Celia M.; Hadley, Wendy S.; Beausoleil, Nancy I.; Brown, Larry K.; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail
The Applied Research Program supports surveys designed to assess the prevalence of individual and societal risk factors and health behaviors that mediate cancer incidence, morbidity, mortality, and survival.
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are established risk factors for insulin resistance in youth. A number of behavioral recommendations have been publicized with the goal of improving glycemic control. However, there is limited information about whether meeting these behavioral recommendations actually reduces insulin resistance. FINDINGS: 92 youths 11 - 16 years with BMI ? 85% underwent oral glucose tolerance testing. HOMA-IR
Jeannie S Huang; Michael Gottschalk; Gregory J Norman; Karen J Calfas; James F Sallis; Kevin Patrick
Using data from 5,070 youth ages 11 to 18 years old who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, concurrent and longitudinal associations among cumulative risk, protective factors, and youth maladjustment were examined. Cumulative risk was associated with concurrent conduct problems and depressed mood. For conduct…
Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework are needed to increase students' academic success. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures may be helpful for intervention planning; however, there has been limited research on use of FBA with youth with EBD experiencing poor academic performance or task completion problems. In the current study, FBA methods were used to identify the contingencies maintaining the off-task behavior of four youth with behavior problems. Effects of interventions based on functional hypotheses were compared to the effects of interventions not linked to such hypotheses. Discussion focuses on utility of FBA procedures for developing and implementing effective interventions for youth with EBD. PMID:18490267
Numerous studies have investigated the behavior of high school dropouts from economic, sociological, and educational points of view. However, data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicate that being a dropout is not necessarily a permanent condition. This paper attempts to empirically study through the application of logit models the dropout behavior of youths, as well as the decision
News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fifer, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However, it is unlikely that…
Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and…
Adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior problems, and mental health problems have extremely high social costs and lead to overburdened mental health and juvenile justice systems in the United States and Europe. The prevalence of these problems is substantial, and at-riskyouth often present with a combination of concerns. An understanding of risk and protective factors at multiple levels, including the child, family, peer, school, and community, has influenced intervention development. At the individual and family levels, the most effective and cost-effective programs work intensively with youth and their families or use individual and group cognitive-behavioral approaches. However, there is a paucity of careful studies of effective policies and programs in the juvenile justice system. Research is needed that focuses on adoption, financing, implementation, and sustainable use of evidence-based programs in public service systems. In addition, the field needs to understand better for whom current programs are most effective to create the next generation of more effective and efficient programs. PMID:23297659
Objectives Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures. Methods Analysis was based on 919 adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which parents’ use of corporal punishment and positive family measures were associated with youth externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to contribute to understanding how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes. Results Both mother’s and father’s use of corporal punishment were associated with greater youth externalizing behavior. Additionally, increases in positive parenting practices, such as parental warmth and family involvement, were met with decreases in youth externalizing behavior when controlling for youth demographics, family socioeconomic status, and parents’ use of corporal punishment. Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Conclusions Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors. Therefore, findings of this study add to the growing evidence concerning the negative consequences of corporal punishment for youth outcomes. PMID:22766372
This article explores the degree to which youth are at higher risk of crime victimization when they live in a household with an adult who has been the victim of domestic violence or another violent crime. Combined data from the 1996, 1997, and 1998 National Crime Victimization Surveys show a generally higher victimization risk for youth who live in households
PurposeTo identify the prevalence of health-compromising behaviors, and the risk and protective factors associated with them among youth in the Caribbean, and to predict the likelihood of these outcomes given the presence or absence of the risk and protective factors.
This prospective study examines the predictive validity of the Dutch version of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) by examining relationships between SAVRY scores and various types of disruptive behavior during residential treatment. The SAVRY, a risk assessment instrument, was coded for 66 male adolescents on the basis of file information and interviews. The adolescents were referred
Henny P. B. Lodewijks; Theo A. H. Doreleijers; Corine de Ruiter; Randy Borum
In the fall of 2005, the New Mexico YouthRisk and Resiliency Survey (NM YRRS) was conducted in New Mexico public high schools, with 5,679 students in grades nine through twelve participating from 20 public high schools in the state. The NM YRRS is a tool that can assist administrators and policy makers in identifying health riskbehaviors among…
Green, Dan; Penaloza, Linda J.; Chrisp, Eric; Dillon, Mary; Cassell, Carol M.; Tsinajinnie, Eugene; Rinehart, Judith; Ortega, Willa
Preventive measures that can help in the juvenile system to address HIV risk and psychiatric disorders among detained youths are discussed. Early holistic interventions concluded by incorporating relevant family, peer, school and community factors could decrease later HIV riskbehavior is presented.
Brown, Larry K.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Whiteley, Laura Brave
Overall, pretest-posttest results for achievement, behavior, and engagement for at-risk boys not eligible (n = 13) and eligible (n = 9) for participation in the free or reduced price lunch program who completed a school-year long academic support study center program were not statistically different over time and end of school year for cumulative…
Hawaii's largest populations of at-riskyouth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…
PURPOSE : This 3-year study examines a theoretically designed community-based program aimed to reduce the risk of first-time involvement by minority youth with the juvenile justice system.METHODS:A quasi-experimental design with a nonrandomized sample of 146 African American youth test an expressive art curriculum with an after school control group. Outcome measures include protective factors, behavioral self-control, self-esteem, and resilience.FINDINGS:Ninety males
Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework…
Cross-national comparisons of homeless youth in Melbourne, Australia, and Los Angeles, CA, United States were conducted. Newly\\u000a (n = 427) and experienced (n = 864) homeless youth were recruited from each site. Compared to Australia, homeless youth in the United States were younger,\\u000a more likely to be in school or jail, demonstrated fewer sexual and substance use risk acts, fewer
Norweeta G. Milburn; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Eric Rice; Shelley Mallet; Doreen Rosenthal
Background: Youth may choose to be sedentary rather than physically active.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use behavioral economics methods to investigate how experimental changes in the amount\\u000a of sedentary behaviors influenced physical activity.Methods: Fifty-eight 8-to 16-year-old youth were studied in a within-subject crossover design with three 3-week phases: baseline,\\u000a increasing, and decreasing targeted sedentary behaviors by 25%
Leonard H. Epstein; James N. Roemmich; Rocco A. Paluch; Hollie A. Raynor
Puts the label "at risk" in perspective as it relates to youth. Points out that today's adolescents have lower rates of suicide, unwed pregnancy, drug abuse, smoking, and drunk driving than young and middle-aged adults. Suggests that extension youth education moves toward a condition-focused, resiliency model that recognizes the vitality and…
Young people who engage in multiple health riskbehaviors such as alcohol and other drug use, unprotected sexual activity, smoking, and violence, are a serious public health concern. To help identify potential strategies for influencing these behaviors, focus groups were conducted with 160 youth ages 10-18 years. For additional insights, focus groups also were held subsequently with 70 parents and grandparents of youth of similar ages. The youth participants were well-informed about most of the risky behaviors and their health consequences. Safe sex practices and the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were the exceptions. Despite this understanding, participants spoke of engaging in these behaviors as part of a lifestyle common to the high-risk environments where they live. The youth said that knowing why these practices were harmful was not enough to help them change the behavior. The need for skills building and support systems to reinforce their generally high level of awareness was evident. Love, home, family, and safety were cited as very important. Many participants said they wanted to talk to someone they could trust, who knew what they were going through. The groups of parents and grandparents were concerned about the physical dangers facing their adolescents and about peer influence. They also acknowledged their own mixed messages to their youth. The focus group findings suggest that health promotion strategies for high-riskyouth should be comprehensive rather than categorical, with nonjudgmental, interpersonal communication integrated into community-based programs. To be relevant, program strategies must reach outside the usual channels and incorporate the high-risk environment where these youth live. PMID:8210276
The evidence base and theoretical frameworks for mass media HIV-prevention campaigns in the United States are not well-developed. We describe an intervention approach using culturally sensitive mass media messages to enhance protective beliefs and behavior of African American adolescents at risk for HIV. This approach exploits the potential that mass media messages have, not only to reach a large segment of the adolescent population and thereby support normative change, but also to engage the most vulnerable segments of this audience to reduce HIV-associated riskbehaviors. The results from an ongoing HIV-prevention trial implemented in 2 medium-sized cities in the United States illustrate the effectiveness of this intervention approach. PMID:19833995
Sznitman, Sharon; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Fortune, Thierry; Juzang, Ivan
Introduction This study explored the relationship between depression, stigma, and riskbehaviors in a multisite study of high riskyouth living with HIV (YLH) in the United States. Methods All youth met screening criteria for either problem level substance use, current sexual risk and/or suboptimal HIV medication adherence. Problem level substance use behavior was assessed with the CRAFFT, a 6-item adolescent screener. A single item was used to screen for current sexual risk and for a HIV medication adherence problem. Stigma and depression were measured via standard self-report measures. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that behavioral infection, older age, more problem behaviors, and greater stigma each contributed to the prediction of higher depression scores in YLH. Associations between depression, stigma, and problem behaviors are discussed. More than half of the youth in this study scored at or above the clinical cut-off for depression. Results highlight the need for depression focused risk reduction interventions that address stigma in YLH. Discussion Study outcomes suggest that interventions are needed to address stigma and depression not only among youth living with HIV but in the communities in which they live. PMID:22726715
Tanney, Mary R.; Naar-King, Sylvie; MacDonnel, Karen
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year\\u000a psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b)\\u000a current sexual riskbehavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High-\\u000a Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and
Assaf OshriJonathan; Jonathan G. Tubman; James Jaccard
Most studies that explore parental knowledge of youths' activities utilize parents' and youths' reports separately. Using a sample of 938 rural early adolescents (53% female; 84% White), we explore congruence between mothers' and youths' perceptions of maternal knowledge and its association with youth problem behaviors (delinquency, substance use,…
Lippold, Melissa A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E.
Objectives. We compared rates of smoking for 2 groups of youths aged 12 to 14 years: those involved in the child welfare system (CW) and their counterparts in the community population. We then investigated factors associated with smoking for each group. Methods. We drew data from 2 national-level US sources: the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We estimated logistic regression models for 3 binary outcome measures of smoking behavior: lifetime, current, and regular smoking. Results. CW-involved youths had significantly higher rates of lifetime smoking (43% vs 32%) and current smoking (23% vs 18%) than did youths in the community population. For CW-involved youths, delinquency and smoking were strongly linked. Among youths in the community population, multiple factors, including youth demographics and emotional and behavioral health, affected smoking behavior. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence was notably higher among CW-involved youths than among the community population. In light of the persistent public health impact of smoking, more attention should be focused on identification of risk factors for prevention and early intervention efforts among the CW-involved population. PMID:22021304
We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149
Thurston, Idia B; Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M; Otwombe, Kennedy N; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E
This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings. PMID:21414831
Rhew, Isaac C; David Hawkins, J; Oesterle, Sabrina
The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy episodic drinking is at risk of serious injury, sexual assault, drunk driving, and death. However, even after adjusting for alcohol consumption, students who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks had dramatically higher rates of serious alcohol-related consequences. It has been reported that the subjective perceptions of some symptoms of alcohol intoxication are less intense after the combined ingestion of the alcohol plus energy drink; however, these effects are not detected in objective measures of motor coordination and visual reaction time. PMID:20926266
Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality. Beyond associations with demographic factors and depression, do anxiety disorders increase risk for suicidality in youth? Given that not all anxiety-disordered youth experience suicidal ideation, potential predictors of risk also require investigation. The present study examined (a) the independent relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation and (b) emotion dysregulation and distress intolerance as predictors of risk for suicidal ideation in a sample of anxiety-disordered youth aged 7 to 17 (N = 86, M = 11.5). Youth and their parents reported on suicidality, emotion dysregulation, and distress intolerance. Distress tolerance was also measured by a computerized behavioral task. Results support an independent relationship between anxiety symptomatology and youth-reported suicidal ideation, controlling for depressive symptoms. Youth self-report of emotion dysregulation and distress intolerance predicted higher levels of suicidal ideation in univariate analyses. In a multivariate analysis including all significant predictors, only anxiety symptomatology uniquely predicted suicidal ideation. Results provide recommendations for the assessment and treatment of suicidality in anxiety-disordered youth. Suggestions for future research investigating the relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation are offered. PMID:24156368
This study examined the relationship between several pre-examined risk factors for youth problem gambling, a number of potential protective factors for youth problem gambling, and the development of adolescent problem gambling. The sample consisted of 2179 students, ages 11–19. The results of analyses of variance revealed that lower family and school connectedness are associated with adolescent problem gambling. Further, an
Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…
Purpose: To describe the real life challenges and HIV-riskbehaviors of male-to-female (MTF) transgender youth from communities of color. Methods: A convenience sample (n 51) of ethnic-minority MTF transgender youth aged 16 -25 years completed an anonymous questionnaire including demographics, psychosocial measures, and participation in substance use and sexual riskbehaviors. Descriptive analyses and analyses of association were used to
Robert Garofalo; Joanne Deleon; Elizabeth Osmer; Mary Doll; Gary W. Harper
... Motor Vehicle Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Violence Prevention Data & Statistics (WISQARS) Funded Programs Communications Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Research Update The Choking Game: CDC´s Findings on a Risky YouthBehavior Centers ...
