Sample records for youth risk behavior

  1. YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (YRBSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) was developed to monitor priority health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The YRBSS monitors six categories of behavio...

  2. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: United States, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Williams, Barbara; Ross, James G.; Lowry, Richard; Kolbe, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    Examined national Youth Risk Behavior Survey data and state and local surveys of high school students to investigate behaviors contributing to unintentional injuries, violence, substance use, age at initiation of risk behaviors, substance abuse on school property, sexual behaviors contributing to pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases,…

  3. Colorado: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver.

    In April 1991, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to a sample of 1,412 high school students in Colorado public schools to collect information about priority health-risk behaviors among adolescents. Questionnaires were received from 1,170 students, a response rate of 83%. Classes in Colorado's 280 public schools were also selected to…

  4. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured health risk behaviors at alternative high schools. Many alternative students engaged in behaviors that made them high-risk for serious problems (e.g., motor vehicle safety, violence, nutrition, sexuality, exercise, and substance abuse). Their prevalence of high risk

  5. Nevada Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, Penelope P.; Sharp, Joyce

    This report discusses results of the Nevada Department of Education's fourth statewide administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Students in grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 (N=2,702) from 75 public high schools participated in the study. Nevada high school students reported behaviors that equaled or exceeded goals established in the national…

  6. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--National Alternative High School Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    1999-01-01

    The Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), which monitors six categories of health risk behaviors among youth and young adults. The 1998 ALT-YRBS measured priority health risk behaviors among students at alternative high schools. It used a three-stage…

  7. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, United States, 1999

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This annual report from the Centers for Disease Control "monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults -- behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity." Statistical tables in this report provide extensive data on the four leading causes of death for persons aged 10-24, accounting for 75 percent of all mortalities for this group: motor-vehicle accidents, other intentional injuries, homicide, and suicide.

  8. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: 2011 National Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…

  9. Special Report. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Williams, Barbara I.; Ross, James G.; Lowry, Richard; Hill, Carl V.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Blumson, Pamela S.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes results from the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System and trends from 1991 to 1997 in selected risk behaviors. Results indicate that many high school students still practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems, with some behaviors more likely among particular subgroups. Some behaviors vary considerably…

  10. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  11. Special Report. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance. United States, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Williams, Barbara I.; Ross, James G.; Lowry, Richard; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes results from 1999 national school-based surveys and trends during 1991-99 in selected youth risk behaviors as well as 33 state and 16 local school-based surveys. Prevalence of several injury-related behaviors and sexual behaviors have improved. Current smoking rates may be declining. Certain risk behaviors are more common among…

  12. Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results, 1995. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire State Dept. of Education, Concord.

    An 84-item multiple choice Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 2,092 students in 62 public high schools in New Hampshire during the spring of 1995. The survey covered behaviors in six categories: (1) behaviors that result in unintentional or intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that…

  13. HIV Risk Behaviors Among African American Male Violent Youth Offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph B. Richardson Jr; Jerry Brown; Mischelle Van Brakle; Dionne C. Godette

    2010-01-01

    Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present study, qualitative data were collected from

  14. Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results, 1991, 1993 & 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This report describes results from the 1995 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Utah's high school students and compares results to selected 1991 and 1993 results. The 76-item survey was identical to the national survey, though it omitted questions about sexual behavior. It examined unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco, alcohol, and…

  15. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  16. Colorado Youth Risk Behavior Survey for Youth in Out-of-Home Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Prevention Initiatives Unit.

    This report describes the results of a survey on out-of-school youth's health risk behaviors. The behaviors studied include unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol, and other drug use; sexual behaviors; dietary behaviors that cause health problems; mental well being; and physical inactivity. Seventy-eight percent of all the…

  17. Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Alternative Schools Students: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

  18. Reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy D Brener; Laura Kann; Tim McManus; Steven A Kinchen; Elizabeth C Sundberg; James G Ross

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the test-retest reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire.Methods: A sample of 4619 male and female high school students from white, black, Hispanic, and other racial\\/ethnic groups completed the YRBS questionnaire on two occasions approximately two weeks apart. The questionnaire assesses a broad range of health risk behaviors. This study used a protocol that

  19. Colorado Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.

    This report describes the results of a survey conducted in 1993. The report was written to stimulate useful discussions among educators, parents, and youth about ways to increase informed support for effective, school-based comprehensive health programs. The survey was designed by national experts to measure the extent to which adolescents engage…

  20. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  1. Idaho Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Health and Welfare, Boise. Div. of Consumer and Health Education.

    Many of the health problems experienced by youth are caused by preventable behaviors, such as alcohol abuse and unprotected sexual intercourse. The increasing cost of health care demands that youth be taught to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors. School health programs are essential to attaining this goal. The results of the 1995 Idaho Youth

  2. Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, C. Ronald

    A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…

  3. Gender Differences in Risk Behaviors Among High School Youth

    PubMed Central

    Haque laz, Tabassum; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) demonstrates that American youth engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors.1 The frequency and type of these behaviors often differ by a number of factors, such as socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity. For example, results of the 2011 YRBSS revealed that white high school students were most likely to have texted or e-mailed while driving or been bullied on school property, while black high school students were most likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviors, to have been physically inactive, and to be obese.1 Conversely, Hispanic high school students were most likely to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; to have ever used cocaine, inhalants, or ecstasy; and to have failed to use protection to prevent pregnancy during last sexual intercourse.1 However, it is difficult to discern whether differences in risk-taking behaviors between and among ethnic groups can actually be attributed to differences in group norms, socioeconomic status, or cultural beliefs regarding acceptance or rejection of such behaviors,1 suggesting a need for more comprehensive regional investigations. PMID:24416689

  4. Preliminary Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results--1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joyce, Comp.

    This paper provides the results of a 1993 survey of 2,684 New Hampshire high school students in regard to risk taking, personal violence, suicide, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education, sexual activity, nutrition, and exercise. It found that in the preceding 30 days, 10.8 percent of students…

  5. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 1993. CDC Surveillance Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, Laura; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Systems monitor six categories of priority health risk behaviors among youth and young adults: (1) behaviors that contribute to intentional or unintentional injuries; (2) tobacco use (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases;…

  6. Youth Assets and Sexual Risk Behavior: Differences between Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…

  7. Predicting School Weapon Possession: A Secondary Analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Michael J.; Bates, Michael P.; Smith, Douglas C.

    2001-01-01

    Examines responses of 40,435 students from the "Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey" and uses student self-reported school risk behaviors to "predict" recent weapon possession at school. Although school risk behaviors were moderately correlated with school weapon possession, many frequent weapon carriers displayed zero school risks. Argues…

  8. Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry

    In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…

  9. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  10. Residential Trajectory and HIV High-Risk Behaviors among Montréal Street Youth—A Reciprocal Relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Élise Roy; Marie Robert; Éric Vaillancourt; Jean-François Boivin; Jill Vandermeerschen; Isabelle Martin

    Evidence has linked residential instability and engagement in high-risk behaviors. This paper longitudinally examines the\\u000a relationship between changes in residential stability and changes in HIV risk behaviors among Montréal street youth (SY).\\u000a Between April 2006 and May 2007, 419 SY (18–25 years old) were recruited in a cohort study. SY (using Montréal street youth\\u000a agencies services) were eligible if they had

  11. Effects of At-School Victimization and Sexual Orientation on Lesbian, Gay, or Bisexual Youths' Health Risk Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL E. BONTEMPO; ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the link between victimization at school and health risk behaviors using representative data comparing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths and heterosexual youths. Methods: Data from the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey taken in Massachusetts and Vermont were exam- ined. This sample included 9188 9th through 12th grade students; 315 of these students were identified as LGB.

  12. Individual and Contextual Factors of Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth Perinatally Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J.; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV?infected (PHIV+), HIV?affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV? caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV? youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV? youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22694193

  13. Individual and contextual factors of sexual risk behavior in youth perinatally infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A; Robbins, Reuben N; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A

    2012-07-01

    This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV-infected (PHIV+), HIV-affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV- caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV- youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV- youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22694193

  14. Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk behaviors was prospectively examined over the four…

  15. Sexual risk behavior among youth: modeling the influence of prosocial activities and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, J; Zimmerman, M A; Newcomb, M D

    1998-09-01

    Sexual activity among high-school-aged youths has steadily increased since the 1970s, emerging as a significant public health concern. Yet, patterns of youth sexual risk behavior are shaped by social class, race, and gender. Based on sociological theories of financial deprivation and collective socialization, we develop and test a model of the relationships among neighborhood poverty; family structure and social class position; parental involvement; prosocial activities; race; and gender as they predict youth sexual risk behavior. We employ structural equation modeling to test this model on a cross-sectional sample of 370 sexually active high-school students from a midwestern city; 57 percent (n = 209) are males and 86 percent are African American. We find that family structure indirectly predicts sexual risk behavior through neighborhood poverty, parental involvement, and prosocial activities. In addition, family class position indirectly predicts sexual risk behavior through neighborhood poverty and prosocial activities. We address implications for theory and health promotion. PMID:9785696

  16. Online Social Networking Technologies, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk and Testing Behaviors Among Homeless Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean D. Young; Eric Rice

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between online social networking and sexual health behaviors among homeless youth in Los\\u000a Angeles. We analyzed survey data from 201 homeless youth accessing services at a Los Angeles agency. Multivariate (regression\\u000a and logistic) models assessed whether use of (and topics discussed on) online social networking technologies affect HIV knowledge,\\u000a sexual risk behaviors, and testing for sexually

  17. What Increases Risk and Protection for Delinquent Behaviors among American Indian Youth?: Findings from Three Tribal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mmari, Kristin N.; Blum, Robert Wm.; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare the risk and protective factors for delinquent behaviors among American Indian youth in three distinct tribal communities. Focus group discussions were used to gather data from elders, parents, youth workers, and youth in each tribal community. Findings showed that the key source for increasing risk

  18. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  19. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth With Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence and persistence of 20 HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) sexual and drug use risk behaviors and to predict their occurrence in 4 mutually exclusive diagnostic groups of delinquent youth: (1) major mental disorders (MMD); (2) substance use disorders (SUD); (3) comorbid MMD and SUD (MMD+SUD); and (4) neither disorder. Methods At the baseline interview, HIV/STI risk behaviors were assessed in 800 juvenile detainees, aged 10 to 18 years; youth were reinterviewed approximately 3 years later. The final sample (n = 689) includes 298 females and 391 males. Results The prevalence and persistence of HIV/STI risk behaviors was high in all diagnostic groups. Youth with SUD at baseline were over 10 times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex at follow-up than youth with MMD+SUD (AOR=10.86, 95% CI=1.43–82.32; AOR=11.63, 95% CI=1.49–90.89, respectively) and four times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex than youth with neither disorder (AOR=4.20, 95% CI=1.06–16.62; AOR=4.73, 95% CI=1.21–18.50, respectively). Youth with MMD at baseline were less likely to have engaged in unprotected vaginal and oral sex at follow-up compared with youth with neither disorder (AOR=0.11, 95% CI=0.02–0.50; AOR=0.07, 95% CI=0.01–0.34, respectively), and with youth with SUD (AOR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02–0.50; OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02–0.47, respectively). Youth with MMD+SUD were less likely (AOR=0.28, 95% CI=0.09–0.92) to engage in unprotected oral sex compared with those with neither disorder. Conclusions Irrespective of diagnostic group, delinquent youth are at great risk for HIV/STIs as they age into adulthood. SUD increases risk. Because detained youth are released after approximately 2 weeks, their risk behaviors become a community health problem. Pediatricians and child psychiatrists must collaborate with corrections professionals to develop HIV/STI interventions and ensure that programs started in detention centers continue after youth are released. PMID:18645421

  20. Risks/Needs of Children/Youth with Behavior Disorders in Correctional Institutions in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…

  1. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 1999. CDC Surveillance Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MMWR: Morbidity and Morality Weekly Report, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In the United States, approximately three-fourths of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from only four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from this 1999 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey demonstrate that numerous high school students engage in behaviors that increase the…

  2. Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Middle School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Sherry; Sussman, Michele; Ranslow, Steve; Shaughnessy, Lana

    This youth risk behavior survey was completed by 7,667 students at 127 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) middle schools. The document is organized around the six categories of behavior that contribute substantially to the leading causes of death, illness, and social problems in the United States: unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use;…

  3. Applying a Cognitive-Behavioral Model of HIV Risk to Youths in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Schwartz, Rebecca Moss; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W.; Bryant, Fred B.; Coleman, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the utility of cognitive and behavioral constructs (AIDS information, motivation, and behavioral skills) in explaining sexual risk taking among 172 12-20-year-old ethnically diverse urban youths in outpatient psychiatric care. Structural equation modeling revealed only moderate support for the model, explaining low to moderate…

  4. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Culturally Sensitive Interventions Designed to Reduce High-Risk Behaviors Among African American Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly F. Jackson; David R. Hodge; Michael G. Vaughn

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) in reducing high risk behaviors with African American youth. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of CSIs across seven studies. African American youth who participated in CSIs were less likely to engage in high risk behaviors compared to those who did not participate. The effect size

  6. Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth. PMID:19888644

  7. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 55, Number SS-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: October 2004-January 2006. Description of the System: The Youth Risk

  8. Reducing High Risk Behaviors among Street Living Youth: Outcomes of an Integrated Prevention Intervention.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Jasmin; Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Letcher, Amber

    2014-08-01

    Research efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk behavior among street living youth have shown disappointing outcomes, with few studies reporting reduced risk behaviors. The current study tested the impact of an integrated HIV prevention intervention, and predictors of change, for youth (N=270) between the ages of 14 to 20 years receiving substance use treatment through a drop-in center. Condom use, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners and behaviors associated with an overall HIV risk index were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Findings suggest that HIV prevention integrated with substance use treatment is associated with increased condom use and reduced sex partners. However, the effects on condom use were short lived and dissipated by 12 months post-baseline. Higher treatment attendance and baseline substance use predicted increased condom use. Although no significant change was observed in the overall HIV risk index, increases in depressive symptoms were associated with increases in the index score, as well as more sexual partners. Future research should determine whether successful intervention requires reinforcement of risk reduction behaviors while youth remain homeless. PMID:25104870

  9. Association between physical activity and substance use behaviors among high school students participating in the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between physical activity, physical education class, and sports participation on the substance use practices of adolescents. Data was derived from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey study of adolescent behaviors. The results of this study indicated that recreational physical activity, attending PE class, and participating in sports were independent protective factors for many cigarette use behaviors but not for smokeless tobacco use. Additionally, recreational physical activity and sports participation appears to be a protective factor for marijuana use among females but not males. On the other hand, recreational physical activity and sports participation appears to be a risk factor for alcohol use behaviors among males. PMID:25074297

  10. Associations Between Youth Risk Behavior and Exposure to Violence: Implications for the Provision of Mental Health Services in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Kathleen E.; Weist, Mark D.; Perez-Smith, Alina M.

    2004-01-01

    This article assesses the relation between health risk behaviors and varying levels of exposure to violence in an effort to inform assessment and intervention efforts of a school-based mental health program serving inner-city youth. Health risk behaviors such as involvement in violence, risky sexual behavior, and substance use are clearly…

  11. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Alcohol Use: A Parallel Process Growth Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Truant youths frequently experience family problems, emotional/psychological issues, substance misuse, and delinquency. They are likely engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate than the general youth population. Early intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. We present interim findings from an…

  12. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

    2011-01-01

    Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

  13. Attitudinal and Behavioral Characteristics Predict High Risk Sexual Activity in Rural Tanzanian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Aichele, Stephen R.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; James, Susan; Grimm, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12–26 years of age) across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin), age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:24927421

  14. Effect of Parental Bereavement on Health Risk Behaviors in Youth: A 3-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Sami; Mazariegos, David; Melhem, Nadine M.; Porta, Giovanna; Payne, Monica Walker; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the course of health risk behaviors (HRBs) during a 3-year period after a parent’s death in bereaved youth compared with nonbereaved youth (control subjects). Design A longitudinal population-based study. Setting Bereaved families were recruited through coroner records and by advertisement. Control families were recruited using random-digit dialing and by advertisement. Participants Two hundred forty parentally bereaved offspring were compared with 183 nonbereaved control offspring. Main Exposure Sudden parental death due to accident, suicide, or sudden disease-related (natural) death. Main Outcome Measures The sum of the total number of HRBs at a clinically significant frequency threshold assessed 9, 21, and 33 months after the parent’s death. Results The bereaved group showed a higher number of HRBs over time compared with the nonbereaved group (univariate effect sizes, 0.22–0.52; P<.04), even after taking into account correlates of bereavement and of HRBs, such as youth aggression, as well as antisocial and anxiety disorders of the deceased parent. Conclusions Parental bereavement is associated with higher HRBs in youth over time, even after controlling for other covariates associated with bereavement and HRBs. Clinicians should be aware that bereaved youth may be vulnerable to HRBs. Further work is warranted on interventions to attenuate the negative effect of bereavement on HRBs. PMID:22393180

  15. Online Social Networking Technologies, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk and Testing Behaviors Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between online social networking and sexual health behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles. We analyzed survey data from 201 homeless youth accessing services at a Los Angeles agency. Multivariate (regression and logistic) models assessed whether use of (and topics discussed on) online social networking technologies affect HIV knowledge, sexual risk behaviors, and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). One set of results suggests that using online social networks for partner seeking (compared to not using the networks for seeking partners) is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Supporting data suggest that (1) using online social networks to talk about safe sex is associated with an increased likelihood of having met a recent sex partner online, and (2) having online sex partners and talking to friends on online social networks about drugs and partying is associated with increased exchange sex. However, results also suggest that online social network usage is associated with increased knowledge and HIV/STI prevention among homeless youth: (1) using online social networks to talk about love and safe sex is associated with increased knowledge about HIV, (2) using the networks to talk about love is associated with decreased exchange sex, and (3) merely being a member of an online social network is associated with increased likelihood of having previously tested for STIs. Taken together, this study suggests that online social networking and the topics discussed on these networks can potentially increase and decrease sexual risk behaviors depending on how the networks are used. Developing sexual health services and interventions on online social networks could reduce sexual risk behaviors. PMID:20848305

  16. Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

    2011-01-01

    Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

  17. Familial and cultural influences on sexual risk behaviors among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Dominican youth.

    PubMed

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Jaccard, James; Lesesne, Catherine; Ballan, Michelle

    2009-10-01

    The present study examined the relationship among acculturation, familismo, and HIV-related adolescent sexual risk behavior. Data were collected from Latino mother-adolescent dyads to permit parent and adolescent analyses of familismo for predicting oral, vaginal, and anal sexual behaviors. A random sample of 702 Latino eighth-grade students and their mothers was recruited from New York City. The sample included Mexicans (n = 203), Puerto Ricans (n = 239), and Dominicans (n = 260). Acculturation was unrelated to sexual behavior, but adolescent familismo was related to girls' but not boys' sexual behavior. The most important facet of familismo was subjugation to the family, which was negatively associated with girls' sexual behavior. The implications for HIV prevention programs for Latino youth are discussed. PMID:19824835

  18. Associations Between Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Korean Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video games. Physical activity was measured using items for frequency and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). CVD risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Boys spent more time playing PC/video games, and girls spent more time watching TV. After adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, and MVPA, an additional hour of watching TV was significantly associated with the risk of overweight (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.03-1.33]), high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.51]), and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.27 [1.10-1.47]). An additional hour spent playing PC/video games also increased the risk of high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.20 [1.03-1.40]). Prospective observations and interventions are needed to determine causal relationships between screen-based sedentary behavior and CVD risk profiles in Korean youth. PMID:22468102

  19. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  20. Behavioral Interventions and Cardiovascular Risk in Obese Youth: Current Findings and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Anna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The identification and early intervention of pediatric obesity is critical to reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Family-based behavioral interventions have consistently demonstrated efficacy in reducing adiposity and CVD risk factors (i.e., blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome). Even modest weight loss in severely obese youth can lead to sustained improvement in CVD risk factors. However, weight regain following treatment cessation remains a challenge in the contemporary obesogenic environment. Intensive family-based interventions spanning socioenvironmental contexts (i.e., home, peer, community) show promise in sustaining weight loss in the long-term. Despite having effective treatments for pediatric obesity and CVD risk factors, families rarely have access to these programs and so increasing the role of healthcare providers in screening and referral efforts is imperative. Moving forward, it is also essential to establish communication and cooperative networks across sectors build sustainable prevention and intervention programs and to provide cohesive health messages. PMID:23336013

  1. Selected Indicators of Adolescent Suicide in High School Students: Results of the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikow, Victoria A.

    Results of a survey show that high school students in North Carolina think about, attempt, and are injured as the result of a suicide attempt with alarming frequency. This report summarizes suicide-related data from the North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993). Younger students are more at risk of suicide than older students; more than one…

  2. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 59, Number SS-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Whittle, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2008-December 2009. Description of the…

  3. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: January-December 2007. Description of the System: The…

  4. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 61, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Flint, Katherine H.; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Lim, Connie; Wechsler, Howell

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2010-December 2011. Description of the…

  5. The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Among High School Students: Findings from the 1997 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Raj; Jay G. Silverman; Hortensia Amaro

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether adolescents with a history of sexual abuse were more likely than those with no such history to engage in sexual risk behaviors. Methods: Data for this study were obtained through the 1997 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a self-report questionnaire administered to a representative sample of 9th through 12th graders (N = 4014) to assess a

  6. Behavioral, Biological, and Demographic Risk and Protective Factors for New HIV Infections among Youth, Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Santelli, John S.; Edelstein, Zoe R.; Mathur, Sanyukta; Wei, Ying; Zhang, Wenfei; Orr, Mark G.; Higgins, Jenny A.; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of HIV infection is considerable among youth, although data on risk factors for new (incident) infections is limited. We examined incidence of HIV infection and risk and protective factors among youth in rural Uganda, including the role of gender and social transitions. Methods Participants were sexually experienced youth (15–24 years-old) enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study,1999–2008 (n=6741). Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to estimate incident rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incident HIV infection. Results HIV incidence was greater among young women than young men (14.1 vs. 8.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively); this gender disparity was greater among teens (14.9 vs. 3.6). Beyond behavioral (multiple partners and concurrency) and biological factors (sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms), social transitions such as marriage and staying in school influenced HIV risk. In multivariate analyses among women, HIV incidence was associated with living in a trading village [adjusted IRR (aIRR) = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.11], being a student (aIRR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.72), current marriage (aIRR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.81), former marriage (aIRR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.96), having multiple partners, and sexually transmitted infection symptoms. Among men, new infections were associated with former marriage (aIRR = 5.57; 95% CI: 2.51 to 12.36), genital ulceration (aIRR = 3.56; 95% CI: 1.97 to 6.41), and alcohol use (aIRR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.77). Conclusions During the third decade of the HIV epidemic in Uganda, HIV incidence remains considerable among youth, with young women particularly at risk. The risk for new infections was strongly shaped by social transitions such as leaving school, entrance into marriage, and marital dissolution; the impact of marriage was different for young men than women. PMID:23535293

  7. A Multimodal Behavioral Intervention to Impact Adherence and Risk Behavior among Perinatally and Behaviorally HIV-Infected Youth: Description, Delivery, and Receptivity of Adolescent Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…

  8. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Selected Steps Communities, United States, 2007 and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Pacific Island United States Territories, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Frederic E., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "MMWR" contains the following studies: (1) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Selected Steps…

  9. Mediation by Peer Violence Victimization of Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI?=?6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI?=?1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI?=?3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

  10. Intersecting Identities and the Association Between Bullying and Suicide Attempt Among New York City Youths: Results From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    LeVasseur, Michael T.; Grosskopf, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the intersections of sexual minority, gender, and Hispanic ethnic identities and their interaction with experiences of bullying in predicting suicide attempt among New York City youths. Methods. We performed secondary data analysis of the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey, using logistic regression to examine the association of sexual identity, gender, ethnicity, and bullying with suicide attempt. We stratified results on these measures and reported adjusted odds ratios. Results. Compared with non–sexual minority youths, sexual minority youths had 4.39 and 1.96 times higher odds, respectively, of attempting suicide and reporting bullying. Identity variables did not interact with bullying in predicting suicide attempt individually; however, a four-way interaction term was significant. The effect of bullying on suicide attempt was strongest among non-Hispanic sexual minority male youths (odds ratio?=?21.39 vs 1.65–3.38 for other groups). Conclusions. Sexual minority, gender, and ethnic identities interact with bullying in predicting suicide attempt among New York City youths. Interventions to limit both the prevalence and the effect of bullying among minority youths should consider an intersectional approach that considers ethnic, gender, and sexual identities. PMID:23597376

  11. Programs-That-Work: CDC's Guide to Effective Programs that Reduce Health-Risk Behavior of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Janet; Robin, Leah; Wooley, Susan; Fenley, Dean; Hunt, Peter; Taylor, Julie; Haber, Deborah; Kolbe, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated "Programs-That-Work" (PTW) in 1992 to identify health education programs with credible evidence of effectiveness and disseminate them to schools and youth agencies. Two tobacco use reduction programs and eight sexual risk behavior reduction programs were identified. This paper describes…

  12. Victimization by Bullying and Harassment in High School: Findings from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a Southwestern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…

  13. Neighborhood Structural Inequality, Collective Efficacy, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    BROWNING, CHRISTOPHER R.; BURRINGTON, LORI A.; LEVENTHAL, TAMA; BROOKS-GUNN, JEANNE

    2011-01-01

    We draw on collective efficacy theory to extend a contextual model of early adolescent sexual behavior. Specifically, we hypothesize that neighborhood structural disadvantage—as measured by levels of concentrated poverty, residential instability, and aspects of immigrant concentration—and diminished collective efficacy have consequences for the prevalence of early adolescent multiple sexual partnering. Findings from random effects multinomial logistic regression models of the number of sexual partners among a sample of youth, age 11 to 16, from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 768) reveal evidence of neighborhood effects on adolescent higher-risk sexual activity. Collective efficacy is negatively associated with having two or more sexual partners versus one (but not zero versus one) sexual partner. The effect of collective efficacy is dependent upon age: The regulatory effect of collective efficacy increases for older adolescents. PMID:18771063

  14. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  15. Using Surveillance of Mental Health to Increase Understanding of Youth Involvement in High-Risk Behaviors: A Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.; Sharkey, Jill D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the potential utility of adding items that assessed youths' emotional and behavioral disorders to a commonly used surveillance survey. The goal was to evaluate whether the added items could enhance understanding of youths' involvement in high-risk behaviors. A sample of 3,331 adolescents in Grades 8, 10, and 12 from four…

  16. Youth Suicidal Behavior: An Introduction and Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2009-01-01

    Youth suicidal behavior continues to be a significant national problem in need of urgent attention by school personnel. The purpose of this introductory article to the special series is to provide an overview of youth suicidal behavior, including research-based information on demographic data; risk factors and warning signs; and where, when, and…

  17. Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey: Association Between Part-time Employment and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Myung-Soo; Jeong, Hyunsuk; Lee, Won-Chul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the association between in-school students' part-time work and 1-year suicide attempts in Korea. The authors analyzed Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (2008), which included 75 238 samples that represent Korean middle and high school students. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between part-time work and suicide attempt during the past 1 year, controlled by sociodemographic, school-related, lifestyle, and psychological factors. Among high school students, there was no association between part-time work and suicide attempts. However, part-time work was associated with suicide attempts significantly among middle school students (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval = 1.37-1.83). Despite the limitation that details of the part-time work were not included in this study, it was found that middle school students' part-time work may increase suicide attempts, and the circumstances of Korean adolescents' employment, especially that of younger adolescents, would need to be reconsidered to prevent their suicide attempts. PMID:24566603

  18. Health-Risk Behaviors among Our Nation's Youth: United States, 1992. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10: Data from the National Health Interview Survey. No. 192.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    The 1992 National Health Interview Survey-Youth Risk Behavior Survey (NHIS-YRBS) studied 13,789 youth 12-21 years of age. This report presents the data according to sex, age, Hispanic origin, and race for youth of non-Hispanic origin. The 10 data tables cover: cigarette and other tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual experience, HIV/AIDS…

  19. Multi-Domain Risk and Protective Factor Predictors of Violent Behavior among At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole L.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2011-01-01

    This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school dropout. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the…

  20. Ohio Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993: When, Why, and What Was Discovered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

    This report summarizes the survey answers Ohio high school students (N=2,314) reported about alcohol, tobacco, and other health risk behaviors. The survey contains questions relating to: (1) behaviors that result in intentional and non-intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that result in HIV…

  1. High Risk Sexual Behaviors for HIV among the In-School Youth in Swaziland: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Background Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. Results The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Conclusions Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths. PMID:23861756

  2. Prevention Effects Moderate the Association of 5-HTTLPR and Youth Risk Behavior Initiation: Gene x Environment Hypotheses Tested via a Randomized Prevention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride

    2009-01-01

    A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk

  3. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  4. HIV sexual risk behaviors in youth 15-24 years of age in Cali, Colombia: Do differences exist among neighborhoods?

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Hannia; Mateus, Julio C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: HIV/AIDS is a global health priority. About 40% of new infections occur among heterosexual youth by means of sexual contact. In Cali, district 13, 15 and 20 account for 11.5% of the prevalent cases and 18.0% of incident cases. Objective: To establish differences in risk behaviors for HIV among young people 15-24 yrs of age from two areas of Cali, Colombia. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among young people between 15 and 24 yrs of age in these districts. The selection was done with a two-stage probability sampling. We estimated the prevalence of sexual relationships without condom usage, sex with multiple partners, and sex under the effects of alcohol and through logistical regression we identified the related factors. Results: In district 13, 15 and 20, the prevalence of unprotected sexual relationships in the last 12 months and the prevalence of sex with two or more partners was 70%; and 38% of young people had sex under the effects of alcohol. In both areas, the intention was positively related to the risk behaviors. We found socio-demographic factors, intentions, and beliefs that increase the opportunity to display these behaviors. The effect of these factors differs by district. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence of risk behaviors for HIV related to socio-demographic factors, intentions and beliefs that warrant interventions appropriate for local realities. PMID:24892451

  5. Trajectories of HIV Risk Behavior from Age 15 to 25 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane M.; Huang, David

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate youth risk trajectories for HIV and factors associated with different trajectories. The sample (N = 8,208) was 49.2% female, with a mean age of 14.31 (SD = 1.48). A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both…

  6. Emotional and behavioral symptomatology reported by help-seeking youth at clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Ellman, Lauren M; Mittal, Vijay; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Subthreshold psychosis-like experiences are typically the focus of psychosis-risk screening as they are associated with a greater propensity for future illness. Potentially prodromal individuals identified as being at clinical high-risk (CHR), however, report a variety of distressing and impairing mental health symptoms in addition to subthreshold psychosis symptoms, indicating that this population is of clinical interest regardless of whether or not they develop psychosis. In the current study, 90 young people (12-21) seeking mental health services completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), a broad-range checklist of emotional and behavioral concerns and adaptive skills, followed by the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes to assess psychosis risk. Those who met criteria for CHR (n=35) reported elevated scores across several BASC-2 scales including depression, attention problems, locus of control, and sense of inadequacy compared to help-seeking youth without CHR (n=55). Most of these scales were also elevated compared to general population norms. Further, the CHR group had significantly lower scores on two adaptive scales, self-reliance and relations with parents, indicating more impairment in these domains. Results indicate that young people at CHR experience more pervasive and/or more severe symptomatology across several domains of clinical significance compared to a similar group of help-seeking youth not at CHR. Results from this study aid in the understanding of symptom correlates of CHR status beyond attenuated symptoms that can provide clinical information relevant for treatment. PMID:25638728

  7. Determining the Presence of a Problem: Comparing Two Approaches for Detecting Youth Behavioral Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphaus, R. W.; DiStefano, Christine; Dowdy, Erin; Eklund, Katie; Dunn, Alnita Rettig

    2010-01-01

    Universal screening has been routinely advised for determining the presence of problems for initiating problem-solving processes and models. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two screener development methods on the validity of score inferences for two teacher screeners of child behavioral and emotional risk. The reliability and…

  8. Screening for Alcohol Risk in Predominantly Hispanic Youths: Positive Rates and Behavioral Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaka, Joe; Salaiz, Rebekah A.; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Thompson, Sharon; McKinnon, Sarah; O'Rourke, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between CAGE alcohol risk scores and predisposing factors for alcohol use, current alcohol use, and behavioral consequences in a large sample of secondary students. Students completed the CAGE, measures of demographics, potential predisposing factors, and consequences of alcohol use. More than 18% of…

  9. HIV Risk Behavior among Youth in the Dominican Republic: The Role of Alcohol and Other Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Lushin, Vincent; Martinez, Roberto; Gonzalez, Bernardo; McCarthy, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature related to HIV in the Dominican Republic has tended to neglect the unique role of tourism areas as distinct ecologies facilitative of sexual risk behavior, particularly HIV vulnerability and transmission. Furthermore, limited attention has focused on Dominican adolescents living in close proximity to tourism areas who have become increasingly exposed to alcohol due to the expanding tourism industry in the Dominican Republic. While most previous analyses of the effects of alcohol on adolescent sexual risk behavior have focused on the transient effects of alcohol on judgment and decision making, the effects of chronic alcohol use on sexual behavior has been a neglected area of research. Our study explores the relationship between chronic alcohol use, the parent–adolescent relationship, affective factors such as self-esteem, and intentions to engage in sex. We examine the above factors within the context of tourism areas which represent a unique ecology of alcohol availability and consumption and HIV risk. We discuss implications for developing applied family-based programs to target Dominican adolescent alcohol use and sexual risk behavior in tourism areas of high alcohol exposure. PMID:21911848

  10. Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2014-01-01

    Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

  11. Kids, Schools, & Health: Where Do We Stand? Results of the 1993 New Mexico Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Native American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.

