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1

YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (YRBSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) was developed to monitor priority health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The YRBSS monitors six categories of behavio...

2

Nevada Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relatively small number of preventable behaviors, such as drinking alcohol and driving, failing to wear seat belts, and engaging in unprotected intercourse, contribute greatly to morbidity and mortality among youth and young adults. An extensive survey of the risk behaviors of one state's youth is described here. A total of 1,538 responses from…

Adams, Ken; And Others

3

Guide to Conducting Your Own Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Systems measures six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth: behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute...

2009-01-01

4

Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2001 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to monitor health-risk behaviors of the nations high school students. This report contains findings from the 2001 Wisconsin YRBS in eight priority areas: protective assets, unintentional injuries,…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

5

Nevada Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses results of the Nevada Department of Education's fourth statewide administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Students in grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 (N=2,702) from 75 public high schools participated in the study. Nevada high school students reported behaviors that equaled or exceeded goals established in the national…

Soule, Penelope P.; Sharp, Joyce

6

Results Of The 2003 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to measure the major health risk behaviors performed by youth. These health risk behaviors include: behaviors that contribute to intentional and unintentional injuries; the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs; sexual behaviors that contribute…

Engstrom, Martha C.; Parrie, Chelsey; Miller, Russell; Li, Yuan

2004-01-01

7

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, United States, 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual report from the Centers for Disease Control "monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults -- behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity." Statistical tables in this report provide extensive data on the four leading causes of death for persons aged 10-24, accounting for 75 percent of all mortalities for this group: motor-vehicle accidents, other intentional injuries, homicide, and suicide.

8

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: 2011 National Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

9

Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explored the differences between the criminal behavior of youth gang members and non-gang, but similarly at-risk, youths. The research revealed that criminal behavior committed by gang members is extensive and significantly exceeds that committ...

C. R. Huff

1998-01-01

10

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem\\/Condition: Alternative high schools serve approximately 280,000 students nationwide who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal activity or behavioral problems. Such settings provide important opportunities for delivering health promotion education and services to these youth and young adults. However, before this

Jo Anne Grunbaum; Laura Kann; Steven A. Kinchen; James G. Ross; Vani R. Gowda; Janet L. Collins; Lloyd J. Kolbe

2000-01-01

11

Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2013.  

PubMed

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults. Population-based data on these behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth nationwide. Reporting Period Covered: September 2012-December 2013. Description of the System: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and large urban school district school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results for 104 health-risk behaviors plus obesity, overweight, and asthma from the 2013 national survey, 42 state surveys, and 21 large urban school district surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Results: Results from the 2013 national YRBS indicated that many high school students are engaged in priority health-risk behaviors associated with the leading causes of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. During the 30 days before the survey, 41.4% of high school students nationwide among the 64.7% who drove a car or other vehicle during the 30 days before the survey had texted or e-mailed while driving, 34.9% had drunk alcohol, and 23.4% had used marijuana. During the 12 months before the survey, 14.8% had been electronically bullied, 19.6% had been bullied on school property, and 8.0% had attempted suicide. Many high school students nationwide are engaged in sexual risk behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancies and STIs, including HIV infection. Nearly half (46.8%) of students had ever had sexual intercourse, 34.0% had had sexual intercourse during the 3 months before the survey (i.e., currently sexually active), and 15.0% had had sexual intercourse with four or more persons during their life. Among currently sexually active students, 59.1% had used a condom during their last sexual intercourse. Results from the 2013 national YRBS also indicate many high school students are engaged in behaviors associated with chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. During the 30 days before the survey, 15.7% of high school students had smoked cigarettes and 8.8% had used smokeless tobacco. During the 7 days before the survey, 5.0% of high school students had not eaten fruit or drunk 100% fruit juices and 6.6% had not eaten vegetables. More than one-third (41.3%) had played video or computer games or used a computer for something that was not school work for 3 or more hours per day on an average school day. Interpretation: Many high school students engage in behaviors that place them at risk for the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of most health-risk behaviors varies by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade and across states and large urban school districts. Long term temporal changes also have occurred. Since the earliest year of data collection, the prevalence of most health-risk behaviors has decreased (e.g., physical fighting, current cigarette use, and current sexual activity), but the prevalence of other health-risk behaviors has not changed (e.g., suicide attempts treated by a doctor or nurse, having ever used marijuana, and having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse) or has increased (e.g., having not gone to school because of safety concern and obesity and overweight). Public Health Action: YRBSS data are used widely to compare the prevalence of

Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari L; Flint, Katherine H; Kawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A; Lowry, Richard; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Taylor, Eboni; Demissie, Zewditu; Brener, Nancy; Thornton, Jemekia; Moore, John; Zaza, Stephanie

2014-06-13

12

The Clustering of Risk Behaviors Among Caribbean Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relationships among risk behaviors for Caribbean youth; and to determine the correlations between initiation of sexual activity and other risk behaviors. Methods: The associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol and marijuana use, early initiation of sexual intercourse, involvement in violence and delinquency were examined using odds ratios on data from the Caribbean Youth Health Survey (n =

Sally-Ann Ohene; Marjorie Ireland; Robert Wm Blum

2005-01-01

13

Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System -- 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Yo...

2013-01-01

14

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

15

Software for Analysis of Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) employ a complex sampling design. Therefore, to analyze YRBS data correctly, statistical software packages that account for this sampling design must be used. This document describes five statistical software packages ap...

2009-01-01

16

Health and Risk Behaviors of Massachusetts Youth, 2007: The Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…

Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

2008-01-01

17

Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results, 1995. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An 84-item multiple choice Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 2,092 students in 62 public high schools in New Hampshire during the spring of 1995. The survey covered behaviors in six categories: (1) behaviors that result in unintentional or intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that…

New Hampshire State Dept. of Education, Concord.

18

HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Male Violent Youth Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…

Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.

2010-01-01

19

Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results, 1991, 1993 & 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes results from the 1995 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Utah's high school students and compares results to selected 1991 and 1993 results. The 76-item survey was identical to the national survey, though it omitted questions about sexual behavior. It examined unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco, alcohol, and…

Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

20

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Students with Disabilities: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

21

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Alternative Schools Students: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

22

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Grades 7-8: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

23

Reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the test-retest reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire.Methods: A sample of 4619 male and female high school students from white, black, Hispanic, and other racial\\/ethnic groups completed the YRBS questionnaire on two occasions approximately two weeks apart. The questionnaire assesses a broad range of health risk behaviors. This study used a protocol that

Nancy D Brener; Laura Kann; Tim McManus; Steven A Kinchen; Elizabeth C Sundberg; James G Ross

2002-01-01

24

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

25

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

26

Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Executive Summary and Report, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a national survey effort by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted in Wisconsin public schools in 1997 is presented. The core of the survey measures 16 objectives set by CDC as part of its Year 2000 initiative. Additional questions were added specifically for Wisconsin.…

Kadel, Ben

27

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

28

Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight.

Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2010-01-01

29

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 53, No. SS-2, May 21, 2004. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, United States, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillanc...