Purpose Each day in the United States, approximately 100,000 youth are under correctional supervision. The purpose of this study is to examine the early risk and protective factors for incarceration using a high-risk sample of urban youth. Methods Data were obtained from 2,165 (54 who were incarcerated) youth who participated in Project Northland Chicago. Participants were matched exactly on gender, race/ethnicity, and aggressive behavior in sixth grade. Bivariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were used to examine the risk and protective factors present at sixth grade that increased the odds of incarceration at 12th grade. Results The early risk factors for incarceration were age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71–3.69), having been sent to detention (1–3 times: OR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.15–4.37; 4+times: OR = 3.49; 95% CI 1.40–8.72), and the number of hours spent participating in a sport (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.03–1.20). Substance use was not significantly related to incarceration after adjusting for other behavioral and contextual risk factors. Conclusions General problem behaviors (nonaggressive) strongly predict incarceration among at-riskyouth. Implications for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:23810428
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Komro, Kelli A.
Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework are needed to increase students' academic success. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)
The rate and predictors of parental detection of youth self-harm behavior and relationship with help-seeking were examined in 7,036 parent-child dyads from the 1999 and 2004 surveys of Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain. Youth self-harm behavior was reported by 463 (6.6%) children and adolescents but only 190 (2.7%) of the…
Latino adolescents engage in riskier sexual behaviors compared to their peers, shown by their higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and lower rates of condom usage; therefore, examining the precursors and correlates of these risky sexual behaviors is important for prevention-intervention program development. Based on cultural-ecological, symbolic interaction, and gender socialization perspectives, we examined associations among mothers' and fathers' parenting and Latino youth's sexual risk over a 5 year period. Further, we investigated the direct and moderating roles of acculturation (e.g., language spoken in the home), nativity (e.g., citizenship status), and adolescents' gender. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 1,899 Latino youth; 49 % female), we conducted a multi-level path model controlling for adolescents' age and prior sexual experience. Our findings revealed that more strictness by mothers and less strictness by fathers at Time 1 were related to lower sexual risk for adolescents at Time 2. Additionally, more monitoring by fathers at Time 2 was associated with lower sexual risk for adolescents at Time 3. Significant gender differences were found such that there were stronger associations among parenting processes and sexual risk for girls than for boys. Finally, we found support for the immigrant paradox (foreign-born youth reported lower sexual risk than US-born youth) and greater gender differences (boys had riskier sexual behaviors than girls) for immigrant compared to US-born youth. The findings reveal the complex associations among parenting processes, nativity status, gender, and sexual risk for Latino adolescents. PMID:24186702
Using a school-based sample of Washington, DC, fifth graders (mean age 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408), we examined associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual riskbehaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors; and of these riskbehaviors with parenting behaviors. Youths reporting signs of pubertal development were more likely to engage in these riskbehaviors than students reporting no signs. Pubertal development was not related to parenting behaviors; however, parents of youths who reported multiple nonsexual riskbehaviors reported more parent-child communication about sexual topics. These results highlight the need to begin risk prevention efforts early, prior to pubertal development. Research is needed to understand how parents can help youths better cope with pubertal development to avoid involvement in sexual and nonsexual riskbehaviors. PMID:21808444
Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.
In the United States, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in adults with diabetes over age 30 years.\\u000a Studies in persons without diabetes have shown that atherosclerosis, a central factor in cardiovascular disease, begins in\\u000a childhood and the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in youth lead to increased cardiovascular disease risk in\\u000a adults. Therefore, youth with diabetes
The present study investigated risk and resilience processes in a sample of urban African-American youth. Risk and protective\\u000a factors were assessed across ecological levels including individual, family and community. Both externalizing and internalizing\\u000a symptomatology were included as measures of child adjustment. Youth and parental reports as well as various methods, such\\u000a as the Experience Sampling Method, were used to capture
Susan Tinsley Li; Karin M. Nussbaum; Maryse H. Richards
This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…
A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…
Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…
Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.
"The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of riskyouth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked closely at the…
Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin
"The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of riskyouth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked closely at the…
Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…
Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…
Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.
Although drug use among teenagers has declined significantly over the past decade, adolescents raised in impoverished urban communities continue to be at high risk for involvement in drug use and sales and for serious delinquency. Such youth often exhibit behavioral problems at school, associate with delinquent peers, have inadequate supervision at home, and are typically not helped by regular school-based
All initial visits (N = 765) to an outpatient medical clinic during calendar year 1985 were analyzed. Six hundred and fifty-five of these visits made by non-runaway youth were compared to 110 visits made by runaways. Based on data from the Childrens Hospital Adolescent Risk Profile Interview, runaway street youth are at greater risk for a wide variety of medical problems and of health-compromising behaviors including suicide and depression, prostitution, and drug use. The implications for public health and social policy are discussed. PMID:3381958
Viewing marijuana use as a risk-taking behavior, we find that the perception of high risk related to regular use of marijuana has no simple direct effect on that risk-taking behavior. Rather, the effect of risk perception is contingent upon the extent of youth participation in activities such as going to parties, going to bars, attending concerts and visiting friends. The
Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth. PMID:25047297
Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John
This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory\\u000a (ARI), designed to assess adolescent riskbehaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and riskbehaviors were\\u000a administered to 134 youth (ages 12–19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of the four attitude scales\\u000a (HIV Anxiety, HIV Prevention Self-Efficacy, General Distress, and
Celia M. Lescano; Wendy S. Hadley; Nancy I. Beausoleil; Larry K. Brown; Domenic D’eramo; Abigail Zimskind
Background Decision-making and risk-taking behavior undergo developmental changes during adolescence. Disadvantageous decision-making and increased risk-taking may lead to problematic behaviors such as substance use and abuse, pathological gambling and excessive internet use. Methods Based on MEDLINE searches, this article reviews the literature on decision-making and risk-taking and their relationship to addiction vulnerability in youth. Results Decision-making and risk-taking behaviors involve brain areas that undergoing developmental changes during puberty and young adulthood. Individual differences and peer pressure also relate importantly to decision-making and risk-taking. Conclusions Brain-based changes in emotional, motivational and cognitive processing may underlie risk-taking and decision-making propensities in adolescence, making this period a time of heightened vulnerability for engagement in additive behaviors. PMID:24294500
Balogh, Kornelia N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.
\\u000a In the United States, African American youth are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually\\u000a transmitted infections (STIs). An estimated 1.2 million people are living with HIV\\/AIDS (Glynn & Rhodes, 2005). Data from\\u000a 33 states in the United States with confidential name-based reporting show that in 2006 African Americans of all ages represented\\u000a 49% of HIV\\/AIDS diagnosis, although
Noninvasive measures of arterial function, such as intima-media thickness (IMT), endothelial function, and arterial stiffness are associated with and are prognostic of cardiovascular events in adults. Postmortem evidence, however, has established that the atherosclerotic process starts in childhood. Furthermore, cardiovascular morbidities in childhood disrupt arterial health and may lead to adverse outcomes in adulthood. Thus it is important to examine the developmental changes in IMT, endothelial function, and arterial stiffness in healthy youth in contrast to the arterial health profile of youth with cardiovascular morbidities and to examine the effect of lifestyle interventions. In healthy youth, IMT may increase slightly, arterial stiffness increases, but there is no change in endothelial function from 5 to 20 years of age. In youth with cardiovascular risk factors there are larger increases in IMT and arterial stiffness, and reductions in endothelial function compared with healthy youth. The reduced arterial function in youth with cardiovascular risk factors may be related to the atherosclerotic process. Exercise and physical activity appear to exert a protective effect on arterial function, and exercise training can improve arterial function in children with cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, although diet alone can improve arterial function in children, the combination of exercise and diet appears to be more effective than either intervention alone. Future studies need to focus on the mechanism by which exercise and diet improve arterial function, the most effective types of diet and exercise, and if intervening in childhood leads to favorable outcomes in adulthood. PMID:18450990
Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…
Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.
This study aimed to identify intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with engaging in recommended levels of physical activity among rural Latino middle school youth. Data were from an anonymous survey of 773 Latino youth (51% female) about level of and barriers and motivators to physical activity, riskbehaviors, and park use. Logistic regression models identified factors correlated with meeting recommended levels of physical activity (5 days or more 360 min/day). Thirty-four percent of girls and 41% of boys reported meeting this physical activity recommendation. Participation in an organized after school activity (p < .001) and in physical education (PE) classes 5 days a week (p < .001) were strongly associated with meeting recommended physical activity level. Making PE available 5 days a week and creating opportunities for organized after school physical activity programs may increase the number of rural Latino middle school youth who meet recommended physical activity level. PMID:22109778
Perry, Cynthia K.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thompson, Beti
Purpose To examine health riskbehaviors in distressed youth living with HIV (YLH) with problem substance use. Methods Assessed distress, antiretroviral (ARV) adherence, and unprotected sex in a racially and geographically diverse sample of 122 YLH. Results A total of 87% of distressed YLH reported significantly more past-month ARV nonadherence (odds ratio [OR] = 7.15) and were more likely to have unprotected sex under the influence (OR = 5.14) than non-distressed youth. Conclusions Distressed YLH with problem substance youth may benefit from interventions to improve adherence and to decrease sexual risk, especially while under the influence of drugs. PMID:20133498
Nugent, Nicole R.; Brown, Larry K.; Belzer, Marvin; Harper, Gary W.; Nachman, Sharon; Naar-King, Sylvie
An HIV knowledge survey and qualitative interview were administered to 20 case managers in community-based programs for troubled youth to assess HIV knowledge and their perception of client HIV riskbehaviors. Participants had good HIV knowledge. Case managers perceived client youth to be at high risk for HIV infection due to unsafe sexual…
Smith, Michael D.; Seal, David Wyatt; Hartley, Shannon
No significant differences in beginning eighth-grade pretest compared to ending eighth-grade posttest California Achievement Test Normal Curve Equivalent Scores were found for youth at risk who completed a pre-eighth-grade summer academic enrichment program where comparisons for reading vocabulary t(19) = 0.46, p = 0.33 (one-tailed), d = 0.107,…
This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, “other” API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American counterparts. Many of these differences remained after adjusting for parental education. Controlling for immigrant status explained only some of the subgroup differences. The results suggest several shortcomings to the “model minority” stereotype that is often applied to API American youth. Research and practice should not overlook the higher risk for problem behaviors among certain API American subgroups. The findings highlight the need for more resources for API Americans, especially for the API subgroups facing higher risks. PMID:18645632
The correlates of high-risk adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated through use of data from the 1979-92 waves of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the linked 1994 young adult data file on their children. The sample was comprised of 959 youth, most of whom were 14-18 years old at the time of the 1994 survey, who were the oldest child of the original female respondents. The analysis of riskbehaviors was restricted to the 483 youth known to be sexually active. Compared to their non-sexually-active counterparts, sexually active youth had lower family incomes, mothers with lower educational attainment, and mothers who themselves became sexually active at a young age (mean, 15.5 years). Sexual activity at an early age was further associated with substance abuse, a view of oneself as a risk taker, and a history of running away from home. Early age at first coitus, nonuse of contraception, and adolescent childbearing were significantly linked with depression, feeling like a failure, and little sense of control over one's life in female respondents. In contrast, sexually active teen males reported low levels of depression and felt in control of their lives. After parenthood, tentative evidence of maturity emerged for both genders. Young mothers reduced their alcohol consumption and spent less time with peers who drank; young fathers exhibited lower levels of willingness to take risks, higher depression, and greater involvement in socially productive activities. PMID:9711453
We examined the direct contribution of parent and peer risk and promotive factors on youth condom use trajectories, in addition to the indirect influence of these factors via youth's substance use over four years in a sample of urban, African American youth (N=679; 51% female; M=14.86 years; SD=0.65). Growth curve modeling was used to estimate changes in substance use and sexual risk across adolescence and test their association with parent and peer factors. Parent and peer risk factors were strongly associated with increasing substance use as youth aged. Substance use and condom use were interrelated. Parent and peer risk factors were indirectly associated with youth condom use; parent and peer promotive factors were directly associated with condom use, after accounting for substance use. Findings suggest the value of considering multiple influences on youthriskbehavior. PMID:21159374
Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A; Zimmerman, Marc A
This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants’ perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in
Notes that, although school administrators and parents are expecting school psychologists to be skillful in identifying and treating suicidal students, majority of graduate training programs in psychology do not offer specific training in suicidology. Reviews literature pertaining to suicidal youth, making certain distinctions so that more…
Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of riskbehaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina YouthRiskBehavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…
Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.
Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1993 YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance (YRBS) of a sample of U.S. female adolescents (N = 7839) were compared to a cohort of 9th through 12th grade high performance female athletes (N = 141) with regard to risk-taking behavior on eight items related to sexual activity (i.e., ever engaged in sexual
Purpose Depression and health riskbehaviors in adolescents are leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality. Primary care visits provide prime opportunities to screen and provide preventive services addressing riskbehaviors/conditions. This study evaluated the co-occurrence of depression and health riskbehaviors (focusing on smoking, drug and alcohol misuse, risky sexual behavior, and obesity-risk) with the goal of informing preventive service strategies. Methods Consecutive primary care patients (n=217), ages 13 to 18 years, selected to over-sample for depression, completed a Health RiskBehavior Survey and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and Adolescents (DISC) depression module. Results Youths with DISC-defined past-year depression were significantly more likely to report risk across multiple risk-areas, Wald X2(1)=14.39, p<.001, and to have significantly higher rates of past-month smoking, X2(1)=5.86, p=.02, substance misuse, X2(1)=15.12, p<.001, risky sex, X2 (1) =5.04, p=.03, but not obesity-risk, X2 (1) =0.19, p=.66. Cross-sectional predictors of riskbehaviors across risk areas were similar. Statistically significant predictors across all risk domains included: youths’ expectancies about future riskbehavior; attitudes regarding the riskbehavior; and riskbehaviors in peers/others in their environments. Conclusions Depression in adolescents is associated with a cluster of health riskbehaviors that likely contribute to the high morbidity and mortality associated with both depression and health riskbehaviors. Consistent with the United States National Prevention Strategy (2011) and the focus on integrated behavioral and medical health care, results suggest the value of screening and preventive services using combination strategies that target depression and multiple areas of associated health risk. PMID:25309826
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Zeledon, Luis Roberto; D'Amico, Elizabeth; LaBorde, Anne; Anderson, Martin; Avina, Claudia; Arslanian, Talin; Do, Minh-Chau; Harwood, Jessica; Shoptaw, Steven
Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…
Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett
The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors of overdose among Bahraini youth (15-24 years). These factors included psychiatric disorders, family pathology, and psychosocial stress. All suicide attempters in the country during an 18-month period (N= 100) were identified prospectively. One hospital-matched control was selected for each case. Both cases and controls underwent a semistructured personal interview in the two state general hospitals. A matched pair analysis was done, as well as computation of McNemar's continuity corrected chi-square test, odds ratio, and the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio. The overdose attempter was more likely than the control to be unemployed, a member of a non-intact family, having a mother whose education was high school or above, not having a friend, involved in a boy/girlfriend relationship, and a cigarette smoker. More students among attempters had failed an examination in the past year than matched controls. Father's education, social class, death of father, recent row with a friend, use of drugs and alcohol, relationship with teachers, recent mobility, financial difficulties, and legal problems were similar in both groups. Stresses generated from living in a non-intact family, interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex, unemployment, and school performance came out as the main risk factors. The association of previously identified risk factors such as depression, aggressive behavior, and use of drug and alcohol was low among attempters. While the results of this study are consistent with the present view that suicidal behaviors are multifactorial in origin, the magnitude and effect of each factor are culturally determined. PMID:11459252
Al Ansari, A M; Hamadeh, R R; Matar, A M; Marhoon, H; Buzaboon, B Y; Raees, A G
Objective: To assess HIV-related drug and sex riskbehaviors and evaluate factors associated with change in riskbehaviors among runaway and homeless adolescents, 244 street youth were recruited from a community drop-in center serving high-riskyouth.Method: Using a cross-sectional design, approximately half of study participants received training in a peer-based intervention that included principles derived from the health belief model,
Robert E. Booth; Yiming Zhang; Carol F. Kwiatkowski
Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple riskbehaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered riskbehaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and riskbehaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of riskbehaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ riskbehaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of riskbehaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of riskbehaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. PMID:22497848
Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya
This study highlights findings from focus groups on parent-child connectedness conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of high-riskyouth in the southern United States. The primary aim of the study was to extend research on parent-child connectedness, a broad protective factor for adolescent riskbehavior. In addition to describing…
Scarborough, Megan; Kulkarni, Shanti; Lewis, Carol M.; Palen, Lori-Ann; Wade, Emily; Pierce, Amy
Twenty-one 15- to 17-year-olds attempted to purchase cigarettes in 232 stores in the manner that confederates typically do in access studies, as well as in the manipulative ways (e.g., lying about their ages) that youth smokers do, thereby modeling youth access to tobacco within versus outside of studies, respectively. Youth typical-research versus manipulative behavior was contrasted with clerk behavior (requests
This study examined several hypotheses related to racial\\/ethnic variations in caregiver strain and perceived social support among parents caring for children with emotional\\/behavioral problems. A subsample of youth from the Patterns of Care (POC) study, which drew a stratified random sample of high-riskyouth active to 1 of 5 public sectors of care, was used to test these hypotheses. When
Kristen M. McCabe; May Yeh; Anna Lau; Ann Garland; Richard Hough
Objectives: Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to…
For those in health education, the year 1969 marked the debut of "School Health Review," the forerunner to the current "American Journal of Health Education." The inaugural issue of "School Health Review," in September of 1969 included the article, "Changing Health behavior in Youth," by Dr. Godfrey M. Hochbaum. This article reviews the 1969…
Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Kammermann, Sandra K.
This document contains presentation slides from a study on antisocial male youth. The study sought to identify an antisocial taxon, and to demonstrate that taxon membership would possess external validity and predict antisocial behavior correlates (low school achievement, poor family relations, and internalizing problems). The results revealed 9…
Wekerle, Chris; Skilling, Tracey; Adlaf, Edward; Paglia, Angela; Leung, Eman
During adolescence, friendship affiliations and groups provide companionship and social and emotional support, and they afford opportunities for intimate self-disclosure and reflection. Friendships often promote positive psychosocial development, but some youth learn and adopt antisocial attitudes and deviant behaviors through their friendships.…
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Wasserman, Stanley
Among children and youth who develop type 2 diabetes (T2DM) there are a number of genetic and environmental factors that lead to a combination of insulin resistance and relative-cell secretory failure of the pancreas. These factors include ethnicity (highest in American Indian youth), obesity, sedentary behavior, family history of T2DM, puberty,…
Objectives: To determine the trends in sexual activity and unprotected sex among substance-using youth, we examined data from the 1991-2005 YouthRiskBehavior Surveys on drug and alcohol use and sexual riskbehaviors. Method: We examined the association of alcohol and illicit drug use with recent sexual activity and unprotected sex. We assessed…
Objectives: To compare HIV risk factors of male street youth involved in survival sex with those of their never involved peers and to describe the sexual activities of the involved youths.Methods: From 2001 to 2003, street youth aged 14–23 years were recruited from street youth agencies in Montreal, Canada. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sexual behaviours.
N Haley; E Roy; P Leclerc; J-F Boudreau; J-F Boivin
Youth served in the foster care system have higher rates of pregnancy than general population youth; yet we have little information about risk and protective factors to target in order to prevent early pregnancy in this population. We assessed early pregnancy risk and protective factors known for general population adolescents for their relevance to youth in the foster care system. Using data from a longitudinal study of 325 older youth from the foster care system, we examined bivariate and multivariate relationships between these factors and pregnancy between age 17 and 19 using logistic regression. Models examined risk for early parenting separately by gender. The pregnancy rate increased by 300% between ages 17 and 19. At 19, 55% of females had been pregnant, while 23% of males had fathered a child. Although this study assessed multiple known factors, few were significant for this high risk group. Females who were not sexually active at age 17 were less likely to become pregnant, but those who reported using birth control were as likely to become pregnant as those who did not. Also, females with a history of arrest were more likely to have a pregnancy between 17 and 19. Males who left the foster care system before their 19th birthday were more likely to make someone pregnant. Youth from the foster care system are at exceptional risk of early pregnancy, no matter their maltreatment history, religiosity, school connectedness, or academic achievement, particularly in the years between 17 and 19. This high risk group needs pregnancy prevention interventions and access to effective birth control. PMID:24489422
This thesis is an art-based research video demonstration of an alternate medium for art therapy. It postulates the value and validity of media arts as a therapeutic modality by way of adopting the major motion picture green screening technique for therapy with an at-riskyouth population. Four male participants, raging from 16 to 19 years of age,…
This report describes an art-based intervention program with at-riskyouth that was inspired by the Project Self-Discovery model (Milkman, Wanberg, & Robinson, 1996). Twelve middle-school students from a small city in a mid-Atlantic state participated in the program. The program goals included making art in order to empower the participants…
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and
Kelly Russell; Donna M Dryden; Yuanyuan Liang; Carol Friesen; Kathleen O'Gorman; Tamara Durec; T Cameron Wild; Terry P Klassen
Strategies to protect youth from potentially problematic online experiences may be met with considerable resistance as young people may not be ready or willing to accept such interventions. This study seeks to identify specific Internet risk prevention strategies that are likely to be met with resistance from children and adolescents. It aims to advance the ability to predict when parents
This study recruited 559 youths from detention centers (mean age was 15.4 years; 50.1% of detainees were girls) to investigate pathways that link witnessing community violence in the 12 months before detainment to drug and sexual riskbehaviors in the two months preceding detainment. Through the use of audio-computer-assisted technology, data were…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with riskbehaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…
Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas
A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining
The healing process of the Best Self Visualization Method (BSM) is described within the framework of meditation, neuroscience, and psychodynamic theory. Cases are drawn from the treatment of high-riskyouth, who have histories of poverty, survival of sexual and physical abuse, and/or current risk for perpetrating abuse. Clinical use of BSM is demonstrated in two case illustrations, one of group psychotherapy and another of individual therapy. PMID:23775428
Using data from a large nationally representative sample of adolescents attending school, this study tests the stereotype that youth of Asian Pacific Islander ethnicity (API) are the model minority. The results suggest that, except for substance use, API American youth do not report fewer delinquent behaviors than white youth; in fact, API American youth report slightly higher numbers of aggressive offenses than white youth, and female API American youth report greater numbers of nonaggressive offenses than white female youth. Also, API American youth report higher rates of nonaggressive offenses and substance use than do black youth. The mental health and social service needs of API American youth are thus at least as great as those of white youth. The need for such services increases with the length of residency in the United States. PMID:21572913
Assessed six categories of college students' health riskbehaviors. Student survey data indicated that respondents were engaging in riskbehaviors that could impact educational achievement and lead to serious consequences. Youth tended to enter college with established patterns of risk. Most regularly consumed large amounts of alcohol. Differences…
Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national YouthRiskBehavior…
African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…
Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth
In this review, we examine the prevalence of negative body image and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., excessive dieting, binge eating, inappropriate weight loss techniques) in children and adolescents. We also explore correlates and predictors of the development of these problems, including individual, familial, and social factors, as well as discuss factors that may serve a protective function. In addition, we
This research sought to identify, train, and validate social behaviors preferred by youths to be used by youth-care personnel (called teaching-parents). With training, consistent increases in seven preferred behaviors were observed for the six teaching-parent trainees. These behaviors included offering to help, “getting to the point”, giving reasons why a behavior is important to a youth, providing descriptions of alternative behaviors, positive feedback, smiling, and positive motivational incentives (i.e., points for task mastery exchanged for tangible reinforcers). Increases in these behaviors correlated with increases in the youths' ratings of the quality of the trainees' interactions. Posttraining levels of preferred social behavior and youth ratings for trainees also compared favorably with levels for successful professional teaching-parents. These results suggest that teaching-parents can be successfully trained to interact with youths in ways that are preferred by the youths. PMID:16795551
Willner, Alan G.; Braukmann, Curtis J.; Kirigin, Kathryn A.; Fixsen, Dean L.; Phillips, Elery L.; Wolf, Montrose M.