    This report summarizes the major results of a youth risk behavior survey administered to 1,549 students (grades 9-12) in 14 New Mexico schools identified as predominantly "Native American." The purpose of this report is to stimulate useful discussions into ways to increase informed support for effective, school-based comprehensive health education…

  12. Sadness, Suicide, and Their Association with Video Game and Internet Overuse among Teens: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 and 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…

  13. Maternal caregiving and girls’ depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), all of whom have had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from the home of their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having a biological mother who has experienced recurrent depression. Study analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls’ trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point across the study period. Results suggest increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for antisocial behavior, for girls at familial risk for depression, but decreasing trajectories for girls in foster care. A similar pattern of results was noted for antisocial behavior trajectories, controlling for depressive symptoms. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the identification of family level promotive factors aimed at reducing negative developmental trajectories among high-risk youth. PMID:25422973

  14. Familial and Cultural Influences on Sexual Risk Behaviors among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Dominican Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Guilamo-Ramos; Alida Bouris; James Jaccard; Catherine Lesesne; Michelle Ballan

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship among acculturation, familis- mo, and HIV-related adolescent sexual risk behavior. Data were collected from Latino mother-adolescent dyads to permit parent and adolescent analyses of familismo for predicting oral, vaginal, and anal sexual behav- iors. A random sample of 702 Latino eighth-grade students and their moth- ers was recruited from New York City. The sample

  15. The role of verbal competence and multiple risk on the internalizing behavior problems of Costa Rican youth.

    PubMed

    Corapci, Feyza; Smith, Julia; Lozoff, Betsy

    2006-12-01

    This longitudinal study examined internalizing behavior problems (anxiety/depression) in early adolescence in relation to adversity in early childhood and child verbal competence. We hypothesized that verbal competence would act as a protective factor in the face of early adversity, that is, high verbal IQ would predict relatively lower internalizing problems in early adolescence primarily for those children who experienced the greatest adversity. The sample was based on 191 Costa Rican children and their mothers, who were recruited in infancy from an urban community and assessed again at 5 and 11-14 years. Families were generally lower-middle to working class. A total of 165 children (94 boys) participated in the early adolescent follow-up (mean age = 12.3 years). Internalizing problems were based on maternal report (Spanish Child Behavior Checklist). Our cumulative risk index (CRI)_of adversity in early childhood consisted of home environment quality (HOME score), socioeconomic status, maternal depressed mood (CESD), and maternal IQ. Controlling for the effects of age, gender, internalizing problems at 5 years, and verbal IQ at 5 years, there was a significant interaction between early adversity and verbal IQ at age 11-14 years in predicting internalizing problems in early adolescence. Youth with high verbal IQ had comparable levels of internalizing problems regardless of high or low adversity in early childhood. In contrast, youth with low verbal IQ received higher internalizing problem ratings if they experienced high adversity early in life. The results raise the possibility that interventions to improve verbal competence might help lower the risk of internalizing problems in the face of early adversity. PMID:17347361

  16. Countervailing social network influences on problem behaviors among homeless youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Rice; Judith A. Stein; Norweeta Milburn

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and were more likely to have HIV risk and anti-social

  17. Changes in Risk-Taking among High School Students, 1991-1997: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Boggess, Scott.

    2000-01-01

    Drawing on data from three major national surveys of teenagers's risk-taking behavior conducted by the US government and University-based social scientists, in June 2000 the Urban Institute released this report assessing the levels of teenagers's involvement in one or more identified risk-taking behaviors. These behaviors include "regular alcohol use, binge drinking, regular tobacco use, marijuana use, other illegal drug use, fighting, weapon carrying, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and risky sexual activity." The report indicates that risk-taking behavior has actually declined overall among adolescents from 1990 to 1997. However, for one demographic group, Hispanics, the levels have almost doubled. The reports also analyze teenagers's participation in "desirable family, school, or community activities" and conclude that "many risk-taking teens earn good grades, go to church, play sports, or spend quality time with their parents," suggesting, according to the researchers, that a more complicated understanding of vulnerable teens is required than the typical good/bad stereotypes often circulated.

  18. Dating Violence Among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence, sexual, and substance use behaviors. METHODS Logistic regression models for clustered data from 7th grade students attending 10 Texas urban middle schools were used to examine cross-sectional associations between dating violence victimization and risk behaviors. RESULTS The sample (N = 950) was 48.5% African American, 36.0% Hispanic, 55.7% female, mean age 13.1 years (SD 0.64). About 1 in 5 reported physical dating violence victimization, 48.1% reported nonphysical victimization, and 52.6% reported any victimization. Adjusted logistic regression analyses indicated that physical, nonphysical, and any victimization was associated with ever having sex, ever using alcohol, and ever using drugs. CONCLUSIONS Over 50% of sampled middle school students had experienced dating violence, which may be associated with early sexual initiation and substance use. Middle school interventions that prevent dating violence are needed. PMID:23586886

  19. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  20. Relationships between Youth Sport Participation and Selected Health Risk Behaviors from 1999 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Donovan, Kristine A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: How adolescents spend their out-of-school time represents one of the most important factors for predicting positive youth development. Sport participation relates to many beneficial outcomes. However, current economic conditions threaten high school sport programs around the United States. This investigation examined relationships by…

  1. Identification of Potential Aggressive Behavior in Rural At-Risk Minority Youth: A Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence Armand; Rodriguez, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    New Mexico ranks high in youth violence, substance abuse, poverty, teen pregnancies, and school dropout rates. In response, Western New Mexico University developed a special master's program in bilingual special education, attended primarily by minority-group school personnel, and implemented a program to address the cycle of poverty by training…

  2. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Targeting Personality Risk Factors for Youth Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Comeau, Nancy; Maclean, A. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Sensation seeking, anxiety sensitivity, and hopelessness are personality risk factors for alcohol use disorders, each associated with specific risky drinking motives in adolescents. We developed a set of interventions and manuals that were designed to intervene at the level of personality risk and associated maladaptive coping strategies,…

  3. Interagency Collaboration with High-Risk Gang Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.

    This article describes the results of a study on interagency collaboration required to make major systemic changes in order to address the needs of emotionally and behaviorally disturbed youth. Interviews were conducted with practitioners from a cross-section of agencies that worked with high-risk gang youth. The intent was to examine both the…

  4. Sexual and Drug Use Risk Behaviors among Children and Youth in Street Circumstances in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Torres de Carvalho; Lucas Neiva-Silva; Mauro Cunha Ramos; Jennifer Evans; Sílvia Helena Koller; Cesar Augusto Piccinini; Kimberly Page-Shafer

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess sexual and drug use risk in 161 children and youth in street circumstances\\u000a in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Median age was 14 and 79% were male. Overall, 59% reported ever having had sex; a significantly higher\\u000a proportion of males (66%) compared to females (30%). Overall, 39% reported illicit drug use in the last year,

  5. Discotheques and the Risk of Hearing Loss among Youth: Risky Listening Behavior and Its Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit strength" as…

  6. Neighborhood Structural Inequality, Collective Efficacy, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Christopher R.; Burrington, Lori A.; Leventhal, Tama; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    We draw on collective efficacy theory to extend a contextual model of early adolescent sexual behavior. Specifically, we hypothesize that neighborhood structural disadvantage--as measured by levels of concentrated poverty, residential instability, and aspects of immigrant concentration--and diminished collective efficacy have consequences for the…

  7. Stress, behavior, and biology: Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychological stress is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathogenesis during childhood. Stress promotes atherogenic behaviors in children including snacking of energy dense foods and reduced physical activity; and it also increases adiposity. Stress-induced CV reactivity may also be athe...

  8. Stress, behavior, and biology: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychological stress is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathogenesis during childhood. Stress promotes atherogenic behaviors in children including snacking of energy dense foods and reduced physical activity; and it also increases adiposity. Stress-induced CV reactivity may also be athe...

  9. Relation of Maternal Responsiveness during Infancy to the Development of Behavior Problems in High-Risk Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Hans, Sydney L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined association between maternal responsiveness during infancy and middle-childhood behavior problems. Found that responsiveness was significantly associated with disruptive behavior problems but unrelated to attention problems. Absence of MRes during infancy increased risk of later disruptive behavior problems, even with concurrent parenting…

  10. Young People's Sexual Risk Behaviors in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulraheem, I. S.; Fawole, O. I.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in Nigeria are poorly documented. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in order to plan appropriate intervention measures. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey using…

  11. Youth "At Risk": Further Marginalizing the Marginalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Riele, Kitty

    2006-01-01

    Youth "at risk" is the currently favoured label used in Australian policy for youth whose educational outcomes are considered too low, with an emphasis on the risk of not completing senior secondary education. Although some research has identified factors contributing to this risk as stemming from complex interactions between individual and family…

  12. Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Results Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Conclusion Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors. PMID:20046509

  13. Adolescent Inpatient Behavioral Health Clients: Risk Factors and Methods of Preventing an Increase in HIV Infection among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackerman, Ann E.

    2002-01-01

    There has been a surge in the rates of adolescents who are becoming infected with HIV. This study of 214 at risk clients being treated on an inpatient psychiatric hospitalization basis examines why such clients continue to engage in high-risk behaviors. Results and suggestions for a psychoeducational curriculum for professionals are included.…

  14. Does stress increase the risk of atopic dermatitis in adolescents? results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-VI).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeoung A; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between level of stress in middle and high school students aged 12-18 and risk of atopic dermatitis. Data from the Sixth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-VI), a cross-sectional study among 74,980 students in 800 middle schools and high schools with a response rate of 97.7%, were analyzed. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis with severity. A total of 5,550 boys and 6,964 girls reported having been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. Younger students were more likely to have atopic dermatitis. Interestingly, the educational level of parents was found to be associated with having atopic dermatitis and having more severe condition. In particular, girls with mothers with at least college education had a 41% higher risk of having atopic dermatitis and severe atopic condition (odds ratio (OR))?=?1.41, 95% CI, 1.22-1.63; P<0.0001) compared with those with mothers who had attended middle school at most. Similar trend was shown among both boys and girls for their father's education level. The stress level was found to be significantly associated with the risk of atopic dermatitis. Compared to boys with who reported "no stress", boys with "very high" stress had 46% higher the risk of having more severe atopic dermatitis (OR?=?1.46, 95% CI, 1.20-1.78; P<0.0001), 44% higher (OR?=?1.44, 95% CI, 1.19-1.73; P<0.0001) with "high" stress, and 21% higher (OR?=?1.21, 95% CI, 1.00-1.45; P?=?0.05) with "moderate" stress. In contrast, we found no statistically significant relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis in girls. This study suggests that stress and parents' education level were associated with atopic dermatitis. Specifically, degree of stress is positively correlated with likelihood of being diagnosed with this condition and increasing the severity. PMID:23940513

  15. A descriptive study of youth risk behavior in urban and rural secondary school students in El Salvador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew E Springer; BJ Selwyn; Steven H Kelder

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescence is an important stage of life for establishing healthy behaviors, attitudes, and lifestyles that contribute to current and future health. Health risk behavior is one indicator of health of young people that may serve both as a measure of health over time as well as a target for health policies and programs. This study examined the prevalence and

  16. Socioeconomic status, urbanicity and risk behaviors in Mexican youth: an analysis of three cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between urbanicity and adolescent health is a critical issue for which little empirical evidence has been reported. Although an association has been suggested, a dichotomous rural versus urban comparison may not succeed in identifying differences between adolescent contexts. This study aims to assess the influence of locality size on risk behaviors in a national sample of young Mexicans living in low-income households, while considering the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES). Methods This is a secondary analysis of three national surveys of low-income households in Mexico in different settings: rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We analyzed risk behaviors in 15-21-year-olds and their potential relation to urbanicity. The risk behaviors explored were: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual initiation and condom use. The adolescents' localities of residence were classified according to the number of inhabitants in each locality. We used a logistical model to identify an association between locality size and risk behaviors, including an interaction term with SES. Results The final sample included 17,974 adolescents from 704 localities in Mexico. Locality size was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, showing a similar effect throughout all SES levels: the larger the size of the locality, the lower the risk of consuming tobacco or alcohol compared with rural settings. The effect of locality size on sexual behavior was more complex. The odds of adolescent condom use were higher in larger localities only among adolescents in the lowest SES levels. We found no statically significant association between locality size and sexual initiation. Conclusions The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents from low-income areas in Mexico, risk behaviors are related to locality size (number of inhabitants). Furthermore, for condom use, this relation is moderated by SES. Such heterogeneity suggests the need for more detailed analyses of both the effects of urbanicity on behavior, and the responses--which are also heterogeneous--required to address this situation. PMID:22129110

  17. Effects of after-school programs with at-risk youth on attendance and externalizing behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Kristen P; Maynard, Brandy R; Polanin, Joshua R; Vaughn, Michael G; Sarteschi, Christine M

    2015-03-01

    The popularity, demand, and increased federal and private funding for after-school programs have resulted in a marked increase in after-school programs over the past two decades. After-school programs are used to prevent adverse outcomes, decrease risks, or improve functioning with at-risk youth in several areas, including academic achievement, crime and behavioral problems, socio-emotional functioning, and school engagement and attendance; however, the evidence of effects of after-school programs remains equivocal. This systematic review and meta-analysis, following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, examined the effects of after-school programs on externalizing behaviors and school attendance with at-risk students. A systematic search for published and unpublished literature resulted in the inclusion of 24 studies. A total of 64 effect sizes (16 for attendance outcomes; 49 for externalizing behavior outcomes) extracted from 31 reports were included in the meta-analysis using robust variance estimation to handle dependencies among effect sizes. Mean effects were small and non-significant for attendance and externalizing behaviors. A moderate to large amount of heterogeneity was present; however, no moderator variable tested explained the variance between studies. Significant methodological shortcomings were identified across the corpus of studies included in this review. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed. PMID:25416228

  18. Information, risk perceptions, and smoking choices of youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Sloan; Alyssa Platt

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom maintains that youths take risks because they underestimate probabilities of harm. Presumably if they\\u000a knew the true probabilities, they would behave differently. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess\\u000a whether differences between subjective and objective probabilities that an adverse outcome to self will occur are systematically\\u000a related to a harmful behavior, initiating smoking. We

  19. The Effects of a Mentoring Program on At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Lisa M.; Tomishima, Michelle A.; Foster, Sharon; Alessandri, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examines an intensive mentoring program that focuses on youth deemed at-risk for juvenile delinquency or mental illness. Results indicate significant improvement in problematic behaviors for the intervention group. Mentoring appeared to affect African American youth differently than Caucasian and Latino youth. Findings support the positive…

  20. Adolescents At Risk: Causes of Youth Suicide in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Wilhelmina J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…

  1. Integrating Technology into the Curriculum for "At-Risk" Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Denise

    2009-01-01

    This Independent Learning Project (ILP) discusses the best practices in educational technology to improve the behavior, instruction, and learning of at-risk youth, for whom technology offers unique opportunities. Research is compiled from numerous scholarly print and online sources. A guide for teachers provides detailed strategies, software…

  2. Are Students with Asthma at Increased Risk for Being a Victim of Bullying in School or Cyberspace? Findings from the 2011 Florida Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Young, Linda; Martinasek, Mary P.; Clutter, Michiko; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with asthma are at risk for psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to determine whether high school students with asthma are at increased risk for bullying in school and cyberspace, and to explore the role of depressive symptoms in moderating this association. Methods: A secondary data analysis was…

  3. Middle School Risk Behavior 1995 Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Middle School Questionnaire, produced by the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was administered for the first time in North Carolina in 1995. The survey monitored high-priority health-risk behaviors, including: (1) weapons and violence; (2) suicide-related behaviors; (3) vehicle safety; (4)…

  4. Risk behaviors in maltreated youth placed in foster care: a longitudinal study of protective and vulnerability factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather N Taussig

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined the impact of placement in foster care prospectively to determine what early responses might predict later functioning. The current study examined protective and vulnerability factors in a longitudinal study of youth placed in foster care.Methodology: A cohort of 214 ethnically-diverse youth, ages 7–12, who entered foster care between May 1990 and October 1991 were recruited

  5. Stress, Behavior, and Children and Youth Who Are Deafblind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Catherine; Greenfield, Robin G.; Hyte, Holly A.; Shaffer, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Children and youth who are deafblind with multiple disabilities have several identified risk factors for experiencing toxic levels of stress, and such stress is known to impair physical, mental, and emotional health. This single-case multiple baseline study examined the frequency and duration of behaviors thought to indicate stress, the duration…

  6. Youth and AIDS--a study of attitudes, knowledge, behavior and risks in the post-war Croatia.

    PubMed

    Pavici?, Dino; Oreskovi?, Stipe; Rudan, Igor; Rudan, Diana; Bozicevi?, Ivana; Bistrovi?, Dragica; Vrdoljak, Andrea; Vorko-Jovi?, Ariana; Biloglav, Zrinka; Kolari?, Branko; Kujundzi?-Tiljak, Mirjana; Sonicki, Zdenko; Vuleti?, Gorka; Fajdi?, Josip; Polasek, Ozren; Kolci?, Ivana; Serdar, Svjetlana; Troskot, Rosana; Safti?, Vanja; Rudan, Pavao

    2003-06-01

    According to the latest reports, the Eastern Europe currently exhibits the greatest relative increase in the number of newly registered HIV infections in the world. At the same time, Central Europe remains relatively spared from the epidemic, with reported rates significantly lower than those in both Eastern and Western Europe. Croatia geographically affiliates to Central Europe, but it has two specific potential risk factors in comparison to neighboring countries: recent War events and a summer season when immigration of large number of tourists from Central and Eastern Europe is expected. Therefore, it is critical to examine AIDS attitudes in young people, increase their knowledge, monitor their behavior and warn on risks in order to prevent larger spread of epidemics from Eastern Europe to Croatia. In this study, we report on a large related survey and education program among 17-year-old high school pupils that was conducted in years immediately following the War (1996-1999). PMID:12974143

  7. Service Use by At-Risk Youths after School-Based Suicide Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Marrocco, Frank A.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kleinman, Marjorie; Amakawa, Lia; Altschuler, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youths and parents. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youths identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools…

  8. Youth often risk unsafe abortions.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1993-10-01

    The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to seeking safe abortion. Some countries lack adequately trained medical personnel and supplies. Mortality and morbidity declines are considered possible with legalization, more trained health personnel, and family planning programs for youth and education for parents. PMID:12287144

  9. Sexually transmitted diseases: Experience and risk factors among urban, low income, African American and Hispanic youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Ford; Anne E. Norris

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to assess: (1) ethnic and gender differences in reporting of diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), symptoms related to STDs and sexual behavior and (2) behavioral risk factors for STDs in a probability sample of low income African American and Hispanic youth.Methods. Data were analyzed from a household probability sample of youth. The

  10. Risky Sexual Behaviors in First and Second Generation Hispanic Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2009-01-01

    Though official data document that Hispanic youth are at a great risk for early sexual intercourse, STDs, and teen pregnancy, only few etiological studies have been conducted on Hispanic youth; almost no work has examined potential generational differences in these behaviors, and thus, these behaviors may have been mistakenly attributed to…

  11. Aggressive and Violent Behaviors in the School Environment among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajan, Sonali; Namdar, Rachel; Ruggles, Kelly V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of aggressive and violent behaviors in the context of the school environment in a nationally representative sample of adolescent youth and to illustrate these patterns during 2001-2011. Methods: We analyzed data from 84,734 participants via the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance…

  12. PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT AMONG ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MISSISSIPPI COMPARED WITH PREVALENCE DATA FROM THE YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the Child and Youth Prevalence of Overweight Survey was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and at risk for becoming overweight among children in Mississippi (grades 1-8) using height and weight measures instead of self-report and to compare the findings for grades 6 through 8 wi...

  13. HIV Information and Behavioral Skills Moderate the Effects of Relationship Type and Substance Use on HIV Risk Behaviors Among African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Byck, Gayle R.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Henry, David; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic is disproportionately impacting young African Americans. Efforts to understand and address risk factors for unprotected sex in this population are critical in improving prevention efforts. Situational risk factors, such as relationship type and substance use before sex, are in need of further study. This study explored how established cognitive predictors of risky sexual behavior moderated the association between situational factors and unprotected sex among low-income, African American adolescents. The largest main effect on the number of unprotected sex acts was classifying the relationship as serious (event rate ratio=10.18); other significant main effects were alcohol use before sex, participant age, behavioral skills, and level of motivation. HIV information moderated the effect of partner age difference, motivation moderated the effects of partner age difference and drug use before sex, and behavioral skills moderated the effects of alcohol and drug use before sex. This novel, partnership-level approach provides insight into the complex interactions of situational and cognitive factors in sexual risk taking. PMID:23701198

  14. Maternal risk taking on the balloon analogue risk task as a prospective predictor of youth alcohol use escalation.

    PubMed

    Banducci, Anne N; Felton, Julia W; Dahne, Jennifer; Ninnemann, Andrew; Lejuez, C W

    2015-10-01

    The transition from late childhood through middle adolescence represents a critical developmental period during which there is a rapid increase in the initiation and escalation of alcohol use. Alcohol use is part of a constellation of risk taking behaviors that increase during this developmental transition, which can be explained by environmental and genetic factors. Social learning theory (SLT) implicates observations of parental drinking in the development of alcohol use in youth. Parental risk taking more broadly has not previously been examined as a factor predictive of alcohol use escalation in youth across adolescence. The current study examined the relative contributions of maternal risk taking on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and maternal alcohol use in the prediction of alcohol escalation among youth over three years. Participants were a sample of 245 youth (55.0% male, 49.6% Caucasian) who participated annually between grades 8 and 10, drawn from a larger study of adolescent risk taking. Within our sample, maternal risk taking, as measured by the BART, predicted increases in alcohol use. Interestingly, maternal alcohol use and other youth factors were not predictive of escalations in youth alcohol use. Our findings suggest the importance of considering maternal riskiness more broadly, rather than solely focusing on maternal alcohol use when attempting to understand youth alcohol use across adolescence. These findings emphasize the relevance of maternal risk taking as measured by a behavioral task and suggest a general level of riskiness displayed by mothers might encourage youth to behave in a riskier manner themselves. PMID:26046400

  15. Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed. PMID:24921019

  16. A Risk Profile Comparison of Runaway and Non-Runaway Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Gary L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examination of data from 1985 visits by 110 runaway and 655 non-runaway youth to an outpatient medical clinic reveals that runaway youth are at greater risk for a wide variety of medical problems and of health-compromising behaviors including suicide, depression, prostitution, and drug use. (Author/BJV)

  17. Case Management as a Significant Component of Usual Care Psychotherapy for Youth with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoffness, Rachel; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Roesch, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Youth with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) represent the majority of youth served in usual care (UC) psychotherapy, and are at high risk for maladaptive outcomes. Little is known about UC psychotherapeutic strategies utilized with this population. Researchers and clinicians suggest that case management (CM) is a major activity occurring in…

  18. At-Risk Youth Appearance and Job Performance Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…

  19. A Mixture IRT Analysis of Risky Youth Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Finch, W. Holmes; Pierson, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported in this manuscript used a mixture item response model with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2009 (N?=?16,410) to identify subtypes of adolescents at-risk for engaging in unhealthy behaviors, and to find individual survey items that were most effective at identifying such students within each subtype. The goal of the manuscript is twofold: (1) To demonstrate the utility of the mixture item response theory model for identifying subgroups in the population and for highlighting the use of group specific item response parameters and (2) To identify typologies of adolescents based on their propensity for engaging in sexually and substance use risky behaviors. Results indicate that four classes of youth exist in the population, with differences in risky sexual behaviors and substance use. The first group had a greater propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior, while group 2 was more likely to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol. Group 3 was the most likely to use other substances, such as marijuana, methamphetamine, and other mind altering drugs, and group 4 had the lowest propensity for engaging in any of the sexual or substance use behaviors included in the survey. Finally, individual items were identified for each group that can be most effective at identifying individuals at greatest risk. Further proposed directions of research and the contribution of this analysis to the existing literature are discussed. PMID:21779256

  20. Parents matter in HIV-risk among probation youth.

    PubMed

    Udell, Wadiya; Donenberg, Geri; Emerson, Erin

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between parenting practices (i.e., parental monitoring, parent permissiveness, and parent-teen communication), and probation youth's HIV-related sexual risk behavior (i.e., ever having sex, condom use, alcohol and marijuana use before sex). Participants were 61 male and female juvenile offenders, ages 13-17, on probation and awaiting sentencing. Results indicated different relationships between parenting and HIV-related sexual risk behavior for probation boys and girls. Parental monitoring, parenting permissiveness, and parent-teen communication were collectively related to whether girls' ever had sex and with boys' use of alcohol and marijuana use before last sex. Findings underscore the important role of parenting on probation teens' HIV risk behaviors. PMID:21875199

  1. Caregiver Depression and Youth Disruptive Behavior Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Geetha; Dean-Assael, Kara; Klingenstein, Kathryn; Chacko, Anil; McKay, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the rates of depressive symptoms and service use among caregivers whose children receive treatment for disruptive behavior disorders. Descriptive analyses examined preliminary baseline data from the Family Groups for Urban Youth with Disruptive Behaviors study for 212 caregivers to determine rates of caregiver depressive symptoms and lifetime mental health service use. Findings indicate that caregivers manifest substantially higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to national norms. Of those caregivers with clinically significant depressive symptoms, less than half reported ever receiving mental health services. Findings suggest that greater attention should be paid to identifying and treating caregiver depression among children receiving treatment for disruptive behavior disorders. PMID:21278845

  2. Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for HIV Prevention among South African Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Walstrom, Paige; Harrison, Abigail; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of sexual risk reduction interventions among South African youth. Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify studies published between 2007 and early 2013. Studies were eligible if they (1) targeted youth age 9–26, (2) evaluated sexual risk reduction interventions and (3) reported at least one behavioral outcome. Independent raters coded study characteristics, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated; positive effect sizes indicated less sexual risk behavior and incident STIs. Results Ten studies (k = 11, N = 22,788; 54% female; 79% Black-African) were included. Compared to controls, interventions were successful at delaying sexual intercourse and, among sexually active youth, at increasing condom use. A single study found reductions in the incidence of herpes simplex virus-2, but not HIV. Conclusions Implementing behavioral interventions to delay sexual debut and improve condom use can help to reduce the transmission of HIV among South African youth. PMID:24476351

  3. Youth at Risk: A Prevention Resource for Counselors, Teachers, and Parents. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David, Ed.; Gross, Douglas R., Ed.

    This monograph outlines early prevention efforts that can decrease the development of destructive behaviors in at-risk youth. The text provides those who work with young people the information they need to identify individuals with the highest potential for "at-riskness." Such care givers also need to understand the causal factors for at-risk

  4. The Consumers' Perspective: At-Risk Youth Talk about Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public/Private Ventures, Philadelphia, PA.