J. Hawkins J. Ross J. A. Grunbaum L. Kann S. Kinchen

2004-01-01

30

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Montana High Schools: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) report is a continuation of the surveillance and reporting system for adolescent risk behaviors developed by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of the Youth

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

31

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

32

Idaho Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995. Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of the health problems experienced by youth are caused by preventable behaviors, such as alcohol abuse and unprotected sexual intercourse. The increasing cost of health care demands that youth be taught to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors. School health programs are essential to attaining this goal. The results of the 1995 Idaho Youth

Idaho State Dept. of Health and Welfare, Boise. Div. of Consumer and Health Education.

33

Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…

Huff, C. Ronald

34

Gender differences in risk behaviors among high school youth.  

PubMed

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) demonstrates that American youth engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors.(1) The frequency and type of these behaviors often differ by a number of factors, such as socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity. For example, results of the 2011 YRBSS revealed that white high school students were most likely to have texted or e-mailed while driving or been bullied on school property, while black high school students were most likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviors, to have been physically inactive, and to be obese.(1) Conversely, Hispanic high school students were most likely to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; to have ever used cocaine, inhalants, or ecstasy; and to have failed to use protection to prevent pregnancy during last sexual intercourse.(1) However, it is difficult to discern whether differences in risk-taking behaviors between and among ethnic groups can actually be attributed to differences in group norms, socioeconomic status, or cultural beliefs regarding acceptance or rejection of such behaviors,(1) suggesting a need for more comprehensive regional investigations. PMID:24416689

Croisant, Sharon A Petronella; Haque Laz, Tabassum; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

2013-09-01

35

Preliminary Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results--1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides the results of a 1993 survey of 2,684 New Hampshire high school students in regard to risk taking, personal violence, suicide, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education, sexual activity, nutrition, and exercise. It found that in the preceding 30 days, 10.8 percent of students…

Johnson, Joyce, Comp.

36

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey Surveillance System: Policy and Program Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes how some education agencies, collaborating with health agencies, community agencies, school boards, parents, and youth, use data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which monitors six categories of adolescent behavior that place them at risk, to describe risk behaviors, create awareness, set program goals, develop programs, support…

Everett, Sherry A.; Kann, Laura; McReynolds, Larkin

1997-01-01

37

Youth Assets and Sexual Risk Behavior: Differences between Male and Female Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…

Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon

2010-01-01

38

Healthy Choices: Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Health Risk Behaviors in HIV-Positive Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study piloted a brief individual motivational intervention targeting multiple health risk behaviors in HIV-positive youth aged 16-25. Interviews about sexual behavior and substance use and viral load testing were obtained from 51 HIV-positive youth at baseline and post intervention. Youth were randomized to receive a four-session motivational…

Naar-King, Sylvie; Wright, Kathryn; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Frey, Maureen; Templin, Thomas; Lam, Phebe; Murphy, Debra

2006-01-01

39

Dating Violence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in a Sample of At-Risk Israeli Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This exploratory study examines the reported dating violence and its association with sexual risk behavior among Israeli adolescents, who are at risk for dropping out of school. Methodology: A convenience sample of 105 at-risk youth (51 boys and 54 girls) completed self-administered anonymous, questionnaires in small same-gender groups.…

Schiff, Miriam; Zeira, Anat

2005-01-01

40

Predicting School Weapon Possession: A Secondary Analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines responses of 40,435 students from the "Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey" and uses student self-reported school risk behaviors to "predict" recent weapon possession at school. Although school risk behaviors were moderately correlated with school weapon possession, many frequent weapon carriers displayed zero school risks. Argues…

Furlong, Michael J.; Bates, Michael P.; Smith, Douglas C.

2001-01-01

41

Suicide Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Attempted Suicide. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

2013-01-01

42

Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

2013-01-01

43

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for American Indian Students in Urban Schools: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

44

Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

2012-01-01

45

Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents. Part 3. Working with Youth at Risk: Behavioral Issues and Interventions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of Part 3 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. It includes six readings, each dealing with a specific behavior that places a young person at risk. "The Secret and…

Kempley, Frances A.; And Others

46

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry

47

Risk Behavior and Perception Among Youths Residing in Urban Public Housing Developments  

PubMed Central

The scientific literature and popular media suggest that variations in housing structure and neighborhood influence risk behaviors among youths living in low-income urban communities. To explore the importance of these factors on early sexual intercourse, substance use, drug trafficking, and school truancy, data from a community-based survey, conducted in six public housing developments in a major eastern metropolis, were analyzed. The survey group consisted of 300 youths aged 9 through 15 years. There were minimal differences in three potential mediators of risk behaviors (e.g., perceived social support, parenting style, and perceived risk exposure) and in self-reported adolescent risk behaviors among youths residing in different housing developments and between youths residing in high-rise and in low-rise structures. These findings do not support the hypothesis that within a risk-dense low-income environment, variations in building structure or in neighborhood are associated with differences in adolescent risk behaviors.

Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Black, Maureen M.; Romer, Daniel; Ricardo, Izabel; Kaljee, Linda

1994-01-01

48

Religious involvement and its association to risk behaviors among older youth in foster care.  

PubMed

This study examined religious involvement and its association to risk behaviors (sexual behavior, marijuana use, alcohol use, and cigarette use) among older youth in foster care (N=383). Three dimensions of religious involvement were assessed-church or religious service attendance, religious practices, and religious beliefs. Findings showed that gender, ethnic group membership, sexual abuse history, and placement type were significantly associated with older foster care youth's religious involvement. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that religious service attendance was associated with reduced odds of youth's engagement in sexual behavior in the past 2 months and current use of cigarettes. In addition, greater religious beliefs were associated with a reduction in odds of youth's use of alcohol in the past 6 months and current use of cigarettes. The consideration of religious involvement as a positive influence and resource that may reduce unhealthy risk behaviors among older youth in foster care is discussed. PMID:16977499

Scott, Lionel D; Munson, Michelle R; McMillen, J Curtis; Ollie, Marcia T

2006-12-01

49

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance. United States, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 49, No. SS-5, June 9, 2000. CDC Surveillance Summaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among youth and adults, often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillanc...

S. M. Hewitt

2000-01-01

50

Health-Risk Behaviors among Our Nation's Youth: United States, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents national estimates of the prevalence of selected health risk behaviors among youth ages 12-21 years, by sex, age, Hispanic origin, and race for youth of non-Hispanic origin. Topics include: cigarette and other tobacco use, alcohol and...

P. F. Adams C. A. Schoenborn A. J. Moss C. W. Warren L. Kann

1995-01-01

51

Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and HIV\\/STI Risk Behaviors Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting additional factors,\\u000a such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship\\u000a between psychological distress and sexual risk behaviors was prospectively examined over the four high school years in a sample\\u000a of urban youth (N = 850; 80% African American;

Katherine S. Elkington; José A. Bauermeister; Marc A. Zimmerman

2010-01-01

52

Effects of At-School Victimization and Sexual Orientation on Lesbian, Gay, or Bisexual Youths' Health Risk Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the link between victimization at school and health risk behaviors using representative data comparing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths and heterosexual youths. Methods: Data from the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey taken in Massachusetts and Vermont were exam- ined. This sample included 9188 9th through 12th grade students; 315 of these students were identified as LGB.