The association between thoughts of self-harm and help-seeking among youth with symptoms of depression was examined. Data were drawn from the Health Behavior of School-aged Children Study ("n" = 15, 686), a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Analyses focused on comparing help-seeking behaviors among youth…
A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…
This study sought to examine the role of attachment beliefs and parenting behaviors on youth's anxious response to disaster by testing a theoretical model which posits youths’ perceptions of attachment beliefs and parenting behaviors as moderators of the relation between pre and post disaster anxiety symptoms. Seventy-four youth (ages 6–17 years) and their parents exposed to Hurricane Katrina participated in
Latent class analyses were used to identify subsets of 217 12-year-old youth with early maltreatment histories based on youth and caregiver reports of externalizing behavior problems. The identified classes were validated using symptom counts and diagnoses for disruptive behavior disorders collected from youth and caregiver reports 2 years later.…
Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Roesch, Scott C.
The monograph on severe behavior disorders of children and youth presents 23 papers on juvenile delinquency, behavior disorders at the secondary level, and self control instruction. Some of the papers included are: "A Comparison of Varied Teacher-to-Child Ratio on the Adaptive and Attending Behaviors of Two Autistic Children" (M. Zener, et al.);…
sUniversity of Colorado Health Sciences Center Objective. To examine the relationship between family communication and HIV risk reduction behaviors among a multisite sample of 125 male youths (ages 12-25) with hemophilia and HIV-infection, as well as their parents. Methods: Participants completed self-report surveys assessing communication and attitudes regarding HIV risk reduction interventions; adolescents also provided data about their sexual behaviors.
Jeffrey T. Parsons; Regina Butler; Susan Kocik; Lisa Norman; Rachelle Nuss
This book contains papers from a conference on at-riskyouth that focused on building strengths and empowering youth by giving them skills for school and life. Following an introduction titled "Motivational Strategies for Empowering Youth-At-Risk" by Dan Rea and Robert Warkentin, the papers are: (1) "The Role of Learning Environments: Social…
The high rates of substance use among American adolescents are challenging, however, runaway youth are at particularly high-risk for substance use. Runaway youth utilizing two service sectors, emergency crisis shelters and juvenile detention centers, were recruited to evaluate differences in risk factors associated with substance use. Findings demonstrate that youth admitted to juvenile detention (n = 121) had proportionally higher
Sanna J. Thompson; Kimberley M. Zittel-Palamara; Gregory Forehand
Family therapists and school counselors are increasingly called upon to provide services for youth in alternative education (Carver, Lewis, & Tice, 2010). Alternative education systems are programs for youth who have been defined as at risk. This study explored the at-risk discourse and asked the questions (a) how do youth and staff define the…
A study examined coaches' behavior and classified the types and rates of coaches' behavior by time of athletic season (early or late), win/loss record, and throughout the time frame within a single contest. Subjects included all the volunteer coaches in a 13 team, softball program for 10-12 year old girls. The season consisted of a double…
Baseline data collected in two brief intervention projects (BI-Court and Truancy Project) were used to assess similarities and differences in subgroups of at-riskyouth. Classifications of these subgroups were based on their psychosocial characteristics (e.g., substance use). Multi-group latent class analysis (LCA) identified two BI-Court subgroups of youth, and three Truant subgroups. These classes can be viewed as differing along two dimensions, substance use involvement and emotional/behavioral issues. Equality tests of means across the latent classes for BI-Court and Truancy Project youths found significant differences that were consistent with their problem group classification. These findings highlight the importance of quality assessments and allocating appropriate services based on problem profiles of at-riskyouth. PMID:21966055
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora; Gulledge, Laura; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Schmeidler, James; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven
The study examined the effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy (FFT), as compared to probation services, in a community juvenile justice setting 12 months post treatment. The study also provides specific insight into the interactive effects of therapist model specific adherence and measures of youthrisk and protective factors on behavioral outcomes for a diverse group of adolescents. The findings suggest that FFT was effective in reducing youthbehavioral problems, although only when the therapists adhered to the treatment model. High adherent therapists delivering FFT had a statistically significant reduction of (35%) in felony, a (30%) violent crime, and a marginally significant reduction (21%) in misdemeanor recidivisms as compared to the control condition. The results represent a significant reduction in serious crimes one year after treatment, when delivered by a model adherent therapist. The low adherent therapists were significantly higher than the control group in recidivism rates. There was an interaction effect between youthrisk level and therapist adherence demonstrating that the most difficult families (those with high peer and family risk) had a higher likelihood of successful outcomes when their therapist demonstrated model specific adherence. These results are discussed within the context of the need and importance of measuring and accounting for model specific adherence in the evaluation of community-based replications of evidence-based family therapy models like FFT. PMID:20545407
In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent–adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV riskbehaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent–adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV riskbehaviors, including substance use and sexual riskbehaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV riskbehaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV riskbehaviors among Hispanic youth and their families. PMID:24617745
This study used longitudinal youth outcome data in routine mental health services to test a system for identifying cases at risk for treatment failure. Participants were 2,715 youth (M age = 14) served in outpatient managed care and community mental health settings. Change trajectories were developed using multilevel modeling of archival data.…
Cannon, Jennifer A. N.; Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Burlingame, Gary M.
Using an Attachment Theory conceptual framework, associations were investigated among positive paternal and maternal relationships, and recent problem behaviors among 501 currently homeless and runaway adolescents (253 males, 248 females). Homeless and runaway youth commonly exhibit problem behaviors such as substance use, various forms of delinquency and risky sex behaviors, and report more emotional distress than typical adolescents. Furthermore, attachments to their families are often strained. In structural equation models, positive paternal relationships significantly predicted less substance use and less criminal behavior, whereas maternal relationships did not have a significant effect on or association with either behavior. Positive maternal relationships predicted less survival sex behavior. Separate gender analyses indicated that among the females, a longer time away from home was significantly associated with a poorer paternal relationship, and more substance use and criminal behavior. Paternal relations, a neglected area of research and often not addressed in attachment theory, should be investigated further. Attachments, particularly to fathers, were protective against many deleterious behaviors. Building on relatively positive relations and attachments may foster family reunifications and beneficial outcomes for at-riskyouth. PMID:19290724
Stein, Judith A; Milburn, Norweeta G; Zane, Jazmin I; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
Hispanic problem behavioryouth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV riskbehaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…
Background: The number of HIV infections among adolescents is increasing, and youth in psychiatric care are at particular risk because of their high rates of risky sexual behavior. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study examining AIDS-riskbehavior among adolescents in psychiatric care, this pilot study investigated the relationship…
Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame attributions) to anger and dating aggression. One hundred sixty youth (73% female, 69% ethnic/racial minorities) with confirmed CSA histories were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery (T1, when they were 8-15 years of age), and again 1 and 6 years later (T2 and T3). Externalizing behavior and abuse-specific stigmatization were assessed at T1 and T2. Anger and dating aggression were assessed at T3. The structural equation model findings supported the proposed relations from stigmatization following the abuse to subsequent dating aggression through anger. Only externalizing behavior at T1 was related to later dating aggression, and externalizing was not related to subsequent anger. This longitudinal research suggests that clinical interventions for victims of CSA be sensitive to the different pathways by which youth come to experience destructive conflict behavior in their romantic relationships. PMID:23148553
Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A; Cleland, Charles M; Barrett, Ellen P
Background Substance use by youth living with HIV (YLWH) is a concern, given potential interactions with virus-associated immune suppression and adverse effects on riskbehaviors, neurocognition, and adherence. Self-report substance use measures provide efficient cost-effective assessments. Analyses describe self-reported substance use among YLWH and examine agreement with toxicology assays. Methods Seventy-eight youth age 18–24 years (87% male, 71% African–American) with behaviorally acquired HIV-1 infection and 55 uninfected youth completed the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test to assess drug use frequency, including tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol, over the prior three months. Elisa-based toxicology assays were used to detect 27 substances in plasma. Chi-square tests compared substance use between YLWH and uninfected youth; Kappa statistics compared agreement between self-report and toxicology. Results YLWH reported marijuana (49%), tobacco (56%), and alcohol (87%) use, with 20%, 28% and 3% reporting daily use of each substance, respectively; other substance use was uncommon. Uninfected youth reported less tobacco use but otherwise similar substance use. All youth who reported daily use of marijuana or tobacco had positive plasma toxicology results, while concordance decreased with less frequent self-reported use. Among youth reporting no substance use, few tested positive (4% YLWH, 2% uninfected youth for cannabis; 8%YLWH for tobacco). Conclusions Youth report high rates of marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol use. Concordance between self-report and toxicology for marijuana and tobacco use, particularly for daily users, supports self-report as a valid indicator of substance use in research studies of youth with or without HIV-1 infection. PMID:24309297
Nichols, Sharon L.; Lowe, Amanda; Zhang, Xinrui; Garvie, Patricia A.; Thornton, Sarah; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Hou, Wei; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Sleasman, John W.
Purpose: To examine health riskbehaviors in distressed youth living with HIV (YLH) with problem substance use. Methods: Assessed distress, antiretroviral (ARV) adherence, and unprotected sex in a racially and geographically diverse sample of 122 YLH. Results: A total of 87% of distressed YLH reported significantly more past-month ARV nonadherence (odds ratio [OR] = 7.15) and were more likely to
Nicole R. Nugent; Larry K. Brown; Marvin Belzer; Gary W. Harper; Sharon Nachman; Sylvie Naar-King
Aggressive behavior in incarcerated youth presents a significant problem for staff, co-residents and the functioning of the institution. This study aimed to examine the predictive validity of an empirically validated measure, designed to appraise the risk of imminent aggression within institutionalized adult psychiatric patients (Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression; DASA), in adolescent male and female offenders. The supervising staff members
Chi Meng Chu; Eric Hoo; Michael Daffern; Jolie Tan
Suicide has been purported to be a major problem among gays and lesbians in general, and rates of suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and ideation) are said to be even higher among adolescent samples. While most studies have consistently found rates of suicide attempts among gay and lesbian adolescent populations to be two to three times higher than their heterosexual peers,
This study tested moderators of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) based on geographical region, gender, race, and income among adolescents in an exercise context using multigroup path analyses. Participants were eighth- and ninth-grade students from Louisiana (LA; N = 448, M[subscript age] = 14.37 years) and Pennsylvania (PA; N = 681,…
BACKGROUND: To investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict healthy eating behavior in a group of urban Native American youth. METHODS: Native American boys and girls (n = 139), ages 9–18 years old, were given a self-administered survey to assess eating behavior using the TBP constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm, barriers, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral
Intervention research with youths at elevated risk for suicidal behavior and suicide—a vulnerable and high risk population—presents investigators with numerous ethical challenges. This report specifically addresses those challenges involving the informed consent and assent process with parents/guardians and youths. The challenges are delineated in the context of pertinent laws and regulatory requirements, and guidelines are suggested for their practical resolution. These are illustrated with case examples from NIMH-funded intervention trials. Through the sharing of such methodological information, intervention researchers can support each other in conducting ethical research in a manner that does not unduly compromise scientific rigor. PMID:19014301
Nine North Carolina programs in dropout prevention and for students at risk are described in this booklet. The programs were chosen for their comprehensiveness, serving kindergarten through grade 12. Even though there has been no formal validation of the programs presented, they are ones which appear to be using new and innovative solutions to…
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.