    This document summarizes the findings of a study of the reasons why some at-risk youth persist in special programs while others drop out. Information was gathered from 16 focus group sessions comprised of both "persisters" and "leavers" from in-school remedial programs and out-of-school youth service corps. The findings, presented in the youths'…

  5. Positive Support: Mentoring and Depression among High-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2006-01-01

    "Positive Support" examines potential benefits of matching high-risk youth with faith-based mentors. Drawing on surveys and interviews with young people who participated in the National Faith-Based Initiative, we found that mentored youth were less likely to show signs of depression than the youth who were not matched with a mentor. This in turn…

  6. Gaps between Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Disclosure during Outpatient Visits

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Linda L.; Hovell, Melbourne; Kelley, Norma; Baird, Sara; Sipan, Carol; Schmitz, Katharine; Friedman, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the gaps between disclosed high-risk behaviors in low-income, mainly Hispanic youth and the identification of these risks by health care providers. Methods. This cross-sectional study included youth 13–19 years old who participated in a study on latent tuberculosis treatment. Youth were interviewed at baseline by bilingual research assistants; the provider visit was assessed by the chart review. Results. Of 221 youth, the majority (96%) were identified as Hispanic, 45% were foreign-born, and 46% were male. A total of 399 risk behaviors were revealed to research staff by the participants; only 24 risk behaviors were revealed to providers. Conclusions. The majority of risk behaviors based on the chart review were neither queried nor disclosed to the physicians. Physicians providing care to adolescents should consider strategies to improve disclosure as a necessary precursor to interventions. PMID:23710357

  7. Delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure abnormalities in youth with a family history of alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Megan M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high-risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH?). Methods Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH? = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH? youth. Results FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH? youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower reaction times on the delay discounting task. Conclusion Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing, and may act as an intrinsic risk-factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-risk youth. PMID:20586754

  8. Moderators of youth exercise intention and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Symons Downs, Danielle

    2013-06-01

    This study tested moderators of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) based on geographical region, gender, race, and income among adolescents in an exercise context using multigroup path analyses. Participants were eighth- and ninth-grade students from Louisiana (LA; N = 448, M age = 14.37 years) and Pennsylvania (PA; N = 681, M age = 14.28 years). They completed measures of intention, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and exercise behavior. Based on two path analyses, geographical region was a significant moderator (p < .001); therefore, the moderating effects of gender, race, and income were analyzed separately for each state. Gender was a significant moderator for LA (p < .001) but not for PA (p = .90). Race and income did not moderate the TPB relationships within each state. Findings support the moderating effect of geographical region on the TPB construct relationships and indicate that gender moderates the TPB construct relationships in LA youth. PMID:22773599

  9. How Teen Sexual Behavior Responds to Sexually Transmitted Disease Risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Elizabeth Corman

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how teen sexual behavior responds to associated disease infection risks using the biannual 1993-99 waves of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We estimate the effect of state level rates of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases on sexual behavior with probit regressions for the decision to have sex during the previous three months along with ordinary least

  10. Analysis of the Fiscal Resources Supporting At-Risk Youth, Ages 13-24, in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silloway, Torey; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dahlin, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii's largest populations of at-risk youth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…

  11. Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and…

  12. The Relationship Between Program Restrictiveness and Youth Behavior Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Handwerk; Patrick C. Friman; Mariam A. Mott; Jayne M. Stairs

    1998-01-01

    A key concept in the continuum-of-care model is matching the restrictiveness of treatment to the level of youth behavior problems. Restrictiveness refers to the degree that treatment and setting constrains choices and limits freedoms of patients. Only a few investigators have examined this relationship, and the findings have been equivocal. Extending our initial study of the relationship between youth behavior

  13. Kids Speak: Preferred Parental Behavior at Youth Sport Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fifer, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However, it is unlikely that…

  14. Walk and Talk: An Intervention for Behaviorally Challenged Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative research explored the question: Do preadolescent and adolescent youths with behavioral challenges benefit from a multimodal intervention of walking outdoors while engaging in counseling? The objective of the Walk and Talk intervention is to help the youth feel better, explore alternative behavioral choices, and learn new coping…

  15. The dangerousness of youth-at-risk: the possibilities of surveillance and intervention in uncertain times.

    PubMed

    Kelly, P

    2000-08-01

    This paper will explore the dangerous possibilities provoked by the popular and promiscuous construction of the category of "youth-at-risk". In an age of large-scale and profound social changes, narratives of uncertainty and risk dominate popular, political and theoretical discourses about youth. Under these social conditions, the discourse of youth-at-risk is mobilized from a variety of intellectual and political positions in various attempts to regulate the behaviors and dispositions of youth. The paper will argue that these discourses provoke dangerous possibilities for the increased surveillance of, and intervention into, young people's lives by regulatory authorities (schools, police, health services, and juvenile justice systems) and the forms of expertise recruited by these agencies. PMID:10936017

  16. Cross-National Variations in Behavioral Profiles Among Homeless Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norweeta G. Milburn; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Eric Rice; Shelley Mallet; Doreen Rosenthal

    2006-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons of homeless youth in Melbourne, Australia, and Los Angeles, CA, United States were conducted. Newly\\u000a (n = 427) and experienced (n = 864) homeless youth were recruited from each site. Compared to Australia, homeless youth in the United States were younger,\\u000a more likely to be in school or jail, demonstrated fewer sexual and substance use risk acts, fewer

  17. Intervention for homeless and at-risk youth: Assessing youth and staff perspectives on service provision, satisfaction and quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillary J. Heinze; Debra M. Hernandez Jozefowicz-Simbeni

    2009-01-01

    This study applies a developmental framework to examining service provision within an agency servicing homeless and at-risk youth. Forty-five youth and 30 staff provided quantitative ratings and qualitative description of five core dimensions of service delivery informed by research on youth development within community agencies and studies of service utilization within homeless youth populations; namely, program rules and organization, safety,

  18. Profiles of Risk Among HIV-infected Youth in Clinic Settings

    PubMed Central

    Huszti, Heather C.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kahana, Shoshana; Nichols, Sharon; Gonin, René; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rising number of new HIV infections among youth, few tailored interventions for youth living with HIV (YLH) have been developed and rigorously tested. Developing tailored interventions necessitates identifying different profiles of YLH and understanding how risk and protective factors cluster together. Obtaining this critical information requires accessing a sufficiently large sample of YLH from diverse geographic settings such as those available through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions (ATN). We recruited a cross-sectional sample of 1,712 YLH from ATN clinics; participants completed a survey on psychosocial and health factors. Using latent class analysis on nine composite variables representing risk factors, we identified five classes distinguished by substance use, sexual behavior, and pregnancy history and differing on health outcomes. Findings suggest a need for tailored interventions addressing multiple risky behaviors of HIV-infected youth and research to clarify how intervention effectiveness may differ by risk profile. PMID:25117556

  19. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  20. Suicide Interventions Targeted toward At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…

  1. Reclaiming Youth At Risk. Our Hope for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; And Others

    If schools are to respond effectively to the problems of youth at risk, they must build "reclaiming" environments that recover alienated youths by addressing both the students' needs and the needs of society. In the first of three sections, this document examines the alienation of children in a frequently inhospitable society. Destructive…

  2. Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave, Ed.; Gross, Douglas R., Ed.

    This book of readings consists of 15 chapters grouped into 4 "Parts." The readings provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. Sample programs that have been effective are described and data are provided on causal factors for youth problems. The book…

  3. Overlooked, misunderstood and at-risk: Exploring the lives and HIV risk of ethnic minority male-to-female transgender youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Garofalo; Joanne Deleon; Elizabeth Osmer; Mary Doll; Gary W. Harper

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the real life challenges and HIV-risk behaviors of male-to-female (MTF) transgender youth from communities of color. Methods: A convenience sample (n 51) of ethnic-minority MTF transgender youth aged 16 -25 years completed an anonymous questionnaire including demographics, psychosocial measures, and participation in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Descriptive analyses and analyses of association were used to

  4. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gudiño, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2013-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. To current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths’ reinforcement sensitivity–behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)–is associated with specific clinical outcomes and increases risk for the development of such problems following exposure to violence. Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, Latino youth (N=168) provided reports of BIS/BAS and emotional/behavioral problems at Time 1, exposure to violence between Time 1 and Time 2, and clinical symptoms at Time 2. Results suggested that reinforcement sensitivity moderated the relation between violence exposure and psychopathology, such that increasing levels of BIS were associated with elevated risk for internalizing and posttraumatic stress symptoms following exposure to violence whereas BAS increased risk for externalizing problems. The importance of building on existing knowledge to understand minority youth psychopathology is discussed. PMID:22080366

  5. Youth Behavior in Various Areas of Social Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, Claudio

    The composite results from eight surveys conducted between 1985 and 1987 by CENSIS (Social Investment Study Center, Italy) reveal some behavioral trends of Italian youth. Part 1 of this paper discusses the indications from the collected data. The instruments tested youth perceptions on seven topics that included values orientation, formal…

  6. Cultural measures associated with risky sexual behaviors among Latino youth in Southern California: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Thing, James P.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Context Cultural variables have been associated with sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth, but findings across studies are inconsistent. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal study of Latino youth in Southern California followed from 2005–2012 to test whether cultural variables measured in high school were associated with sexual risk behaviors in emerging adulthood, and whether gender moderated these associations. We conducted logistic and ordinal regression analyses. Participants were 995 Latino youth. Results The cultural value of respect for parents was negatively associated with an earlier age at sexual debut (odds ratio, 0.8) and not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse (0.8). U.S. cultural practices (a measure of acculturation) was positively associated with being sexually active (1.2), having concurrent sexual partners (1.5), and among males only, with a higher number of sexual partners (1.3). Second- and third- generation immigrant youth had lower odds of not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse when compared to first-generation youth (0.6 and 0.5, respectively). Among females, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with lower odds of more sexual partners (0.8). By contrast, among males, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with higher odds of more sexual partners (1.4). Conclusions The cultural measures associated with Latino youth’s sexual behaviors differed across outcomes and by gender. Understanding how culture is related to the sexual behaviors of Latino youth may help inform the development of culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions. PMID:24786352

  7. Africentric Youth and Family Rites of Passage Program: Promoting Resilience among At-Risk African American Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Aminifu R.; Hill, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the effects of an Africentric youth and family rites of passage program on at-risk African American youths and their parents. Data were obtained from a three-year evaluation of a youth rites of passage demonstration project using therapeutic interventions based on Africentric principles. At-risk African American boys between…

  8. Suicide Risk in Youth with Intellectual Disability: The Challenges of Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ludi, Erica; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Greenbaum, Rachel; Pao, Maryland; Bridge, Jeffrey; Reynolds, William; Horowitz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), often diagnosed with co-morbid psychiatric disorders, are a vulnerable population who may be at risk for developing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that direct suicide screening can rapidly and effectively detect suicide risk and facilitate further clinical evaluation and management. Currently, there are no measures that screen for suicide risk designed specifically for individuals with ID. A review of the literature was conducted: 1) to estimate the prevalence of suicidal thoughts, behaviors and deaths by suicide in children and adolescents with ID; 2) to describe associations between youth with ID and suicide risk; 3) to identify the limitations of commonly used suicide screening measures developed for non-ID youth. The literature review confirms that suicide risk exists in this population; youth with ID think about, attempt and die by suicide. Standardized suicide risk screening is challenged by the lack of measures developed for this population. A summary of the findings is followed by a discussion of the practical clinical considerations surrounding the assessment of suicide risk in youth with ID. PMID:22668827

  9. Population Density and Alcohol-Related Risk Behaviors among US High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greggo, Jennifer; Jones, Sherry Everett; Kann, Laura

    2005-01-01

    By better understanding differences in health-risk behaviors among youth in rural, suburban and urban communities, health educators and other public health practitioners can more appropriately focus prevention and health care programs. In this study, we examined data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to determine whether…

  10. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behavior. Interventions in homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. Objectives To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, Medline, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Selection criteria Randomized studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behavior (biological, self-report sexual-risk behavior or health seeking behavior) in homeless youth (12–24 years). Data collection and analysis Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review and the reporting of self-report sexual risk behavior outcomes was highly variable across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. Results We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for each of the studies. Whilst some effect of the interventions on outcome measures were reported, heterogeneity and lack of robustness in these studies necessitate caution in interpreting the effectiveness of these interventions. Authors’ conclusions The body of evidence does not permit conclusions on the impact of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour in homeless youth. More research is required. While the psychosocial and contextual factors that fuel sexual risk behaviours among homeless youth challenge stringent methodologies of RCT’s, novel ways for program delivery and trial retention are in need of development. Future trials should endeavour to comply with rigorous methodology in design, delivery, outcome measurement and reporting. PMID:21249691

  11. The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    "The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked closely at the…

  12. Offsetting Risks: High School Gay-Straight Alliances and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas C. Heck; Annesa Flentje; Bryan N. Cochran

    2011-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to lower levels of problematic substance use, depressive symptoms, and psychological

  13. Offsetting Risks: High School Gay-Straight Alliances and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2011-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…

  14. Youth Engagement and Suicide Risk: Testing a Mediated Model in a Canadian Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…

  15. Does Insurance Matter? Implementing Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Two Groups of Youth Engaged in Deliberate Self-harm.

    PubMed

    James, Sigrid; Freeman, Kim R; Mayo, Danessa; Riggs, Matt L; Morgan, Joshua P; Schaepper, Mary Ann; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a Dialectical Behavior Treatment (DBT) program, implemented in intensive outpatient care with two groups of adolescents (n = 55 and n = 45), ages 12-18, who engaged in deliberate self-harm (DSH) but had different insurance/funding sources and risk backgrounds. This pre-post study examined variability in clinical functioning and treatment utilization between the two groups and investigated moderating risk factors. Findings support DBT's effectiveness in improving clinical functioning for youth with DSH regardless of insurance type. However, lower rates of treatment completion among youth without private insurance call for extra engagement efforts to retain high-risk youth in DBT. PMID:25199812

  16. Correlates of Externalizing Behavior Symptoms among Youth within Two Impoverished, Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalan, Geetha; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Bannon, William M.; McKay, Mary M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether risk factors associated with child externalizing behavior symptoms differ between two similar low-income, urban communities, using baseline parent data of 154 African American youth (ages 9-15) participating in the Collaborative HIV-Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) family program. Separate…

  17. Risk of early sexual initiation and pregnancy among youth reported to the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ellen; Casanueva, Cecilia; Smith, Keith R; Koo, Helen; Tueller, Stephen J; Webb, Mary Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This study found that youth involved with the child welfare system have high rates of sexual risk behaviors and outcomes, including forced sex, early age at first sex, low contraceptive use, and pregnancy, which are more than double those of adolescents from the general population. Caseworkers may need training in how to address sexual risk factors and may need to support caregivers in addressing these issues with their children. Findings highlight the importance for case-workers, caregivers, and others to address the sexual and reproductive health needs of maltreated youth. PMID:26030990

  18. Parental Detection of Youth's Self-Harm Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Olfson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The rate and predictors of parental detection of youth self-harm behavior and relationship with help-seeking were examined in 7,036 parent-child dyads from the 1999 and 2004 surveys of Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain. Youth self-harm behavior was reported by 463 (6.6%) children and adolescents but only 190 (2.7%) of the…

  19. A conceptual framework for reducing risky teen driving behaviors among minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Juarez, P; Schlundt, D G; Goldzweig, I; Stinson, N

    2006-01-01

    Teenage drivers, especially males, have higher rates of motor vehicle crashes and engage in riskier driving behavior than adults. Motor vehicle deaths disproportionately impact youth from poor and minority communities and in many communities there are higher rates of risky behaviors among minority youth. In this paper, the authors review the data on teens, risky driving behaviors, and morbidity and mortality. They identify areas in which known disparities exist, and examine strategies for changing teen driving behavior, identifying what has worked for improving the use of seat belts and for reducing other risky behaviors. A multifaceted, multilevel model based on ecological theory is proposed for understanding how teens make choices about driving behaviors, and to understand the array of factors that can influence these choices. The model is used to create recommendations for comprehensive intervention strategies that can be used in minority communities to reduce disparities in risk behaviors, injury, disability, and death. PMID:16788113

  20. Latent class analysis of substance use and aggressive behavior in reservation-based American Indian youth who attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Musci, Rashelle J; Tingey, Lauren; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Barlow, Allison; Cwik, Mary

    2015-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents who attempt suicide are heterogeneous. A latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of reservation-based AI adolescents with recent suicide attempts. Indicators of class membership were substance abuse and aggressive behaviors; clinical correlates of subgroup membership included risky sexual behavior and recent exposure to suicidal behavior. Three subgroups were identified, representing low, medium, and high substance use and aggressive behavior. Suicide exposure was associated with membership in the lowest risk behavior subgroup; risky sexual behavior was associated with membership the highest risk behaviors subgroup. Findings suggest a continuum of risk behaviors in reservation-based AI youth who attempt suicide. PMID:25768391

  1. Practice Behaviors of Youth Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert C.; Ward, Phillip; Rodrigues-Neto, Manoel; Zhang, Peng

    2009-01-01

    Coaching youth athletes has much in common with teaching physical education. Over the past three decades there has been substantive research in physical education settings that has given educators empirical support for effective teaching practices to improve the learner's performance. However, little research has taken place in youth sport…

  2. Risk profile of homeless pregnant adolescents and youth.

    PubMed

    Pennbridge, J; Mackenzie, R G; Swofford, A

    1991-11-01

    Pregnant homeless young women have special service needs. This article examine those needs by comparing the risk profiles of 55 pregnant homeless youths and 85 pregnant youths who live with their families. These young women were seen in a primary health care clinic and underwent extensive lifestyle interviews during their physical examinations. Clinical social workers provided social services and follow-up. The homeless pregnant youths were younger, primarily white, and from outside Los Angeles County. They were more likely to be diagnosed as depressed, to have previously attempted suicide, to have histories of sexual and physical abuse, and to be diagnosed as drug abusing. Review of pregnancy outcomes showed the difficulty of serving homeless pregnant youth and the lack of services for them. Following this study, the clinic instituted new monitoring procedures and established a team case management approach to serving homeless pregnant teens and youths. PMID:1772891

  3. Brief Report: Parents Matter in HIV-Risk Among Probation Youth

    PubMed Central

    Udell, Wadiya; Donenberg, Geri; Emerson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between parenting practices (i.e., parental monitoring, parent permissiveness, and parent-teen communication), and probation youth’s HIV-related sexual risk behavior (i.e., ever having sex, condom use, alcohol and marijuana use before sex). Participants were 61 male and female juvenile offenders, ages 13–17, on probation and awaiting sentencing. Results indicated different relationships between parenting and HIV-related sexual risk behavior for probation boys and girls. Parental monitoring, parenting permissiveness, and parent-teen communication were collectively related to whether girls’ ever had sex and with boys’ use of alcohol and marijuana use before last sex. Findings underscore the important role of parenting on probation teens’ HIV risk behaviors. PMID:21875199

  4. Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark

    2005-10-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining changes in parenting and youth adjustment for the intervention and control groups between baseline and intervention termination approximately 5 months later. Findings provided strong evidence for the feasibility of delivering the intervention in a larger community context. The intervention produced benefits in both parenting outcomes (i.e., general parenting, skill encouragement, overall effective parenting) and youth outcomes (i.e., aggression, externalizing, likelihood of smoking and use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs). Differential effects of the intervention were based on youth nativity status. PMID:16287384

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Risks Among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Overdose among Bahraini Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.

    2001-01-01

    Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…

  7. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

  8. Differences in Motivations of Cutting Behavior Among Sexual Minority Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. NickelsN; N. Eugene Walls; Julie Anne Laser; Hope Wisneski

    This aim of this study is to examine predictors of specific motivations for engaging in cutting behavior among a community\\u000a sample of sexual minority youth. The study involved secondary analysis of data collected by a community-based organization\\u000a serving lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their allies. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses\\u000a were conducted using a final sample of

  9. Discriminative Validity of the General Behavior Inventory Using Youth Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Kmett Danielson; Eric A. Youngstrom; Robert L. Findling; Joseph R. Calabrese

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the ability of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI) to discriminate between diagnostic groups using youth self-report. One hundred and ninety-seven youths ages 10–17 years presenting at a midwestern urban outpatient clinic specializing in mood disorders completed the GBI as part of the intake process. Diagnoses were determined by a structured clinical interview (K-SADS) administered by either

  10. Youth at Risk: Understanding Runaway and Exploited Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert

    This document describes a study of runaways (N=149) at a Toronto, Canada shelter which examined why urban adolescents run away from home; the role of sexual abuse in the life histories of runaways; and why runaways return home. The report begins with a discussion about adolescents at risk, with a definition of terms, numbers of runaways, and a new…

  11. Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of Youth at Risk Following a Pre-Eighth-Grade Summer Academic Enrichment Program and Participation in a School-Wide, School Year Long, Ownership, Mastery, and Grading Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alati, David K.

    2011-01-01

    No significant differences in beginning eighth-grade pretest compared to ending eighth-grade posttest California Achievement Test Normal Curve Equivalent Scores were found for youth at risk who completed a pre-eighth-grade summer academic enrichment program where comparisons for reading vocabulary t(19) = 0.46, p = 0.33 (one-tailed), d = 0.107,…

  12. HIV Risk Behavior among Delinquent and Mentally Ill Teens: Case Manager Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael D.; Seal, David Wyatt; Hartley, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    An HIV knowledge survey and qualitative interview were administered to 20 case managers in community-based programs for troubled youth to assess HIV knowledge and their perception of client HIV risk behaviors. Participants had good HIV knowledge. Case managers perceived client youth to be at high risk for HIV infection due to unsafe sexual…

  13. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  14. The impact of youth, family, peer and neighborhood risk factors on developmental trajectories of risk involvement from early through middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Marshall, Sharon; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have analyzed the development course beginning in pre-/early adolescence of overall engagement in health-risk behaviors and associated social risk factors that place individuals in different health-risk trajectories through mid-adolescence. The current longitudinal study identified 1276 adolescents in grade six and followed them for three years to investigate their developmental trajectories of risk behaviors and to examine the association of personal and social risk factors with each trajectory. Group-based trajectory modeling was applied to identify distinctive trajectory patterns of risk behaviors. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of the personal and social risk factors on adolescents' trajectories. Three gender-specific behavioral trajectories were identified for males (55.3% low-risk, 37.6% moderate-risk, increasing, and 7.1% high-risk, increasing) and females (41.4% no-risk, 53.4% low-risk, increasing and 5.2% moderate to high-risk, increasing). Sensation-seeking, family, peer, and neighborhood factors at baseline predicted following the moderate-risk, increasing trajectory and the high-risk, increasing trajectory in males; these risk factors predicted following the moderate to high-risk, increasing trajectory in females. The presence of all three social risk factors (high-risk neighborhood, high-risk peers and low parental monitoring) had a dramatic impact on increased probability of being in a high-risk trajectory group. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early personal and social risk factors on subsequent risk behaviors in early to middle adolescence. Future adolescent health behavior promotion interventions might consider offering additional prevention resources to pre- and early adolescent youth who are exposed to multiple contextual risk factors (even in the absence of risk behaviors) or youth who are early-starters of delinquency and substance use behaviors in early adolescence. PMID:24530616

  15. Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

  16. Drinking and driving among American youth: beliefs and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cameron, T L

    1982-09-01

    Data from research on traffic accident populations clearly indicate that a large proportion of accidents involve drivers under the age of twenty-five. Even after differential exposure to traffic accidents has been controlled for, young drivers remain over-represented in both alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related traffic crashes. The relative risk of crash involvement begins to increase markedly among drivers at even relatively low blood alcohol concentrations. Data from general population surveys confirm these findings. When persons under 25 years of age are compared as a group with those 25 and older, a larger proportion of the young persons in the general population both approved of and reported that they engaged in drinking and driving behavior. However, the actual proportion of young persons in the general population who indicated that they had ever been arrested for driving while impaired, or that they had had a traffic accident as a result of drinking, was quite small. The somewhat limited data available on social, psychological and behavioral correlates of youthful drinking and driving problems indicate some association between feelings of rebellion, hostility and alienation (as measured by attitudes toward parents, school, and society), and increased numbers of traffic violations and accidents. PMID:7173040

  17. Longitudinal Prediction of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Adolescent Males from Multiple Risk Domains

    PubMed Central

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Hyde, Luke W.; Goodlett, Benjamin D.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders. PMID:23239427

  18. NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY-NAÏVE YOUTH WITH BEHAVIORALLY ACQUIRED HIV

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Bethel, James; Garvie, Patricia A.; Patton, Doyle E; Thornton, Sarah; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Ren, Weijia; Major-Wilson, Hanna; Puga, Ana; Woods, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Youth living with HIV account for over one-third of new HIV infections and are at high risk of adverse psychosocial, everyday living, and health outcomes. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are known to affect health outcomes of HIV-infected adults even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Thus, the current study aimed to characterize the prevalence and clinical correlates of HAND in youth living with HIV. Here we report baseline neurocognitive data for behaviorally HIV-infected youth enrolled in a prospective study evaluating strategies of antiretroviral treatment initiation and use. Methods Two hundred twenty participants, age 18-24, naïve to treatment (except for prevention of mother to child HIV transmission; n=3), completed a comprehensive neurocognitive, substance use, and behavioral health assessment battery. Results 64.7% of youth met criteria for HAND (96.4% asymptomatic, 3.5% syndromic), with deficits in episodic memory and fine-motor skills emerging as the most commonly affected ability areas. Multivariable models showed that lower CD4 count, longer time since HIV diagnosis, and high risk alcohol use were uniquely associated with neurocognitive deficits. Conclusions Over two-thirds of youth with behaviorally acquired HIV evidence neurocognitive deficits, which have modest associations with more advanced HIV disease as well as other factors. Research is needed to determine the impact of such neuropsychiatric morbidity on mental health and HIV disease treatment outcomes (e.g., non-adherence) and transition to independent living responsibilities in HIV-infected youth, as well as its long-term trajectory and possible responsiveness to cognitive rehabilitation and pharmacotherapy. PMID:23972941

  19. Convergence between father and youth reports of high risk safety behaviours on the farm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z Stoneman; H Jinnah-Ghelani

    2010-01-01

    Parents assign dangerous farm work to children. Injury and death rates in the Southern USA are high with 40% of US farm youth fatalities (Adekoya and Pratt, 2001) and 30% of youth injuries (NASS, 2001). It is important to understand the degree of similarity in data obtained from youth and their fathers about high-risk behaviours of youth. This study examined

  20. Predicting Youth Access to Tobacco: The Role of Youth Versus Store-Clerk Behavior and Issues of Ecological Validity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Klonoff; Hope Landrine

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one 15- to 17-year-olds attempted to purchase cigarettes in 232 stores in the manner that confederates typically do in access studies, as well as in the manipulative ways (e.g., lying about their ages) that youth smokers do, thereby modeling youth access to tobacco within versus outside of studies, respectively. Youth typical-research versus manipulative behavior was contrasted with clerk behavior (requests

  1. Pregnancy Risk Among Older Youth Transitioning Out Of Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Narendorf, Sarah Carter; McMillen, J. Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Youth served in the foster care system have higher rates of pregnancy than general population youth; yet we have little information about risk and protective factors to target in order to prevent early pregnancy in this population. We assessed early pregnancy risk and protective factors known for general population adolescents for their relevance to youth in the foster care system. Using data from a longitudinal study of 325 older youth from the foster care system, we examined bivariate and multivariate relationships between these factors and pregnancy between age 17 and 19 using logistic regression. Models examined risk for early parenting separately by gender. The pregnancy rate increased by 300% between ages 17 and 19. At 19, 55% of females had been pregnant, while 23% of males had fathered a child. Although this study assessed multiple known factors, few were significant for this high risk group. Females who were not sexually active at age 17 were less likely to become pregnant, but those who reported using birth control were as likely to become pregnant as those who did not. Also, females with a history of arrest were more likely to have a pregnancy between 17 and 19. Males who left the foster care system before their 19th birthday were more likely to make someone pregnant. Youth from the foster care system are at exceptional risk of early pregnancy, no matter their maltreatment history, religiosity, school connectedness, or academic achievement, particularly in the years between 17 and 19. This high risk group needs pregnancy prevention interventions and access to effective birth control. PMID:24489422

  2. Lowering Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in High-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobo, Nichole; Schantz, Shirley; Kaufman, Francine R.; Kollipara, Sobha

    2009-01-01

    Among children and youth who develop type 2 diabetes (T2DM) there are a number of genetic and environmental factors that lead to a combination of insulin resistance and relative-cell secretory failure of the pancreas. These factors include ethnicity (highest in American Indian youth), obesity, sedentary behavior, family history of T2DM, puberty,…

  3. Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, William W.; Rojas, Vanessa Cecilia; Mancha, Brent Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). Methods The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. Results For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. Conclusions Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use. PMID:18510792

  4. At-Risk Youth: A Compilation of Counseling Technique Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lizbeth A., Ed.

    This document consists of papers by masters degree students that concern counseling techniques for at-risk youth. The following papers included are: (1) "Adolescent Depression: Its Diagnosis and Treatment" (Bruce Bowers); (2) "Counseling the Bereaved Child: A School Counselor's Perspective" (David Boyle); (3) "Adolescents of Divorce: An Overview…

  5. A Stress Management Curriculum for At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollin, S. A.; Arnold, A. R.; Solomon, S.; Rubin, R. I.; Holland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Project KICK (Kids in Cooperation with Kids) is a delinquency prevention program for at-risk youth that uses nontraditional approaches to stress management. Twelve African American children who were taught physical, cognitive, and experiential models of stress reduction and management reported that they enjoyed the program, and they demonstrated…

  6. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-12-22

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  7. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Fawzi, Mary C Smith

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (? = -0.03, p = 0.01) and self-report (? = -0.05, p < 0.0001). High levels of psychological distress were observed in this population, especially with respect to internalizing outcomes. Interventions should address the economic security, mental health, and access to antiretroviral therapy for families affected by HIV, as well as emphasize the importance of building supportive caregiver-child relationships to decrease the psychological symptoms and impact of other life stressors experienced by youth affected by HIV in Haiti and similar resource-limited settings. PMID:25950916

  8. Trends in Sexual Risk Behavior and Unprotected Sex among High School Students, 1991-2005: The Role of Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John E.; Mueller, Trisha E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the trends in sexual activity and unprotected sex among substance-using youth, we examined data from the 1991-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys on drug and alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors. Method: We examined the association of alcohol and illicit drug use with recent sexual activity and unprotected sex. We assessed…

  9. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p < .05, ES = 0.15) related to less engagement in early health-risking sexual behaviors, possibly reflecting selective acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. PMID:26190068

  10. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors in U.S. High School Students: Findings from a National Risk Behavior Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew E. Springer; Ronald J. Peters; Ross Shegog; Donna L. White; Steven H. Kelder

    2007-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine use is associated with numerous adverse physical and mental health outcomes. This study investigated the\\u000a prevalence and distribution of lifetime methamphetamine use (MU) as well as the association between methamphetamine use and\\u000a engagement in sexual risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students. Methods: A secondary analysis of the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

  11. Statistical Analysis of Friendship Patterns and Bullying Behaviors among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Wasserman, Stanley

    2007-01-01

    During adolescence, friendship affiliations and groups provide companionship and social and emotional support, and they afford opportunities for intimate self-disclosure and reflection. Friendships often promote positive psychosocial development, but some youth learn and adopt antisocial attitudes and deviant behaviors through their friendships.…

  12. Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to…

  13. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to healthy eating behaviors in urban Native American youth

    PubMed Central

    Fila, Stefanie A; Smith, Chery

    2006-01-01

    Background To investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict healthy eating behavior in a group of urban Native American youth. Methods Native American boys and girls (n = 139), ages 9–18 years old, were given a self-administered survey to assess eating behavior using the TBP constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm, barriers, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control). Youth were also measured for height and weight and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses of TBP model were performed with SPSS software. Results No association was found between intention and healthy eating behavior. However, independently healthy eating behavior was correlated with barriers (0.46), attitude (0.44), perceived behavioral control (0.35), and subjective norm (0.34). The most predictive barriers to eating healthy included the availability and taste of foods. Boys' eating behavior was most predicted by subjective norm, while girls' eating behavior was most predicted by barriers. Conclusion Lack of association between intention and healthy eating behavior suggests that factors other than intentions may drive healthy eating behaviors in urban Native American youth. Results indicate that programs promoting healthy eating to youth might focus on collaborating with families to make healthy foods more appealing to youth. PMID:16734903

  14. Longitudinal Links between Contextual Risks, Parenting, and Youth Outcomes in Rural African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride

    2003-01-01

    Collected longitudinal data from rural, African American, single mother-headed families with young adolescents to examine longitudinal links between contextual risks, parenting, and youth outcome. Accumulated risks related to lower levels of the competence-promoting parenting practices that were linked directly with youth outcomes via youth

  15. Psychological and behavioral adjustment in female youths with high or low psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro Santos; Poiares, Carlos Alberto; Vieira, Rui Xavier; Marôco, João; Nunes, Cristina; de Jesus, Saul Neves

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in female juvenile delinquency. Using a sample of 236 young females from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and schools in the Lisbon area, a group of female youths with high psychopathic traits (n=118; M=15.84 years of age; range=14-18 years of age) and a group of female youths with low psychopathic traits (n=118; M=15.77 years of age; range=14-18 years of age) were formed based on the Portuguese version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-Self-report (APSD-SR). The results showed that young females with high psychopathic traits start engaging in criminal activities and come into contact with the justice system earlier in life; exhibit higher levels of behavioral problems, conduct disorder, delinquent behaviors and serious criminality; and demonstrate lower levels of self-esteem and pro-social behavior. The importance of some variables in predicting group membership (high versus low psychopathic traits) was established through a binary logistic regression. Our findings reinforce the importance of the psychopathy construct for the early identification of potentially high-risk female youths and for the assessment of female youths who have already come into contact with the judicial system. PMID:24674739

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  17. The training and validation of youth-preferred social behaviors of child-care personnel1

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Alan G.; Braukmann, Curtis J.; Kirigin, Kathryn A.; Fixsen, Dean L.; Phillips, Elery L.; Wolf, Montrose M.