DANIEL E. BONTEMPO; ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI

2002-01-01

53

Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior and HIV/AIDS Prevention Education: Survey Results, 1991. Bulletin No. 93253.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains data from the 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, administered to 1,440 high school students throughout Wisconsin. Included are data on the prevalence of injuries; drug use; sexual behaviors; dietary behaviors; and physical activity. The results revealed that over 80% of students rarely or never wear bicycle helmets and 50%…

Wagener, Judy; Nehls-Lowe, Barbara

54

The Influence of Knowing Someone with AIDS on Youth HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that knowing someone with HIV/AIDS is associated with greater perceived risk of contracting HIV and changes in sexual risk behaviors. The current study with a sample of 1,172 examined whether knowing someone with HIV/AIDS influenced sexual risk communication and youth engagement in sexual intercourse using the Philadelphia…

Cederbaum, Julie A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Hutchinson, M. Katherine

2007-01-01

55

Healthy Wyoming: Start with Youth Today. Results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior and School Health Education Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Wyoming School Health Education Survey (SHES). Thirty-five schools participated in the YRBS, with 3,513 students in grades 9-12; 92 public schools with students in grades 7-12 participated in the SHES. Statistical data from the YRBS are provided in the…

Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Behavior Lab.

56

HIV Risk Behavior of Runaway Youth in San Francisco: Age of Onset and Relation to Sexual Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined HIV risk behaviors among runaway youth by age at onset and sexual orientation. Adolescents age 12-21 years seeking health care at two clinics completed interviews and blood testing. Gay/lesbian/bisexual youth reported higher levels and earlier onset of sexual and drug-using behavior than heterosexual youth and were at exceptionally high…

Moon, Martha W.; McFarland, William; Kellogg, Timothy; Baxter, Michael; Katz, Mitchell H.; MacKellar, Duncan; Valleroy, Linda A.

2000-01-01

57

Influence of alcohol and drug use on AIDS risk behavior among youth in dropout prevention.  

PubMed

Youth enrolled in dropout prevention and alternative school programs engage in a number of high risk behaviors in greater numbers than those in traditional school settings [1, 2]. However, data on alcohol and drug use influences and risky sexual behavior are often not collected or reported among these youth due to small enrollments and rapid turnover. In this study alcohol and drug use and sexual behaviors were surveyed among 212 youth in dropout prevention. A risk profile score for HIV/AIDS was developed and the contribution of alcohol and drug use to HIV/AIDS risk was determined. Results showed that use of alcohol and drugs and age of sexual initiation were significantly associated with a high risk profile score. Of sexually active youth, 28 percent reported using alcohol or drugs prior to having sexual intercourse and more than half reported not using condoms during their last sexual experience. Males were more likely than females to use alcohol and drugs before having sex, and were more likely to have had sex with two or more partners. Findings from this study suggest that among youth in dropout prevention, the association of alcohol and drug use to HIV/AIDS risk is significant and that prevention programs need to target alcohol and drug use as important influences on risky sexual behavior. PMID:9673075

O'Hara, P; Parris, D; Fichtner, R R; Oster, R

1998-01-01

58

Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1999 and Alaska School Health Education Profile, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the methods and results of the 1999 Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1998 School Health Education Profile (SHEP). Each survey is intended to provide a better understanding of health and related programs within school settings. The YRBS asks students to report their behaviors in the six major areas of health…

Green, Tammy; Schumacher, Catherine; Middaugh, John; Asay, Elvin; Campbell, Terri; Shober, Beth

59

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Middle School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This youth risk behavior survey was completed by 7,667 students at 127 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) middle schools. The document is organized around the six categories of behavior that contribute substantially to the leading causes of death, illness, and social problems in the United States: unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use;…

Everett, Sherry; Sussman, Michele; Ranslow, Steve; Shaughnessy, Lana

60

School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

2012-01-01

61

Religious Involvement and Its Association to Risk Behaviors among Older Youth in Foster Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined religious involvement and its association to risk behaviors (sexual behavior, marijuana use, alcohol use, and cigarette use) among older youth in foster care (N=383). Three dimensions of religious involvement were assessed—church or religious service attendance, religious practices, and religious beliefs. Findings showed that gender, ethnic group membership, sexual abuse history, and placement type were significantly associated with

Lionel D. Scott Jr; Michelle R. Munson; J. Curtis McMillen; Marcia T. Ollie

2006-01-01

62

Applying a Cognitive-Behavioral Model of HIV Risk to Youths in Psychiatric Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the utility of cognitive and behavioral constructs (AIDS information, motivation, and behavioral skills) in explaining sexual risk taking among 172 12-20-year-old ethnically diverse urban youths in outpatient psychiatric care. Structural equation modeling revealed only moderate support for the model, explaining low to moderate…

Donenberg, Geri R.; Schwartz, Rebecca Moss; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W.; Bryant, Fred B.; Coleman, Gloria

2005-01-01

63

The Relationship Between Seriously Considering, Planning, and Attempting Suicide in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumed ordinal relationship between seriously considering, planning, and attempting suicide in the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was examined by constructing a trajectory that identified all possible response patterns among the four questions measuring suicidal activity. Statistical analysis tested for differences in frequency of risk

Perez, Victor W.

2005-01-01

64

A review of family and environmental correlates of health behaviors in high-risk youth.  

PubMed

Disparities in the prevalence of obesity in youth place minority and low socioeconomic status youth at increased risk for the development of chronic disease, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Contributing factors to the increases in obesity include a decline in positive health behaviors, such as making healthy dietary choices, engaging in physical activity, and limiting sedentary behaviors. Family and physical environmental contextual factors related to health behaviors are increasingly the focus of health behavior interventions in line with the bioecological model that encourages a system-focused perspective on understanding health behavior influences. Physical environmental characteristics, such as home and neighborhood characteristics and resources, provide the tangible means to support health behaviors and are important contextual variables to consider that may increase intervention effectiveness. Therefore, the current review seeks to highlight the importance of investigating influences of behavior beyond individual characteristics in understanding factors related to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in youth at high risk for developing chronic disease. The current study reviews the non-intervention literature on family and physical environmental factors related to health behaviors (i.e., diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) in youth who are considered to be at-risk for developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Results on 38 published articles of diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors showed support for the role of parenting and physical environmental factors, particularly parental monitoring and neighborhood context, such as social cohesion, as they relate to health behaviors in high-risk youth. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:22282044

Lawman, Hannah G; Wilson, Dawn K

2012-06-01

65

Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences: Prevalence, Drug Use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors. Volume 2. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is the first national study of substance use, suicide attempts, and other at-risk behaviors among youth with runaway, throwaway, or homelss experience. Information from four sources is included in the study: youth in shelters, youth on the stree...

J. M. Greene C. L. Ringwalt J. E. Kelly R. Iachan Z. Cohen

1995-01-01

66

Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences: Prevalence, Drug Use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors. Volume 1. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is the first national study of substance use, suicide attempts, and other at-risk behaviors among youth with runaway, throwaway, or homelss experience. Information from four sources is included in the study: youth in shelters, youth on the stree...