The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…
Objective: This study aimed to empirically assess psychometric properties of a multi-dimensional youth self-report measure of neglectful behavior by parents. Method: Data were gathered from 593 12-year-old youth participating in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) consortium; 272 also had data at age 14. Youth responded…
Dubowitz, Howard; Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Pitts, Steven C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Thompson, Richard; Black, Maureen M.; Runyan, Desmond
Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…
Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope
Purpose: To compare the prevalence of selected riskbehaviors among Asian American\\/Pacific Islander (AAPI) students and white, black, and Hispanic high school students in the United States.Methods: The national YouthRiskBehavior Survey conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention produced nationally representative samples of students in grades 9 through 12 in
Jo Anne Grunbaum; Richard Lowry; Laura Kann; Beth Pateman
Objectives To determine the added risk of opioid problem use (OPU) in youth with marijuana/alcohol problem use (MAPU). Method 475 youth (ages 14–21 years) with OPU+MAPU were compared to a weighted sample of 475 youth with MAPU only (i.e., no OPU) before and after propensity score matching on gender, age, race, level of care, and weekly use of marijuana/alcohol. Youth were recruited from 88 drug treatment sites participating in eight Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded grants. At treatment intake, participants were administered the Global Appraisal of Individual Need to elicit information on demographic, social, substance, mental health, HIV, physical and legal characteristics. Odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results The added risk of OPU among MAPU youth was associated with greater comorbidity: higher rates of psychiatric symptoms and trauma/victimization; greater needle-use and sex-related HIV-riskbehaviors and greater physical distress. The OPU+MAPU group was less likely to be African American or other race and more likely to be age 15–17 years, Caucasian; report weekly drug use at home and among peers; engage in illegal behaviors and be confined longer; have greater substance abuse severity and poly drug use; and use mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Conclusions These findings expand on the existing literature and highlight the substantial incremental risk of OPU on multiple comorbid areas, among treatment-seeking youth. Further evaluation is needed to assess their outcomes following standard drug treatment and to evaluate specialized interventions for this subgroup of severely impaired youth. PMID:20403020
Subramaniam, Geetha A; Ives, Melissa L.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Dennis, Michael L.
This study evaluated the characteristics and outcome of a group of children and adolescents treated in day hospital and inpatient settings. Severe aggressive/destructive behavior was present in about one-third of the sample and was more common in boys, in children and adolescents with history of parental substance abuse, and in those with a concurrent diagnosis of conduct disorder. Although both an admission diagnosis of conduct disorder and aggressive/destructive behavior as a preadmission variable predicted poor outcome, aggressive/destructive behavior was the more important of the two. Aggressive/destructive behavior in association with conduct disorder seems to confer an especially poor prognosis in hospital-treated youth. PMID:1757448
“Reaching Out to Inner-City Youth” looks at the problems within society leading youth to engage in risky behaviors, and at the approaches and programs designed to help them. The research methodology for this paper was to review the current literature which documents how changes and distress in families, community and society have impacted youth. In addition to drawing on the
This study examined the association of victimization in a physically violent dating relationship with riskbehaviors, age of riskbehavior initiation, and co-occurrence of riskbehaviors among students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Data were from the 2003 national YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS). Nearly 9% of students reported…
Eaton, Danice K.; Davis, Kristen S.; Barrios, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Noonan, Rita K.
This study examined the association of victimization in a physically violent dating relationship with riskbehaviors, age of riskbehavior initiation, and co-occurrence of riskbehaviors among students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Data were from the 2003 national YouthRiskBehavior Survey (YRBS). Nearly 9% of students reported experiencing dating violence victimization. Dating violence victimization
Danice K. Eaton; Kristen S. Davis; Lisa Barrios; Nancy D. Brener; Rita K. Noonan
Although homeless youth exhibit numerous problem behaviors, protective factors that can be targeted and modified by prevention programs to decrease the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors are less apparent. The current study tested a model of protective factors for multiple problem behavior in a sample of 474 homeless youth (42% girls; 83% minority) ages 12 to 24 years. Higher
Marguerita Lightfoot; Judith A. Stein; Heather Tevendale; Kathleen Preston
HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves.\\u000a Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables\\u000a on the onset of sexual and drug riskbehavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and without HIV-positive mothers. Adolescents\\u000a and their mothers were interviewed
Claude A. Mellins; Curtis Dolezal; Elizabeth Brackis-Cott; Ouzama Nicholson; Patricia Warne; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg
Violence is a serious social problem that is often encountered in the youth justice system. Identifying those adolescents who are at the highest risk for future violence is an important step toward effective rehabilitation. The current study examined the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment for Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), a structured professional judgment risk tool, in a sample
Previous analyses of data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD) have examined concurrent trajectories of positive development and risk/problem behaviors among adolescents, finding complex and not necessarily inverse relationships among them. In this article, we expand on prior research by employing a person-centered approach to modeling riskbehaviors, assessing development from approximately 6th grade through 12th grade among 4,391 adolescents (59.9% female). Latent profiles involving the problematic behaviors of delinquency, depressive symptoms, substance use, sexual activity, disordered eating behaviors, and bullying were then assessed for concurrent relationships with the Five Cs of PYD: Competence, Confidence, Character, Caring, and Connection. We found six latent profiles, based primarily on mental health, aggression, and alcohol use, with significant differences in Confidence levels among many of the profiles, as well as some differences in the four other Cs. We discuss directions for future research and implications for application to youth policies and programs. PMID:24562425
Arbeit, Miriam R; Johnson, Sara K; Champine, Robey B; Greenman, Kathleen N; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M
Rising rates of heterosexually transmitted HIV among youth and young adults, particularly from ethnic minorities, create an urgent need to understand risk factors and perceptions of risk within the context of couple relationships. This study examined reports of young mothers and fathers (predominantly Latino) about background characteristics, relationship quality and length, HIV-related risk factors, and perceptions of partners’ behaviors and
Deborah Koniak-Griffin; Rong Huang; Janna Lesser; Evelyn González-Figueroa; Sumiko Takayanagi; William G. Cumberland
This document presents discussions of current research and activities by experts in early intervention and behavior disorders. It offers a range of evidence-based strategies, procedures, and models appropriate for prevention and early intervention programs with young children at risk for emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Following an…
This study used data from 5,382 adolescents from the 1997 United States (US) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to investigate developmental pathways of alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual riskbehaviors, and delinquency across ages 14 to 20; examine interrelationships among these riskbehaviors across adolescence; and evaluate association between riskbehavior trajectories and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Group-based dual
David Y. C. Huang; H. Isabella Lanza; Debra A. Murphy; Yih-Ing Hser
Background Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. Methods The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grades 5-12) from four regions in Canada. The regions were Hamilton and Thunder Bay (both in Ontario), the Province of Prince Edward Island, and the Province of Quebec. Results Consuming breakfast daily was reported by 70% of grade 5-8 students, and 51% of grade 9-12’s. Among students in grade 9-12, 52% reported eating with family members daily, compared with 68% in grade 5-8. Just over half of students in grade 5-8, and 70% in grade 9-12 reported eating at a fast-food place once a week or more. Among grade 5-8 students 68% reported eating in front of the television at least once per week, compared to 76% in grade 9-12. Obese students were more likely to watch TV while eating, and less likely to eat with a family member and eat breakfast. Conclusions The findings suggest that only a modest proportion of youth report dietary patterns that have previously been associated with healthy eating and reduced risk of obesity. Later adolescence may be a critical time for intervention in health-related behaviors. PMID:24708863
Synopsis CBT represents a combination of behavioral and cognitive theories of human behavior and psychopathology, and a melding of emotional, familial, and peer influences. The numerous intervention strategies that comprise CBT reflect its complex and integrative nature and include such topics as extinction, habituation, modeling, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving, and the development of coping strategies, mastery, and a sense of self-control. CBT targets multiple areas of potential vulnerability (e.g., cognitive, behavioral, affective) with developmentally-guided strategies and traverses multiple intervention pathways. Although CBT is often considered the “first line treatment” for many psychological disorders in youth, additional work is necessary to address treatment non-responders and to facilitate the dissemination of efficacious CBT approaches. PMID:21440849
Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Settipani, Cara A.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Cummings, Colleen M.
Background Teenage male drivers contribute to a large number of serious road crashes despite low rates of driving and excellent physical health. We examined the amount of road trauma involving teenage male youth that might be explained by prior disruptive behavior disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder). Methods and Findings We conducted a population-based case-control study of consecutive male youth between age 16 and 19 years hospitalized for road trauma (cases) or appendicitis (controls) in Ontario, Canada over 7 years (April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2009). Using universal health care databases, we identified prior psychiatric diagnoses for each individual during the decade before admission. Overall, a total of 3,421 patients were admitted for road trauma (cases) and 3,812 for appendicitis (controls). A history of disruptive behavior disorders was significantly more frequent among trauma patients than controls (767 of 3,421 versus 664 of 3,812), equal to a one-third increase in the relative risk of road trauma (odds ratio ?=? 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.22–1.54, p<0.001). The risk was evident over a range of settings and after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21–1.56, p<0.001). The risk explained about one-in-20 crashes, was apparent years before the event, extended to those who died, and persisted among those involved as pedestrians. Conclusions Disruptive behavior disorders explain a significant amount of road trauma in teenage male youth. Programs addressing such disorders should be considered to prevent injuries. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21125017
The current study investigated the relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious\\u000a antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and improvement in youthbehavior\\u000a problems one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations\\u000a in North America. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) results showed therapist adherence
Sonja K. Schoenwald; Rickey E. Carter; Jason E. Chapman; Ashli J. Sheidow
Early identification of individuals who will go on to develop schizophrenia is a difficult endeavor. The variety of symptoms experienced by clinical high-riskyouth make it difficult to identify who will eventually develop schizophrenia in the future. Efforts are being made, therefore, to more accurately identify at-risk individuals and factors that predict conversion to psychosis. As in most assessments of children and adolescents, however, both youth and parental report of symptomatology and resulting dysfunction are important to assess. The goals of the current study were to assess the extent of cross-informant agreement on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), a widely-used tool employed to determine clinical high-risk status. A total of 84 youth-caregiver pairs participated. Youth and caregiver raters displayed moderate overall agreement on SIPS-rated symptoms. Both youth and caregiver ratings of youth symptomatology contributed significantly to predicting conversion to psychosis. In addition, youth age and quality of youth-caregiver relationships appear to be related to cross-informant symptom ratings. Despite differences on individual SIPS domains, the majority of dyads agreed on youth clinical high-risk status. Results highlight the potential clinical utility of using caregiver informants to determine youth psychosis risk. PMID:24092494
Early identification of individuals who will go on to develop schizophrenia is a difficult endeavor. The variety of symptoms experienced by clinical high-riskyouth make it difficult to identify who will eventually develop schizophrenia in the future. Efforts are being made, therefore, to more accurately identify at-risk individuals and factors that predict conversion to psychosis. As in most assessments of children and adolescents, however, both youth and parental report of symptomatology and resulting dysfunction are important to assess. The goals of the current study were to assess the extent of cross-informant agreement on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), a widely-used tool employed to determine clinical high-risk status. A total of 84 youth-caregiver pairs participated. Youth and caregiver raters displayed moderate overall agreement on SIPS-rated symptoms. Both youth and caregiver ratings of youth symptomatology contributed significantly to predicting conversion to psychosis. In addition, youth age and quality of youth-caregiver relationships appear to be related to cross-informant symptom ratings. Despite differences on individual SIPS domains, the majority of dyads agreed on youth clinical high-risk status. Results highlight the potential clinical utility of using caregiver informants to determine youth psychosis risk. PMID:24092494
Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of parent and family factors is associated with youthrisk for depression, ranging from parental pathology to parental cognitive style to family emotional climate. Next, treatment approaches for youth depression that have been empirically tested are described and then summarized in terms of their level of parent inclusion, including cognitive–behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and family systems approaches. Families have mostly not been incorporated into clinical treatment research with depressed adolescents, with only 32% of treatments including parents in treatment in any capacity. Nonetheless, the overall effectiveness of treatments that involve children and adolescents exclusively is very similar to that of treatments that include parents as agents or facilitators of change. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings and directions for further research. PMID:16151618
Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits. PMID:21153441
This article examines the effects of an Africentric youth and family rites of passage program on at-risk African American youths and their parents. Data were obtained from a three-year evaluation of a youth rites of passage demonstration project using therapeutic interventions based on Africentric principles. At-risk African American boys between ages 11.5 and 14.5 years with no history of substance abuse were referred from the criminal justice system, diversion programs, and local schools. The evaluation revealed that participating youths exhibited gains in self-esteem and accurate knowledge of the dangers of drug abuse. Although the differences were not statistically significant, parents demonstrated improvements in parenting skills, racial identity, cultural awareness, and community involvement. Evidence from interviews and focus groups suggests that the program's holistic, family-oriented, Africentric, strengths-based approach and indigenous staff contributed to its success. PMID:14964519
OBJECTIVE The present research addressed the following important question in pediatric medicine: can participation in an efficacious preventive intervention ameliorate the risk that a genetic vulnerability factor is hypothesized to confer on increases in riskbehaviors across preadolescence? METHODS As part of the Strong African American Families preventive intervention study, data were collected from 641 black families in rural Georgia, assigned randomly to the prevention or control condition. The prevention condition consisted of 7 consecutive meetings at community facilities, with separate parent and youth skill-building curricula and a family curriculum. Each meeting included separate, concurrent sessions for parents and youths, followed by a joint parent-youth session in which families practiced skills they learned in the separate sessions. Involvement in riskbehaviors was assessed when youths were 11 (pretest), 12 (posttest), and 14 (long-term follow-up) years of age. A genetic vulnerability factor, that is, a variable-nucleotide repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene (5HTT), was assessed 2 years after the long-term follow-up assessment. RESULTS Youths at genetic risk who were assigned to the control condition displayed larger increases in riskbehaviors across the 29 months that separated the pretest and long-term follow-up assessments, compared with youths at genetic risk assigned to the Strong African American Families condition and youths without genetic risk who were assigned to either condition. CONCLUSION This is the first study to demonstrate that participation in an efficacious preventive intervention can ameliorate a genetic risk for increasing involvement in health-compromising riskbehaviors across preadolescence. PMID:19706565
Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Kogan, Steven M.
Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…
Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains digital age youth information behaviors from a holistic perspective. In order to bridge the empirical
How participation in extracurricular activity participation (EAP) encourages prosocial behavior is investigated. A sense of connection to prosocial entities is understood to influence youthbehavior. This study tests the hypothesis that the impact of EAP is mediated by a youth's sense of connection to the school. Using a diverse sample of…
There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational…
van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, A.; Ferreira, I.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Giskes, K.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.
Violent conduct by youths ranks among the types of inappropriate behavior generally originating in difficult family and social contexts. A proper understanding of the development of violent conduct must consider the situation taken as a whole. This article documents the results of a qualitative study which aimed to determine the psychosocial profiles and needs of youths with serious behavior problems
Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…
Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.
Camping or other outdoor experience is seen as an alternative to incarceration for youth-at-risk, matching the excitement of the street-gang society or peer group, while simultaneously giving youth-at-risk a sense of the reason for teamwork, adherence to a group-respected value system, regard for skills and abilities of others, plus a…
The high rates of substance use among American adolescents are challenging; however, runaway youth are at particularly high-risk for substance use. Runaway youth utilizing two service sectors, emergency crisis shelters and juvenile detention centers, were recruited to evaluate differences in risk factors associated with substance use. Findings…
Thompson, Sanna J.; Zittel-Palmara, Kimberley M.; Forehand, Gregory
Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of parent and family factors is associated with youthrisk
This document is an executive summary of a report asserting that the under-education of a body of students, known as "at-risk" youth, presents a crisis in American public education that has been overlooked by the educational reform movement of the 1980s. These youth are referred to as "at-risk" because they leave school unprepared for either…
The aim of the study was to identify the specific factors that affect the risk of attempted suicide in Norwegian gay, lesbian and bisexual (GLB) youths beyond the effect of general risk factors presumed to be of importance irrespective of sexual orientation. The national non-probability sample included 407 GLB youths aged between 16 and 25 years of age, among whom
Research was conducted to identify subcultural peer groups within a homeless youth population and determine whether these groups differ with respect to drug use patterns and HIV risk. Using systematic sampling methods, 309 homeless youth (ages 13–23 years) were recruited from street and service sites. Drug use patterns and HIV risk profiles were found to vary according to group affiliation.
Michele D. Kipke; Susanne B. Montgomery; Thomas R. Simon; Jennifer B. Unger; Christine J. Johnson
one-third of DC youth age 12 to 17 in Ward 3 perceived weekly binge drinking a great risk, compared-2008 NSDUH surveys. Key = Perceived Great Risk of Weekly Binge Drinking (Ages 12-17) = Past Month Binge Drinking (Ages 12-17) #12;
This paper examined changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related riskbehaviors among high school students in the United States during 1991-2005. Data from 8 national YouthRiskBehavior Surveys conducted during that period were analyzed. During 1991-2005, the percentage of US high school students engaging in HIV-related sexual risk…
Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Romero, Lisa
Using the Primary Socialization Theory (PST), we examined substance use and sexual risk-taking behaviors between Black (N = 1,464) and White (N = 3,946) adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 1, public use (Add Health). Self-reported substance use and sexual risk-taking behaviors, PST constructs, and covariates were assessed using regression modeling techniques. Black youth were more likely to initiate sex, while White youth were more likely to report lifetime alcohol use. The PST predicted risk for White but not Black youth. The study’s limitations are noted, and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:20392168
Purpose Resiliency theory posits that some youth exposed to risk factors do not develop negative behaviors due to the influence of promotive factors. This study examines the effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on adolescent violent behavior and tests two models of resilience – the compensatory model and the protective model – in a sample of adolescent patients (14- 18 years old; n = 726) presenting to an urban emergency department (ED) who report violent behavior. Cumulative measures of risk and promotive factors consist of individual characteristics and peer, family, and community influences. Method Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the two models of resilience (using cumulative measures of risk and promotive factors) for violent behavior within a sample of youth reporting violent behavior. Results Higher cumulative risk was associated with higher levels of violent behavior. Higher levels of promotive factors were associated with lower levels of violent behavior and moderated the association between risk and violent behaviors. Conclusion Our results support the risk-protective model of resiliency and suggest that promotive factors can help reduce the burden of cumulative risk for youth violence. PMID:22744013
Stoddard, Sarah A.; Whiteside, Lauren; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.
The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the behavioral effects of Yoshukai karate on four dependent variables: (1) student behavior as related to classroom discipline; (2) teacher attitudes toward at-risk students; (3) students' self-concepts; and (4) academic achievement as determined by scores on a standardized diagnostic test.…
This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and riskbehavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies), life satisfaction, and riskbehavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior). Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of riskbehaviors than those growing up in intact families. PMID:24400264
This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and riskbehavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies), life satisfaction, and riskbehavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior). Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of riskbehaviors than those growing up in intact families. PMID:24400264
Objective: Severely mentally ill youths are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection, but little is known about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) riskbehavior in adolescents who seek outpatient mental health services or about the links between psychiatric problems and particular high-riskbehaviors. This pilot study used structural equation modeling to conduct a path analysis to explore the direct and indirect effects of adolescent psychopathology on risky sex, drug/alcohol use, and needle use. Method: Ethnically diverse youths (N = 86) and their caregivers who sought outpatient psychiatric services in Chicago completed questionnaires of adolescent psychopathology. Youths reported their relationship attitudes, peer influence, sexual behavior, and drug/alcohol use. Results: Different AIDS-riskbehaviors were associated with distinct forms of adolescent psychopathology (e.g., delinquency was linked to drug/alcohol use, whereas aggression was related to risky sexual behavior), and peer influence mediated these linkages. Some patterns were similar for caregiver- and adolescent-reported problems (e.g., peer influence mediated the relation between delinquency and drug/alcohol use), but others were different (e.g., caregiver-reported delinquency was associated with risky sex, whereas adolescent-reported delinquency was not). Conclusions: Findings underscore the complexity of factors (types of informants and dimensions of psychopathology) that underlie AIDS risk in troubled youths, and they offer specific directions for designing and implementing uniquely tailored AIDS prevention programs, for example, by targeting delinquent behavior and including high-risk peers and important family members in interventions. PMID:11392341
DONENBERG, GERI R.; EMERSON, ERIN; BRYANT, FRED B.; WILSON, HELEN; WEBER-SHIFRIN, ERYN
National survey data indicate that drug use among our nation's secondary school youth is once again on the rise. Nowhere is this concern more dramatic than with inner-city youth who seem disproportionately affected by the risks associated with drug use. Urban youth residing in public housing developments may be extremely vulnerable as a result of their exposure to high rates
Christopher Williams; Lawrence M. Scheier; Gilbert J. Botvin; Eli Baker; Nicole Miller
To better understand and control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases among high-riskyouth, we must first acquire reliable reports of sexual riskbehavior. This study evaluates one potential method for validating such reports. We examined the association between marijuana and cocaine use reporting patterns and the number of reported recent sexual partners in a sample of juvenile arrestees\\/detainees. Using
Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…
Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92) and boys (N = 110). Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1) overweight; (2) female; or (3) having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity. PMID:16566842
Externalizing behaviors (encompassing antisocial, impulsive, and substance use behaviors) are pervasive and impairing across a multitude of settings and developmental contexts. These behaviors, though often investigated separately, are highly comorbid. Prenatal tobacco exposure in interaction with various genetic influences has predicted later externalizing behavior, and recent evidence supports investigating sex differences in these patterns. In the current study, we extend this work by (a) examining two functional genetic markers in the dopamine system: the transporter gene (DAT1) and the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) in interaction with prenatal tobacco exposure to predict a latent composite of externalizing behavior and (b) testing whether these patterns differ by sex of youth in a community sample of adolescents (n=176). The relatively small sample is partially offset by high quality, multi-method prospective measurement. We assessed prenatal tobacco exposure using prospective repeated cotinine-corrected reports and externalizing behaviors were assessed utilizing multiple measures across three waves. The interaction between DAT1 (but not DRD4) and prenatal tobacco exposure was statistically significant in boys, and patterns appeared to differ by sex. Risk for externalizing behaviors for exposed boys increased linearly as a function of the 10r DAT1 allele. For exposed girls, there was a trend such that DAT1 heterozygotes had a marginally higher risk than homozygotes. This pattern was not explained by passive gene-environment correlation. Elucidating sex-specific pathways through which early adverse exposures and genetic susceptibilities contribute to externalizing behavior can inform early targeted prevention efforts for those children at highest risk. PMID:24064458
O'Brien, T Caitlin; Mustanski, Brian S; Skol, Andrew; Cook, Edwin H; Wakschlag, Lauren S
This study examined the HIV riskbehaviors and life experiences of 151 transgender female youth, ages 15–24, in Los Angeles\\u000a and Chicago. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to identify life factors associated with ever\\u000a having engaged in sex work. Sixty-seven percent of participants had ever engaged in sex work and 19% self-reported being HIV\\u000a positive. Many factors
Erin C. Wilson; Robert Garofalo; Robert D. Harris; Amy Herrick; Miguel Martinez; Jaime Martinez; Marvin Belzer
Despite the clinical relevance of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) among youth, little is known about the subset\\u000a of youth most at-risk for SITB. This study examined the moderating roles of gender, racial\\/ethnic background, and school-level\\u000a (and their interactions) on rates of SITB within a large (N = 2638, 52.2% female), ethnically-diverse sample of middle- and high-school youth in a relatively poor
Robert D. Latzman; Kim L. Gratz; John Young; Laurie J. Heiden; John D. Damon; Terry L. Hight
Sexual risk-taking in minority youth in the United States is a public health concern that has been linked to theories of neighborhood effects and urban deprivation. We used a qualitative interview method to explore possible factors contributing to sexual risk-taking among minority youth in a densely populated, high-risk, segregated suburban community, with a purposive sample of 34 participants who were
Julie Askew; Darlene Rampasaud; Ingrid Solano; Jessica Donaldson
Background Recent longitudinal studies demonstrate that addiction risk may be influenced by a cognitive, affective and behavioral phenotype that emerges during childhood. Relatively little research has focused on the affective or emotional risk components of this high-risk phenotype, including the relevant neurobiology. Methods Non-substance abusing youth (N = 19; mean age = 12.2) with externalizing psychopathology and paternal history of a substance use disorder and demographically matched healthy comparisons (N=18; mean age = 11.9) were tested on a facial emotion matching task during functional MRI. This task involved matching faces by emotions (angry, anxious) or matching shape orientation. Results High-riskyouth exhibited increased medial prefrontal, precuneus and occipital cortex activation compared to the healthy comparison group during the face matching condition, relative to the control shape condition. The occipital activation correlated positively with parent-rated emotion regulation impairments in the high-risk group. Conclusions These findings suggest a preexisting abnormality in cortical activation in response to facial emotion matching in youth at high risk for the development of problem drug or alcohol use. These cortical deficits may underlie impaired affective processing and regulation, which in turn may contribute to escalating drug use in adolescence. PMID:23768841