    1977-01-01

    This research sought to identify, train, and validate social behaviors preferred by youths to be used by youth-care personnel (called teaching-parents). With training, consistent increases in seven preferred behaviors were observed for the six teaching-parent trainees. These behaviors included offering to help, “getting to the point”, giving reasons why a behavior is important to a youth, providing descriptions of alternative behaviors, positive feedback, smiling, and positive motivational incentives (i.e., points for task mastery exchanged for tangible reinforcers). Increases in these behaviors correlated with increases in the youths' ratings of the quality of the trainees' interactions. Posttraining levels of preferred social behavior and youth ratings for trainees also compared favorably with levels for successful professional teaching-parents. These results suggest that teaching-parents can be successfully trained to interact with youths in ways that are preferred by the youths. PMID:16795551

  18. Health-Risk Behaviors among Persons Aged 12-21 Years: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Noting that health-risk behaviors among youth may result in immediate health problems or extend into adulthood and increase risk for chronic diseases, this report examines the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of persons aged 12 to 21 years and presents age group comparisons of the most important…

  19. Latent Classes of Externalizing Behaviors in Youth with Early Maltreatment Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Latent class analyses were used to identify subsets of 217 12-year-old youth with early maltreatment histories based on youth and caregiver reports of externalizing behavior problems. The identified classes were validated using symptom counts and diagnoses for disruptive behavior disorders collected from youth and caregiver reports 2 years later.…

  20. Relation Between Empathy and Aggression and Behavior Compliance Among Abused Group Home Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Evelyn LeSure-Lester

    2000-01-01

    Physically abused youth are often described as more aggressive and noncompliant in comparison with normal children, despite inconclusive findings regarding the nature of behavior problems among these youth. The present study investigated whether empathy would be differentially related to aggression and behavior compliance of abused youth within the natural living context of a group home environment. As predicted, results suggest

  1. Thoughts of Self-Harm and Help-Seeking Behavior among Youth in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Renee D.; Mocarski, Michelle; Marusic, Andrej; Beautrais, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The association between thoughts of self-harm and help-seeking among youth with symptoms of depression was examined. Data were drawn from the Health Behavior of School-aged Children Study ("n" = 15, 686), a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Analyses focused on comparing help-seeking behaviors among youth

  2. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior

  3. Feasibility of Adapting Multisystemic Therapy to Improve Illness Management Behaviors and Reduce Asthma Morbidity in High Risk African American Youth: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…

  4. Change Trajectories for the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report: Identifying Youth at Risk for Treatment Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jennifer A. N.; Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Burlingame, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal youth outcome data in routine mental health services to test a system for identifying cases at risk for treatment failure. Participants were 2,715 youth (M age = 14) served in outpatient managed care and community mental health settings. Change trajectories were developed using multilevel modeling of archival data.…

  5. Therapist Alliance-Building Behavior Within a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Torrey A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2005-01-01

    Explored the specific behavior of therapists contributing to a child client's perception of a therapeutic alliance with youth (n = 56) who received a manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety disorders. The first 3 sessions were coded for 11 therapist behaviors hypothesized to predict ratings of alliance. Child, therapist, and observer…

  6. Severe Behavior Disorders of Children and Youth. Monograph in Behavioral Disorders. Summer, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    The monograph on severe behavior disorders of children and youth presents 23 papers on juvenile delinquency, behavior disorders at the secondary level, and self control instruction. Some of the papers included are: "A Comparison of Varied Teacher-to-Child Ratio on the Adaptive and Attending Behaviors of Two Autistic Children" (M. Zener, et al.);…

  7. Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents: Targeting Substance Use and HIV/STI-Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    McCart, Michael R.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a family-based intervention for addressing both substance use and unprotected sexual behavior in adolescents presenting for outpatient substance use treatment. The intervention combines contingency management (CM) for adolescent substance use, which is a behavioral intervention modeled on the Community Reinforcement Approach, with a sexual risk reduction protocol that mirrors aspects of the CM model. As a family-based intervention, caregivers attend every session and actively collaborate with the therapist to address their youth’s behavior problems. The treatment is criterion-based with treatment duration determined by the youth’s achievement of reduced substance use and unprotected sexual behavior goals. A case study describes the implementation of this treatment with an adolescent presenting a history of polysubstance use and unprotected sexual intercourse. Following the adolescent and caregiver’s participation in weekly sessions, the adolescent demonstrated improvements in substance use, unprotected sexual behavior, and other behavior problems. Clinical summary data from two outpatient clinics reveal similar positive outcomes for youth receiving the intervention. This paper illustrates the potential utility of an integrated treatment approach targeting substance use and unprotected sexual behavior in an adolescent population. PMID:25419101

  8. Alcohol use and HIV risk behaviors among rural adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Kaljee; B. L. Genberg; T. T. Minh; L. H. Tho; L. T. K. Thoa; B. Stanton

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual be- haviors. As part of a randomized control effec- tiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20 years old) living in eight rural

  9. Ecological influences in youth crisis shelters: Effects of social density and length of stay on youth problem behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Teare; Gail L. Smith; D. Wayne Osgood; Roger W. Peterson; Karen Authier; Daniel L. Daly

    1995-01-01

    For 472 consecutive days we monitored the number of youths residing in a crisis shelter for adolescents, the average length of stay for the youths residing in the shelter on each day, and the number of problem behaviors occurring within the shelter on a daily basis. We analyzed these data using a combination of time series and logistic regression techniques

  10. Quality of Parent Communication about Sex and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behavior among Youth in Psychiatric Care: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen W.; Donenberg, Geri

    2004-01-01

    Background: The number of HIV infections among adolescents is increasing, and youth in psychiatric care are at particular risk because of their high rates of risky sexual behavior. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study examining AIDS-risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care, this pilot study investigated the relationship…

  11. Coaching Behavior of Girls Youth Softball Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupnow, Allan; Stotlar, David

    A study examined coaches' behavior and classified the types and rates of coaches' behavior by time of athletic season (early or late), win/loss record, and throughout the time frame within a single contest. Subjects included all the volunteer coaches in a 13 team, softball program for 10-12 year old girls. The season consisted of a double…

  12. Do Parent–Adolescent Discrepancies in Family Functioning Increase the Risk of Hispanic Adolescent HIV Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    CORDOVA, DAVID; HUANG, SHI; LALLY, MEGHAN; ESTRADA, YANNINE; PRADO, GUILLERMO

    2014-01-01

    In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent–adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent–adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV risk behaviors, including substance use and sexual risk behaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and their families. PMID:24617745

  13. Do parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increase the risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors?

    PubMed

    Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Lally, Meghan; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent-adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV risk behaviors, including substance use and sexual risk behaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and their families. PMID:24617745

  14. Predicting the Onset of Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative Youths with HIV-Positive Mothers: The Role of Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Social-Interaction Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellins, Claude A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Ouzama; Warne, Patricia; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.

    2007-01-01

    HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves. Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and…

  15. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    PubMed

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment. PMID:20077261

  16. Identification of Suicide Risk Among Rural Youth: Implications for the Use of HEADSS

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Virginia Sue; Sekula, L. Kathleen; Zoucha, Rick; Puskar, Kathryn R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nurse practitioners have the power to detect suicide risk and prevent suicide, a problem plaguing rural areas of the United States. Suicide risk assessment can be completed using the HEADSS (Home, Education, Activities, Drug use and abuse, Sexual behavior, and Suicidality and depression) interview instrument. The purpose of this study was to determine if HEADSS is appropriate for guiding suicide risk assessment of rural adolescents. Method High school students in Southwestern Pennsylvania completed qualitative questions from the Child Behavior Checklist and Coping Response Inventory as part of the Intervention to Promote Mental Health in Rural Youth. Qualitative content analysis was performed. Results Prominent themes identified by participants included academic performance, relationships, dislikes about school, friends, death, mental health, and the future. Several minor themes concerned safety. Most known risk factors for suicide were concerns of participants. Discussion The expansion of HEADSS to include death and safety should be considered. The modified version—HEADDSSS— can be used to guide suicide risk assessment of youth in rural Pennsylvania, ensuring both thoroughness of assessment and safety. PMID:20417887

  17. Youth At-Risk of Welfare Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, April

    1999-01-01

    This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes focuses on the tendency of children from low-income families to drop out of high school, become teen parents, become involved in drug-related activities, and become involved in other activities that place them at high risk of long-term welfare dependency. Section 1 offers the background.…

  18. The Added Risk of Opioid Problem Use among Treatment-Seeking Youth with Marijuana and/or Alcohol Problem Use

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Geetha A; Ives, Melissa L.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine the added risk of opioid problem use (OPU) in youth with marijuana/alcohol problem use (MAPU). Method 475 youth (ages 14–21 years) with OPU+MAPU were compared to a weighted sample of 475 youth with MAPU only (i.e., no OPU) before and after propensity score matching on gender, age, race, level of care, and weekly use of marijuana/alcohol. Youth were recruited from 88 drug treatment sites participating in eight Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded grants. At treatment intake, participants were administered the Global Appraisal of Individual Need to elicit information on demographic, social, substance, mental health, HIV, physical and legal characteristics. Odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results The added risk of OPU among MAPU youth was associated with greater comorbidity: higher rates of psychiatric symptoms and trauma/victimization; greater needle-use and sex-related HIV-risk behaviors and greater physical distress. The OPU+MAPU group was less likely to be African American or other race and more likely to be age 15–17 years, Caucasian; report weekly drug use at home and among peers; engage in illegal behaviors and be confined longer; have greater substance abuse severity and poly drug use; and use mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Conclusions These findings expand on the existing literature and highlight the substantial incremental risk of OPU on multiple comorbid areas, among treatment-seeking youth. Further evaluation is needed to assess their outcomes following standard drug treatment and to evaluate specialized interventions for this subgroup of severely impaired youth. PMID:20403020

  19. The contributing role of physical education in youth’s daily physical activity and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background School physical education (PE) is considered as an effective channel for youth to accumulate moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and reduce sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to determine the contributing role of PE in daily MVPA and sedentary time among youth. Methods The study recruited 67 sixth grade children (29 boys; Mean age?=?11.75) from two suburban schools at a U.S. Midwest state, 48 of whom contributed ?10 hours of physical activity (PA) data per day were included for analysis. An objective monitoring tool (i.e., Sensewear armband monitor) was used to capture the participants’ MVPA and sedentary time for 7–14 days. Pearson product–moment correlation analysis (r), multi-level regression analyses, and analysis of variance were conducted for data analysis. Results MVPA and sedentary time in PE showed significant positive associations with daily MVPA and sedentary time, respectively (r?=?0.35, p?behavior in PE was associated with 2.04 minutes and 5.30 minutes increases in daily MVPA and sedentary behavior, respectively, after controlling for sex and BMI. The participants demonstrated a significantly higher level of MVPA (p?=?.05) but similar sedentary time (p?=?0.61) on PE days than on non-PE days. Boys had significantly more daily MVPA (p?youth. Active participation in PE classes increases the chance to be more active and less sedentary beyond PE among youth. PMID:24495714

  20. An fMRI study of emotional face encoding in youth at risk for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Tseng, W-L; Bones, B L; Kayser, R R; Olsavsky, A K; Fromm, S J; Pine, D S; Leibenluft, E; Brotman, M A

    2015-01-01

    Face memory deficits may be a bipolar disorder (BD) endophenotype. BD (n=27) and unaffected youth at risk (n=13) exhibited middle frontal gyrus hypoactivation during successful vs. unsuccessful encoding. Parahippocampal gyrus dysfunction was found in BD and at-risk youth (vs. low-risk, n=37). Middle occipital gyrus hypoactivation was only present in BD. PMID:25172156

  1. Secretory IgA reactivity to social threat in youth: Relations with HPA, ANS, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Stroud, Laura R; Brush, Bridget; D'Angelo, Christina; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-09-01

    Although the role of immune marker secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in stress-related health outcomes is gaining recognition, SIgA responsiveness to acute stress has rarely been assessed in adults, and not at all in children. This study was designed to clarify developmental origins of differential immune function-related health risks by investigating youth SIgA responses to psychosocial stressors, including both normative responses and variability related to behavioral problems. Children and adolescents from a larger study (n=82) gave 6 saliva samples during a laboratory session in which they were exposed to a series of performance or interpersonal stressors. Samples were assayed for SIgA, as well as cortisol (representing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity) and alpha-amylase (sAA; representing autonomic nervous system activity). Behavioral problems were assessed with parent-report measures of youth internalizing and externalizing. Youth SIgA trajectories followed a normative pattern of reactivity and recovery around the stressors; however, these responses were blunted in youth with higher externalizing scores. SIgA showed differential associations with cortisol and sAA, and with positive and negative affect; whereas overall levels of SIgA related to cortisol output and positive affect, changes in SIgA over time synchronized with changes in sAA and negative affect. In contrast to SIgA, neither cortisol nor sAA related significantly to behavioral problems. Implications for the role of SIgA during psychosocial stress in the development of immune function-related health risks are discussed. PMID:26036453

  2. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to healthy eating behaviors in urban Native American youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie A Fila; Chery Smith

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict healthy eating behavior in a group of urban Native American youth. METHODS: Native American boys and girls (n = 139), ages 9–18 years old, were given a self-administered survey to assess eating behavior using the TBP constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm, barriers, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral

  3. Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

  4. Family Functioning, Substance Use and Related Problem Behaviors: Hispanic vs. Anglo Runaway Youths

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Vasquez, Christina; Bittinger, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Runaway youths represent a neglected clinical group, and few studies have examined ethnicity differences within this population. Substance use, family functioning and related problem behaviors were examined in a sample of Hispanic and Anglo runaway youths with substance abuse diagnoses (N = 145). Youths, aged 12–17, were recruited from two urban, southwestern runaway shelters. Within single-parent families, Anglo youths reported more marijuana use, and, regardless of family constitution, reported more tobacco use than did Hispanic youths. Overall, Anglo youths reported more externalizing problems and more conflict tactics used in resolving disagreements with their primary caretaker while Hispanic youths reported higher depression and familism scores. Given the differences found between Hispanic and Anglo youths, the findings argue that culturally sensitive interventions for runaway youths and families are warranted. PMID:18795144

  5. Prevalence and risk indicators of smoking among on-reserve First Nations youth

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Thompson, Adam; Moraros, John; Tempier, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the current prevalence of smoking among First Nations youth living on reserve within the Saskatoon Tribal Council, and to determine the independent risk indicators associated with smoking among First Nations youth. METHODS: Students in grades 5 to 8 attending school within the Saskatoon Tribal Council were asked to complete a youth health survey. RESULTS: Of 271 eligible students, 204 completed the consent protocol and the school survey, yielding a response rate of 75.3%; 26.5% of youth were defined as current smokers. Regression analysis indicated that older age, not having a happy home life, suicide ideation and having three or more friends who smoke cigarettes were independent risk indicators of smoking in First Nations youth. DISCUSSION: Smoking prevalence among on-reserve First Nations youth is quite high. The identification of four main risk indicators should assist with the design of youth smoking prevention and cessation programs. PMID:23204910

  6. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…

  7. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  8. The Authoritative Parenting Index: Predicting Health Risk Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Jackson; Lisa Henriksen; Vangie A. Foshee

    1998-01-01

    Public health research demonstrates increasing interest in mobilizing parental influence to prevent health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. This research focuses on authoritative parenting, which previous studies suggest can prevent health risk behaviors among youth. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a new survey measure of authoritative parenting, data from studies of (1) substance use in a sample

  9. Protective Factors Associated with Fewer Multiple Problem Behaviors among Homeless/Runaway Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Stein, Judith A.; Tevendale, Heather; Preston, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Although homeless youth exhibit numerous problem behaviors, protective factors that can be targeted and modified by prevention programs to decrease the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors are less apparent. The current study tested a model of protective factors for multiple problem behavior in a sample of 474 homeless youth (42% girls;…

  10. 2005 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Shari L.; Brener, Nancy; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Kann, Laura

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, nearly two-thirds of all deaths among young people aged 10-14 years result from only five causes: motor-vehicle crashes (23.4%), other unintentional injuries (15.7%), cancer (12.5%), suicide (7.2%), and homicide (5.2%). Across all age groups in the United States, the leading causes of illness and death are related to the…

  11. Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Study, 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Laura G.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kinchen, Steve; McManus, Tim; Shanklin, Shari L.; Kann, Laura

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, nearly two-thirds of all deaths among young people 10-14 years of age result from only five causes: motor-vehicle crashes (22.1%), other unintentional injuries (16.7%), cancer (12.9%), suicide (6.8%), and homicide (4.7%). Leading causes of illness and death in all age groups in the United States are related to the following:…

  12. Youth-caregiver Agreement on Clinical High-risk Symptoms of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Golembo-Smith, Shana; Bachman, Peter; Senturk, Damla; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of individuals who will go on to develop schizophrenia is a difficult endeavor. The variety of symptoms experienced by clinical high-risk youth make it difficult to identify who will eventually develop schizophrenia in the future. Efforts are being made, therefore, to more accurately identify at-risk individuals and factors that predict conversion to psychosis. As in most assessments of children and adolescents, however, both youth and parental report of symptomatology and resulting dysfunction are important to assess. The goals of the current study were to assess the extent of cross-informant agreement on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), a widely-used tool employed to determine clinical high-risk status. A total of 84 youth-caregiver pairs participated. Youth and caregiver raters displayed moderate overall agreement on SIPS-rated symptoms. Both youth and caregiver ratings of youth symptomatology contributed significantly to predicting conversion to psychosis. In addition, youth age and quality of youth-caregiver relationships appear to be related to cross-informant symptom ratings. Despite differences on individual SIPS domains, the majority of dyads agreed on youth clinical high-risk status. Results highlight the potential clinical utility of using caregiver informants to determine youth psychosis risk. PMID:24092494

  13. Reduced reward anticipation in youth at high-risk for unipolar depression: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Olino, Thomas M.; McMakin, Dana L.; Morgan, Judith K.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are at risk for depression and recent evidence suggests that reduced positive affect (PA) may be a marker of risk. We investigated whether self-reports of PA and fMRI-measured striatal response to reward, a neural correlate of PA, are reduced in adolescent youth at high familial risk for depression (HR) relative to youth at low familial risk for depression (LR). Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments were conducted with 14 HR and 12 LR youth. All youth completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol to measure PA in natural settings and a self-report measure of depression symptomatology. Analyses found that HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth during both reward anticipation and outcome. However, after controlling for youth self-reports of depression, HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth only during reward anticipation. No significant differences were found between HR and LR youth on subjective ratings of PA or depressive symptoms. Results are consistent with previous findings that reduced reward response is a marker of risk for depression, particularly during reward anticipation, even in the absence of (or accounting for) disrupted subjective mood. Further examinations of prospective associations between reward response and depression onset are needed. PMID:24369885

  14. The prevalence of eating behaviors among Canadian youth using cross-sectional school-based surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. Methods The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grades 5-12) from four regions in Canada. The regions were Hamilton and Thunder Bay (both in Ontario), the Province of Prince Edward Island, and the Province of Quebec. Results Consuming breakfast daily was reported by 70% of grade 5-8 students, and 51% of grade 9-12’s. Among students in grade 9-12, 52% reported eating with family members daily, compared with 68% in grade 5-8. Just over half of students in grade 5-8, and 70% in grade 9-12 reported eating at a fast-food place once a week or more. Among grade 5-8 students 68% reported eating in front of the television at least once per week, compared to 76% in grade 9-12. Obese students were more likely to watch TV while eating, and less likely to eat with a family member and eat breakfast. Conclusions The findings suggest that only a modest proportion of youth report dietary patterns that have previously been associated with healthy eating and reduced risk of obesity. Later adolescence may be a critical time for intervention in health-related behaviors. PMID:24708863

  15. A demographic and behavioral profile of homeless youth in New York City: implications for AIDS outreach and prevention.

    PubMed

    Clatts, M C; Davis, W R

    1999-09-01

    Rapid changes in the world market economy have served to destabilize many local institutions, widening the gap between the rich and the poor and undermining viability of key social and economic institutions such as family and household. Among those most deeply affected by this displacement are children and adolescents, many of whom are forced to leave family institutions before they have acquired the skills and maturity needed to become economically self-sufficient. Fending for themselves amid the vagaries of the underworld of virtually every major city in the world, these youths are at exceptional risk for a wide range of poor health outcomes and premature death. While perhaps a familiar sight in many non-Western countries, this phenomenon also has emerged in the industrialized world, a fact that accounts for the rise in exposure to violence and disease among street-involved youth and young adults in nations such as the United States. There are as yet few empirical data available about the nature of these youth populations or the constellation of behaviors that place them at increased risk for disease outcomes. In this report we construct a demographic and behavioral profile of the homeless youth population in New York City, particularly as behavioral patterns relate to risk associated with HIV infection. PMID:10509314

  16. On the Association between Sexual Attraction and Adolescent Risk Behavior Involvement: Examining Mediation and Moderation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk

  17. Youth Depression in the Family Context: Familial Risk Factors and Models of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Janay B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.

    2006-01-01

    Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of parent and family factors is associated with youth risk for depression, ranging from parental pathology to parental cognitive style to family emotional climate. Next, treatment approaches for youth depression that have been empirically tested are described and then summarized in terms of their level of parent inclusion, including cognitive–behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and family systems approaches. Families have mostly not been incorporated into clinical treatment research with depressed adolescents, with only 32% of treatments including parents in treatment in any capacity. Nonetheless, the overall effectiveness of treatments that involve children and adolescents exclusively is very similar to that of treatments that include parents as agents or facilitators of change. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings and directions for further research. PMID:16151618

  18. 67 FR 30388 - Prevention of Viral Hepatitis Among High-Risk Youth Through Integrating Prevention Services Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-05-06

    ...Announcement 02086] Prevention of Viral Hepatitis Among High-Risk Youth Through Integrating...agreement program for Prevention of Viral Hepatitis among High-Risk Youth Through Integrating...activities to prevent infection with Hepatitis A Virus (HAV), Hepatitis B...

  19. Differential HIV risk for racial/ethnic minority trans*female youth and socio-economic disparities in housing, residential stability and education

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin C.; Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Fisher, Marla; Pomart, W. Andres; Le, Victory; Raymond, H. Fisher; McFarland, Willi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction One of the biggest threats to the health of trans*females is HIV, particularly for those who are part of racial/minority groups. Yet health disparities for racial/ethnic minority trans*female youth remain understudied. Methods We examined baseline data from 282 trans*female youth ages 16–24 years old in the San Francisco Bay Area. We conducted Chi-squared tests for distributional differences between racial/ethnic minority and white participants in socio-demographic factors, HIV-related risk behaviors and syndemic factors. Results A total of 4.8% of trans*female youth were HIV positive. Racial/ethnic minority and white trans*female youth differed significantly in their gender identities and sexual orientations. Racial/minority youth also had significantly lower educational attainment, were less likely to live with their parents of origin as a child, and were significantly more likely to engage in recent condomless anal intercourse compared to whites. Conclusions Important disparities in HIV-related sexual risk behavior, education, and residential stability exist between racial/ethnic minority and white trans*female youth. Efforts to assess the impact of multiple minority stress for racial/minority trans*female youth are imminently needed. Additionally, macro-level disparities must be addressed in prevention efforts for trans*female youth, especially for those from racial/ethnic minority groups, in order to prevent incident cases of HIV and reduce disparities. PMID:25905826

  20. Psychosocial Functioning in Youths at High Risk to Develop Major Depressive Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…

  1. Breaking New Ground for Youth at Risk: Program Summaries. OSAP Technical Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goplerud, Eric N., Ed.

    This document is the first in a series of technical reports concerning the high-risk youth demonstration grants of the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP). The report summarizes the 130 demonstration grants funded in 1987 to develop, test, and evaluate promising approaches for working with high-risk youth. These approaches involve…

  2. Urban seventh graders and smoking: a health risk behavior assessment.

    PubMed

    Dowdell, Elizabeth Burgess

    2002-01-01

    Health risk behaviors undertaken in adolescence, such as smoking, can have a lasting impact on both short-term and long-term health developments. To better describe the health risk behaviors of an adolescent urban population, a study was conducted at two parochial middle schools in the southwest section of Philadelphia. The study purpose was to describe (1) the types of health risk behaviors being undertaken by a seventh grade student population, (2) the frequency of health risk behaviors, and (3) the age of initiation of the health risk behavior, e.g., age when they first began smoking. A descriptive, correlational study was undertaken with 106 urban seventh graders (ages of 11-13 years) from two seventh grade classes. Using the Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance System Questionnaire, information was collected about health risk behaviors. Correlational statistics indicated significant correlations between students who smoke and alcohol use, dieting, and not feeling safe in their neighborhood. Interestingly, girls were more likely to use smoking as their primary method of weight control and dieting. Because the long-term impact of smoking is known to be negative, nurses should provide support to this at-risk population and also should be prepared to educate adolescents who come under their care. PMID:12542884

  3. Long-term consequences of pubertal timing for youth depression: Identifying personal and contextual pathways of risk.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Lambert, Sharon F; Natsuaki, Misaki N

    2014-11-01

    This research explored sex differences in the pathways linking pubertal timing to depression across 4 years. A sample of 167 youth (M age = 12.41 years, SD = 1.19) and their caregivers completed measures of puberty and semistructured interviews of interpersonal stress and youth depression. Youth reported on psychological (negative self-focus, anxious arousal) and social-behavioral (coping) characteristics; parents reported on youths' social-behavioral characteristics (withdrawal/social problems) and deviant peer affiliations. Early maturation predicted stable high trajectories of depression in girls; although early maturing boys showed low initial levels of depression, they did not differ from girls by the final wave of the study. Latent growth curve analyses identified several psychological, social-behavioral, and interpersonal pathways accounting for the contribution of pubertal timing to initial and enduring risk for depression in girls as well as emerging risk for depression in boys. These findings provide novel insight into multilevel processes accounting for sex differences in depression across the adolescent transition. PMID:25422971

  4. Predicting Residential Treatment Outcomes for Emotionally and Behaviorally Disordered Youth: The Role of Pretreatment Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Dunnen, Wendy; St. Pierre, Jeff; Stewart, Shannon L.; Johnson, Andrew; Cook, Steven; Leschied, Alan W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined outcomes with 170 children and youth admitted to residential treatment with complex mental health problems. Overall, outcomes at 2 years post-treatment was predicted by children and youth's behavioral pretreatment status reflected in lower internalizing and externalizing behavior at admission. These findings recognize a cluster…

  5. Testing Theories of Dietary Behavior Change in Youth Using the Mediating Variable Model with Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…

  6. Severe Behavior Disorders of Children and Youth. Monograph in Behavioral Disorders, Volume 8, Summer 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Robert B. Jr., Ed.

    The monograph includes 11 papers presented at a 1984 conference on severe behavior disorders of children and youth. Papers deal with research, practice, and teacher training issues. The following titles and authors are represented: "Person-Environment Fit: A Unifying Concept for Special Education" (F. Hewett); "The Learning-to-Fail Phenomenon as…

  7. Moving On: Transitions for Youth with Behavioral Disorders. Working with Behavioral Disorders: CEC Mini-Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullis, Michael; Gaylord-Ross, Robert

    This booklet reviews the literature on transitional services for youth with behavior disorders, provides examples of successful programs and activities, and identifies key elements of successful programs. Specific sections of the monograph address the following areas: long-term life adjustment; transition studies; vocational assessment; social…

  8. Preparing At-Risk Youth for a Changing World: Revisiting a Person-in-Context Model for Transition to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Christopher; Godden, Lorraine; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Versnel, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current global cohort of youth has been called "a generation at-risk", marked by a dramatic rise in youth who are not in employment, education or training programmes. In 2010, youth were three times as likely as adults to be unemployed, with youth unemployment worsening in 2012 and 2013. Accordingly, there is an urgent…

  9. Prostitution and HIV risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Shedlin, M G; Oliver, D

    1993-01-01

    The authors discuss prostitution as a high-risk behavior for HIV infection and transmission, using data from interviews with prostitutes in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and New York City. "The primary objective is to share some of the information gained in research interviews and street work so that it can be utilized to assist efforts at reaching such high risk behavior populations with appropriate AIDS prevention information, testing, counseling and health services." Factors considered include prostitute characteristics, the pimp, perceived roles of the prostitute, power and control, risky sexual practices, and knowledge, attitudes, and behavior relating to AIDS. PMID:12159227

  10. Genetic Testing and Neuroimaging for Youth at Risk for Mental Illness: Trading off Benefit and Risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace; Mizgalewicz, Ania; Borgelt, Emily; Illes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization, mental illness is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. The first onset of mental illness usually occurs during childhood or adolescence, with nearly 12 million diagnosed cases in the United States alone. NeuroimagingNeuroimaging and genetic testingGenetic testing have been invaluable in research on behavioral, affective, and attentional disorders, particularly with their potential predictive capabilities, and ability to improve diagnosis and to decrease the associated burdens of disease. The present study focused specifically the perspectives of mental healthMental health providers on the role of neuroimagingNeuroimaging and genetic testingGenetic testing in clinical practice with children and adolescents. Methods We interviewed 38 psychiatrists, psychologists, and allied mental health professionals who work primarily with youth about their receptivity toward either the use of neuroimagingNeuroimaging or genetic testingGenetic testing . Interviews probed the role they foresee for these modalities for prediction, diagnosis, treatment planning, and the benefits and risks they anticipate. Results Practitioners anticipated three major benefits associated with clinical introduction of imaging and genetic testingGenetic testing in the mental healthMental health care for youth: (1) improved understanding of the brain and mental illness, (2) more accurate diagnosis than available through conventional clinical examination, and (3) legitimization of treatment plans. They also perceived three major risks: (1) misuse or misinterpretation of the imaging or genetic data, (2) potential adverse impacts on employment and insurance as adolescents reach adulthood, and (3) infringements on self-esteem or self-motivation. Limitations The nature of the interview questions focused on the future of neuroimagingNeuroimaging and genetic testingGenetic testing research in the context of clinical neuroscience. Therefore, the responses from interview participants are based on anticipated rather than actual experience. Conclusions Continued expansion of brain imagingBrain imaging and genetic testingGenetic testing into clinical care will require a delicate balance of brain biology and respect for autonomy in the still-evolving cognitive and affective world of young individuals. PMID:25056008

  11. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  12. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction, and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Leung, Hildie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies), life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior). Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families. PMID:24400264

  13. Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits. PMID:21153441

  14. Violence risk appraisal of male and female youth, adults, and individuals.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Robert John; Grove, William M

    2010-12-01

    Data from youth (n = 1,127), adults (n = 1,595), and individuals (N = 2,722, combined youth and adults) were followed 3 to 12 years in records to develop items to predict abuse, violence, and homicide in these 3 relevant groups for risk appraisal or safety scales. Shao's bootstrapped logistic regression yielded 14 predictors for youth (AUC = .91), 11 for adults (AUC = .99), and 13 for individuals (AUC = .96). Three regression equations were cross-validated with in-bag and out-of-bag techniques. Pearson coefficients were computed with intelligence, achievement, adaptive behavior, and perception tests. Test-retest reliability was acceptable. Using case-control quasi-experimental design, this study extends probation-parole decision-making tests to infants and children as young as 3 years, with convergent and divergent validity and reliability with other tests. Sensitivity and specificity were high and minimized over- or under-identification challenges in identifying potentially violent persons in the general population. PMID:21323157

  15. The Age of Initiation of Drug Use and Sexual Behavior May Influence Subsequent HIV Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk. PMID:24381791

  16. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Schmalz, Dorothy L

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92) and boys (N = 110). Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1) overweight; (2) female; or (3) having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity. PMID:16566842

  17. Transgender Female Youth and Sex Work: HIV Risk and a Comparison of Life Factors Related to Engagement in Sex Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin C. Wilson; Robert Garofalo; Robert D. Harris; Amy Herrick; Miguel Martinez; Jaime Martinez; Marvin Belzer

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the HIV risk behaviors and life experiences of 151 transgender female youth, ages 15–24, in Los Angeles\\u000a and Chicago. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to identify life factors associated with ever\\u000a having engaged in sex work. Sixty-seven percent of participants had ever engaged in sex work and 19% self-reported being HIV\\u000a positive. Many factors

  18. Using the theory of planned behavior to predict aggression and weapons carrying in urban African American early adolescent youth.