C. L. Ringwalt J. E. Kelly J. M. Greene R. Iachan Z. Cohen

1995-01-01

67

Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2005: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Republic of Palau, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territorial, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories,…

Lippe, Jaclynn; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura; Speicher, Nancy

2008-01-01

68

Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2003: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Palau  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territory, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories, and cities…

Balling, Allison; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Speicher, Nancy; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura

2005-01-01

69

Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

2012-01-01

70

Tobacco use among High School Athletes and Nonathletes: Results of the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used to compare use of tobacco between athletes and nonathletes. Both female and male athletes were less likely to have smoked, which was truer for the more involved athletes. Both female and male athletes were more likely to have tried smokeless tobacco, with the effect greater for more involved…

Melnick, Merrill J.; Miller, Kathleen E.; Sabo, Donald F.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.

2001-01-01

71

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Middle School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from a spring 1997 survey of all middle-school students (grades 6-8) enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by 6,990 students in 115 of the 122 BIA-funded middle schools; the overall response rate was 74 percent.…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve

72

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students in Urban Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

73

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on or near a Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

74

Risk Behaviors of Youth Living With HIV: Pre- and Post-HAART  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the transmission behavior among youth living with HIV (YLH), pre- and post-HAART. Methods: Two cohorts were recruited: (1) 349 YLH during 1994 to 1996 and (2) 175 YLH during 1999 to 2000, after the wide availability of HAART. Differences in sexual and substance-use risk acts and quality of life were examined. Results:…

Lightfoot, Marguerita; Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Comulada, W. Scott; Weiss, Robert

2005-01-01

75

Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,

Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström

2010-01-01

76

Social Network and Individual Correlates of Sexual Risk Behavior Among Homeless MSM Youth  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is growing interest in network-based interventions to reduce HIV sexual risk behavior among both homeless youth and men who have sex with men (MSM). The goal of this study is to better understand the social network and individual correlates of sexual risk behavior among homeless MSM youth in order to inform these HIV prevention efforts. Methods A multi-stage sampling design was used to recruit a probability sample of 121 homeless MSM youth (ages 16–24) from shelters, drop-in centers, and street venues in Los Angeles County. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Due to the different distributions of the three outcome variables, three distinct regression models were needed: ordinal logistic regression for unprotected sex; zero-truncated Poisson regression for number of sex partners; and logistic regression for any sex trade. Results Homeless MSM youth were less likely to engage in unprotected sex and had fewer sex partners if their networks included platonic ties to peers who regularly attended school, and had fewer sex partners if most of their network members were not heavy drinkers. Most other aspects of network composition were unrelated to sexual risk behavior. Individual predictors of sexual risk behavior included being older, Hispanic, lower education, depressive symptoms, less positive condom attitudes, and sleeping outdoors because of nowhere else to stay. Conclusions HIV prevention programs for homeless MSM youth may warrant a multi-pronged approach that helps these youth strengthen their ties to prosocial peers, develop more positive condom attitudes, and access needed mental health and housing services.

Tucker, Joan S.; Hu, Jianhui; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

2012-01-01

77

Early Initiation of Sexual Intercourse and Its Co-Occurrence with Other Health-Risk Behaviors in High School Students: The 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relationships between high school students' early sexual intercourse and selected risky and preventive behaviors as a function of race and gender. North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey data indicated that several health-risk behaviors significantly associated with early onset of sexual intercourse, with both racial and…

Parrillo, Anthony V.; And Others

1997-01-01

78

Factors Associated with Motivation to Change HIV Risk and Substance Use Behaviors among Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

This study sought to identify and compare variables associated with motivation to change alcohol, drug use, and HIV risk behaviors among a sample of homeless youths. More frequent alcohol use, older age, and childhood sexual abuse was associated with greater motivation to change alcohol use; higher reported negative consequences of substance use was associated with higher motivation to reduce illicit drug use. Shorter periods of current homelessness predicted higher motivation to change HIV risk behaviors. Findings suggest these areas might be fruitful targets of intervention efforts to enhance motivation to reduce alcohol and illicit drug use and HIV risk behaviors.

Collins, Jennifer; Slesnick, Natasha

2011-01-01

79

Violent Behaviors in Early Adolescent Minority Youth: Results from a “Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of violence and violence-related behaviors among six populations of U.S. minority adolescents in grades 6–8. Methods: Six thousand four hundred non-White adolescents were recruited from six sites that were part of a collaborative project. Surveys were administered either during the school day or at community facilities. All students at each site were asked

Patricia A. Clubb; Dorothy C. Browne; Angela D. Humphrey; Victor Schoenbach; Brian Meyer; Melvin Jackson

2001-01-01

80

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 55, Number SS-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: October 2004-January 2006. Description of the System: The Youth Risk

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

2006-01-01

81

Exploring the Effect of Sexual Education on Sexual Health Risk Behaviors: Analysis of the 2003 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys in Florida and Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sexual health education content and sexual health risk behaviors, and the mediating effect of demographic variables. A cross-sectional research design employing secondary data analysis explored these associations in a sample of African American and non-Hispanic White male and female adolescents that took part in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey

Shenena Armstrong; Ivette A. López; C. Perry Brown

82

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for American Indian Students on Montana Reservations: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) report is a continuation of the surveillance and reporting system for adolescent risk behaviors developed by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of the YRBS is…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

83

Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use.

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

2011-01-01

84

Parental Investment, Club Membership, and Youth Sexual Risk Behavior in Cape Town  

PubMed Central

This study examines whether parental investment and membership in social clubs are associated with safer sexual behaviors among South African youth. Participants comprised 4,800 randomly selected adolescents age 14 to 22 living in the Cape Town area in 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between measures of parental investment and associational membership with reported condom use at first and most recent sexual intercourse, net of effects of HIV knowledge, age, education, population group, parental coresidence, and household income. Interaction terms were used to examine gender differences in associations between risk behavior and parental investment and between risk behavior and group membership. Participation in clubs and community groups is associated with safer behaviors. A mother’s financial support (for clothing, school fees and uniforms, and pocket money) is negatively associated with condom use, particularly among young women, suggesting that material need impels vulnerability to higher risk behaviors. Social resources in households and communities mediate HIV risk behaviors among youth in Cape Town.

Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C.

2010-01-01

85

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, a second survey was conducted of all 9th through 12th graders enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). As in 1994, the survey instrument used was the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, developed by the Centers for Disease Control. Surveys were completed by 5,606 students out of a total high school population of 7,780.…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve

86

Suicidal Behavior among Latino Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior

Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.

2001-01-01

87

Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Alcohol Use: A Parallel Process Growth Model Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truant youths frequently experience family problems, emotional/psychological issues, substance misuse, and delinquency. They are likely engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate than the general youth population. Early intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. We present interim findings from an…

Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer

2014-01-01

88

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

2011-01-01

89

Attitudinal and Behavioral Characteristics Predict High Risk Sexual Activity in Rural Tanzanian Youth  

PubMed Central

The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12–26 years of age) across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin), age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior.