Hulvershorn, Leslie A.; Finn, Peter; Hummer, Tom A.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ball, Brandon; Gichina, Victoria; Anand, Amit
Objective: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between several proposed protective factors and trauma symptoms among highly vulnerable youth in the child welfare system. Methods: Participants were 142 youth identified with a sexual behavior problem and their caregivers. Two waves of data were collected for each…
Leon, Scott C.; Ragsdale, Brian; Miller, Steven A.; Spacarelli, Steven
There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary be- havior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environ- mental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational studies on environmental correlates of energy, fat, fruit\\/ vegetable,
Klazine van der Horst; A. Oenema; I. Ferreira; W. Wendel-Vos; K. Giskes; F. van Lenthe; J. Brug
To explore parents' emotional investment in and behaviors in response to youth sports, the author conducted a mixed-methods investigation to answer four research questions: (1)How do parents feel about their children's participation in organized youth team sports? (2) Which situations trigger which feelings? (3) How do parents' feelings influence…
This study examines the effects of family characteristics, parental monitoring, and victimization by adults on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse, delinquency, and risky sexual behaviors among 761 incarcerated juveniles. The majority of youth reported that other family members had substance abuse problems and criminal histories. These youth were frequently the victims of violence. Relationships between victimization, parental monitoring, and
Angela A. Robertson; Connie Baird-Thomas; Judith A. Stein
Although there has been some effort to study delinquency among immigrant communities, no attempt has been made to understand the various aspects of delinquency among youths of the immigrant Bangladeshi communities. The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the nature and contributing factors of deviant\\/delinquent behavior of youths in a Bangladeshi community in New York City. One central
Truancy is a serious concern in the United States. Its negative effects are so pervasive that in 2003 the Office of Juvenile\\u000a Justice and Delinquency Prevention named truancy prevention a national priority. Effective prevention of truancy requires\\u000a a thorough understanding of the characteristics that describe truant youth as well as factors that may put them at risk for\\u000a truancy. Unfortunately,
Prospective associations of mothers' parenting processes, youth disclosure, and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a 3-year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and was negatively related to problem behavior, and…
This paper focuses on the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's Aspirational Goal 2 (screening for suicide risk) as it pertains specifically to children, adolescents, and young adults. Two assumptions are forwarded: (1) strategies for screening youth for suicide risk need to be tailored developmentally; and (2) we must use instruments that were created and tested specifically for suicide risk detection and developed specifically for youth. Recommendations for shifting the current paradigm include universal suicide screening for youth in medical settings with validated instruments. PMID:25145735
Horowitz, Lisa M; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Pao, Maryland; Boudreaux, Edwin D
Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965
Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)
Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of Reconnecting Youth, a prevention program for at-risk high school youth. Data are from a large, independently evaluated effectiveness trial in two diverse urban school districts. A total of 1,218 students participated; 50% were male; average age was 15. We tested whether positive efficacy trial effects could be replicated, and
Hyunsan Cho; Denise Dion Hallfors; Victoria Sánchez
Defines "at-riskyouth." Describes characteristics of resilient children and their families, friends and mentors, schools, and communities. Discusses camp program practices that have been shown to promote resiliency: focus on youth development, intentional processes that target the personal domain, organizational elements borrowed from successful…
Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…
Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda
Public/Private Ventures launched a national demonstration in 15 cities to assess the effectiveness of faith-based initiatives in working with youths involved in the juvenile justice system. The initiatives focused on high-riskyouth and developed programs involving mentoring, education, and employment readiness. This report focuses on whether…
The five case studies in this volume concern at-riskyouth. Disadvantaged youth programs in different states were studied by different authors: (1) Albuquerque, New Mexico (Richard Mendel); (2) Baltimore, Maryland (Edward C. Lorenz); (3) Hartford, Connecticut (Richard Funkhouser and Delsie Gandia-Fabian; (4) Oakland, California (David Snedeker);…
National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.
A relatively new area of research suggests that naturally occurring mentoring relationships may influence the development of adolescents by protecting against riskbehaviors. Few studies have explored how these relationships function to reduce riskbehavior among youth, especially in the school context. Based on previous research and theory, we…
Black, David S.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A.
This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and riskbehaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youthriskbehaviors were determined by using a…
Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj
The Saturday School Alternative for at-risk students provides educators with a realistic framework, time, and community resources to help resolve almost any student problem encountered. Based on effective schools research, the program is no panacea but a realistic attempt to modify student behavior by providing experiences that will build a…
Dating violence can be described as a pattern of repeated threats or acts of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse by a member of an unmarried, noncohabitating couple. Dating violence is most often a pattern of behavior that begins with verbal and emotional abuse and eventually escalates into physical battering. Teens are particularly at risk…
Sedentary lifestyles, along with diets low in fruits, vegetables, and complex carbohydrates, and high in fat and total energy are increasing among youth. These unhealthy behaviors contribute to an increase in childhood overweight, which is associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Healthful dietary behaviors, such as eating a balanced and varied diet may be addressed in garden-based programs for youth. Therefore, this project assessed the influence of a garden program, with a newly developed nutrition curriculum, on youth's eating and gardening behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The model included the constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Youth (age 8-15 years) involved in a garden program in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota completed a pre- (n=96) and a post-survey (n=66) assessing the theory's constructs with regard to eating and gardening behaviors. Fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed using survey questions and a 24-h recall. In addition to finding gender differences regarding associations between intention and behavior and the constructs correlated with behavior, results indicated that attitude was most predictive of intention at both pre- and post-survey for both boys and girls with behavior associated to PBC in girls, but not for boys. A high level of intention for boys pre-survey marginally predicted some behavioral change post-survey, but girls with high levels of intention at pre-survey did not show positive behavioral changes at post-survey. Additionally, the garden program positively impacted youth fruit and vegetable consumption, as determined from a mean computed from the responses to the fruit and vegetable behavior survey questions and the 24-h recall food group data. Because youth in the garden program consumed more fruit and vegetables at post-survey compared to pre-survey, we conclude that garden programs may be a viable way to assist youth in making healthy lifestyle changes. PMID:17336424
Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual riskbehavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual riskbehaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to riskbehavior. PMID:23299017
Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.
Purpose A growing body of research documents the significance of siblings and sibling relationships for development, mental health, and behavioralrisk across childhood and adolescence. Nonetheless, few well-designed efforts have been undertaken to promote positive and reduce negative youth outcomes by enhancing sibling relationships. Methods Based on a theoretical model of sibling influences, we conducted a randomized trial of Siblings Are Special, a group-format afterschool program for 5th graders with a younger sibling in 2nd through 4th grade, which entailed 12 weekly afterschool sessions and 3 Family Nights. We tested program efficacy with a pre-posttest design with 174 families randomly assigned to condition. In home visits at both time points we collected data via parent questionnaires, child interviews, and observer-rated videotaped interactions and teachers rated children’s behavior at school. Results The program enhanced positive sibling relationships, appropriate strategies for parenting siblings, and child self-control, social competence, and academic performance; program exposure was also associated with reduced maternal depression and child internalizing problems. Results were robust across the sample, not qualified by sibling gender, age, family demographics, or baseline risk. No effects were found for sibling conflict, collusion or child externalizing problems; we will examine follow-up data to determine if short-term impacts lead to reduced negative behaviors over time. Conclusions The breadth of the SAS program’s impact is consistent with research suggesting that siblings are an important influence on development and adjustment and supports our argument that a sibling focus should be incorporated into youth and family-oriented prevention programs. PMID:23298985
Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; Hostetler, Michelle L.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Jones, Damon; McHale, Susan M.
This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N=102; range=7–16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11% of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger’s disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993
Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.
Youth with high callous-unemotional traits (CU) are at risk for early-onset and persistent conduct problems. Research suggests that there may be different developmental pathways to CU (genetic/constitutional vs environmental), and that the absence or presence of co-occurring internalizing problems is a key marker. However, it is unclear whether such a distinction is valid. Intermediate phenotypes such as DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification regulating gene expression, may help to clarify etiological pathways. This is the first study to examine prospective inter-relationships between environmental risk (prenatal/postnatal) and DNA methylation (birth, age 7 and 9) in the prediction of CU (age 13), for youth low vs high in internalizing problems. We focused on DNA methylation in the vicinity of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as it has been previously implicated in CU. Participants were 84 youth with early-onset and persistent conduct problems drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. For youth with low internalizing problems (46%), we found that (i) OXTR methylation at birth associated with higher CU (age 13) as well as decreased experience of victimization during childhood (evocative epigenetic-environment correlation; birth-age 7), (ii) higher prenatal parental risks (maternal psychopathology, criminal behaviors, substance use) associated with higher OXTR methylation at birth and (iii) OXTR methylation levels were more stable across time (birth-age 9). In contrast, for youth with high internalizing problems, CU were associated with prenatal risks of an interpersonal nature (that is, intimate partner violence, family conflict) but not OXTR methylation. Findings support the existence of distinct developmental pathways to CU. PMID:25199917
Cecil, C A M; Lysenko, L J; Jaffee, S R; Pingault, J-B; Smith, R G; Relton, C L; Woodward, G; McArdle, W; Mill, J; Barker, E D
This exploratory study assessed the state-level association between social capital, poverty, and income inequality and adolescents' sexual risk and protective behaviors. A cross-sectional design using state-level correlations was employed. Seven outcome measures from the national 1999 YouthRiskBehavior Surveillance Survey were used. For females and males, social capital was significantly associated with five of the seven outcome measures (all
Richard A. Crosby; David R. Holtgrave; Ralph J. DiClemente; Gina M. Wingood; Julie Ann Gayle
Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non-Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769
Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G
This exploratory study examined middle school students' (N = 380) help-seeking behaviors and other reactions to controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Over three-fourths of the participants perpetrated and were victimized by controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Youth used emotional/verbal and dominance/isolation…
Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly M.; Chigbu, Kingsley U.