    PubMed

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Cheng, Tina L; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the risk and protective factors for aggressive behaviors and weapons carrying. As the baseline assessment of an intervention trial, survey data were collected on 452 sixth-grade students (50% girls; 96.6% African American; mean age 12.0 years) from urban middle schools. A total of 18.4% carried a weapon in the prior 12 months, with boys more likely to carry a weapon than girls (22.5% vs. 14.2%, p = .02). Of the youth, 78.4% reported aggressive behaviors with no significant differences found between girls (81.3%) and boys (75.5%). In logistic regression models, having peers who engage in problem behaviors was found to be a significant risk factor. Youth with peers who engaged in numerous problem behaviors were five times more likely to be aggressive than those who reported little or no peer problem behaviors. Teens who reported that their parents opposed aggression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 0.88) and who used self-control strategies (OR = 0.59; CI = 0.39, 0.87) were found to report less aggressive behaviors. For weapons carrying, being a girl (OR = 0.56; CI = 0.32, 0.97) and self-control (OR = 0.52; CI = 0.29, 0.92) were protective factors. This study demonstrated that the theory of planned behavior may provide a useful framework for the development of violence prevention programs. Practitioners should consider integrating strategies for developing healthy relationships and improving self-control. PMID:25228369

  19. Risky Sexual Behaviors among Female Youth in Tiss Abay, a Semi-Urban Area of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Gojjam; Yakob, Bereket

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15–29 years in September 2011. Results 711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3%) used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6%) had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6%) had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1%) did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%), and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3%) participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing ‘khat’, watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex. Conclusions Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended. PMID:25738508

  20. Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Among Youth in an Underserved Area of the Southern United States: Exploring the Moderating Roles of Gender, Racial\\/Ethnic Background, and School-Level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Latzman; Kim L. Gratz; John Young; Laurie J. Heiden; John D. Damon; Terry L. Hight

    2010-01-01

    Despite the clinical relevance of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) among youth, little is known about the subset\\u000a of youth most at-risk for SITB. This study examined the moderating roles of gender, racial\\/ethnic background, and school-level\\u000a (and their interactions) on rates of SITB within a large (N = 2638, 52.2% female), ethnically-diverse sample of middle- and high-school youth in a relatively poor

  1. A prospective look at substance use and criminal behavior in urban ADHD youth: what is the role of maltreatment history on outcome?

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Virginia A; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-06-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence/early adulthood. Here, we characterize the antisocial outcomes of a sample of urban, lower-socioeconomic-status, ethnically diverse ADHD youth and investigate the impact of maltreatment history on criminal and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes. Ninety-eight participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood were re-assessed 10 years later and compared with controls. Regression analyses investigated the effect of maltreatment on antisocial outcomes among four groups based on ADHD and maltreatment status. ADHD subjects and controls did not differ in rates of arrest, conviction, incarceration, or recidivism. ADHD youth were younger at their first arrest with higher rates of SUDs when compared to controls. Controls and ADHD subjects with maltreatment had significantly higher rates of SUDs compared to the no-ADHD/no-maltreatment group. Only ADHD youth with maltreatment had significantly higher rates of arrest than the reference group. In contrast to prior studies, ADHD youth did not differ from controls on most measures of antisocial behavior. Maltreatment increased the rate of arrest only among ADHD youth, though increased the rate of SUD for ADHD youth and controls. This suggests that ADHD youth, in the absence of maltreatment, are at no greater risk of SUDs or arrest than controls without maltreatment. PMID:24610394

  2. Relations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sektnan, Michaella; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among early family risk, children's behavioral regulation at 54 months and kindergarten, and academic achievement in first grade using data on 1298 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Family risk was indexed by ethnic…

  3. College Women and Breast Cancer: Knowledge, Behavior, and Beliefs regarding Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burak, Lydia; Boone, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…

  4. Screening youth for suicide risk in medical settings: time to ask questions.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Lisa M; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Pao, Maryland; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's Aspirational Goal 2 (screening for suicide risk) as it pertains specifically to children, adolescents, and young adults. Two assumptions are forwarded: (1) strategies for screening youth for suicide risk need to be tailored developmentally; and (2) we must use instruments that were created and tested specifically for suicide risk detection and developed specifically for youth. Recommendations for shifting the current paradigm include universal suicide screening for youth in medical settings with validated instruments. PMID:25145735

  5. Preliminary Testing of a Program to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Youth.(research Papers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Margaret; Berry, Diane; Davidson, Maryanne; Galasso, Pam; Gustafson, Elaine; Melkus, Gail

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing among youth, with minority youth at highest risk. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a school-based program to prevent type 2 diabetes in youth at risk. Forty-one participants (age 12.6 [+ or -] 1.1 years; 63% female, 51% African American, 44% Hispanic, and 5% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of…

  6. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brandon DL Marshall; Thomas Kerr; Jean A Shoveller; Julio SG Montaner; Evan Wood

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. METHODS: Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study

  7. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  8. Risk Acts, Health Care, and Medical Adherence Among HIV+ Youths in Care over Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Debra A. Murphy; Christy L. Coleman; Michael Kennedy; Helen M. Reid; Timothy R. Cline; Jeffrey M. Birnbaum; Donna Futterman; Linda Levin; Arlene Schneir; Brenda Chabon; Zane O'Keefe; Michelle Kipke

    1997-01-01

    The level and consistency of HIV-related sexual and substance-use risk acts, health status, and medical adherence were examined among 102 HIV+ youths aged 14 to 23 years (27% African American, 33% Latino). Over their lifetime, youths engaged in unprotected sexual acts with multiple partners (M = 284; Median = 44; consistent condom protection, 5%) and substance use (21% injecting drug

  9. THE 6TH ANNUAL NEW ZEALAND ~ AUSTRALIA CONFERENCE ON ADDICTIVE DISEASE OUR YOUTH AT RISK

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    THE 6TH ANNUAL NEW ZEALAND ~ AUSTRALIA CONFERENCE ON ADDICTIVE DISEASE OUR YOUTH AT RISK WELLINGTON and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Robert Crutcher, CCS, fellow CAADAC, Effective Youth Treatment in the communities and was invested as a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit (MNZM) Norm Hewitt, former All

  10. Sexuality and HIV\\/AIDS Risk and Perception among Male Street Youths in

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Getnet Tadele

    Objectives: To investigate how male street youths understand and express sexuality and cope with the HIV\\/AIDS risk in their daily lives. Methods: In this ethnographic study, three focus group discussions guided by unstructured questions were held by the author and a peer facilitator with 30 street youths aged 15?24 years. Discussion themes focused on their daily problems and life experiences;

  11. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  12. Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice PS Kong; Kai-Chow Choi; Albert MC Li; Stanley SC Hui; Michael HM Chan; YK Wing; Ronald CW Ma; Christopher WK Lam; Joseph TF Lau; Wing Yee So; Gary TC Ko; Juliana CN Chan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of

  13. Peer-Led Interventions to Reduce HIV Risk of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Barnett, Jessica Penwell

    2010-01-01

    One approach in HIV prevention programming targeting youth is to use peer leaders in what is referred to as peer education programming. This paper critically reviews and synthesizes the results and lessons learned from 24 evaluated peer-led programs with an HIV/AIDS risk reduction component that target youth in the communities where they live and…

  14. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Njue; H. A. C. M. Voeten; P. Remes

    2011-01-01

    Background: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group

  15. Family Risk Factors and Prevalence of Dissociative Symptoms among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…

  16. Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

  17. Increased Intrasubject Variability in Response Time in Youths with Bipolar Disorder and At-Risk Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Rooney, Melissa H.; Skup, Martha; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Intrasubject variability in response time (ISV-RT) was higher in youths with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with first-degree relatives with BD compared to youths without BD. ISV-RT may be a risk marker for BD.

  18. When There Is Conflict: Interparental Conflict, Parent-Child Conflict, and Youth Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Kay; Vaughn, LaToya Burns; Barber, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined direct and indirect associations between overt and covert interparental conflict (IPC), parent-child conflict, and their links to youth problem behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 641 school-age youth, ages 12 to 18 years, using a school-based survey. Analyses yielded direct positive linkages from overt IPC to…

  19. Should Parents Be Co-Clients in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmish, Andrea J.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth has been evaluated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), and recent studies have sought to determine if the effects can be enhanced by an adjunctive parent component. The rationale for adding parents as active participants to treatment for anxious youth includes the notions that…

  20. Environmental risk, Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) methylation and youth callous-unemotional traits: a 13-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cecil, C A M; Lysenko, L J; Jaffee, S R; Pingault, J-B; Smith, R G; Relton, C L; Woodward, G; McArdle, W; Mill, J; Barker, E D

    2014-10-01

    Youth with high callous-unemotional traits (CU) are at risk for early-onset and persistent conduct problems. Research suggests that there may be different developmental pathways to CU (genetic/constitutional vs environmental), and that the absence or presence of co-occurring internalizing problems is a key marker. However, it is unclear whether such a distinction is valid. Intermediate phenotypes such as DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification regulating gene expression, may help to clarify etiological pathways. This is the first study to examine prospective inter-relationships between environmental risk (prenatal/postnatal) and DNA methylation (birth, age 7 and 9) in the prediction of CU (age 13), for youth low vs high in internalizing problems. We focused on DNA methylation in the vicinity of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as it has been previously implicated in CU. Participants were 84 youth with early-onset and persistent conduct problems drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. For youth with low internalizing problems (46%), we found that (i) OXTR methylation at birth associated with higher CU (age 13) as well as decreased experience of victimization during childhood (evocative epigenetic-environment correlation; birth-age 7), (ii) higher prenatal parental risks (maternal psychopathology, criminal behaviors, substance use) associated with higher OXTR methylation at birth and (iii) OXTR methylation levels were more stable across time (birth-age 9). In contrast, for youth with high internalizing problems, CU were associated with prenatal risks of an interpersonal nature (that is, intimate partner violence, family conflict) but not OXTR methylation. Findings support the existence of distinct developmental pathways to CU. PMID:25199917

  1. The Saturday Alternative: A Program for At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Van E.; Thompson, Jay C., Jr.

    The Saturday School Alternative for at-risk students provides educators with a realistic framework, time, and community resources to help resolve almost any student problem encountered. Based on effective schools research, the program is no panacea but a realistic attempt to modify student behavior by providing experiences that will build a…

  2. International note: association between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours in homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours. PMID:25575268

  3. Social capital and youth suicide risk factors in First Nations communities.

    PubMed

    Mignone, Javier; O'Neil, John

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a model of plausible mechanisms linking social capital to suicide risk factors among First Nations youth, informed by a study that explored the concept of social capital in First Nations communities, and by a study on mental health services in First Nations communities in Manitoba. The model incorporates several components of social capital. The plausible impact of social capital on protective and risk factors of suicide among youth is explored. PMID:15686154

  4. Orphaned and abused youth are vulnerable to pregnancy and suicide risk?, ??

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Dmitry M.; Bogoliubova, Olga; Yorick, Roman V.; Kraft, Joan Marie; Jamieson, Denise J.; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Hillis, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the magnitude and consequences of violence against children for those living outside family care. We sought to estimate the frequency of childhood abuse and examine its association with lifetime pregnancy involvement (LPI) and past year suicide ideation among orphaned youth. Methods We analyzed data collected via cross-sectional interviewer-administered surveys completed by 293 orphaned youth aged 16–23 years living outside of family care in St. Petersburg, Russia. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of LPI and past year suicide ideation associated with childhood physical and sexual abuse. Other risk factors were also examined (e.g., social vulnerability, sexual and substance use behaviors), and characteristics of orphaned youth with LPI and past year suicide ideation were described. Results The prevalence of childhood abuse was higher among females than among males (23.3% versus 15.6% for physical abuse, and 20.3% versus 5.6% for sexual abuse), as was the prevalence of LPI and past year suicide ideation among those with histories of abuse. Experiences of childhood abuse were strong risk factors for both LPI and past year suicide ideation, with significant variation by gender. While both types of abuse were significantly associated with LPI and past year suicide ideation among females, physical abuse was significantly associated with LPI and sexual abuse was associated with suicide ideation for males. Of the other characteristics examined, strong modifiable risk factors included having no one to turn to for help and no involvement in activities outside of class. Among those with LPI (n = 36), nearly 20% had been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant ?2 times, most (61.8%) reported at least one induced abortion, and current use of effective contraception was nearly non-existent. Among those with past year suicide ideation (n = 30), nearly half (44.8%) reported attempting suicide. Conclusions There is an urgent need for interventions to prevent and mitigate the negative influence of childhood abuse experiences. Programs providing services to orphaned youth should increase access to sexual education, effective contraceptives, and mental health counseling. PMID:23290621

  5. Youth Risk Factors and Educational Outcomes of Mentored and Non-Mentored Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos-Brown, Karen

    2010-01-01

    As mentoring is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve youth educational outcomes, it is important to continue to examine the effects of mentoring on these youth outcomes. This study uses secondary data from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and transcript data from the Adolescent…

  6. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  7. Tuning in to teens: Improving parental responses to anger and reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Harley, Ann E

    2015-07-01

    Parent emotion socialization plays an important role in shaping emotional and behavioral development during adolescence. The Tuning in to Teens (TINT) program aims to improve parents' responses to young people's emotions with a focus on teaching emotion coaching. This study examined the efficacy of the TINT program in improving emotion socialization practices in parents and whether this reduced family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Self-report data was collected from parents and youth during the young person's final year of elementary school and again in their first year of secondary school. Multilevel analyses showed significant improvements in parent's impulse control difficulties and emotion socialization, as well as significant reductions in family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. This study provides support for the TINT program in reducing youth externalizing behavior problems. PMID:26005933

  8. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  9. Youth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2016 Budget is designed to bring middle class economics into the 21st Century.... The National Center on ... Criminalization Banks: Investing to End Homelessness Domestic Violence Economic Value of Ending Homelessness HIV/AIDS LGBT Youth ...

  10. The phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Sulkowski, Michael L; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse B; Mutch, P Jane; Jones, Anna M; Murphy, Tanya K

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11 % of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger's disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993

  11. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N=102; range=7–16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11% of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger’s disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993

  12. Emerging Strategies for Risk Assessment of Sexually Abusive Youth: Theory, Controversy, and Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Prescott

    2005-01-01

    Clinicians and other professionals evaluating, managing, and treating sexually abusive youth are frequently called upon to offer judgments regarding risk for sexual reoffense. There are currently no empirically validated methods for accurately classifying risk among this population. Therefore, those faced with this task have an obligation to consider the research on the assessment of risk and recidivism. Five methods of

  13. Novice Drivers' Risky Driving Behavior, Risk Perception, and Crash Risk: Findings From the DRIVE Study

    PubMed Central

    Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the risky driving behaviors and risk perceptions of a cohort of young novice drivers and sought to determine their associations with crash risk. Methods. Provisional drivers aged 17 to 24 (n = 20 822) completed a detailed questionnaire that included measures of risk perception and behaviors; 2 years following recruitment, survey data were linked to licensing and police-reported crash data. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore crash risk. Results. High scores on questionnaire items for risky driving were associated with a 50% increased crash risk (adjusted relative risk = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.25, 1.81). High scores for risk perception (poorer perceptions of safety) were also associated with increased crash risk in univariate and multivariate models; however, significance was not sustained after adjustment for risky driving. Conclusions. The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Systemwide intervention, including licensing reform, is warranted. PMID:19608953

  14. Sexual behavior and perceived peer norms: Comparing perinatally infected and affected youth

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51% female; ages 9–16) perinatally exposed to HIV (61% HIV+). Using logistic regression, we tested the association between sexual behavior and HIV status, demographic characteristics, and peer influences regarding sexual behavior. PHIV youth were less likely to be sexually active. Among sexually active youth, PHIV youth were more likely to engage in touching behavior than HIV-negative youth and were less likely to engage in penetrative sex. Youths reporting that a greater number of their peers believed that sexually active boys were “cool” or “popular” were more likely to report sexual behavior. The association between sexual behavior and peers believing sexually active girls were “cool” or “popular” varied by age, gender, and HIV status. Furthermore, friends’ sexual activity was associated with sexual intercourse. Prevention programs should strengthen messages addressing peer norms regarding sexuality, as well as address specific issues related to adolescent HIV. PMID:19636775

  15. Social influences on health-risk behaviors among minority middle school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne C Beal; John Ausiello; James M Perrin

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether parent social influences are associated with health-risk behaviors more than peer social influences among young minority adolescents.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of seventh-grade students in a public urban magnet middle school using a survey instrument adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The sample consisted of all seventh-grade students

  16. Association Between Life Satisfaction and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Valois; Keith J. Zullig; E. Scott Huebner; Sandra K. Kammermann; J. Wanzer Drane

    2002-01-01

    Relationships between perceived life satisfaction and sexual risk-taking behaviors were examined in a statewide sample of public high school students (n = 4,758) using the self-report CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Adjusted polychotomous logistic regression analyses and multivariate models (via SUDAAN) constructed separately, revealed a significant race by gender interaction for each race-gender group. Age of first intercourse (=13),

  17. Protecting Sexual Minority Youth from Research Risks: Conflicting Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Lin Miller; Draco Forte; Bianca Della Marie Wilson; George J. Greene

    2006-01-01

    We describe the dilemmas we encountered in the informed consent process for an HIV prevention project targeting Black gay, bisexual, and non-gay identified young men. We highlight the complexities of applying informed parental consent procedures to sexual minority youth and identify some of the challenges that researchers who work with sexual minority youth face when they must balance the needs

  18. Weapon Carrying by Youth: Risk Factors and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark B.; Alford, Aaron A.

    1999-01-01

    Uses data from three national samples of youth to study weapon carrying in school. Analysis of odds ratios finds the following factors associated with increased likelihood of weapons carrying in school: (1) youth engaged in violence in the community; (2) drug abuse; and (3) community-related factors. (SLD)

  19. Disrupted Expected Value Signaling in Youth With Disruptive Behavior Disorders to Environmental Reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    White, Stuart F.; Fowler, Katherine A.; Sinclair, Stephen; Schechter, Julia C.; Majestic, Catherine M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. James

    2014-01-01

    Objective Youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), including conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), have difficulties in reinforcement-based decision making, the neural basis of which is poorly understood. Studies examining decision making in youth with DBD have revealed reduced reward responses within the ventrome-dial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex (vmPFC/OFC), increased responses to unexpected punishment within the vmPFC and striatum, and reduced use of expected value information in the anterior insula cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal choices. Previous work has used only monetary reinforcement. The current study examined whether dysfunction in youth with DBD during decision making extended to environmental reinforcers. Method A total of 30 youth (15 healthy youth and 15 youth with DBD) completed a novel reinforcement-learning paradigm using environmental reinforcers (physical threat images, e.g., striking snake image; contamination threat images, e.g., rotting food; appetitive images, e.g., puppies) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results Behaviorally, healthy youth were significantly more likely to avoid physical threat, but not contamination threat, stimuli than youth with DBD. Imaging results revealed that youth with DBD showed significantly reduced use of expected value information in the bilateral caudate, thalamus, and posterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal responses. Conclusions The current data suggest that youth with DBD show deficits to environmental reinforcers similar to the deficits seen to monetary reinforcers. Importantly, this deficit was unrelated to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, suggesting that caudate impairment may be a common deficit across youth with DBD. PMID:24745957

  20. Weight-activity associations with cardiometabolic risk factors among U.S. youth.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2015-10-01

    Research among adult populations suggests that underweight is associated with worse cardiometabolic health and that adequate engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may help to counteract the cardiometabolic consequences of overweight/obesity. Whether these findings are also true in children and adolescents (hereafter 'youth') is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether underweight and overweight/obese youth who engage in relatively more MVPA have better or similar cardiometabolic risk factors than normal weight youth who engage in relatively less MVPA. Data were extracted from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N=2268). Four cardiometabolic risk factors assessed included C-reactive protein, mean arterial pressure, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Weight status was assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. MVPA was assessed via accelerometry. Six weight-activity groups were created: 1) Underweight and Inactive; 2) Normal Weight and Inactive; 3) Overweight/Obese and Inactive; 4) Underweight and Active; 5) Normal Weight and Active; and, 6) Overweight/Obese and Active. An overall cardiometabolic risk score was calculated by summing the frequency with which each individual participant scored in the worst quartile for each of the 4 cardiometabolic parameters. Compared to those who were Normal Weight and Inactive, youth who were Underweight and Active (?=-0.05, p=0.78) had a similar overall cardiometabolic risk score. In contrast, Overweight/Obese and Active youth (?=1.1, p<0.001) had a higher overall cardiometabolic risk score when compared to Normal Weight and Inactive youth. These cross-sectional findings suggest that MVPA may not fully counteract the cardiometabolic consequences of overweight/obesity in youth. Rather, maintaining a normal weight may be of a more important factor related to cardiometabolic risk in youth. PMID:26056077

  1. Distinct Stress and Resource Profiles Among At-Risk Adolescents: Implications for Violence and Other Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2014-01-01

    This study tests for the presence of subgroups among youth at-risk for school drop-out and whether those groups differ on levels of violence and related problem behaviors. Latent profile analysis was employed with a diverse adolescent sample (N = 849) to identify and describe subgroups based on assessment of stress and coping resources, resulting in four distinct groups: Low Risk, Unprotected, Risk Only, and High Risk. Tests across these groups demonstrated significant heterogeneity in violent behaviors, substance use, and school disengagement. The value of stress and protective resource assessment and tailoring interventions to meet the differing needs of vulnerable youth is discussed. PMID:25067883

  2. Sexting and Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (?2[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (?2[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678

  3. Low-Income African American Youth. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Daniel; McDaniel, Marla

    2009-01-01

    The transition to adulthood could present challenges for African American youth from low-income families. This fact sheet uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to explore racial differences in adolescent risk behavior, education, employment, and earnings among low income youth age 18 to 24. Differences discussed herein are…

  4. Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.

    This book is designed as an introductory text on special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. Part 1 addresses the problems in the definition of emotional and behavioral disorders, the prevalence of the disorders, the growth of the field of emotional and behavior disorders, and major current trends. Part 2…

  5. Looking forward in records of youth abused as infants: risks for homicidal, violent, and delinquent offenses.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Robert John; Busch, Kenneth G; Grove, William M; Hughes, John Russell; Arbit, Jack

    2009-02-01

    To study risks for abuse and later homicidal behavior, 192 abused infants (M age = 3.12 yr., SD = 1.48; 82 girls, 110 boys) and 192 controls were matched on demographics and examined; data discriminating abused and later homicidal cases were analyzed with Shao's bootstrapped logistic regression. Predictors of Abused status were injury, burn, poisoning, fetal substance exposure (OR = 2.47), later parental or youth court contacts (OR = 1.86e+12), and parental alcohol abuse (OR = .54; AUC = .99; 95% CI = .96-.99). Youth tracked through records 12 years (to M age = 15.17 [corrected] yr., SD = 1.89) were classified into Abused Later Homicidal (11%, n = 21), Abused Later Violent (14%, n = 27), Abused Later Delinquent (31%, n = 60), Abused Later Nondelinquent (n = 44), and Control groups (n = 192). Data were analyzed similarly. When the Abused Later Homicidal was contrasted with the Control group, predictors of homicide were three or more home/school moves (OR = .78), illnesses (OR = .90), and later court contacts (OR = 1.75e+07; AUC = .99; 95% CI = .90-.98). When the Abused Later Homicidal was compared with the Abused Later Nondelinquent group, predictors of homicide were poorer executive function (OR = 2.29) and later court contacts (OR = 7.78e+06; AUC = .94; 95% CI = .90-.98). PMID:19480209

  6. Bullying and LGBT Youth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Support the Kids Involved Be More Than a Bystander GET HELP NOW Home > Who is at Risk > Considerations for Specific Groups > LGBT Youth WHO IS AT RISK Risk Factors Warning Signs Effects Considerations for Specific Groups LGBT Youth Youth With ...

  7. Providing Individually Tailored Academic and Behavioral Support Services for Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems. Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsoulin, S.; Darwin, M. J.; Read, N. W.

    2012-01-01

    Youth who are involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems face many challenges and barriers to academic and vocational success. Regardless of the reasons for their involvement, youth in these systems are "disproportionately children and youth of color who currently have, or have experienced, a host of risk factors that are…

  8. Major depressive disorder in a Kenyan youth sample: relationship with parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies on mental health problems during childhood and youth development phases have reported that families of children diagnosed with a depressive disorder tend to be dysfunctional. These dysfunctions have been shown to be mediating factors for children to develop psychiatric disorders in the future. Objective This study was designed to investigate whether perceived parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders have any relationship with youth presenting with major depressive disorder. Methodology The study sample had a total number of 250 purposely selected youth attending the Youth Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. Results This study found associations between major depressive disorders (MDD) in the youth and co-morbid psychiatric disorders among the youth: conduct disorder (OR = 2.93, 95% CI 1.04 to 8.26, p = 0.035), any anxiety disorder (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.20 to 4.87, p = 0.012), drug abuse (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 2.01 to 5.76, p < 0.001), alcohol use (OR = 3.29, 95% CI 1.94 to 5.57, p < 0.001), and suicidal behavior (OR = 5.27, 95% CI 2.39 to 11.66, p < 0.001). The results also indicate that a higher proportion of youth between 16 and 18 years had major depressive disorder than the youth below 16 years or above 18 years of age (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.40 to 5.05, p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis shows that both rejecting maternal behavior (AOR = 2.165, 95% CI 1.060 to 4.422, p = 0.003) and maternal MDD (AOR = 5.27, 95% CI 1.10 to 14.76, p < 0.001) are associated with MDD in youth. Conclusion Negative maternal parenting behavior and maternal depressive disorder are associated with major depressive disorder in children. PMID:23663452

  9. "Strengthifying" Data on Assets versus Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerosky, Michael; Zlatkovski, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Most discussions of youth behavior focus on the small group engaged in high-risk activities, ignoring the majority of youth who are developing in prosocial ways. This article provides a rationale for reversing this self-fulfilling prophecy which creates the impression that problem behavior is the norm. It describes the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  10. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions. PMID:26084946

  11. Risk taking behavior of adolescents in Indonesia (country report).

    PubMed

    Narendra, M; Basuki, P S; Soeharjono, L B; Ghozali, E W

    1990-01-01

    Adolescent problems in Indonesia are becoming more and more relevant due to the increasing reports recently. Although data gathered are very limited a certain consideration should be well planned to get all resources in terms of motivation in paying more attention to the future of Indonesia youth problems such as narcotics/drug abuse, sexual activities including sexual transmitted diseases etc. A good communication with the other Asian countries in controlling those risk taking behaviors in adolescent will be very promising to gain the improvement of people's life quality by the year 2,000. PMID:2077464

  12. Aggressive and prosocial behavior: community violence, cognitive, and behavioral predictors among urban African American youth.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema

    2013-06-01

    We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention. PMID:23229395

  13. Morality in Cyberspace: A Comparison of Chinese and U.S. Youth's Beliefs about Acceptable Online Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Jackson; Yong Zhao; Wei Qiu; Anothony Kolenic III; Hiram E. Fitzgerald; Rena Harold; Alexander Von Eye

    2008-01-01

    This cross-cultural comparison of approximately 600 youth in China and 600 youth in the U.S. focused on the moral values, acceptability of a variety of morally questionable online behaviors, and the relationship between moral values and acceptability of online behaviors. Findings indicated differences both in moral values and in behaviors that Chinese and U.S. youth believed were acceptable in the

  14. Predictors of HAART Utilization for Behaviorally HIV-1 Infected Youth: Impact of Adult vs. Pediatric Clinical Care Site

    PubMed Central

    Agwu, Allison L.; Siberry, George K.; Ellen, Jonathan; Fleishman, John A.; Rutstein, Richard; Gaur, Aditya H.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Warford, Robert; Spector, Stephen A.; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We evaluated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) utilization in youth infected with HIV through risk behaviors (BIY) who met treatment criteria for HAART. We assessed the impact of receiving care at an adult or pediatric HIV clinical site on initiation and discontinuation of the first HAART regimen in BIY. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of treatment-naive BIY, aged 12–24, who enrolled in the HIV Research Network (HIVRN) between 2002 and 2008 and who met criteria for HAART. The outcomes were time from meeting criteria to initiation of HAART and time to discontinuation of the first HAART regimen. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS Of 287 treatment-eligible youth, 198 (69%) received HAART and 58/198 (29.3%) subsequently discontinued HAART. In multivariable analyses, there was no significant difference in the time between meeting treatment criteria and initiating HAART for BIY followed at adult or pediatric HIV clinical sites. However, BIY followed at adult sites discontinued HAART sooner than BIY followed at pediatric HIV clinical sites (AHR 3.19 [1.26–8.06]). CONCLUSIONS Two thirds of treatment-eligible BIY in the HIVRN cohort initiated HAART; however, one third who initiated HAART discontinued HAART during the study period. Identifying factors associated with earlier HAART initiation and HAART sustainability can inform interventions to enhance HAART utilization among treatment-eligible youth. The finding of earlier HAART discontinuation for youth at adult care sites deserves further study. PMID:22525110

  15. Exploring Hip-Hop Therapy with High-Risk Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nakeyshaey M. Tillie Allen

    2005-01-01

    This article explores a new approach in the field of social work entitled Hip-Hop Therapy (HHT). Hip- Hop can be described as an urban mainstream culture driven by youth and young adults. HHT uses Hip-Hop music and culture to engage youth and address their issues in therapy by encouraging them to reflect on Hip-Hop lyrics as they relate to the

  16. Clustering of Internet Risk Behaviors in a Middle School Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, Elizabeth B.; Burgess, Ann W.; Cavanaugh, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Internet safety is a growing public concern especially among adults and youth who live in an "instant messaging" world of technological communication. To better understand how early adolescents are using the Internet, a study was undertaken to more clearly identify the online general use, safety knowledge, and risk behaviors of middle…

  17. Personality Differences Predict Health-Risk Behaviors in Young Adulthood: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avshalom Caspi; Dot Begg; Nigel Dickson; HonaLee Harrington; John Langley; Terrie E. Moffitt; Phil A. Silva

    1997-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, the authors identified youth involved in each of 4 different health-risk behaviors at age 21: alcohol dependence, violent crime, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving habits. At age 18, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to assess 10 distinct personality traits. At age 3, observational measures were used to classify children into

  18. Youth Substance Use and Body Composition: Does Risk in One Area Predict Risk in the Other?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study…

  19. Influence of caring youth sport contexts on efficacy-related beliefs and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gano-Overway, Lori A; Newton, Maria; Magyar, T Michelle; Fry, Mary D; Kim, Mi-Sook; Guivernau, Marta R

    2009-03-01

    Understanding what factors influence positive youth development has been advocated by youth development researchers (P. L. Benson, 2006; J. S. Eccles & J. A. Gootman, 2002). Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine whether perceptions of a caring youth sport context influenced prosocial and antisocial behavior through efficacy-related beliefs, that is, positive and negative affective self-regulatory efficacy (ASRE) and empathic self-efficacy (ESE). Multiethnic youths taking part in summer sport programs (N = 395) completed a questionnaire that measured perceptions of the caring climate, ESE, ASRE, and social behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether ASRE and ESE mediated the relationship between caring and social behaviors. Findings revealed that perceptions of caring positively predicted ASRE and ESE. In turn, positive ASRE positively predicted ESE. Prosocial behaviors were positively linked to ESE, whereas antisocial behaviors were negatively predicted by positive ASRE. The results suggest that caring influences prosocial and antisocial behavior because such contexts develop youths' ability to monitor, manage, and control positive affect, which in turn enhances their belief in their ability to empathize. PMID:19271822

  20. Using Internet Resources To Strengthen Community Programs and Collaborations for Children, Youth, and Families At Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Josephine A.; Mead, June P.; Haugan, Heidi L.