Aichele, Stephen R.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; James, Susan; Grimm, Kevin

2014-01-01

90

Behavioral Health Risks in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Youth: Co-Occurrence of Sexual and Drug Use Behavior, Mental Health Problems, and Nonadherence to Antiretroviral Treatment  

PubMed Central

Abstract In a sample of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected (PHEU) adolescents, we examined the co-occurrence of behavioral health risks including mental health problems, onset of sexual and drug use behaviors, and (in PHIV+ youth) nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants, recruited from 2007 to 2010, included 349 youth, ages 10–16 years, enrolled in a cohort study examining the impact of HIV infection and ART. Measures of the above behavioral health risks were administered to participants and primary caregivers. Nearly half the participants met study criteria for at least one behavioral health risk, most frequently, mental health problems (28%), with the onset of sexual activity and substance use each reported by an average of 16%. Among the sexually active, 65% of PHIV+ and 50% of PHEU youth reported unprotected sex. For PHIV +youth, 34% reported recent ART nonadherence, of whom 45% had detectable HIV RNA levels. Between 16% (PHIV+) and 11% (PHEU) of youth reported at least two behavioral health risks. Older age, but not HIV status, was associated with having two or more behavioral health risks versus none. Among PHIV+ youth, living with a birth mother (versus other caregivers) and detectable viral load were associated with co-occurrence of behavioral health risks. In conclusion, this study suggests that for both PHIV+ and PHEU youth, there are multiple behavioral health risks, particularly mental health problems, which should be targeted by service systems that can integrate prevention and treatment efforts.

Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Malee, Kathleen; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Patton, Doyle; Smith, Renee; Usitalo, Ann; Allison, Susannah M.; Van Dyke, Russell; Seage, George R.

2011-01-01

91

Online Social Networking Technologies, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk and Testing Behaviors Among Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates associations between online social networking and sexual health behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles. We analyzed survey data from 201 homeless youth accessing services at a Los Angeles agency. Multivariate (regression and logistic) models assessed whether use of (and topics discussed on) online social networking technologies affect HIV knowledge, sexual risk behaviors, and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). One set of results suggests that using online social networks for partner seeking (compared to not using the networks for seeking partners) is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Supporting data suggest that (1) using online social networks to talk about safe sex is associated with an increased likelihood of having met a recent sex partner online, and (2) having online sex partners and talking to friends on online social networks about drugs and partying is associated with increased exchange sex. However, results also suggest that online social network usage is associated with increased knowledge and HIV/STI prevention among homeless youth: (1) using online social networks to talk about love and safe sex is associated with increased knowledge about HIV, (2) using the networks to talk about love is associated with decreased exchange sex, and (3) merely being a member of an online social network is associated with increased likelihood of having previously tested for STIs. Taken together, this study suggests that online social networking and the topics discussed on these networks can potentially increase and decrease sexual risk behaviors depending on how the networks are used. Developing sexual health services and interventions on online social networks could reduce sexual risk behaviors.

Rice, Eric

2010-01-01

92

Actual versus perceived peer sexual risk behavior in online youth social networks.  

PubMed

Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex. PMID:24073183

Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana

2013-09-01

93

Sadness, suicide, and drug misuse in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011.  

PubMed

Exposure to drugs is unfortunately common among high school students and its use has been linked to depression and suicide risk. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of drug abuse and to measure its association with teen suicidality. Three types of substance misuse were reported by more than 10% of Arkansas high school students: cannabis (33.3% ever use). inhalants (18.7% ever use). and prescription drugs without a prescription (13.2% ever use). We found in all suicide outcomes a stronger association with prescription drug abuse, followed by inhalant abuse, then cannabis abuse. PMID:24719998

Kaley, Sean; Mancino, Michael J; Messias, Erick

2014-02-01

94

Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

2011-01-01

95

Preventing HIV\\/AIDS Risk Behavior Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the quality of published studies conducted in North America that assessed behavior change interventions to prevent HIV'AIDS among people ages 12–24 years. A search of the Medline, HealthStar, and AIDSLINE electronic databases was completed. English language articles published between 1995 and 2000 were screened for relevance. A scoring system was developed to

Jean A. Shoveller; W. A. Wia Pietersma

2002-01-01

96

Identifying youth at risk for psychosis using the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition.  

PubMed

Identification of youth at risk for or with early psychosis has become the focus of many research and clinical initiatives, as early intervention may be linked to better long-term outcomes. Efforts to facilitate identification have led to the development of several self-report instruments that intend to quickly assess "attenuated" psychosis, potentially screening people for further evaluation. The widely used Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) includes the atypicality scale, a scale that may be useful for risk screening as it is designed to recognize emerging symptoms of psychosis. The current study aimed to evaluate the utility of the BASC-2 for identifying youth at high clinical risk or with early psychosis within a sample of 70 help-seeking participants aged 12-22. Atypicality scores were compared to risk status (low-risk, high-risk or early psychosis) as determined by the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). The relative accuracy of the atypicality scale was evaluated against three self-report screeners specifically designed to identify this population. Results indicate that the BASC-2 atypicality scale may be a useful tool for identifying youth in early stages of psychosis. Moreover, the atypicality scale is comparable if not superior to other specialized risk screening instruments in terms of predictive ability. Given the widespread use of the BASC-2 across educational and mental health settings, evidence for convergent validity between the BASC-2 atypicality scale and SIPS diagnoses has the potential to make screening available to a greater population and facilitate earlier detection and intervention. PMID:24119463

Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Pitts, Steven C; Schiffman, Jason

2013-12-01

97

Ethiopian origin high-risk youth: a cross-cultural examination of alcohol use, binge drinking, and problem behavior.  

PubMed

Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth. PMID:24853365

Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

2014-01-01

98

Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

2013-01-01

99

Teen Sleep and Suicidality: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of 2007 and 2009  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Suicide in the adolescent population is a tragic and preventable cause of death. Previous studies have confirmed both long and short total sleep times (TSTs) are associated with suicidal ideation in the adult population. We hypothesized that both long and short TSTs are risk factors for serious suicide attempt in the adolescent population as well. Methods: We tested this hypothesis using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2007 and 2009, which consist of school-based, nationally representative samples (N = 12,154 for 2007, N = 14,782 for 2009). Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between suicidality and sleep after adjusting for confounders including age, sex, race/ethnicity, feelings of sadness, and substance abuse. Results: Of the total sample, roughly 15% reported suicidal ideation, 10% planned suicide, 5% attempted and 2% reported an attempt requiring treatment. Teens who reported sleeping ? 5 or ? 10 h had a significantly higher risk for suicidality compared to those with a TST of 8 h. The largest odds ratios were found among the most severe forms of suicidality (attempt requiring treatment) with an odds ratio of 5.9 for a TST ? 4 h and 4.7 for a TST ? 10 h. Conclusion: Both short and long TSTs are risk factors for suicidality among teens and extremes in TST may indicate more serious suicidality. Self-reported sleep duration may be a useful screening question for suicide risk. Future studies should examine whether sleep duration is a causal and/or modifiable risk factor for suicidality in teens. Citation: Fitzgerald CT; Messias E; Buysse DJ. Teen sleep and suicidality: results from the youth risk behavior surveys of 2007 and 2009. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(4):351-356.