As mentoring is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve youth educational outcomes, it is important to continue to examine the effects of mentoring on these youth outcomes. This study uses secondary data from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and transcript data from the Adolescent…
A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51% female; ages 9–16) perinatally exposed to HIV (61% HIV+). Using logistic regression, we tested the association between sexual behavior and HIV status, demographic characteristics, and peer influences regarding sexual behavior. PHIV youth were less likely to be sexually active. Among sexually active youth, PHIV youth were more likely to engage in touching behavior than HIV-negative youth and were less likely to engage in penetrative sex. Youths reporting that a greater number of their peers believed that sexually active boys were “cool” or “popular” were more likely to report sexual behavior. The association between sexual behavior and peers believing sexually active girls were “cool” or “popular” varied by age, gender, and HIV status. Furthermore, friends’ sexual activity was associated with sexual intercourse. Prevention programs should strengthen messages addressing peer norms regarding sexuality, as well as address specific issues related to adolescent HIV. PMID:19636775
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude
A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51% female; ages 9-16) perinatally exposed to HIV (61% HIV+). Using logistic regression, we tested the association between sexual behavior and HIV status, demographic characteristics, and peer influences regarding sexual behavior. PHIV youth were less likely to be sexually active. Among sexually active youth, PHIV youth were more likely to engage in touching behavior than HIV-negative youth and were less likely to engage in penetrative sex. Youths reporting that a greater number of their peers believed that sexually active boys were "cool" or "popular" were more likely to report sexual behavior. The association between sexual behavior and peers believing sexually active girls were "cool" or "popular" varied by age, gender, and HIV status. Furthermore, friends' sexual activity was associated with sexual intercourse. Prevention programs should strengthen messages addressing peer norms regarding sexuality, as well as address specific issues related to adolescent HIV. PMID:19636775
Bauermeister, Jose A; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann
The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-riskyouth. At-riskyouth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…
Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…
This study tests for the presence of subgroups among youth at-risk for school drop-out and whether those groups differ on levels of violence and related problem behaviors. Latent profile analysis was employed with a diverse adolescent sample (N = 849) to identify and describe subgroups based on assessment of stress and coping resources, resulting in four distinct groups: Low Risk, Unprotected, Risk Only, and High Risk. Tests across these groups demonstrated significant heterogeneity in violent behaviors, substance use, and school disengagement. The value of stress and protective resource assessment and tailoring interventions to meet the differing needs of vulnerable youth is discussed. PMID:25067883
Smoking during pregnancy is associated with adverse consequences for children. Most recently, it has been established as a risk factor for developmental psychopathology, specifically Conduct Disorder (CD). Although this association has been shown to be robust, developmental pathways from exposure to CD have not been established. We examined how prenatal exposure to cigarettes interacts with child and family factors to increase risk of CD symptoms in a longitudinal study of 10-year-old urban, African-American youth (N = 77). The effects of prenatal exposure at school age were moderated by child sex. Boys whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were significantly more likely to develop CD symptoms, but exposure did not increase risk in girls. A similar trend was found during infancy: prenatal smoking was associated with low sociability/negative emotionality only for boys. The effects of smoking during pregnancy were also moderated by the quality of the early caregiving environment. Exposed boys whose mothers were unresponsive during infancy were at increased risk of CD symptoms, but exposed boys with early responsive mothers were not. Prospective studies, with developmentally based measures of behavior across time, are critical for further elucidating pathways from prenatal exposure to cigarettes to the development of clinical disorder. The identification of a potentially modifiable, prenatal risk factor for early onset developmental psychopathology has important implications for prevention. PMID:12030696
Drinking portrayals and alcohol advertising are common in popular media and young people are highly exposed to them. Although some studies found that exposure to drinking portrayals is related to increases in drinking among youth, other studies produced mixed and inconclusive findings. Similarly, research on the effects of alcohol advertising presents mixed findings. Recent longitudinal research and studies that used modeling techniques that controlled for reciprocal effects suggests that exposure to, attention to, and liking of alcohol advertising may influence children and adolescents' drinking beliefs and behaviors. Further research, and particularly longitudinal studies that address at-risk populations, such as children and minorities, is necessary before firm conclusions about the effects of media portrayals and alcohol advertising can be reached. PMID:16111621
On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of riskbehaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk involvement relative to the other two groups. Mediation analysis was used to determine whether these group
Michael A. Busseri; Teena Willoughby; Heather Chalmers; Anthony F. Bogaert
This study was designed to assess the prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) among runaway and homeless adolescents and to investigate associations between CD and HIV riskbehaviors. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and a standardized HIV risk assessment questionnaire were administered to 219 runaway and homeless adolescents recruited from a drop-in center serving high-riskyouth. One-half of the males
Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent riskbehavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…
Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard
This research used a structured storytelling narrative methodology to capture the lived experience of youth participants to identify effective factors that helped them in three programs in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California. Thirty-nine youth aged 8-17 participated in two storytelling protocols at their home sites; one was a written…
Background Aberrant attentional processes in individuals with mood disorders – bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) – have been well documented. This study examined whether unaffected youth at familial risk for mood disorders would exhibit poor alerting, orienting, and executive attention relative to age-matched controls. Methods A sample of youth (8–17 years old) having one parent with either BD or MDD (Mood-Risk, n=29) and youth having healthy parents (HC, n=27) completed the Attention Network Test-Short version (ANT-S), which assesses alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Results Relative to HCs, the Mood-Risk group had significantly slower reaction times on an index of executive attention, but no differences on indices of alerting or orienting. There were no differences between the two at-risk groups (i.e., youth with BD parent vs. youth with MDD parent) on any ANT-S measure. Limitations The current study is limited by its cross-sectional design, small sample size, and failure to control for familial environmental factors. Conclusions The findings extend previous results indicating that altered executive attention may represent an endophenotype for mood disorders in at-riskyouth. PMID:22980403
Belleau, Emily L.; Phillips, Mary L.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.
BACKGROUND: Despite the known disparity in suicide rates in Canada, there is limited information on the independent risk indicators of suicide ideation among First Nations youth living on reserve. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and adjusted risk indicators for suicide ideation among on-reserve First Nations youth. METHODS: Saskatoon Tribal Council (Saskatchewan) First Nations students enrolled in grades 5 through 8 who were living on reserve were asked to complete a health survey using validated questionnaires. In total, 75.3% of the students completed the survey. The study was led by the Saskatoon Tribal Council with assistance from three departments at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan). RESULTS: Among on-reserve First Nations youth, 23% experienced suicide ideation within the past 12 months. In comparison, 8.5% of Saskatoon urban youth and 19% of Saskatoon urban Aboriginal youth within the same grades experienced suicide ideation. Wanting to leave home (OR 13.91 [95% CI 3.05 to 63.42]), having depressed mood (OR 2.98 [95% CI 1.16 to 7.67]) and not feeling loved (OR 3.85 [95% CI 1.49 to 9.93]) were independently associated with suicide ideation among on-reserve youth. None of the children with a father who was professionally employed reported suicide ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the independent risk indicators associated with suicide ideation among First Nations youth living on reserve will hopefully aid in appropriate interventions. PMID:24381486
Youth who are involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems face many challenges and barriers to academic and vocational success. Regardless of the reasons for their involvement, youth in these systems are "disproportionately children and youth of color who currently have, or have experienced, a host of risk factors that are…
This study examined the relationship between risk, assets, and negative health behaviors among a large sample of Hispanic adolescents. Data were collected from over 1,000 Hispanic youth in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 attending school in a moderate size school district in Northwest Arkansas. Logistic regression models examined the variation in the odds…
Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Choudary, Wendie; Kearney, Anne; Piko, Bettina F.
A study of 244 street youth found that runaways receiving training in a peer-based intervention that included principles derived from the health belief model significantly increased their knowledge about HIV. Contrary to the health belief model, however, knowledge and greater perceived chance for HIV were associated with high riskbehavior.…
Booth, Robert E.; Zhang, Yiming; Kwiatkowski, Carol F.
Background: Internet safety is a growing public concern especially among adults and youth who live in an "instant messaging" world of technological communication. To better understand how early adolescents are using the Internet, a study was undertaken to more clearly identify the online general use, safety knowledge, and riskbehaviors of middle…
Dowell, Elizabeth B.; Burgess, Ann W.; Cavanaugh, Deborah J.
This investigation examined profiles of individual, academic, and social risks in elementary school, and their association with mental health and academic difficulties in adolescence. Latent profile analyses of data from 574 urban youth revealed three risk classes. Children with the “well-adjusted” class had assets in the academic and social domains, low aggressive behavior, and low depressive symptoms in elementary school, and low rates of academic and mental health problems in adolescence. Children in the “behavior-academic-peer risk” class, characterized by high aggressive behavior, low academic achievement, and low peer acceptance, had conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use in adolescence. Children with the “academic-peer risk” class also had academic and peer problems but they were less aggressive and had higher depressive symptoms than the “behavior-academic-peer risk” class in the first grade; the “academic-peer risk” class had depression, conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use during adolescence. No differences were found between the risk classes with respect to adolescent outcomes. PMID:21538121
Valdez, Carmen R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
Previous research has linked higher levels of hopelessness about one's future to violent behavior during adolescence; however, little is known about this relationship over time for adolescents. Using growth curve modeling, we tested the association between future orientation and violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of African American youth (n = 681). Variation based on demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, SES, previous violence) was explored. At baseline, differences in violent behavior varied by demographic characteristics. Overall, violent behavior decreased with age. Higher levels of future orientation were associated with greater decreases in violent behavior over time. Demographic characteristics were not associated with change in violent behavior overtime. Our findings suggest that future orientation can act as a promotive factor for at risk African American youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in violence prevention efforts. PMID:21104432
Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, José A.
Comprehensive prevention programs for youth are needed to reduce transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and address HIV-stigmatizing attitudes effectively. We evaluated a behavioralrisk-reduction curriculum with high-riskyouth in the United States. Participants in the five-session course were recruited through a community-based agency in San Diego, California. Participants completed a demographic survey and
Mana Luisa Zúñiga; Estela Blanco; Lizette M. Sanchez; Stephen P. Carroll; Alisa M. Olshefsky
Adverse psychosocial outcomes can be anticipated among youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of this natural disaster and may suffer lasting consequences in the form of psychological morbidity and the development of negative health behaviors due to their exposure. We review existing literature on the effects of exposure to natural disasters and similar traumas on youth and, where data on youth are unavailable, on adults. The effect of natural disasters is discussed in terms of risk for three negative health outcomes that are of particular concern due to their potential to cause long-term morbidity: post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorder, and HIV-riskbehavior. Where available, data from studies of the effects of Hurricane Katrina are included. PMID:19895305
WAGNER, KARLA D.; BRIEF, DEBORAH J.; VIELHAUER, MELANIE J.; SUSSMAN, STEVE; KEANE, TERENCE M.; MALOW, ROBERT
Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed youth, children and adolescents frequently report ongoing residual symptoms and often relapse following acute treatment. Recent adult trials have begun examining augmentation with psychosocial treatment after successful medication treatment to enhance medication response and prevent future relapse. This strategy has not yet been examined in youth with depression. Here we present initial efforts to develop a sequential, combination treatment strategy to promoting rapid remission and to prevent relapse in depressed youth. We describe efforts to adapt CBT to prevent relapse (RP-CBT) in youth who respond to pharmacotherapy. The goals of RP-CBT include: preventing relapse, increasing wellness, and developing skills to promote and sustain a healthy emotional lifestyle. We describe the rationale for, components of, and methods used to develop RP-CBT. The results from a small open series sample demonstrate feasibility and indicate that youth appear to tolerate RP-CBT well. A future test of the treatment in a randomized controlled trial is described. PMID:20535241
Kennard, Beth D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.
Objective. To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertis- ing to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Methods. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets, and to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth- targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n=103172) gathered from
Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath; Sherry Emery; Henry Saffer; Frank J. Chaloupka; Glen Szczypka; Brian Flay; Patrick M. O'Malley; Lloyd D. Johnston
Approximately 6 in 10 low-income families have at least one adult who works full time throughout the year. This fact sheet uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to describe the adolescent riskbehaviors and the transition to adulthood for low-income youth from "high-work" families compared to low-income youth from…
Using primary socialization theory and theory of planned behavior, this study examined how targeted parent-child communication against substance use and parents' references to the negative consequences of their own past substance use (from the youth's perspective) directly and indirectly relate to Latino and European American youth's external…
The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409
Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark
Drawing on the self-system model, this study conceptualized school engagement as a multidimensional construct, including behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, and examined whether changes in the three types of school engagement related to changes in problem behaviors from 7th through 11th grades (approximately ages 12-17). In addition, a transactional model of reciprocal relations between school engagement and problem behaviors was tested to predict school dropout. Data were collected on 1,272 youth from an ethnically and economically diverse county (58% African American, 36% European American; 51% females). Results indicated that adolescents who had declines in behavioral and emotional engagement with school tended to have increased delinquency and substance use over time. There were bidirectional associations between behavioral and emotional engagement in school and youth problem behaviors over time. Finally, lower behavioral and emotional engagement and greater problem behaviors predicted greater likelihood of dropping out of school. PMID:23895361
OBJECTIVES: Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with poorer relationships with parents, but it is unknown if childhood gender nonconformity is associated with childhood abuse or risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in youth. METHODS: We examined whether gender nonconformity before age 11 years was associated with childhood sexual, physical, and psychological abuse and lifetime risk of probable PTSD by using self-report questionnaire data from the 2007 wave of the Growing Up Today Study (n = 9864, mean age = 22.7 years), a longitudinal cohort of US youth. We further examined whether higher exposure to childhood abuse mediated possible elevated prevalence of PTSD in nonconforming children. Finally, we examined whether association of childhood gender nonconformity with PTSD was independent of sexual orientation. RESULTS: Exposure to childhood physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and probable PTSD were elevated in youth in the top decile of childhood gender nonconformity compared with youth below median nonconformity. Abuse victimization disparities partly mediated PTSD disparities by gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity predicted increased risk of lifetime probable PTSD in youth after adjustment for sexual orientation. CONCLUSIONS: We identify gender nonconformity as an indicator of children at increased risk of abuse and probable PTSD. Pediatricians and school health providers should consider abuse screening for this vulnerable population. Further research to understand how gender nonconformity might increase risk of abuse and to develop family interventions to reduce abuse risk is needed. PMID:22351893