    A New York State Cornell Cooperative Extension project for children, youth, and families is implementing electronic connectivity or Internet access to support the development of computer literacy among staff and program participants and to promote positive program outcomes in communities at risk. Reducing Risks and Increasing Capacity (RRIC) is a…

  1. Helping At-Risk Youth: Lessons from Community-Based Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Elaine; Rossman, Shelli B.

    This report is designed to assist communities engaged in or contemplating initiatives focused on at-risk youth. Much of the information comes from evaluations of the Communities in Schools, SafeFeatures, and Children at Risk initiatives. Brief descriptions of experiences or practices of the community programs are used to illustrate points made or…

  2. BMI change, fitness change and cardiometabolic risk factors among 8th grade youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper examined whether a two-year change in fitness, body mass index (BMI) or the additive effect of change in fitness and BMI were associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors among youth. Cardiometabolic risk factors, BMI group (normal weight, overweight or obese) were obtained from...

  3. Emerging Strategies for Risk Assessment of Sexually Abusive Youth: Theory, Controversy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians and other professionals evaluating, managing, and treating sexually abusive youth are frequently called upon to offer judgments regarding risk for sexual reoffense. There are currently no empirically validated methods for accurately classifying risk among this population. Therefore, those faced with this task have an obligation to…

  4. Working with Youth in High-Risk Environments: Experiences in Prevention. OSAP Prevention Monograph-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Carol E., Ed.; Swisher, John D., Ed.

    This report focuses on prevention programs developed with support from the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention's (OSAP) High-Risk Youth Demonstration Grant Program. Included are an Introduction (Eric Goplerud and others) and the following reports: (1) "Athletes Coaching Teens for Substance Abuse Prevention: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Risk

  5. Cumulative Risk for Early Sexual Initiation among American Indian Youth: A Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…

  6. Providing Options for At-Risk Youth: The Health and Media Academies in Oakland. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Larry F.; And Others

    The Health Academy and the Media Academy, two innovative high school intervention programs for at-risk youth in Oakland (California), are examined. A collaborative effort of the school district, business, and community, the academies are school-within-a-school programs that engage about 120 at-risk students each in specific academic curricula for…

  7. The potential for PTSD, substance use, and HIV risk behavior among adolescents exposed to Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Brief, Deborah J; Vielhauer, Melanie J; Sussman, Steve; Keane, Terence M; Malow, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Adverse psychosocial outcomes can be anticipated among youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of this natural disaster and may suffer lasting consequences in the form of psychological morbidity and the development of negative health behaviors due to their exposure. We review existing literature on the effects of exposure to natural disasters and similar traumas on youth and, where data on youth are unavailable, on adults. The effect of natural disasters is discussed in terms of risk for three negative health outcomes that are of particular concern due to their potential to cause long-term morbidity: post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorder, and HIV-risk behavior. Where available, data from studies of the effects of Hurricane Katrina are included. PMID:19895305

  8. The Potential for PTSD, Substance Use, and HIV Risk Behavior among Adolescents Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    WAGNER, KARLA D.; BRIEF, DEBORAH J.; VIELHAUER, MELANIE J.; SUSSMAN, STEVE; KEANE, TERENCE M.; MALOW, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Adverse psychosocial outcomes can be anticipated among youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of this natural disaster and may suffer lasting consequences in the form of psychological morbidity and the development of negative health behaviors due to their exposure. We review existing literature on the effects of exposure to natural disasters and similar traumas on youth and, where data on youth are unavailable, on adults. The effect of natural disasters is discussed in terms of risk for three negative health outcomes that are of particular concern due to their potential to cause long-term morbidity: post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorder, and HIV-risk behavior. Where available, data from studies of the effects of Hurricane Katrina are included. PMID:19895305

  9. Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

  10. Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, Beth D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2010-01-01

    Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed youth, children and adolescents frequently report ongoing residual symptoms and often relapse following acute treatment. Recent adult trials have begun examining augmentation with psychosocial treatment after successful medication treatment to enhance medication response and prevent future relapse. This strategy has not yet been examined in youth with depression. Here we present initial efforts to develop a sequential, combination treatment strategy to promoting rapid remission and to prevent relapse in depressed youth. We describe efforts to adapt CBT to prevent relapse (RP-CBT) in youth who respond to pharmacotherapy. The goals of RP-CBT include: preventing relapse, increasing wellness, and developing skills to promote and sustain a healthy emotional lifestyle. We describe the rationale for, components of, and methods used to develop RP-CBT. The results from a small open series sample demonstrate feasibility and indicate that youth appear to tolerate RP-CBT well. A future test of the treatment in a randomized controlled trial is described. PMID:20535241

  11. Developmental trajectory of sexual risk behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Huang, David Y.C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23, and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high and increased risk trajectory over the observed ages. The Decreased group had a risk trajectory that accelerated before age 19, but decreased afterwards. The risk trajectories of the Increased-Early and Increased-Late groups were low at age 15, but increased significantly starting at ages 16 and 18 for the groups, respectively. Participants in the Low group remained at low risk over time. Sexual risk behaviors were also positively associated with alcohol use, marijuana use, and delinquency. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to consider developmental timing of sexual risk behaviors and their associations with other problem behaviors. PMID:23710100

  12. Changes in Emotion Regulation Following Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Suveg; Erica Sood; Jonathan S. Comer; Philip C. Kendall

    2009-01-01

    This study examined emotion-related functioning following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with 37 youth with anxiety disorders (22 boys, 15 girls) ranging in age from 7 to 15 with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 27), separation anxiety disorder (n = 12), and\\/or social phobia (n = 13). Treated youth exhibited a reduction in anxiety and increased anxiety self-efficacy and emotional awareness at posttreatment. Treated

  13. Case Study: Multisystemic Therapy for Adolescents Who Engage in HIV Transmission Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Deborah A; Naar-King, Sylvie; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Fowler, Sandra L

    2010-01-01

    Objective?To present a case study using multisystemic therapy (MST), an intensive family focused psychotherapy. For the clinical trial from which this case was drawn, MST was adapted to address multiple human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk behaviors in HIV-infected youth. Targeted behaviors included medication nonadherence, risky sexual behaviors, and substance use.?Method?One young woman's transmission risk behaviors are described, followed by a description of the MST procedures used to identify and treat the primary drivers of these risk behaviors. Outcome measures were self-report, urine screens, and blood draws.?Results?At discharge, the young woman showed significant improvements in medication adherence and related health status (e.g., reduced HIV viral load), healthier sexual behaviors, and reduced substance use. Importantly, neither her boyfriend nor her newborn tested positive for HIV. Conclusions?Findings from this case study suggest that MST has the potential to reduce transmission risk behaviors among teens with HIV. PMID:19815654

  14. Religion's Role in Promoting Health and Reducing Risk Among American Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Wallace; Tyrone A. Forman

    1998-01-01

    Although past research has long documented religion's salutary impact on adult health-related behaviors and outcomes, relatively little research has examined the relationship between religion and adolescent health. This study uses large, nationally representative samples of high school seniors to examine the relationship between religion and behavioral predictors of adolescent morbidity and mortality. Relative to their peers, religious youth are less

  15. Neighborhood Structure, Parenting Processes, and the Development of Youths’ Externalizing Behaviors: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beyers, Jennifer M.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Associations among neighborhood structure, parenting processes, and the development of externalizing behavior problems were investigated in a longitudinal sample of early adolescents (from age 11 to 13). Mothers’ reports of parental monitoring (at age 11), mothers’ and youths’ reports of the amount of youths’ unsupervised time (at age 11), and youths’ reports of positive parental involvement (at age 12) were used to predict initial levels (at age 11) and growth rates in youths’ externalizing behavior as reported by teachers. Census-based measures of neighborhood structural disadvantage, residential instability, and concentrated affluence were expected to moderate the effects of parenting processes (e.g., parental monitoring) on externalizing behavior. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that less parental monitoring was associated with more externalizing behavior problems at age 11, and more unsupervised time spent out in the community (vs. unsupervised time in any context) and less positive parental involvement were associated with increases in externalizing behavior across time. Furthermore, the decrease in externalizing levels associated with more parental monitoring was significantly more pronounced when youths lived in neighborhoods with more residential instability. PMID:12741688

  16. Safety-Seeking and Coping Behavior during Exposure Tasks with Anxious Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedtke, Kristina A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Tiwari, Shilpee

    2009-01-01

    This study examined child behavior during exposure tasks and characteristics of the exposure tasks as related to outcomes when treating anxious youth. Participants (aged 7-13) were 87 anxiety-disordered children (37 girls; 50 boys) and their parents (84 mothers; 70 fathers) who completed a 16-session cognitive-behavioral therapy. Videotapes of…

  17. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  18. Children and Youth: The Evolution of At Risk to "High Promise" Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child & Youth Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to make global generalisations about children and youth from a phenomenological inquiry into the experiences of such a limited number of participants in just one city, Limerick, Ireland, and one case, St. Augustine's. The goal of phenomenological research is, however, not to seek generalisations but to expose the individual case,…

  19. Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors for Recidivism in Spanish Youth Offenders.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Keren; Villanueva, Lidón

    2014-11-17

    Although a large body of research has studied the factors associated to general recidivism, predictive validity of these factors has received less attention. Andrews and Bonta's General Personality and Social-Psychological Model attempts to provide an in-depth explanation of risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory was administered to 210 adolescents aged between 14 and 18 with a criminal record to analyse risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. Their possible differential contribution over a 2-year follow-up period was also examined. Risk factors showed good levels of recidivism prediction. The factors that emerged as the most discriminative were education/employment, leisure/recreation, and personality. Protective factors differentiated between recidivists and non-recidivists in all factors. Hence, results showed that not only individual but also social factors would be crucial in predicting recidivism. PMID:25406141

  20. Relationship between number of sexual intercourse partners and selected health risk behaviors among public high school adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F Valois; John E Oeltmann; Jennifer Waller; James R Hussey

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between number of sexual partners and selected health risk behaviors in a statewide sample of public high school students.Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used to secure usable sexual risk-taking, substance use, and violence\\/aggression data from 3805 respondents. Because simple polychotomous logistic regression analysis revealed a significant Race

  1. Predicting early positive change in multisystemic therapy with youth exhibiting antisocial behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n = 185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into midtreatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared with those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. PMID:24866967

  2. Incarcerated Adolescents' Engagement in AIDS/HIV High-Risk Behaviors: Ethnic-Racial and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.

    Incarcerated youth are a subgroup of adolescents who are at particularly high risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study explored ethnic-racial and gender differences in incarcerated adolescents' engagement in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)/HIV high-risk behaviors. All subjects for the study were residents of…

  3. Gender Differences in Monitoring and Deviant Peers as Predictors of Delinquent Behavior among Low-Income Urban African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Philip; Richards, Maryse; Pearce, Steven; Romero, Edna

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is an ongoing social problem particularly among low-income urban youth who are regularly exposed to numerous risk factors. Although much research has been conducted in this area, the most at-risk youth have been largely neglected. This study examines the role of peer deviance in mediating the influence of adult monitoring on…

  4. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)] [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical significance. In summary, airborne exposure to manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with increased risk of adjudication. Causality cannot be proven in observational studies such as this one, but the association warrants further examination in other research studies. Comprehensive epidemiologic investigations of metal exposure in pediatric populations should include social health outcomes, including measures of delinquent or criminal activity. Furthermore, the influence of metals on the neurotoxic pathway leading to delinquent activity should be further explored. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate the relationship between air pollutants and adjudication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with risk of adjudication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further research of metal exposure should include social health outcomes.

  5. Educational Policy and Foster Youths: The Risks of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Nora; MacEachron, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent child welfare legislation requires agencies to address the educational well-being of foster youths. Schools face new accountability standards through No Child Left Behind and the Obama "Blueprint for Reform" as they move toward the goal of ensuring that all children receive a quality education. Both of these pieces of legislation can work…

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Youth with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disordered Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Child and Family Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Suveg, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial compared the relative efficacy of individual (child) cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT), family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT), and a family-based education/support/attention (FESA) active control for treating anxiety disordered youth ages 7-14 years (M = 10.27). Youth (N = 161; 44% female; 85% Caucasian, 9%…

  8. Behavioral reduction of infection risk

    PubMed Central

    Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Skelly, David K.; Beard, Karen H.; Preisser, Evan

    1999-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long postulated that there should be fitness advantages to animals that are able to recognize and avoid conspecifics infected with contact-transmitted disease. This avoidance hypothesis is in direct conflict with much of epidemiological theory, which is founded on the assumptions that the likelihood of infection is equal among members of a population and constant over space. The inconsistency between epidemiological theory and the avoidance hypothesis has received relatively little attention because, to date, there has been no evidence that animals can recognize and reduce infection risk from conspecifics. We investigated the effects of Candida humicola, a pathogen that reduces growth rates and can cause death of tadpoles, on associations between infected and uninfected individuals. Here we demonstrate that bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles avoid infected conspecifics because proximity influences infection. This avoidance behavior is stimulated by chemical cues from infected individuals and thus does not require direct contact between individuals. Such facultative modulations of disease infection risk may have critical consequences for the population dynamics of disease organisms and their impact on host populations. PMID:10430913

  9. Relationships among Youth Assets and Neighborhood and Community Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that a youth development framework emphasizing youth assets may be a promising intervention strategy for preventing adolescent risk behaviors. Understanding how neighborhood and community resources relate to youth assets may aid in identifying environmental strategies to complement individually oriented asset-building…

  10. Youth Substance Use and Body Composition: Does Risk in One Area Predict Risk in the Other?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keryn E. PaschCayley; Cayley E. Velazquez; Jessica Duncan Cance; Stacey G. Moe; Leslie A. Lytle

    Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three\\u000a decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little\\u000a research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study explores the bi-directional longitudinal\\u000a relationships

  11. High-Risk Driving Behaviors among Adolescent Binge-Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Marcotte, Thomas D.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Meyer, Rachel A.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is common among adolescents. Alcohol use, and binge-drinking in particular, has been associated with neurocognitive deficits as well as risk-taking behaviors, which may contribute to negative driving outcomes among adolescents even while sober. Objectives To examine differences in self-reported driving behaviors between adolescent binge-drinkers and a matched sample of controls, including (a) compliance with graduated licensing laws, (b) high risk driving behaviors, and (c) driving outcomes (crashes, traffic tickets). Methods The present study examined driving behaviors and outcomes in adolescent recent binge drinkers (n=21) and demographically and driving history matched controls (n=17), ages 16-18. Results Binge drinkers more frequently violated graduated licensing laws (e.g., driving late at night), and engaged in more “high risk” driving behaviors, such as speeding and using a cell-phone while driving. Binge drinkers had more traffic tickets, crashes and “near crashes” than the control group. In a multivariate analysis, binge drinker status and speeding were the most robust predictors of a crash. Conclusion Binge drinking teens consistently engage in more dangerous driving behaviors and experience more frequent crashes and traffic tickets. They are also less compliant with preventative restrictions placed on youth while they are learning critical safe driving skills. Scientific Significance These findings highlight a need to examine the contribution of underlying traits (such as sensation seeking) and binge-related cognitive changes to these high-risk driving behaviors, which may assist researchers in establishing alternative prevention and policy efforts targeting this population. PMID:22324748

  12. Behavioral Strategies for Constructing Nonviolent Cultures with Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattaini, Mark A.; McGuire, Melissa S.

    2006-01-01

    Youth violence is widely recognized as a critical social issue in the United States, and many approaches to prevention have been developed in recent years. Emerging research suggests that only approaches that are deeply embedded in cultural, community, and organizational contexts are likely to be powerful enough to have a meaningful collective…

  13. Suicidal Behavior and Sexual/Physical Abuse among Street Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Beth E.; Shade, Starley B.; Kral, Alex H.; Booth, Robert E.; Watters, John K.

    1998-01-01

    Street youth 12 to 19 years old (N=775) in four American cities were interviewed to examine the relationship between suicide attempts and antecedent home life variables. Forty-eight percent of the females and 27% of the males had attempted suicide. Sexual and physical abuse before leaving home were independent predictors of suicide attempts for…

  14. Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed…

  15. Barriers to medication adherence in behaviorally and perinatally infected youth living with HIV.

    PubMed

    MacDonell, Karen; Naar-King, Sylvie; Huszti, Heather; Belzer, Marvin

    2013-01-01

    The study explored barriers to antiretroviral medication adherence in perinatally and behaviorally HIV infected adolescents and young adults in a cross-sectional, multisite sample. The study included a subset of a convenience sample from a cross-sectional analysis. Participants were youth with HIV ages 12-24 who were prescribed HIV medication and reported missing medication in the past 7 days (n = 484, 28.4 % of protocol sample). The top barriers were similar for perinatally and behaviorally infected youth, but perinatally infected youth reported significantly more barriers. Forgetting, not feeling like taking medication and not wanting to be reminded of HIV infection were the most common barriers reported. Number of barriers was significantly correlated with percent of doses missed, viral load, and psychological distress for perinatally infected youth and with doses missed, psychological distress, and substance use for behaviorally infected youth. Interventions to improve adherence to HIV medications should not only address forgetfulness and choosing not to take medications, but also consider route of infection. PMID:23142855

  16. Barriers to Medication Adherence in Behaviorally and Perinatally Infected Youth Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Huszti, Heather; Belzer, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    The study explored barriers to antiretroviral medication adherence in perinatally and behaviorally HIV infected adolescents and young adults in a cross-sectional, multisite sample. The study included a subset of a convenience sample from a cross-sectional analysis. Participants were youth with HIV ages 12–24 who were prescribed HIV medication and reported missing medication in the past 7 days (n = 484, 28.4 % of protocol sample). The top barriers were similar for perinatally and behaviorally infected youth, but perinatally infected youth reported significantly more barriers. Forgetting, not feeling like taking medication and not wanting to be reminded of HIV infection were the most common barriers reported. Number of barriers was significantly correlated with percent of doses missed, viral load, and psychological distress for perinatally infected youth and with doses missed, psychological distress, and substance use for behaviorally infected youth. Interventions to improve adherence to HIV medications should not only address forgetfulness and choosing not to take medications, but also consider route of infection. PMID:23142855

  17. Exploring the Behavioral and Psychological Differences between Male and Female Youth with a History of Fire Involvement

    E-print Network

    Morris, Ed M.

    2014-08-31

    Study objectives were to explore a sample of fire-involved youth by 1) describing their overall psychological characteristics, thoughts, and behaviors, 2) comparing the psychological characteristics, thoughts, and behaviors ...

  18. Investigating the potential causal relationship between parental knowledge and youth risky behavior: a propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Melissa A; Coffman, Donna L; Greenberg, Mark T

    2014-12-01

    This longitudinal study aims to explore the potential causal relationship between parental knowledge and youth risky behavior among a sample of rural, early adolescents (84 % White, 47 % male). Using inverse propensity weighting, the sample was adjusted by controlling for 33 potential confounding variables. Confounding variables include other aspects of the parent-child relationship, parental monitoring, demographic variables, and earlier levels of problem behavior. The effect of parental knowledge was significant for youth substance and polysubstance use initiation, alcohol and cigarette use, attitudes towards substance use, and delinquency. Our results suggest that parental knowledge may be causally related to substance use during middle school, as the relationship between knowledge and youth outcomes remained after controlling for 33 different confounding variables. The discussion focuses on understanding issues of causality in parenting and intervention implications. PMID:24292890

  19. Understanding and Preventing Runaway Behavior: Indicators and Strategies for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Lisa A.; Raimondi, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Runaway behavior is a national epidemic that affects many school-aged youths. Although there are no definitive numbers, it has been estimated that between 1.3 and 2.8 million youths run away each year, and youths with disabilities are more at risk for engaging in runaway behavior than their nondisabled peers. Considering the high number of youths

  20. Invitational Theory and Practice Applied to Resiliency Development in At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Resilience development is a growing field of study within the scholarly literature regarding social emotional achievement of at-risk students. Developing resiliency is based on the assumption that positive, pro-social, and/or strength-based values inherent in children and youth should be actively and intentionally developed. The core values of…

  1. Status of Oregon's Children: 1997 County Databook. Special Focus: Youth-at-Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children First for Oregon, Portland.

    This Kids Count databook examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on youth at risk. The statistical report is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) juvenile arrests; (2) teen sexuality; (3) high school dropout rate; (4) teen suicide; (5) reading proficiency; (6) math proficiency; (7) child abuse and neglect;…

  2. At-Risk Youth and Hope: Incorporating a Ropes Course into a Summer Jobs Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine

    1996-01-01

    Looks at ways to enhance the hope of at-risk youth concerning their vocational goals. Advocates the incorporation of adventure challenge experiences into a vocational program. Analysis of data taken from 98 participants in a summer program indicated that participants developed a heightened belief about achieving their general and specific goals.…

  3. Democratic Adult and At-Risk Youth Participations through Interactive Radio Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurubacak, Gulsun; Yuzer, T. Volkan

    2006-01-01

    Interactive Radio Programs (IRPs) forge effective participations between adults (communicational and pedagogical workers and parents) and at-risk youth (jeopardizing their present and future adjustments) to explore their engagements with community activism engaging in building their communities. IRPs are vital for them to be engaged citizens,…

  4. Serving the Needs of At-Risk Refugee Youth: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBrien, J. Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Refugee students, although frequently subsumed under the "immigrant" heading, often suffer from effects of significant trauma that can make them more vulnerable than children of voluntary immigrant families. This study evaluated a program created specifically for refugee youth at-risk for academic failure and "social death." The program goals…

  5. Are Blogs Putting Youth at Risk for Online Sexual Solicitation or Harassment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In light of public concern about the dangers to young people from maintaining online journals or "blogs," this exploratory paper examines whether bloggers are at increased risk for online sexual solicitation or harassment. Method: A national telephone survey of 1,500 youth Internet users, ages 10-17, conducted between March and June…

  6. Improving Test-Taking Performance of Secondary At-Risk Youth and Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tachelle; Eaton, India

    2014-01-01

    Preparing at-risk youth and students with mild disabilities for state and district tests is important for improving their test performance, and basic instruction in test preparation can significantly improve student test performance. The article defines noncognitive variables that adversely affect test-taker performance. The article also describes…

  7. Mothering and Peer Associations Mediate Cumulative Risk Effects for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra; Prelow, Hazel M.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Allua, Shane

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether positive parenting and deviant peer associations mediated the relations between a cumulative risk composite comprising financial strain, neighborhood problems, and maternal psychological distress and subsequent youth adjustment problems. Drawn from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three City Study, the…

  8. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  9. Youth Depression in the Family Context: Familial Risk Factors and Models of Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Janay B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.

    2005-01-01

    Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of…

  10. At-Risk Youth Programs in Oregon: A Sourcebook of Program Ideas for Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roid, Gale H.

    This sourcebook describes methods of dealing with dropouts in Oregon school districts. "At-risk youth" and "dropout" are defined and survey results of 98 percent of superintendents concerning program offerings are summarized. Data suggest that medium-size districts require greatest assistance. Despite increases in single-parent households and drug…

  11. Experiences of Being Homeless or at Risk of Being Homeless among Canadian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pamela; Donahue, Peter; Este, Dave; Hofer, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken with four groups -- immigrants, youths, Aboriginal people, and landlords -- in order to explore, compare, and contrast diversity issues among the homeless population and those at risk of homelessness in a larger Canadian city (Calgary, Alberta) with a smaller city (Lethbridge, Alberta), to better understand their…

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy for youth with social anxiety: differential short and long-term treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Connor M; Read, Kendra L; Klugman, Joshua; Kendall, Philip C

    2013-03-01

    This study examined social anxiety symptoms and/or diagnosis as a predictor of differential short- and long-term cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) outcomes. Ninety-one anxiety-disordered youth participated in a randomized clinical trial of CBT. Semi-structured interviews provided dimensional clinical severity ratings (CSRs) for children's principal anxiety disorder at pretreatment, posttreatment, 1-year and 7.4-year follow-up assessments for youth with versus without pretreatment social anxiety. Thirty-nine youth presented with either principal (n=17), secondary (n=11), or tertiary social phobia diagnoses (n=7) or subclinical social anxiety symptoms (n=4). Hierarchal linear modeling (HLM) indicated that youth made similar gains from pretreatment to posttreatment and 1-year follow-up regardless of their social anxiety symptoms or diagnosis; however, youth with social anxiety symptoms or diagnosis were significantly less improved at 7.4-year follow-up. This pattern was distinct from that of youth with the most severe (CSR=4) principal anxiety disorders at pretreatment. Though initially responsive to CBT, children who present with social anxiety diagnoses or symptoms may require an enhanced or extended treatment to maintain their gains into young adulthood whether or not social anxiety is considered their principal childhood difficulty. PMID:23474911

  13. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    This text presents 13 chapters on the assessment of students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders for the purpose of making educational placement and programming decisions consistent with federal and state diagnostic guidelines. Chapters are grouped into four sections focusing on: basic considerations for assessment of youth in this…

  14. Brief Structural/Strategic Family Therapy with African American and Hispanic High Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Mitrani, Victoria; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Szapocnik, Jose

    The intervention described in this paper used Brief Strategic/Structural Family Therapy (BSFT) to reduce the likelihood that African American and Hispanic youth would initiate drug use by decreasing existing behavior problems at the individual level and improving maladaptive family functioning at the family level. The program targeted African…

  15. Displacement and Suicide Risk for Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmar, Jeff M.; Flannery, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between suicide behaviors and displacement, as defined by out-of-home placement, in a sample of juvenile-justice-involved youth with mental health issues. Participants included boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 18 who were enrolled in a juvenile justice diversion program for children with mental or…

  16. Brief Intervention Impact on Truant Youth Attitudes to School and School Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James

    2014-01-01

    Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths’ substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths’ attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths’ attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027

  17. Tobacco Use and Quit Behaviors among Delinquent Youth: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dennis W.; Colwell, Brian; Zhang, James J.; McPherson, Robert; Stevens, Stacey; McMillan, Catherine; Robinson, James, III

    2002-01-01

    Examines and profiles the smoking patterns of a small sample of juvenile offenders in Texas. In contrast to anecdotal reports, the sample did not differ clinically from the general population of adolescent tobacco users. Concludes that delinquent youth may be responsive to cognitive behavioral smoking cessation programs tat also address the…

  18. Conversational Behaviors in Youth with High-Functioning ASD and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Orlovski, Stephanie Miles; Marcinko, Hillary Chuba; Volkmar, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine youth with autism spectrum disorders and 26 with typical development between 12 and 18 years of age were engaged in structured interviews (ADOS). The interviews were videotaped and rated for atypical conversational behaviors by trained raters, using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (Landa et al. "Psychol Med" 22:245-254, 1992). The ASD group…

  19. Associations between family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in obese youth.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle; Bryant, William; Stephen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the associations among family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in a sample of severely obese youth referred to an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic. The sample consisted of 43 obese youth (body mass index?>?95th percentile) aged 6-16 years (mean age?=?12.67 years). Approximately 93% of families endorsed their religious faith as Christian or Catholic. Parents of youth were administered a demographic questionnaire, religiosity questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist. Three multiple linear regression models were examined with body mass index percentile, Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Scale as outcome variables. A parent endorsing greater importance of religious faith in shaping family life was associated with lower child body mass index percentile (p?youth with severe obesity. PMID:25921774

  20. Reading Instruction in Secondary Day Treatment and Residential Schools for Youth with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Kimber L.; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan; Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to obtain the first national picture of the characteristics of special educators who provide reading or English instruction in secondary day treatment and residential schools for youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) as well as their approach to reading instruction. Also, information was collected concerning…

  1. Improving Feeding Skills and Mealtime Behaviors in Children and Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    A single-subject multiple treatment design counterbalanced across nine participants with moderate to severe and multiple disabilities was used to determine the efficacy of a school-based multi-treatment package (a combined dysphagia treatment and positive reinforcement behavior management program) for children and youth (ages 4-17) with feeding…

  2. A Multivariate Analysis of Selected Psychosocial Variables on the Development of Subsequent Youth Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegrante, John P.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze interaction effects of selected psychosocial variables on the development of subsequent smoking behavior among youth who had originally identified themselves on a survey as never having smoked. The subjects were seventh grade students who had participated in a total of three surveys over a two…

  3. Peer Selection and Influence of Delinquent Behavior of Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Youths: Does Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Ylva; Burk, William J.; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This study examines selection and influence related to delinquent behaviors of immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents attending three majority-immigrant schools (54% to 65.2% immigrant) and four minority-immigrant schools (11.1% to 25.1% immigrant) in one community. The sample included 1,169 youths (50.4% male; 24.2% immigrant) initially between…

  4. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  5. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  6. Meeting the Needs of Children and Youth With Challenging Behaviors: Module 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M.; Cavin, Clark

    2000-01-01

    Module provides information to enable individuals to facilitate one- to two-hour training sessions appropriate for teachers, other professionals, and parents. It contains information relevant to advocating for children and youth who exhibit challenging behaviors. The module: (1) defines advocacy; (2) examines why advocacy is important; (3)…

  7. A Meditational Model Linking Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence and Bullying Behaviors and Victimization among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Hong, Jun Sung

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research documents that various forms of violence exposures are interrelated. This paper presents a conceptual model, which accounts for the relationship between youth witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) at home and their subsequent engagement in bullying behaviors and victimization by peers. A comprehensive search of…

  8. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  9. Similarity of risk and protective behaviors among African-American pre- and early adolescent members of naturally occurring friendship groups.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Stanton, B; Li, X; Romer, D; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether self-reported risk and protective behaviors, expectations, and attitudes are more similar among African-American early adolescents within a community-based friendship group than across groups, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 382 African-American youth 9 through 15 years of age forming 76 community-based groups of 3 through 10 same-gender friends. Each member of the friendship group reported his/her own past involvement in nine risk behaviors (sexual intercourse, substance abuse, drug-trafficking, and other delinquent activities) and two protective behaviors (high academic performance and regular church attendance) and their expectations and feelings regarding several of these behaviors. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated overall and by gender and age. Members were generally more similar within friendship groups than across groups with regard to several risk behaviors and expectations including sexual intercourse and drug-trafficking. Particularly striking was the similarity among members of "junior" friendship groups (e.g., median age of youth < 11 years) of both risk and protective behaviors and expectations. The finding of enhanced similarity of risk behaviors and expectations among members within groups suggests that intervention delivery through community-based friendship groups may be a useful approach for risk prevention efforts targeting pre-adolescent African-American youth living in low-income settings. PMID:8982522

  10. Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Apel; Shawn D. Bushway; Raymond Paternoster; Robert Brame; Gary Sweeten

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates\\u000a of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per\\u000a week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment\\u000a and

  11. CHILD VICTIMIZATION AND PARENTAL MONITORING AS MEDIATORS OF YOUTH PROBLEM BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela A.; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Stein, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of family characteristics, parental monitoring, and victimization by adults on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse, delinquency, and risky sexual behaviors among 761 incarcerated juveniles. The majority of youth reported that other family members had substance abuse problems and criminal histories. These youth were frequently the victims of violence. Relationships between victimization, parental monitoring, and problem behaviors were examined using structural equation modeling. Monitoring was negatively related to all problem behaviors. However, type of maltreatment was related to specific problem behaviors. The effects of family substance abuse and family criminal involvement on outcomes were mediated by monitoring and maltreatment. The study underscores the need to provide family-focused and trauma-related interventions for juvenile offenders. PMID:20631917