Fitzgerald, Caris T.; Messias, Erick; Buysse, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

100

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 61, Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2010-December 2011. Description of the…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Flint, Katherine H.; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Lim, Connie; Wechsler, Howell

2012-01-01

101

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: January-December 2007. Description of the System: The…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

2008-01-01

102

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 59, Number SS-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2008-December 2009. Description of the…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Whittle, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

2010-01-01

103

Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

104

Using the Santa Barbara Assets and Risks Assessment to Examine the Ecology of Youths Experiencing Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a review of important factors and considerations among youths displaying behavior problems, this study examined the predictive validity of the Santa Barbara Assets and Risks Assessment (SB ARA) with a population of European American and Mexican American high-risk adolescents (n = 566). The results of this study provide evidence that the…

Jimerson, Shane R.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Furlong, Michael J.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.

2004-01-01

105

The built environment & the impact of neighborhood characteristics on youth sexual risk behavior in Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Youth sexual risk behavior is often described in social terms, and there has been limited attention to date on how measures of the built environment, including access to municipal services, impact sexual risk behavior, particularly in resource-limited countries. Using the Cape Area Panel Study, we assessed the impact of neighborhood conditions (six single items and a built environment index (BEI)), net of individual socio-demographic factors. The results suggest that built environment factors are associated with sexual risk behavior. Also, the magnitude of associations between built environment factors and sexual risk behavior was more pronounced for females than for males.

Burns, Paul A.; Snow, Rachel C.

2012-01-01

106

Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences: Prevalence, Drug Use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors. Volume 3. Field Interviewer Training Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is the first national study of substance use, suicide attempts, and other at-risk behaviors among youth with runaway, throwaway, or homelss experience. Information from four sources is included in the study: youth in shelters, youth on the stree...

J. E. Kelly C. L. Ringwalt

1995-01-01

107

Effects of 2 Prevention Programs on High-Risk Behaviors Among African American Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the efficacy of 2 programs designed to reduce high-risk behaviors among inner-city African American youth. Design Cluster randomized trial. Setting Twelve metropolitan Chicago, Ill, schools and the communities they serve, 1994 through 1998. Participants Students in grades 5 through 8 and their parents and teachers. Interventions The social development curriculum (SDC) consisted of 16 to 21 lessons per year focusing on social competence skills necessary to manage situations in which high-risk behaviors occur. The school/community intervention (SCI) consisted of SDC and school-wide climate and parent and community components. The control group received an attention-placebo health enhancement curriculum (HEC) of equal intensity to the SDC focusing on nutrition, physical activity, and general health care. Main Outcome Measures Student self-reports of violence, provocative behavior, school delinquency, substance use, and sexual behaviors (intercourse and condom use). Results For boys, the SDC and SCI significantly reduced the rate of increase in violent behavior (by 35% and 47% compared with HEC, respectively), provoking behavior (41% and 59%), school delinquency (31% and 66%), drug use (32% and 34%), and recent sexual intercourse (44% and 65%), and improved the rate of increase in condom use (95% and 165%). The SCI was significantly more effective than the SDC for a combined behavioral measure (79% improvement vs 51%). There were no significant effects for girls. Conclusions Theoretically derived social-emotional programs that are culturally sensitive, developmentally appropriate, and offered in multiple grades can reduce multiple risk behaviors for inner-city African American boys in grades 5 through 8. The lack of effects for girls deserves further research.

Flay, Brian R.; Graumlich, Sally; Segawa, Eisuke; Burns, James L.; Holliday, Michelle Y.

2008-01-01

108

Transgender Youth and Life-Threatening Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority status is a key risk factor for suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; however, it has not been studied among transgender youth. Fifty-five transgender youth reported on their life-threatening behaviors. Nearly half of the sample reported having seriously thought about taking their lives and one quarter reported suicide…

Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

2007-01-01

109

Mediation by peer violence victimization of sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors: pooled youth risk behavior surveys.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI?=?6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI?=?1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI?=?3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A

2014-06-01

110

Programs-That-Work: CDC's Guide to Effective Programs that Reduce Health-Risk Behavior of Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated "Programs-That-Work" (PTW) in 1992 to identify health education programs with credible evidence of effectiveness and disseminate them to schools and youth agencies. Two tobacco use reduction programs and eight sexual risk behavior reduction programs were identified. This paper describes…

Collins, Janet; Robin, Leah; Wooley, Susan; Fenley, Dean; Hunt, Peter; Taylor, Julie; Haber, Deborah; Kolbe, Lloyd

2002-01-01

111

Victimization by Bullying and Harassment in High School: Findings from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a Southwestern State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…

Bauman, Sheri

2008-01-01

112

Youth suicide: prevention through risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for childhood and adolescent suicidal behavior are reviewed to point out important issues to focus suicide prevention strategies. Youth and family psychopathology involving suicidal behavior, violence, psychiatric disorders, including major depression, substance abuse, and psychosis, are the most significant risk factors for youth suicide and non-fatal suicidal acts. The availability of lethal means to commit suicide, especially guns

Cynthia R. Pfeffer

2001-01-01

113

Multi-Domain Risk and Protective Factor Predictors of Violent Behavior among At-risk Youth  

PubMed Central

This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school drop-out. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the combined and unique contribution of risk and protective components spanning individual, peer/school, and family predictor domains, including victimization histories. Hierarchical regressions yielded significant overall explanation of violent behaviors as well as unique predictors within each of the three domains. Tests for sex differences and moderating effects suggested that levels of risk and protective factors differed for males and females, although the functional relationships to violence were the same for both sexes. Results are discussed relative to prevention and early intervention programs; particularly the importance of understanding adolescent violent behaviors within a context that addresses stress and distress.

Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole L.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine Adams

2011-01-01

114

Individual and Social Network Sexual Behavior Norms of Homeless Youth at High Risk for HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Although previous research shows that homeless youth engage in numerous risky sexual behaviors, little is known about whether or not specific rules govern this conduct within their social networks and how group norms influence subsequent sexual actions. The current study utilizes 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate different elements of their sexual behavior. Findings reveal that their decision to have sex generally depends on chemistry and physical appearance whereas a potential partner’s risky sexual history and heavy substance use discourages youth from engaging in sex. Both males and females discuss condom usage as it relates to unknown sexual history, availability, pregnancy, and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sixteen homeless youth indicate that they do not discuss safe sex practices with their partners or social network members.

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

115

Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

2013-01-01

116

Using Surveillance of Mental Health to Increase Understanding of Youth Involvement in High-Risk Behaviors: A Value-Added Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the potential utility of adding items that assessed youths' emotional and behavioral disorders to a commonly used surveillance survey. The goal was to evaluate whether the added items could enhance understanding of youths' involvement in high-risk behaviors. A sample of 3,331 adolescents in Grades 8, 10, and 12 from four…

Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.; Sharkey, Jill D.