  12. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: The Inner Workings

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of implementing BCBT. Case conceptualization, session details, and pre-, post- and follow-up-treatment information are provided. Conclusions regarding clinical advantages and future directions are made. PMID:25083131

  13. Preventing and Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use among High-Risk Youths by Increasing Family Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Knowlton; Bryant, Denise D.; Collins, David A.; Noe, Tim D.; Strader, Ted N.; Berbaum, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a community-based program designed to delay onset and reduce frequency of alcohol and drug use among high-risk youth are evaluated. Implemented in multiple church communities, program components include parent and youth training, early intervention services, and follow-up case management services. Implications for social work are…

  14. The Academic and Functional Academic Skills of Youth Who Are at Risk for Language Impairment in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; DeSalvo, Cathy; Gehringer, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Undiagnosed language impairment (LI) for youth in residential care is a concern as similar populations have shown elevated levels of language delays. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to identify the percentage of youth in residential care who are at risk for LI and to compare the demographic, academic achievement, and functional…

  15. Disparities in Antiretroviral Treatment: A Comparison of Behaviorally-HIV-Infected Youth and Adults in the HIV Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Agwu, AL; Fleishman, JA; Korthuis, PT; Siberry, GK; Ellen, JM; Gaur, AH; Rutstein, R; Gebo, KA

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Increasing numbers of youth are becoming HIV-infected and need highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We hypothesized that behaviorally HIV-infected youth (BIY) ages 18–24 are less likely than adults (?25 years) to receive HAART and once initiated, more likely to discontinue their first HAART regimen. Methods Longitudinal analysis of treatment-naïve patients (age ?18) meeting criteria for HAART and followed at HIVRN sites (2002–2008). Time from meeting criteria to HAART initiation and duration on first regimen were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results 3,127 (268 youth, 2,859 adult) treatment-naïve, HIV-infected patients met criteria. BIY were more likely to be Black (66.8% vs. 51.1%; p<.01) and less likely to identify injection drug use (IDU) HIV risk (1.1% vs. 8.8%; p<.01) than adults ? 25 years. Nearly 69% of BIY started HAART, versus 79% of adults; p<.001. Adults 25–29 (Adjusted Hazards Ratio (AHR) 1.39 [95% CI: 1.12–1.73]) and ?50 (AHR 1.24 [95% CI 1.00–1.54]), but not 30–49 years (AHR 1.19 [95% CI 0.99–1.44]) were more likely to initiate HAART than BIY. Attending ?4 HIV provider visits within one year of meeting criteria was associated with HAART initiation (AHR 1.91 [1.70–2.14]). CD4 200–350 vs. <200 cells/mm3 (AHR 0.57 (95% CI 0.52–0.63]) and IDU (AHR 0.80 [95% CI 0.69–0.92]) were associated with a lower likelihood of HAART initiation. There were no age-related differences in duration of first regimen. Conclusion BIY are less likely to start HAART when meeting treatment criteria. Addressing factors associated with this disparity is critical to improving care for youth. PMID:21637114

  16. Association Between Perceived Discrimination and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Problem Behaviors Among Preadolescent Youths

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Klein, David J.; Davies, Susan L.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent Black, Latino, and White youths. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from Healthy Passages, a 3-community study of 5119 fifth graders and their parents from August 2004 through September 2006 in Birmingham, Alabama; Los Angeles County, California; and Houston, Texas. We used multivariate regressions to examine the relationships of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and race/ethnicity to problem behaviors. We used values from these regressions to calculate the percentage of disparities in problem behaviors associated with the discrimination effect. Results. In multivariate models, perceived discrimination was associated with greater problem behaviors among Black and Latino youths. Compared with Whites, Blacks were significantly more likely to report problem behaviors, whereas Latinos were significantly less likely (a “reverse disparity”). When we set Blacks’ and Latinos’ discrimination experiences to zero, the adjusted disparity between Blacks and Whites was reduced by an estimated one third to two thirds; the reverse adjusted disparity favoring Latinos widened by about one fifth to one half. Conclusions. Eliminating discrimination could considerably reduce mental health issues, including problem behaviors, among Black and Latino youths. PMID:23597387

  17. STD-/HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and substance use among U.S. rural adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Alice F.; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Stoesen, Carolyn A.; Wang, Min Qi

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to examine the relationship between substance use and HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related sexual risk behaviors among a national sample of sexually active adolescents in rural settings. METHODS: Participants included 9th-12th grade rural adolescents (N=5,745) who completed the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The independent variables were six substance use behaviors, including alcohol, marijuana, tobacco and cocaine use. The dependent variables were unprotected sex and the number of recent sexual partners. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were examined. RESULTS: Smoking > or =3 days during the past 30 days was associated with unprotected sex. Alcohol or drug use before last sexual intercourse, having ever used marijuana, having ever used cocaine and drinking alcohol during the past 30 days were associated with having multiple sexual partners. CONCLUSIONS: Results from the current study highlighted the need to provide youth with increased STD/HIV prevention knowledge in rural areas. Our finding confirmed that in order to achieve more effective STD/HIV prevention among high-risk substance-abusing youth, more intensive and better-tailored efforts will be needed to promote sexual risk reduction. PMID:18229775

  18. Health risk behaviors in relation to making a smoking quit attempt among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana M; Lee, Christina S; MacPherson, Laura; Strong, David R; Borrelli, Belinda; Brown, Richard A

    2009-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine youth risk behaviors in relation to: (a) making a smoking quit attempt, and (b) successful cessation among adolescent smokers. Data were analyzed from the public use dataset of the 2003 national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The sample consisted of 2,033 students (weighted mean age of 16.3 years, 49.8% female, 73.6% White) who reported a history of daily smoking. While almost two-thirds (63.5%) of adolescent smokers reported making a quit attempt in the last year, only 10% of those were able to successfully quit. Factors associated with making a quit attempt included depression and participating in sports while high-risk sexual activity and engaging in substance use other than alcohol or marijuana were negatively related to making a quit attempt. Externalizing health behaviors (e.g., fighting, drug use, and high risk sexual activity) were associated with decreased likelihood of cessation. Findings from this study may inform efforts to develop more effective smoking prevention and treatment programs for youth. PMID:19003525

  19. Smoking Behavior and Ethnicity in Jujuy, Argentina: Evidence from a Low-Income Youth Sample

    PubMed Central

    ALDERETE, ETHEL; KAPLAN, CELIA PATRICIA; GREGORICH, STEVEN E.; MEJÍA, RAÚL; PÉREZ-STABLE, ELISEO J.

    2013-01-01

    Latin America is the world region with the highest rates of youth tobacco use and widest socioeconomic gaps, yet no data are available on smoking among Indigenous people, the largest disadvantaged group in the region. A self-administered survey of 3,131 8th grade youth enrolled in a random sample of 27 urban and rural schools was administered in 2004 in Jujuy, Argentina. Standard questions adapted from global surveys were used. Compared with youth of European background (11.4%; 95% CI 6.7–15.1), Indigenous (23.0%; 95% CI 21.0–25.0), and Mixed ethnicity (23%; 95% CI 18.9–27.1) youth had higher prevalence of current smoking. The odds of current smoking remained significantly elevated for Indigenous (OR 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1–3.3) and Mixed youth (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.4) after controlling for confounders. Other risk factors that were associated with current smoking included: having any friends who smoke, repeating a grade in school, depressive symptoms in previous year, drinking any alcohol in the previous week and thrill seeking orientation. These results underscore the importance of social and cultural diversity aspects of the global tobacco epidemic. PMID:19360537

  20. US Cultural Involvement and Its Association With Suicidal Behavior Among Youths in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabrera-Nguyen, Peter; Vega, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined how US cultural involvement related to suicide attempts among youths in the Dominican Republic. Methods. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of youths attending high school in the Dominican Republic (n?=?8446). The outcome of interest was a suicide attempt during the past year. The US cultural involvement indicators included time spent living in the United States, number of friends who had lived in the United States, English proficiency, and use of US electronic media and language. Results. Time lived in the United States, US electronic media and language, and number of friends who had lived in the United States had robust positive relationships with suicide attempts among youths residing in the Dominican Republic. Conclusions. Our results are consistent with previous research that found increased risk for suicide or suicide attempts among Latino youths with greater US cultural involvement. Our study adds to this research by finding similar results in a nonimmigrant Latin American sample. Our results also indicate that suicide attempts are a major public health problem among youths in the Dominican Republic. PMID:22397348

  1. Associations between Bullying and Engaging in Aggressive and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth: The Moderating Role of Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these…

  2. Iowa Study of Alcohol and Drug Attitudes and Behaviors among Youth. 1987-88. Normative and Trend Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The Substance Education Program of the Iowa Department of Education began a series of tri-annual studies of youth substance behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge in the fall of 1975. The youth studies have continued with data collections in 1978, 1982, 1984, and 1987. A survey administered in 1987 to Iowa students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 focused…

  3. Does Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth Anxiety Outperform Usual Care in Community Clinics? An Initial Effectiveness Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Weisz, John R.; Chu, Brian C.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Gordis, Elana B.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Most tests of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth anxiety disorders have shown beneficial effects, but these have been efficacy trials with recruited youths treated by researcher-employed therapists. One previous (nonrandomized) trial in community clinics found that CBT did not outperform usual care (UC). The present study used…

  4. Will it help? Identifying socialization discourses that promote sexual risk and sexual health among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kyla Day; Ward, L Monique; Thomas, Khia; Foust, Monica; Levin, Dana; Trinh, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Because much of the existing research examining sexual communication to African American youth focuses on demographic and parental factors predicting sexual risk behaviors, less is known about factors predicting sexual health, and little is understood about the contributions of peer communications. The current study aimed to expand existing approaches by assessing which socialization discourses communicated by parents and peers contribute to sexual risk and health outcomes (sexual assertiveness, positive sexual affect, and condom self-efficacy). Participants were 631 African American undergraduates (73% female) who indicated the extent to which they had received from their parents and peers each of 28 messages representing four cultural discourses: abstinence, relational sex, sex positive, and gendered sexual roles. As expected, parents were perceived to emphasize relational sex and abstinence messages more than peers, and peers were perceived to communicate sex-positive and gendered sex role messages more than parents. Greater exposure to abstinence messages predicted lower levels of sexual experimentation, whereas exposure to sex-positive messages predicted higher levels. In addition, exposure to relational sex and sex-positive messages predicted higher levels of sexual assertiveness and positive sexual affect. Implications are discussed concerning sexual communications that could help Black youth develop healthy sexual perspectives. PMID:24417331

  5. Problem Sexual Behavior in School-Aged Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehr, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze current theories about childhood sexual behavior, differentiate between normal and problem childhood sexual behavior, and propose some alternatives for sex education in the schools. (IAH)

  6. Depression and HIV Risk Behavior Practices Among “At Risk” Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Klein; Kirk W. Elifson; Claire E. Sterk

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between depression and HIV-related risk behavior practices in a sample of 250 “at risk,” predominantly African American women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Interviews were conducted between August 1997 and August 2000. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted sampling

  7. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Aggression and Weapons Carrying in Urban African American Early Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Cheng, Tina L.; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the…

  8. Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2013-01-01

    Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB. PMID:24273368

  9. Health risk behavior assessment: nutrition, weight, and tobacco use in one urban seventh-grade class.

    PubMed

    Dowdell, Elizabeth Burgess; Santucci, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Health attitudes and behaviors develop in childhood and progress through adolescence into adulthood. To better understand the health risk behaviors being undertaken by a seventh-grade urban population, a study was conducted to identify what health risk behaviors a group of adolescents were participating in. The purpose of this study was to describe (1) the types of health risk behaviors being undertaken, (2) the frequency of their taking health risk behaviors, and (3) the age of initiation of the health risk behavior. The findings from this study indicate that this sample of 54, urban seventh graders suffers from multidimensional health needs. These students participated in a variety of health risk behaviors, as measured by the Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance System Questionnaire. These students have begun to smoke regularly, which correlated with the use of alcohol. They rate their health as being good or excellent but rarely met the daily requirements for intake of fruits and vegetables. And, although they rate their weight as being acceptable, most are trying to lose weight. Additionally, differences between the boys and girls were noted in weight perception, with girls more likely than boys to use smoking as the primary method of weight control. Nursing is in an ideal position to provide effective primary care interventions and community health outreach to this adolescent population. PMID:14987212

  10. Social networking sites and contact risks among Flemish youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofie Vandoninck; Leen d’Haenens; Rozane De Cock; Verónica Donoso

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how teenagers use social networking sites (SNS) and other online communication applications, to what extent they are exposed to online contact risks related to the use of these online tools and how they cope with these risks. A written survey was administered among 815 Flemish adolescents aged 14–19. The study controls for sociodemographics and psychosocial factors, and

  11. Social Networking Sites and Contact Risks among Flemish Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandoninck, Sofie; d'Haenens, Leen; De Cock, Rozane; Donoso, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how teenagers use social networking sites (SNS) and other online communication applications, to what extent they are exposed to online contact risks related to the use of these online tools and how they cope with these risks. A written survey was administered among 815 Flemish adolescents aged 14-19. The study controls for…

  12. Homelessness and unstable housing associated with an increased risk of HIV and STI transmission among street-involved youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brandon D. L. Marshall; Thomas Kerr; Jean A. Shoveller; Thomas L. Patterson; Jane A. Buxton; Evan Wood

    2009-01-01

    The role that environmental factors play in driving HIV and STI transmission risk among street-involved youth has not been well examined. We examined factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression among participants enroled in the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS). Among 529 participants, 253 (47.8%) reported multiple partners while only

  13. Alcohol Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priscilla Mataure; Willi McFarland; Katherine Fritz; Andrea Kim; Godfrey Woelk; Sunanda Ray; George Rutherford

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a quantitative and qualitative study of alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults of age 15–21 years in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods included a cross-sectional survey of youth sampled at nightclubs and bottle stores informed by participant observation, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Findings corroborated a cycle of HIV transmission that involves older

  14. BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (BRFSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the world's largest telephone survey, tracks health risks in the United States. Information from the survey is used to improve the health of the American people. Since the early 1980s, BRFSS data have been used to identify e...

  15. Working with Asian American Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: A Case Illustration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huijun; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Min, Grace; Granato, Andréa Gnong; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    The idea of a clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis has focused attention on early intervention to prevent or attenuate psychosis. However, many clinicians may still not be very familiar with the concept of CHR. Current studies have not allowed for an in-depth examination of the challenges and strategies of working with youth from the range of racial/ethnic minority families, Asian American families in particular. The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, we critically review Asian cultural values and beliefs about mental illness, psychosis in particular, while highlighting specific challenges that Asian American families encounter. Second, we provide a clinical case to illustrate these challenges and inform clinical practice when working with Asian youth at risk for psychosis and their families. Third, practical and easy-to-follow clinical strategies are provided. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are presented. PMID:23689196

  16. Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert; Sweeten, Gary

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment and work hours are causally related to adolescent problem behavior. We utilize a change model with age-graded child labor laws governing the number of hours per week allowed during the school year as instrumental variables. We find that these work laws lead to additional number of hours worked by youth, which then lead to increased high school dropout but decreased delinquency. Although counterintuitive, this result is consistent with existing evidence about the effect of employment on crime for adults and the impact of dropout on youth crime. PMID:23825897

  17. Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors that differentiate obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders in youth.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Marni L; Morelen, Diana; Suveg, Cynthia; Brown Jacobsen, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2012-03-01

    Abstract The current study examined specific emotional, behavioral, and cognitive variables that may distinguish obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoP), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in youth. Youth with OCD (n=26) and other anxiety disorders (ADs; n=31), aged 7-12 years (56.1% males), and their parents participated. The study compared the two anxious groups on levels of emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning, as well as impairment associated with the disorder. Results indicated that in comparison to youth with GAD, SoP, or SAD, youth with OCD were found to have poorer emotion regulation skills, as well as greater oppositionality, cognitive problems/inattention, and parent impairment associated with the disorder. The findings suggest that there are unique characteristics of OCD that may differentiate this disorder from other ADs in youth. Potential clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21512917

  18. Adolescent Risk Behavior Subgroups: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Childs, Kristina K.; O'Connell, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Theories and prior research have outlined a constellation of adolescent risk behaviors that tend to co-occur, reflecting a general pattern. Although their generality has largely been supported, there is some question about how to best study and portray the relationship among these behaviors. This study used data from a survey administered to high…

  19. Behavioral and Emotional Risk in Early Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Ingersoll; Donald P. Orr

    1989-01-01

    Early adolescents are frequently described as being at increased risk for a variety of physical and emotional health problems. In this study self-reported problem behaviors from a sample (N = 1508) of junior high school students were factor analyzed to determine whether identifiable problem behavior factors emerged and whether the resulting factors varied with demographic and other psychosocial traits. The

  20. Sustaining clinician penetration, attitudes and knowledge in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Questions remain regarding the sustainment of evidence-based practices following implementation. The present study examined the sustainment of community clinicians’ implementation (i.e., penetration) of cognitive-behavioral therapy, attitudes toward evidence-based practices, and knowledge of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety two years following training and consultation in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety. Methods Of the original 115 participants, 50 individuals (43%) participated in the two-year follow-up. A t- test examined sustainment in penetration over time. Hierarchical linear modeling examined sustainment in knowledge and attitudes over time. Time spent in consultation sessions was examined as a potential moderator of the change in knowledge and attitudes. Results Findings indicated sustained self-reported penetration of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth, with low fidelity to some key CBT components (i.e., exposure tasks). Follow-up knowledge was higher than at baseline but lower than it had been immediately following the consultation phase of the study. Belief in the utility of evidence-based practices was sustained. Willingness to implement an evidence-based practice if required to do so, appeal of evidence-based practices, and openness toward evidence-based practices were not sustained. Participation in consultation positively moderated changes in knowledge and some attitudes. Conclusions Sustainment varied depending on the outcome examined. Generally, greater participation in consultation predicted greater sustainment. Implications for future training include higher dosages of consultation. PMID:25030651

  1. Self-Determination Interventions for Students with and at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Mapping the Knowledge Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Crnobori, Mary; Bruhn, Allison L.; Oakes, Wendy P.

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the association between self-determination and improved educational and postschool outcomes for children and youth with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), increased attention has focused on efforts to promote the skills and attitudes that enhance self-determination. We conducted a comprehensive, systematic review…

  2. The effects of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure on adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, R W; Beuhring, T; Shew, M L; Bearinger, L H; Sieving, R E; Resnick, M D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement with violence, suicidal thoughts or attempts, and sexual intercourse. METHODS: Analyses were based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. A nationally representative sample of 7th to 12th graders participated in in-home interviews, as did a resident parent for 85.6% of the adolescent subjects. The final sample included 10,803 White, Black, and Hispanic 7th to 12th graders. RESULTS: White adolescents were more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and attempt suicide in the younger years than were Black and Hispanic youths. Black youths were more likely to have had sexual intercourse; both Black and Hispanic youths were more likely than White teens to engage in violence. Controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, income, and family structure together explained no more than 10% of the variance in each of the 5 risk behaviors among younger adolescents and no more than 7% among older youths. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that when taken together, race/ethnicity, income, and family structure provide only limited understanding of adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:11111260

  3. Child Versus Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Clinically Anxious Youth: An Efficacy and Partial Effectiveness Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise H. M. Bodden; Susan M. Bögels; Maaike H. Nauta; Else De Haan; Jaap Ringrose; Carla Appelboom; Andries G. Brinkman; Karen C. M. M. J. Appelboom-Geerts

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveThe efficacy and partial effectiveness of child-focused versus family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for clinically anxious youths was evaluated, in particular in relation to parental anxiety disorders and child's age.

  4. HIV risk behavioral surveillance: a methodology for monitoring behavioral trends.

    PubMed

    Mills, S; Saidel, T; Bennett, A; Rehle, T; Hogle, J; Brown, T; Magnani, R

    1998-01-01

    Public health personnel have long monitored the distributions and trends of communicable and noninfectious diseases. Only recently, however, have efforts been made to monitor risk factors or behaviors which are themselves determinants of disease. Behavioral surveillance systems have been brought on line over the past 25 years to monitor risk factors such as cigarette smoking, drug and alcohol consumption, dietary factors, and physical exercise. The HIV risk behavioral surveillance survey (BSS) methodology is designed to systematically monitor trends in HIV risk behaviors over time in key, high-risk population sub-groups whose behavioral change can have the most impact upon the epidemic. BSS is conducted through repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted at regular intervals on a national or regional scale. BSS is also useful in tracking behavior trends over time in regions exposed to HIV prevention activities, as a contributing component to the comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of interventions. Recommendations for conducting BSS are drawn from the collective experiences of 10 BSS projects conducted in Thailand, the Philippines, Senegal, India, Indonesia, Cambodia, Hong Kong, and China between 1993 and 1997. PMID:9792360

  5. Hip-Hop to Prevent Substance Use and HIV among African-American Youth: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O.; Rhodes, Warren A.; Harper, P. Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L.

    2008-01-01

    Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the…

  6. Inclusive Anti-Bullying Policies and Reduced Risk of Suicide Attempts in Lesbian and Gay Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether anti-bullying policies that are inclusive of sexual orientation are associated with a reduced prevalence of suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths. Methods 31,852 11th grade public school students (1,413 LGB individuals; 4.4%) in Oregon completed the Oregon Healthy Teens (OHT) survey in 2006–2008. The independent variable was the proportion of school districts in the 34 counties participating in the OHT survey that adopted anti-bullying policies inclusive of sexual orientation. The outcome measure was any self-reported suicide attempt in the past 12 months. Results were stratified by sexual orientation. Results Lesbian and gay youths living in counties with fewer school districts with inclusive anti-bullying policies were 2.25 times (95% C.I.: 1.13, 4.49) more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year compared to those living in counties where more districts had these policies. Inclusive anti-bullying policies were significantly associated with a reduced risk for suicide attempts among lesbian and gay youths even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity) and exposure to peer victimization (OR=0.18, 95% CI: 0.03–0.92). In contrast, anti-bullying policies that did not include sexual orientation were not associated with lower suicide attempts among lesbian and gay youths (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.02–7.33). Conclusions Inclusive anti-bullying policies may exert protective effects for the mental health of lesbian and gay youths, including reducing their risk for suicide attempts. PMID:23790196

  7. Youths' substance use and changes in parental knowledge-related behaviors during middle school: a person-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Melissa A; Greenberg, Mark T; Collins, Linda M

    2014-05-01

    Parental knowledge is a key protective factor for youths' risky behavior. Little is known about how longitudinal combinations of knowledge-related behaviors are associated with youths' substance use. This longitudinal study uses Latent Transition Analysis to identify latent patterns of parental knowledge-related behaviors occurring in mother-youth dyads during middle school and to investigate how changes in knowledge-related patterns are associated with youths' substance use in Grade 6 and the initiation of substance use from Grade 6 to 8. Using a sample of 536 rural dyads (53 % female, 84 % White), we assessed mother and youths' reports of parental knowledge, active parental monitoring efforts, youth disclosure, and parent-youth communication to identify six latent patterns of knowledge-related behaviors: High Monitors, Low Monitors, Communication-Focused, Supervision-Focused, Maternal Over-Estimators, and Youth Over-Estimators. Fifty percent or more of dyads in the High Monitors, Communication-Focused and Youth Over-Estimators were in the same status in both 6th and 8th grade: 98 % of Low Monitors in Grade 6 were also in this status in Grade 8. The initiation of alcohol, smoking, and marijuana was associated significantly with transitions between patterns of knowledge-related behaviors. The initiation of alcohol and smoking were associated with increased odds of transitions into the Low Monitors from the Communication-Focused, Supervision-Focused, and Maternal Over-Estimators. However, the initiation of substance use was associated with decreased odds of transitions from the High Monitors to the Low Monitors and with increased odds of transitions from High Monitors to Supervision-Focused. The discussion focuses on the value of using a person-oriented dyadic approach with multiple reporters to study changes in knowledge-related behaviors over the middle school period. PMID:23996214

  8. Giving a voice to traumatized youth-experiences with Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Ingeborg; Jensen, Tine K

    2014-07-01

    The efficacy of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) has been shown in several randomized controlled trials. However, to our knowledge no one has studied the TF-CBT model from a user's perspective. The objective of this study was to explore traumatized youths' experiences of receiving TF-CBT. Thirty youths between 11 and 17 years old (M=15, SD=1.8) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide after they had received TF-CBT as part of an effectiveness trial. The interviews were analyzed according to thematic analysis. The youths' responses were grouped into four themes: (1) expectations, (2) experiences of talking to the therapist and sharing information, (3) experiences of trauma narrative work, and (4) experiences of change and change processes. Findings showed how an initial fear of talking about traumatic events and not knowing what to expect from therapy was reduced when the youth experienced the therapist as empathetic and knowledgeable. Talking to the therapist was experienced as positive because of the therapist's expertise, neutrality, empathy, and confidentiality. Talking about the trauma was perceived as difficult but also as most helpful. Learning skills for reducing stress was also perceived as helpful. Important change processes were described as resuming normal functioning and getting "back on track,", or as acquiring new perspectives and "moving forward." Because TF-CBT is recommended as a first line treatment for traumatized youth and treating posttraumatic stress may entail special challenges, understanding more about how youths experience this mode of treatment contributes to our knowledge base and may help us tailor interventions. PMID:24367942

  9. Early Intervention for Symptomatic Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Randomized Trial of Family-Focused Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.; Schneck, Christopher D.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Taylor, Dawn O.; George, Elizabeth L.; Cosgrove, Victoria E.; Howe, Meghan E.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Garber, Judy; Chang, Kiki D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Depression and brief periods of (hypo)mania are linked to an increased risk of progression to bipolar I or II disorder (BD) in children of bipolar parents. This randomized trial examined the effects of a 4-month family-focused therapy (FFT) program on the 1-year course of mood symptoms in youth at high familial risk for BD, and explored its comparative benefits among youth in families with high vs. low expressed emotion (EE). Method Participants were 40 youth (mean 12.3 ± 2.8 years, range 9–17) with BD not otherwise specified, major depressive disorder, or cyclothymic disorder who had a first-degree relative with BD I or II and active mood symptoms (Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS] > 11 or Child Depression Rating Scale > 29). Participants were randomly allocated to FFT–High Risk version (FFT-HR; 12 sessions of psychoeducation and training in communication and problem-solving skills) or an education control (EC; 1–2 family sessions). Results Youth in FFT-HR had more rapid recovery from their initial mood symptoms (hazard ratio = 2.69, p = .047), more weeks in remission, and a more favorable trajectory of YMRS scores over 1 year than youth in EC. The magnitude of treatment effect was greater among youth in high-EE (vs. low-EE) families. Conclusions FFT-HR may hasten and help sustain recovery from mood symptoms among youth at high risk for BD. Longer follow-up will be necessary to determine if early family intervention has downstream effects that contribute to the delay or prevention of full manic episodes in vulnerable youth. Clinical trial registration information—Early Family-Focused Treatment for Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00943085. PMID:23357439

  10. Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disordered Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Child and Family Modalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip C. Kendall; Jennifer L. Hudson; Elizabeth Gosch; Ellen Flannery-Schroeder; Cynthia Suveg

    2008-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial compared the relative efficacy of individual (child) cognitive–behavioral therapy (ICBT), family cognitive–behavioral therapy (FCBT), and a family-based education\\/support\\/attention (FESA) active control for treating anxiety disordered youth ages 7–14 years (M = 10.27). Youth (N = 161; 44% female; 85% Caucasian, 9% African American, 3% Hispanic, 3% other\\/mixed) with a principal diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, social

  11. Widespread white matter tract aberrations in youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Roybal, Donna J; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Kelley, Ryan; Bararpour, Layla; Howe, Meghan E; Reiss, Allan L; Chang, Kiki D

    2015-05-30

    Few studies have examined multiple measures of white matter (WM) differences in youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder (FR-BD). To investigate WM in the FR-BD group, we used three measures of WM structure and two methods of analysis. We used fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) to analyze diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in 25 youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder, defined as having both a parent with BD and mood dysregulation, and 16 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched healthy controls. We conducted a whole brain voxelwise analysis using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Subsequently, we conducted a complementary atlas-based, region-of-interest analysis using Diffeomap to confirm results seen in TBSS. When TBSS was used, significant widespread between-group differences were found showing increased FA, increased AD, and decreased RD in the FR-BD group in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, cingulum, cingulate, superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and corpus callosum. Atlas-based analysis confirmed significant between-group differences, with increased FA and decreased RD in the FR-BD group in the SLF, cingulum, and SFOF. We found significant widespread WM tract aberrations in youth with familial risk for BD using two complementary methods of DTI analysis. PMID:25779034

  12. Multiple Risks, Emotion Regulation Skill, and Cortisol in Low-Income African American Youth: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn; Shields, Brian J.; Foutz, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Associations between multiple risks, emotion regulation skill, and basal cortisol levels were examined in a community sample of 69 African American youth (mean age = 11.30 years; 49% male) living in an urban setting. Multiple risks were assessed at Time 1 and consisted of 10 demographic and psychosocial risk factors including parent, child, and…

  13. Prevalence and risk indicators of alcohol abuse and marijuana use among on-reserve First Nations youth

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John; Caldbick, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify the prevalence of alcohol abuse and marijuana use among First Nations youth living on-reserve, and to identify independent risk indicators associated with these behaviours. Two hundred four students from the Saskatoon Tribal Council (Saskatchewan) who were enrolled in grades 5 through 8 were asked to complete a school health survey. The prevalence of alcohol abuse and marijuana use among First Nations on-reserve youth was 23.5% and 14.7%, respectively. Surprisingly, female First Nations youth were more likely to abuse alcohol and use marijuana than male First Nations youth. The prevalence of alcohol abuse and marijuana use among Saskatoon urban youth of the same age were only 5.4% and 2.7%, respectively. After regression analysis, five independent risk indicators were associated with alcohol abuse and marijuana use among First Nations on-reserve youth. The prevalence of alcohol abuse among First Nations on-reserve youth is higher than that in neighbouring urban youth of the same age. PMID:24381485

  14. Prediction of Psychosis in Youth at High Clinical Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cadenhead, Kristin; Cornblatt, Barbara; Woods, Scott W.; Addington, Jean; Walker, Elaine; Seidman, Larry J.; Perkins, Diana; Tsuang, Ming; McGlashan, Thomas; Heinssen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Context Early detection and prospective evaluation of individuals who will develop schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders are critical to efforts to isolate mechanisms underlying psychosis onset and to the testing of preventive interventions, but existing risk prediction approaches have achieved only modest predictive accuracy. Objectives To determine the risk of conversion to psychosis and to evaluate a set of prediction algorithms maximizing positive predictive power in a clinical high-risk sample. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal study with a 2½-year follow-up of 291 prospectively identified treatment-seeking patients meeting Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes criteria. The patients were recruited and underwent evaluation across 8 clinical research centers as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study. Main Outcome Measure Time to conversion to a fully psychotic form of mental illness. Results The risk of conversion to psychosis was 35%, with a decelerating rate of transition during the 2½-year follow-up. Five features assessed at baseline contributed uniquely to the prediction of psychosis: a genetic risk for schizophrenia with recent deterioration in functioning, higher levels of unusual thought content, higher levels of suspicion/paranoia, greater social impairment, and a history of substance abuse. Prediction algorithms combining 2 or 3 of these variables resulted in dramatic increases in positive predictive power (ie, 68%–80%) compared with the prodromal criteria alone. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that prospective ascertainment of individuals at risk for psychosis is feasible, with a level of predictive accuracy comparable to that in other areas of preventive medicine. They provide a benchmark for the rate and shape of the psychosis risk function against which standardized preventive intervention programs can be compared. PMID:18180426

  15. Risk for Coerced Sex Among Female Youth in Ghana: Roles of Family Context, School Enrollment And Relationship Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Reed, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Context A better understanding is needed of the variables that may influence the risk of experiencing coerced sex among adolescent females in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Data were collected from 700 female respondents who were interviewed in 2010 and 2012 waves of a longitudinal study of behavioral risk for HIV infection among youth aged 13–14 or 18–19 and living in two towns in southeastern Ghana. A series of logistic regression models examined the influences of household composition and wealth, four family process variables (behavioral control, relationship quality, financial support, conflict), school enrollment and relationship experience on females' risk of experiencing coerced sex. Results Eighteen percent of respondents reported having experienced coerced sex prior to Wave 1, and 13% experienced it between Waves 1 and 2. In both cross-sectional and prospective models, the variable with the strongest association with having experienced coerced sex was having ever had a boyfriend (fully adjusted odds ratios, 4.5 and 2.6, respectively). In cross-sectional analyses, parental behavioral control was negatively associated with risk for coerced sex, while parental conflict was positively associated; these associations were not significant in the prospective analyses. Having a boyfriend appears to be the primary predictor of coerced sex among young females, beyond any influence of family, school or other household variables. Conclusions More research is needed to understand the context of females' relationships with boyfriends in an effort to reduce the risk of sexual coercion and to promote the prevention of sexual violence perpetrated by males within these relationships. PMID:25565346

  16. Parents of older at-risk youth: a retention challenge for preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Hooven, Carole; Pike, Kenneth; Walsh, Elaine

    2013-12-01

    We examined data from 162 families who participated in the prevention program Parents and Youth with Schools, which targeted at-risk high school youth and parents, to understand parent retention in the 15-session Parents as Partners program. We obtained reports from youth, parents and parent interventionists, which included both time-invariant and time-varying data regarding demographic factors; parent, youth and family characteristics; and parents' response to intervention. Utilizing event history analysis, we examined data sequentially in order to determine those variables that predicted continued parent attendance. In the model examining all areas simultaneously, the predictors of parent retention across the full program were parent minority status and age, teen anger and parent-teen conflict over school attendance, as well as parents' reports of group support and interventionists' report of parents' commitment. Overall, the analyses indicated that participants' characteristics, as well as their measureable response to the intervention, can alert researchers to potential program disengagement. Monitoring indicators of disengagement will help researchers focus resources early in the intervention process in order to maximize parent attendance and increase the success of prevention programs. PMID:23975209

  17. Emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth: A multiple-baseline evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Suveg; Philip C. Kendall; Jonathan S. Comer; Joanna Robin

    2006-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of an Emotion-focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (ECBT) for six anxious youths ages 7–13 years. All participants had a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, or social phobia) based on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for Children—Child and Parent versions. Children and parents reported on anxious symptomatology using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). To

  18. Mothers and Fathers in Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. PodellPhilip; Philip C. Kendall

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth has been evaluated in randomized clinical trials and found\\u000a to be an efficacious treatment. Studies have investigated the effects of increased parental\\/family involvement in treatment.\\u000a In the majority of these studies, however, parental involvement is synonymous with maternal involvement leaving the role of\\u000a fathers unknown. Studies including parents in treatment have yet

  19. Parental substance abuse and function of the motivation and behavioral inhibition systems in drug-naïve youth.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Liu, Xun; Shulz, Kurt; Fan, Jin; London, Edythe; Friston, Karl; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2012-02-28

    It is hypothesized that the development of substance abuse (SA) may be due to imbalance in functions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems in the brain. This speaks to the search for biological risk factors for SA in drug-naïve children who also exhibit motivational and inhibitory control deficits; however, this type of research is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to establish a neurobiological basis for addiction vulnerability using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in drug-naïve youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD alone would show higher activity in regions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems than children with ADHD and a parental history of SA. Toward this goal we scanned 20 drug-naïve children with ADHD ages 8-13 while performing an event-related reward task. High (N=10) and low (N=10) risk subjects were identified, based on parental history of SA. The effects of anticipation, conflict, and reward were assessed with appropriate linear contrasts, and between-group differences were assessed using statistical parametric mapping. The two groups did not differ on behavioral measures of the task. The fMRI results show heightened activation in the brain motivational-reward system and reduced activation of the inhibitory control system in high-risk compared to low-risk children. These results suggest that a functional mismatch between these two systems may represent one possible biological underpinning of SA risk, which is conferred by a parental history of addiction. PMID:22386967

  20. Youth with Depression/Anxiety. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood. ASPE Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomber, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The transition to adulthood can be particularly challenging when a young adult experiences mental health problems. This fact sheet uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to explore the young adult outcomes and adolescent risk behaviors of youth suffering from depression and anxiety as they make this transition. Depression…

  1. Youth, Risk, and Equity in a Global World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda; Zacher, Jessica; Hibbert, Liesel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews educational literatures that should be relevant to helping individuals understand and improve the lot and life chances of girls and boys who are at risk in a global world. The authors began this review with a vignette from India, a country whose linguistic and ethnic diversity, whose international reputation for advances in…

  2. Educators and Programs Reaching Out to At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, M. Linda

    1990-01-01

    Presents examples of how using technology can help raise self-esteem and improve academic performance for students who are identified as being at-risk. Topics discussed include the use of computer labs, filmstrips, and videos to strengthen academic skills, and to deal with such social issues as drop-outs, alcoholism, pregnancy, and suicide. Two…

  3. Identification of high-risk behaviors among victimized adolescents and implications for empirically supported psychosocial treatment.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; de Arellano, Michael A; Ehrenreich, Jill T; Suárez, Liza M; Bennett, Shannon M; Cheron, Daniel M; Goldstein, Clark R; Jakle, Katherine R; Landon, Terri M; Trosper, Sarah E

    2006-11-01

    An adolescent's possible response to being the victim of interpersonal violence is not limited to posttraumatic stress disorder and depression but may also involve a host of developmental effects, including the occurrence of high-risk behaviors that may have a significant and negative impact on the adolescent's psychological and physical health. Identifying such high-risk behaviors, understanding their possible link to a previous victimization incident, and implementing interventions that have been demonstrated to reduce such behaviors may help decrease potential reciprocal interactions between these areas. Clinicians in psychiatric practice may be in a unique position to make these connections, since parents of adolescents may perceive a greater need for mental health services for youth engaging in problematic externalizing behaviors than for those displaying internalizing symptoms. In this article, the authors first describe high-risk behaviors, including substance use, delinquent behavior, risky sexual behaviors, and self-injurious behaviors, that have been linked with experiencing interpersonal violence. They then review empirically based treatments that have been indicated to treat these deleterious behaviors in order to help clinicians select appropriate psychosocial interventions for this population. Recommendations for future research on the treatment of high-risk behaviors in adolescents are also presented. PMID:17122697

  4. Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

  5. Research Update. Wilderness Therapy for Youth-at-Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosol, Magdalena

    2000-01-01

    Discusses skills and competencies needed by wilderness therapy workers, who require more than outdoor skills to promote change in adolescents with behavior problems. Skills include technical skills (outdoor competencies), soft skills (interpersonal helping skills), and advanced skills (psychotherapy and counseling knowledge). The paper discusses:…

  6. Youth and Parental Attitudes toward Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…

  7. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls should be empowered how to negotiate safe sex, and their poverty should be addressed through income-generating activities. PMID:21824393

  8. Looking forward and backward in records for risks among homicidal youth.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Robert John; Busch, Kenneth G; Grove, William M; Hughes, John Russell; Arbit, Jack

    2009-02-01

    To identify risks for commission of homicide, 26 convicted Homicidal Youth (M age = 14.9 yr., SD = 1.4; n = 26; 1 girl, 25 boys) were matched with 26 Nonviolent Delinquents and 26 clinic-referred Controls. Youth were tracked backward 8 years (M = 7.7 yr., SD = 15) and forward 3 years (M = 3.1 yr., SD = 1.2) in records. Data analysis was Shao's bootstrapped logistic regression yielding area under the curve (AUC) and odds ratios (OR). Predictors of homicide were poorer executive function (OR = 7.04e+40), violent family (OR = 4.01e-16), and alcohol abuse (OR = 7.33e-17; AUC = .97, 95% CI = .77-.99). From earlier studies, 101 Homicidal Youth and their Controls were reanalyzed similarly. Predictors were poorer executive function (OR = 6.51), lower social maturity (OR = 0.28), weapon possession (OR = 26.10), and gang membership (OR = 4.14; AUC = .98, 95% CI = .96-.99). Groups were combined, i.e., 26 and 101 Homicidal; 127 Homicidal Youth (7 girls, 120 boys) and their matched Controls were tracked in records. The predictor was poorer executive function (OR = 3.34e-21; AUC = .98, 95% CI = .96-.97). When 127 Homicidal Youth were compared with 127 matched Nonviolent Delinquents, predictors were poorer executive function (OR = 2.83e-02), weapon possession (OR = 1.63e-10), lower social maturity (OR = 1.15), and use of special education services (OR = .94; AUC = .94, 95% CI = .37-.99). PMID:19480211

  9. Can an Immersion in Wellness Camp Influence Youth Health Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabary-Olsen, Elizabeth A.; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Foster, Randal; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Campbell, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Summer 4-H camps present an untapped opportunity for advancement of mission mandates. The project reported here immersed campers in healthy living experiential learning. The goal was to improve self-efficacy and health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. Data was collected from enrolled campers through multiple survey tools. A…

  10. The Relationship between Program Restrictiveness and Youth Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handwerk, Michael L.; Friman, Patrick C.; Mott, Mariam A.; Stairs, Jayne M.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 83 children (ages 10-18) with behavior disorders in seven types of programs (parent training programs, outpatient clinic, family preservation programs, treatment foster care, residential group home, acute-care shelter, and inpatient psychiatric hospital) found a high level of correspondence between program restrictiveness and severity…

  11. Transactional Sex Involvement: Exploring Risk and Promotive Factors Among Substance-Using Youth in an Urban Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Rikki A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Blow, Frederic C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Booth, Brenda M; Walton, Maureen A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study aims to evaluate individual, relational, and community-level risk and promotive factors for transactional sex involvement among substance-using youth. Method: Youth (ages 14–24 years) presenting for care in an urban emergency department, who reported drug use within the past 6 months, were surveyed as part of a larger study assessing violence. Of the 600 youth enrolled in this study, 350 presented to the emergency department with violent injury. Based on youth presenting with violent injury, a proportionally selected (age and gender) comparison group of youth (n = 250) presenting without violent injury were enrolled. Participants were queried about both risk and promotive factors at the individual, relational, and community levels. Results: Of the sample, 7.3% reported involvement in transactional sex within the past month. Regression analyses indicated that being African American or other race (as compared with White), having more than one sexual partner, depressive symptoms, negative peer influence, and substance use treatment utilization were positively associated with transactional sex involvement. Increased school involvement was negatively related to involvement in transactional sex. Conclusions: Drug-using youth who reported recent transactional sex involvement are more likely to experience increased HIV risk, depressive symptoms, and negative peer influence and are less likely to experience the promotive factors of school involvement. Future research is needed to better understand the bidirectional relationship between transactional sex involvement and both risk and promotive factors at multiple ecological levels. PMID:24988256

  12. Efficacy Trial of a Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents: Effects at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Wade, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, 341 at-risk youths were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  13. Lessons Learned from a Community Based Lifestyle Intervention for Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vivian, Eva M; Colbert, Lisa H; Remington, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This pilot study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a peer led diabetes prevention intervention for youth in an underserved community. Methods Children and adolescents randomized to the intervention group participated in a one year program which included peer support, physical activity, and family nutrition, and behavior modification sessions. Participants were asked about their satisfaction with the study and possible benefits, what they learned, and whether they would recommend participation to a friend. Youth randomized to the control group received monthly healthy lifestyle educational materials through the mail. Results Children and adolescents (n=67) with an average age of 12.5 years and BMI greater than or equal to 85 percentile for age and sex were enrolled in the study. The average monthly participation rate varied between 90 and 50 percent with a mean rate of 82 percent. Ninety four percent of parents reported being very satisfied with the program and all (100%) reported they would recommend the program to a friend. All the children and adolescents (100%) reported that they enjoyed working with the youth peer coaches and 94% felt their assigned coach was a good role model. The observed changes in BMI z-score trended towards improvement in the intervention group, but this study was underpowered to detect differences between groups. Conclusion The peer led diabetes prevention program was feasible and acceptable and demonstrated potential for improving health behaviors. PMID:24353925

  14. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  15. Reducing injury risk from body checking in boys' youth ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alison; Loud, Keith J; Brenner, Joel S; Demorest, Rebecca A; Halstead, Mark E; Kelly, Amanda K Weiss; Koutures, Chris G; LaBella, Cynthia R; LaBotz, Michele; Martin, Stephanie S; Moffatt, Kody

    2014-06-01

    Ice hockey is an increasingly popular sport that allows intentional collision in the form of body checking for males but not for females. There is a two- to threefold increased risk of all injury, severe injury, and concussion related to body checking at all levels of boys' youth ice hockey. The American Academy of Pediatrics reinforces the importance of stringent enforcement of rules to protect player safety as well as educational interventions to decrease unsafe tactics. To promote ice hockey as a lifelong recreational pursuit for boys, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the expansion of nonchecking programs and the restriction of body checking to elite levels of boys' youth ice hockey, starting no earlier than 15 years of age. PMID:24864185

  16. Factors Related to Youth Living with HIV Delaying Access to Care: The Role of Positive and Negative Social Network Influences on Health Seeking Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia L. Jones; Naomi N. Modeste; Susanne B. Montgomery; Colwick M. Wilson; Philip J. Batterham

    To explore factors related to youths' delay in seeking care after an HIV diagnosis. Multivariate analyses were performed on 347 participants who were selected from a sample of 351 adolescents participating in a 1994-1996 survey among youth in four U.S. metropolitan cities. Key findings were that participants with prosocial peer behaviors took longer (34 days) to seek care than youth

  17. Foster parent and teacher assessments of youth in kinship and non-kinship foster care placements: are behaviors perceived differently across settings?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Keller; Kelly E. Sim; Nicole S. Le Prohn

    2002-01-01

    With a growing number of children living in kinship foster care, it is important to understand how youths are faring in kinship care compared to youths in non-kinship care. In the present study, we first evaluate teacher ratings of problem behaviors exhibited in school by youths in kinship and non-kinship foster care. We then examine whether correspondences between parent and

  18. Self-Cognitions, Risk Factors for Alcohol Problems, and Drinking in Preadolescent Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    Corte, Colleen; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We examined relationships between self-structure and known precursors for alcohol problems in 9–12 year old primarily Black and Latino youth (N=79). Parental alcohol problems and being female predicted few positive and many negative self-cognitions and a future-oriented self-cognition related to alcohol (‘drinking possible self’). Nineteen percent of the sample reported ever drinking, but 40% of those with a ‘drinking possible self’ reported ever drinking. Compared never drinkers, youth who reported ever drinking had fewer self-cognitions. The self-structure may be an important mechanism through which parental alcohol problems and antisocial behavior lead to early alcohol use, and a viable target of interventions aimed at preventing early alcohol use. PMID:21113434

  19. Decreased amygdala-insula resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth.

    PubMed

    Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele; Chase, Henry; Dwojak, Amanda; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge; Perlman, Susan Beth; Versace, Amelia; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Sunshine, Jeffrey; Holland, Scott; Kowatch, Robert; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah; Frazier, Thomas; Arnold, Lawrence Eugene; Fristad, Mary; Youngstrom, Eric; Findling, Robert; Phillips, Mary Louise

    2015-01-30

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) adopts a dimensional approach for examining pathophysiological processes underlying categorically defined psychiatric diagnoses. We used this framework to examine relationships among symptom dimensions, diagnostic categories, and resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth selected from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study (n=42) and healthy control youth (n=18). Region of interest analyses examined relationships among resting state connectivity, symptom dimensions (behavioral and emotional dysregulation measured with the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10 Item Mania Scale [PGBI-10M]; dimensional severity measures of mania, depression, anxiety), and diagnostic categories (Bipolar Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, and Disruptive Behavior Disorders). After adjusting for demographic variables, two dimensional measures showed significant inverse relationships with resting state connectivity, regardless of diagnosis: 1) PGBI-10M with amygdala-left posterior insula/bilateral putamen; and 2) depressive symptoms with amygdala-right posterior insula connectivity. Diagnostic categories showed no significant relationships with resting state connectivity. Resting state connectivity between amygdala and posterior insula decreased with increasing severity of behavioral and emotional dysregulation and depression; this suggests an intrinsic functional uncoupling of key neural regions supporting emotion processing and regulation. These findings support the RDoC dimensional approach for characterizing pathophysiologic processes that cut across different psychiatric disorders. PMID:25433424

  20. The effects of out-of-school time on changes in youth risk of obesity across the adolescent years.

    PubMed

    Zarrett, Nicole; Bell, Bethany A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of out-of-school time (OST) activities on youth weight-status through mid-to-late adolescence. First, using pattern-centered methods, we identified the prominent ways in which youth allocate their OST across 12 common active and sedentary activities available to them. Second, through multi-level modeling procedures we examined the relation of OST activity patterns to: 1) BMI-status during the 11th grade, and; 2) within-person change in BMI-status across the adolescent years. After accounting for race, gender, SES, pubertal-status, and gaming, youth who participated in a sports-dominant activity pattern for 2 or more years had significantly lower 11th grade odds of being at-risk for overweight/obesity compared to youth in all other activity patterns. Youth of all other activity patterns had similar odds of being at-risk as Low-Activity youth and each other. Understanding the relations of OST to youth healthy weight is a critical first step in developing healthy OST settings. PMID:24331308

  1. The choking game: a risky behavior for youth.

    PubMed

    Mechling, Brandy; Ahern, Nancy R; McGuinness, Teena M

    2013-12-01

    Nurses working with children and adolescents should be cognizant of choking games, risky acts in which pressure is applied to the neck and the airway is obstructed to achieve a high. Evidence supports that many children and adolescents do not understand the grave consequences of choking games nor do they view participation as dangerous. Parents, teachers, pediatricians, nurses, and psychiatric-mental health professionals are not always aware that children and adolescents are engaging in choking games. The purpose of this article is to describe the signs, changes over the years, consequences, and educational resources available for addressing this behavior in children and adolescents. Understanding the nomenclature of choking games, how to assess, and how to intervene when participation in this behavior is suspected are also addressed. PMID:24200913

  2. Risky behavior in youth: an analysis of the factors influencing youth smoking decisions in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tewolde, Sally; Ferguson, Brian S; Benson, John

    2006-01-01

    This article considers smoking behavior among young people in Canada, looking in particular for evidence on why young people take up smoking. Using data from the National Population Health Survey, we find that reported knowledge about the health effects of own smoking is less useful than might have been expected in explaining why some young people smoke but that responses to a question about whether people worry too much about the health effects of second-hand smoke is informative. We also find that for subjects too young to have begun their own household formation, the number of people in their household who regularly smoke in the house is an informative variable. In particular, among young people aged 12-14 years, having a household member who regularly smokes inside the house (as opposed to having none) increases the probability that the young person will smoke by 2%, whereas for the those aged 15-19, having a household member who regularly smokes inside the house increases the probability that the young person will smoke by 18%. PMID:16522559

  3. Youth Problem Behaviors Eight Years after Implementing the Communities That Care Prevention System in a Community-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina; Brown, Eric C.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Community-based efforts to prevent adolescent problem behaviors are essential to promote public health and achieve collective impact community-wide. Objective To test whether the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system reduced levels of risk and adolescent problem behaviors community-wide 8 years after implementation of CTC. Design A community-randomized trial. Setting Twenty-four small towns in 7 states, matched within state, assigned randomly to control or intervention group in 2003. Participants All fifth-grade students attending public schools in study communities in 2003-04 who received consent from their parents to participate (76.4% of eligible population). A panel of 4407 fifth graders was surveyed through 12th grade with 92.5% of the sample participating at the last follow-up. Intervention A coalition of community stakeholders received training and technical assistance to install CTC, used epidemiologic data to identify elevated risk factors and depressed protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors in the community, and implemented tested and effective programs for youths aged 10 to 14, their families, and schools to address their community's elevated risks. Main Outcome Measures Levels of targeted risk; sustained abstinence and cumulative incidence by grade 12 and current prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use, delinquency, and violence in 12th grade. Results By spring of 12th grade, students in CTC communities were more likely than students in control communities to have abstained from: any drug use (RR=1.32; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.63); drinking alcohol (RR=1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.58); smoking cigarettes (RR=1.13; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.27), and engaging in delinquency(RR=1.18; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26). They were also less likely to ever have committed a violent act (RR=0.86; 95% CI 0.76 to 0.98). There were no significant differences by intervention group in targeted risks, the prevalence of past-month or past-year substance use, or past-year delinquency or violence. Conclusions and Relevance Using the CTC system continued to prevent the initiation of adolescent problem behaviors through 12th grade, 8 years after implementation of CTC and 3 years after study-provided resources ended, but did not produce reductions in current levels of risk or current prevalence of problem behavior in 12th grade. PMID:24322060

  4. Sexting: serious problems for youth.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Mechling, Brandy

    2013-07-01

    Youth engaging in sexting (texting plus sex) includes behaviors such as sending, receiving, or forwarding of nude or partially nude images via cell phones. The true prevalence of tweens and teens engaging in sexting is unclear. This might be because of the general secrecy of the behavior, the rapid advances in technology, and the lack of a clear definition that accounts for the added developmental factors (e.g., peak sexual development, impulsivity). Additionally, there is a lack of recognition of the consequences and increased risks of sexting (e.g., shame and guilt, earlier sexual behavior, bullying, incarceration, substance abuse, depression, suicide) for youth as a vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to examine sexting behaviors among youth by exploring factors specific to today's adolescent population that may influence the prevalence and outcomes of sexting behavior. Implications for nursing practice, including the assessment, intervention, and evaluation that is needed to treat adolescents affected by sexting, are discussed. PMID:23668382

  5. Risk for Arrest: The Role of Social Bonds in Protecting Foster Youth Making the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Gretchen Ruth; Havlicek, Judy R.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a sample of foster youth at the onset of the transition to adulthood and explores how social bonds are related to the risk of arrest during adulthood. Drawing from official arrest records, event history models are used to examine the time to arrest. Because individuals may be at risk for different types of crime, competing risk regression models are used to distinguish among arrests for drug-related, nonviolent, or violent crimes. Between the ages of 17–18 and 24, 46% of former foster youth experience an arrest. Arrests were evenly distributed across drug, nonviolent, and violent crimes columns. Although findings fail to support the significance of social bonds to interpersonal domains, bonds to employment and education are associated with a lower risk for arrest. Child welfare policy and practice implications for building connections and protections around foster youth are discussed. PMID:22239390

  6. Influences on youthful driving behavior and their potential for guiding interventions to reduce crashes

    PubMed Central

    Shope, J T

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an organized, comprehensive view of the factors known to influence young drivers' behavior and how those factors might inform interventions to reduce crashes. This effort was done from the perspective of a public health professional, with a background in health behavior and health education, interested in preventing injury and death among young people from motor vehicle crashes. The author's own studies, selected relevant literature, observation, and experience were considered and organized. A framework of six categories of influences on youthful driving behavior was developed, including the following elements: driving ability, developmental factors, personality factors, demographics, the perceived environment, and the driving environment. It is apparent that a complex set of many different factors influences young drivers' behavior. To reduce crashes, comprehensive, multilevel interventions are needed that target those factors in the framework that are amenable to change. PMID:16788115

  7. What influences youth to operate all-terrain vehicles safely?

    PubMed Central

    Grummon, A. H.; Heaney, C. A.; Dellinger, W. A.; Wilkins, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The operation of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) by youth has contributed to the incidence of serious and fatal injuries among children. This study explored factors related to the frequency with which youth wore a helmet and refrained from engaging in three risky driving behaviors (driving at risky speeds, on paved roads and on unfamiliar terrain) while operating an ATV. Youth (n = 248) aged 9–14 from central Ohio and one of their parents completed self-report measures of ATV safety behaviors, youth general propensity for risk taking, protection motivation and parental behaviors to facilitate youth safety. Data from two focus groups provided insight on quantitative results. Analyses revealed considerable variation in the frequency with which youth performed the safety behaviors, with 13- and 14-year-olds reporting less frequent safe behavior than 9- to 12-year-olds. Multiple regression analyses suggested that parental behaviors, such as providing reminders to wear a helmet, were associated with more frequent helmet use but were not associated with risky driving behaviors. Youth’s general propensity toward risk taking was not associated with helmet use and only associated with riskydriving behaviors among the 13- and 14-year-olds. Self-efficacy was an important predictor across both age groups and behaviors. Implications for injury prevention are discussed. PMID:24740837

  8. Traumatic Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Suicidal Ideation, and Substance Abuse Risk Among Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian D. Ford; J. Kirk Hartman; Josephine Hawke; John F. Chapman

    2008-01-01

    Psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prevalent among youth involved in the juvenile justice system. However, the impact on functioning and risky behavior of different forms of psychological trauma in this population is not known. In a sample of 264 youth (73% boys) ages 10–17 years old admitted within the prior 24–72 hours to pretrial juvenile detention centers,

  9. Maternal Antisocial Behavior, Parenting Practices, and Behavior Problems in Boys at Risk for Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Wasserman, Gail A.; Verdelli, Lena; Greenwald, Steven; Miller, Laurie S.; Davies, Mark

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the independent contributions of maternal history of antisocial behavior and parenting practices to the worsening course of sons' behavior problems in a sample of young urban boys at risk for antisocial behavior. Mothers reported on boys' behavior problems at baseline and one year later, as well as on their own history of…

  10. Early Intervention for Symptomatic Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Randomized Trial of Family-Focused Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklowitz, David J.; Schneck, Christopher D.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Taylor, Dawn O.; George, Elizabeth L.; Cosgrove, Victoria E.; Howe, Meghan E.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Garber, Judy; Chang, Kiki D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Depression and brief periods of (hypo)mania are linked to an increased risk of progression to bipolar I or II disorder (BD) in children of bipolar parents. This randomized trial examined the effects of a 4-month family-focused therapy (FFT) program on the 1-year course of mood symptoms in youth at high familial risk for BD, and explored…

  11. Development of a Risk and Resilience-Based Out-of-School Time Program for Children and Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Elizabeth K.; Alter, Catherine F.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Out-of-school time (OST) programs offer a unique opportunity to provide educational supports to high-risk children and youths. The authors describe the utility of applying principles of risk and resilience to the development and evaluation of an OST program. Academic outcomes among participants at the Bridge Project, an OST program located in…

  12. Impulsivity and Reasons for Living Among African American Youth: A Risk-Protection Framework of Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Salami, Temilola K.; Brooks, Bianca A.; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of specific facets of impulsivity as measured by the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS), as well as reasons for living in predicting suicidal ideation among African American college-aged students. The incremental validity of each facet of the UPPS interacting with reasons for living, a construct meant to buffer against risk for suicide, was explored in a sample of African American students (N = 130; ages 18–24). Results revealed significant interactions between reasons for living and two factors of impulsivity, (lack of) premeditation and sensation seeking. Higher levels of sensation seeking and lack of premeditation in conjunction with lower reasons for living was associated with increased suicidal ideation. Neither urgency nor (lack of) perseverance significantly interacted with reasons for living in association with suicidal ideation. These results suggest including elements of impulsivity, specifically sensation seeking and (lack of) premeditation, when screening for suicidal ideation among African American youth. Future investigations should continue to integrate factors of both risk and protection when determining risk for suicide. PMID:25988310

  13. Delinquent Risks of Parental Abuse at the Age of 11 Years among At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2014-01-01

    Parental abuse is supposedly objectionable because it is the instigation of the child's delinquency. This instigation is likely to stem from the impairment of parental control arising from parental abuse, with respect to social control theory. For the substantiation of this likelihood, the present study surveyed 229 users of youth social work…

  14. Behavioral and psychological risk factors for traumatic injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A Field; Grant O'Keefe

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the behavioral and psychological risk factors associated with injury. The most widely investigated risk factor for injury is alcohol use. However, other behavioral and psychological risk factors may also contribute to injuries. This study examined the association of alcohol use, injury-related risk behaviors, and psychological characteristics with injury status. A hospital-based

  15. Perceived Discrimination and Markers of Cardiovascular Risk among Low-Income African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Malone, Sarah; Richardson, Elizabeth; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Williams, Deadric

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our study examines the relationship between perceived discrimination and levels of C-reactive Protein and blood pressure in low-income youth ages 10–15 years old. Methods Data were collected from 10–15 year old focal children and their mothers. Face-to-face interviews were implemented to collect data on stressors including experiences of everyday discrimination from youth. High sensitivity CRP in dried blood spot samples and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were also collected at the time of the interview. Results Perceived discrimination among youth was significantly associated with higher levels of CRP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. CRP, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure remained significant after controlling for age-adjusted BMI, waist circumference, and other factors. Conclusion Discrimination is a salient risk factor for inflammation and cardiovascular health. Early life course inflammation and cardiovascular reactivity are important candidate pathways through which the repeated exposure to discrimination for minority group members contributes to racial and economic health inequities in adulthood. PMID:25753652

  16. Culture, context, and sexual risk among Northern Plains American Indian youth

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Carol; Desserich, Jennifer; Big Crow, Cecelia K.; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Keane, Ellen; Mitchell, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    American Indian adolescents have two to four times the rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) compared to whites nationally, they shoulder twice the proportion of AIDS compared to their national counterparts, and they have a 25% higher level of teen births. Yet little is known about the contemporary expectations, pressures, and norms that influence American Indian youth or how those might be shaped by today’s lived cultural experiences, which frustrates attempts to mitigate the apparent disparity in sexual health. This paper used data from focus groups, in-depth interviews, and surveys with American Indian adolescents and young male and female adults from a Northern Plains tribe to contextualize sexual risk (and avoidance). Placing the findings within an adapted indigenist stress-coping framework, we found that youth faced intense pressures for early sex, often associated with substance use. Condoms were not associated with stigma, yet few seemed to value their importance for disease prevention. Youth encountered few economic or social recriminations for a teen birth. As such, cultural influences are important to American-Indian sexual health and could be a key part of prevention strategies. PMID:17379373

  17. Addressing HIV Risk Behavior Among Pregnant Drug Abusers: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Ramsey; Patricia A. Engler; Michael D. Stein

    2007-01-01

    Both sex- and drug-related HIV risk behavior are common among pregnant drug abusers. In the absence of intervention, these behaviors are likely to continue throughout pregnancy, placing the women and their unborn children at risk of contracting HIV. Drug treatment programs have been found to have limited impact on these behaviors. Although certain drug risk behaviors have been shown to

  18. Changes in Women's Sexual Risk Behaviors after Therapeutic Community Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Falkin, Gregory P.; Cleland, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This study examines sexual risk behaviors among 197 women mandated to substance abuse treatment in therapeutic communities. The women's risk behaviors after treatment are compared with their behaviors prior to treatment, and risk behaviors among those who completed treatment are compared with those who did not. The women had a high prevalence of…

  19. The Impact of Youth and Family Risk Factors on Service Recommendations and Delivery in a School-Based System of Care

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Melissa L.; Connell, Christian M.; Bernard, Stanley; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the impact of child and family risk factors on service access for youth and families in a school-based system of care. Regression analyses examined the relationships between risk factors and services recommended, services received, and dosage of services received. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between risk factors and whether or not youth received specific types of services within the system of care. Results revealed that youth with a personal or family history of substance use had more services recommended than youth without these risk factors, while youth with a family history of substance use received more services. Youth with a history of substance use received a significantly higher dosage of services overall. Finally, history of family mental illness was associated with receiving mental health and operational services (e.g., family advocacy, emergency funds). Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:20165927

  20. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Duffard, R

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone,dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or changes in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. PMID:9182042