2013-01-01

117

Cocaine Use and Delinquent Behavior among High-Risk Youths: A Growth Model of Parallel Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…

Dembo, Richard; Sullivan, Christopher

2009-01-01

118

Sexual risk behaviors among youth heads of household in Gikongoro, south province of Rwanda  

PubMed Central

Background As a result of the 1994 genocide and AIDS, Rwanda has a crisis of orphans. In 2005, the Ministry of Local Governance and Social Affairs of Rwanda has reported one million vulnerable children. Many of these are not only orphans but also youth heads of households (YHH). The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify risk behaviors that expose YHH to HIV infection, (b) determine gender-specific high risk profiles and, (c) determine predictors of sexual onset. Methods A household survey was conducted among 692 YHH, aged 12-24, all beneficiaries of a World Vision basic needs program in Gikongoro, Rwanda, from January to March 2004. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge and sexual risk behaviors. Bivariate analyses of the study variables were performed to examine differences between males and females. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with the debut of having sex. Results Forty-one percent of respondents reported sexual onset before age 15. Males were more likely to start earlier than females (50.4% versus 26.7%) but females reported more sexual onset with an older partner. Fifty-eight percent of females had their first intercourse with a partner who was four or more years older than themselves. While sexual activity was low (1.75 mean lifetime sexual partner, 0.45 mean sexual partner last twelve months), sexual experience was related to less social connectedness and use of drugs. Having a close friend also appeared to be protective for sexual debut. The analysis also found that although YHH were aware of some prevention measures against HIV/AIDS, there was low (19.8%) knowledge of the "ABC" prevention program promoted by the government. In addition, despite 85% of respondents knowing someone who had died of AIDS, only 31% perceived themselves at risk of HIV infection, and there was very low (13.2%) condom use among the sexually experienced. Conclusions Results suggest the urgent need of HIV prevention programs tailored to YHH that provide knowledge, enhance negotiations skills, and increase the perception of HIV infection risk among YHH in Rwanda.

2012-01-01

119

Health-Risk Behaviors among Our Nation's Youth: United States, 1992. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10: Data from the National Health Interview Survey. No. 192.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1992 National Health Interview Survey-Youth Risk Behavior Survey (NHIS-YRBS) studied 13,789 youth 12-21 years of age. This report presents the data according to sex, age, Hispanic origin, and race for youth of non-Hispanic origin. The 10 data tables cover: cigarette and other tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual experience, HIV/AIDS…

National Center for Health Statistics (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

120

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey High School Results and 2011 Comparative Report for: Grades 7-8; American Indian Students on or near a Reservation; American Indian Students in Urban Schools; Nonpublic Accredited Schools; Alternative Schools; Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

121

Comparison of Paper-and-Pencil versus Web Administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Risk Behavior Prevalence Estimates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined whether paper-and-pencil and Web surveys administered in the school setting yield equivalent risk behavior prevalence estimates. Data were from a methods study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in spring 2008. Intact classes of 9th- or 10th-grade students were assigned randomly to complete a…

Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Denniston, Maxine M.; McManus, Tim; Kyle, Tonja M.; Roberts, Alice M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, James G.

2010-01-01

122

Youth-Initiated HIV Risk and Substance Use Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the first year of a novel HIV and substance use prevention program for inner city youth (Offering New Youth eXperiences--ONYX). Baseline and follow-up measures of knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors were administered seven months apart to 441 youth participating in the ONYX program. Youth (n=71) who provided data at both…

Goggin, K.; Metcalf, K.; Wise, D.; Kennedy, S.; Murray, T.; Burgess, D.; Reese-Smith, J.; Terhune, N.; Broadus, K.; Downes, A.; Buckendahl, H.

123

Assessment of risky sexual behaviors and risk perception among youths in Western Ethiopia: the influences of family and peers: a comparative cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Ethiopia is a developing country with a demographic profile dominated by young population with in the ages of 15–24, constituting one third of the total population. Only little has been explored about the role of parenting process and peers in protecting youths from risky sexual behaviors. Thus, this study tried to assess risky sexual behaviors, risk perception and the influences of family and peers for possible interventions among youths in western Ethiopia. Methods The study applied a comparative cross-sectional design triangulated with qualitative study. A pre-tested, structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to gather data. SPSS software version 20 was used to perform descriptive statistics, univariate, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Over one third of in-school and 41.4% out-of-school youths reported unprotected sex during the 12 months period prior to interview. More than one third of in-school youths (37.1%) reported to have two and more than two lifetime sexual partners compared to 32.6% of out-of-school youths. Out-of-school youths feel that they are at higher risk of getting HIV than in-school youths (AOR?=?2.93; 95% CI: 1.45, 4.35). Youths who had high family connectedness were less likely to commence sexual activity and have multiple sexual partners than their counterparts (AOR?=?1.98; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94) and (AOR?=?2.79; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.43) respectively. Having pressure from peer to have sex was significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners (AOR?=?2.82; 95% CI: 1.62, 2.49). Conclusion A substantial proportion of out-of-school youths engaged in risky sexual behaviors than in-school youths. Parents and peers play a role in shaping the behavior of youths. Consequently, the dimension of good parental process and positive peer factors has to be strengthened.

2014-01-01

124

Ohio Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993: When, Why, and What Was Discovered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the survey answers Ohio high school students (N=2,314) reported about alcohol, tobacco, and other health risk behaviors. The survey contains questions relating to: (1) behaviors that result in intentional and non-intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that result in HIV…

Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

125

High Risk Sexual Behaviors for HIV among the In-School Youth in Swaziland: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. Results The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Conclusions Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.

Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

2013-01-01

126

Use of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to Monitor Trends for Nutrition and Physical Activity in a Midwest City School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used by a city school district (approximately 11,000 students) in the upper Midwest to monitor trends for nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors both within and between years and to compare with national 2003 data. Methods: Independent random samples were obtained in 1999 (387 middle…

Edwards, Jane U.; Magel, Rhonda

2007-01-01

127

Prevention Effects Moderate the Association of 5-HTTLPR and Youth Risk Behavior Initiation: Gene x Environment Hypotheses Tested via a Randomized Prevention Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk

Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride

2009-01-01

128

Using parent and youth reports from the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition to identify individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis.  

PubMed

Brief self-report screening can help facilitate early identification of individuals at risk for or in early stages of psychosis. Existing screening tools focus on self-reported attenuated positive symptoms to detect potential risk; however, parent reports may also be helpful for assessing symptoms, especially in younger patients. Recent evidence has shown that the "atypicality" scale within the self-report form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) may be useful for identifying high-risk youth within a more clinically comprehensive and potentially minimally stigmatizing format. The BASC-2 parent report form also includes the atypicality scale, but no research has investigated the relation of this scale to psychosis risk. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the association of parent along with youth reports of BASC-2 atypicality with attenuated positive symptoms as assessed by the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS), in a sample of help-seeking adolescents (n=63). Results indicate that both parent and youth reports of atypicality predict clinician-rated symptoms. Moreover, the combination of parent and youth report significantly improved prediction of SIPS scores over either single-informant scale. These findings suggest that parent report scales, as ascertained through part of a larger, commonly used measure, may help identify youth at risk for psychosis, particularly if used in conjunction with youth self-report. PMID:24630261

Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Pitts, Steven C; Bussell, Kristin; Schiffman, Jason

2014-04-01

129

Epidemiology of Youth Suicide and Suicidal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people in the U.S. and represents a significant public health problem worldwide. This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior. Recent Findings The suicide rate among children and adolescents in the U.S. has increased dramatically in recent years and has been accompanied by substantial changes in the leading methods of youth suicide, especially among young girls. Much work is currently underway to elucidate the relationships between psychopathology, substance use, child abuse, bullying, internet use, and youth suicidal behavior. Recent evidence also suggests sex-specific and moderating roles of gender in influencing risk for suicide and suicidal behavior. Summary Empirical research into the causal mechanisms underlying youth suicide and suicidal behavior is needed to inform early identification and prevention efforts.

Cash, Scottye J.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

130

HIV sexual risk behaviors in youth 15-24 years of age in Cali, Colombia: Do differences exist among neighborhoods?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: HIV/AIDS is a global health priority. About 40% of new infections occur among heterosexual youth by means of sexual contact. In Cali, district 13, 15 and 20 account for 11.5% of the prevalent cases and 18.0% of incident cases. Objective: To establish differences in risk behaviors for HIV among young people 15-24 yrs of age from two areas of Cali, Colombia. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among young people between 15 and 24 yrs of age in these districts. The selection was done with a two-stage probability sampling. We estimated the prevalence of sexual relationships without condom usage, sex with multiple partners, and sex under the effects of alcohol and through logistical regression we identified the related factors. Results: In district 13, 15 and 20, the prevalence of unprotected sexual relationships in the last 12 months and the prevalence of sex with two or more partners was 70%; and 38% of young people had sex under the effects of alcohol. In both areas, the intention was positively related to the risk behaviors. We found socio-demographic factors, intentions, and beliefs that increase the opportunity to display these behaviors. The effect of these factors differs by district. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence of risk behaviors for HIV related to socio-demographic factors, intentions and beliefs that warrant interventions appropriate for local realities.

Palacio, Hannia; Mateus, Julio C

2013-01-01

131

Youth Football: Heat Stress and Injury Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This roundtable highlighted football-specific empirical data and practices that directly relate to heat stress effects and heat injury risk in youth football. The presentations underscored the operational issues and factors related to heat injury risk and prevention in this age group, with a specific emphasis on preseason practice. Discussions related to general physiological, clinical, and behavioral aspects of hydration, temperature

Michael F. Bergeron; Douglas B. McKeag; Douglas J. Casa; Priscilla M. Clarkson; Randall W. Dick; E. Randy Eichner; Craig A. Horswill; Anthony C. Luke; Frederick Mueller; Thayne A. Munce; William O. Roberts; Thomas W. Rowland

2005-01-01

132

Youth Gambling Behaviors: An Examination of the Role of Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of resilient children has overturned many deficit-focused models concerning the ontogenesis of children raised in adversity. This study explored the relationship between risk and protective factors, resilience, and youth gambling behavior. More specifically, this study examined the relative contribution of various risk and protective domains in relation to problem gambling behavior and examined whether youth identified as resilient

Isabelle Lussier; Jeffrey L. Derevensky; Rina Gupta; Tanya Bergevin; Stephen Ellenbogen

2007-01-01

133

A Snapshot of Homelessness in Massachusetts Public High Schools: 2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data collected by the Massachusetts Department of Education (Department) during the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) suggest that, despite significant efforts to identify homeless students, many are going undetected by their schools. Since the reauthorization of the McKinney Vento Homeless Assistance Education Improvement Act under the No…

Massachusetts Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

134

Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Selected Indicators. Findings for 9th-12th Grade Students from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…

Mikow, Victoria A.

135

Sadness, Suicide, and Their Association with Video Game and Internet Overuse among Teens: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 and 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…

Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale

2011-01-01

136

Social influences on the sexual behavior of youth at risk for HIV exposure.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Adolescents are increasingly at risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases, especially in poor urban minority communities. To aid the design of interventions in these communities, this study investigated the role of knowledge, attitudes, perceived parental monitoring, and peer behavior in the onset and progression of sexual behavior in children at risk for exposure to HIV. METHODS. A computerized personal interview was administered to 300 African-American 9- to 15-year-old children living in six public housing developments in a large US city. RESULTS. Although children's knowledge about the hazards of sex increased with age, their sexual activity also increased (from 12% sexually experienced at 9 years of age to more than 80% experienced at 15 years of age). Parental monitoring appeared able to influence sexual activity. However, the perceived behavior of friends was associated with the rate at which sexual activity progressed with age and the degree to which condom use was maintained with age. CONCLUSIONS. The early onset and prevalence of sexual behavior and the importance of peer group influence call for early interventions that simultaneously influence the parents and peers in children's social networks.

Romer, D; Black, M; Ricardo, I; Feigelman, S; Kaljee, L; Galbraith, J; Nesbit, R; Hornik, R C; Stanton, B

1994-01-01

137

Youth Perceptions of Their School Violence Risks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to gauge youth perceptions of school violence, this study links two perceptual bias literatures: third-person perception and optimistic bias. The intersection of the two literatures may be especially beneficial in understanding how adolescents process and interpret public health messages and subsequently engage in risk behaviors or…

Chapin, John

2008-01-01

138

Youth Risk Assessment in Complex Agency Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advancements in the delivery of community-based services and tight utilization management of high-cost treatment options result in youths with serious behavior problems receiving intervention in lower levels of care than was true ten or fifteen years ago. This shift in where services tend to be delivered necessitates enhancement of risk assessment…

Groner, Mark R.; Solomon, Jean

2007-01-01

139

HIV risk behavior in treatment-seeking opioid-dependent youth: Results from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network multi-site study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess baseline rates of and changes in HIV drug and sexual risk behavior as a function of gender and treatment in opioid-dependent youth. Methods 150 participants were randomly assigned to extended buprenorphine/naloxone therapy for 12 weeks (BUP) or detoxification for 2 weeks (DETOX); all received drug counseling for 12 weeks. HIV risk was assessed at baseline and 4-, 8-, and 12-week follow-ups. Behavioral change was examined using generalized estimating equations. Results Baseline rates of past-month HIV risk for females/males were 51%/45% for injection drug use (IDU) (ns), 77%/35% for injection risk (p<.001), 82%/74% for sexual activity (ns), 14%/24% for multiple partners (ns), and 68%/65% for unprotected intercourse (ns). IDU decreased over time (p<.001), with greater decreases in BUP versus DETOX (p<.001) and females versus males in BUP (p<.05). Injection risk did not change for persistent injectors. Sexual activity decreased in both genders and conditions (p<.01), but sexual risk did not. Conclusions Overall IDU and sexual activity decreased markedly, particularly in BUP patients and females, but injection and sexual risk behaviors persisted. While extended buprenorphine/naloxone therapy appears to have favorable effects on HIV risk behavior in opioid-dependent youth, risk reduction counseling may be necessary to extend its benefits.

Meade, Christina S.; Weiss, Roger D.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Poole, Sabrina A.; Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Connery, Hilary S.; Woody, George E.

2011-01-01

140

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Surveillance Summaries, Vol. 61, No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the United States, 72% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10-24 years result from four causes: motor vehicle crashes (26%), other unintentional injuries (17%), homicide (16%), and suicide (13%). Substantial morbidity and social problems al...

2012-01-01

141

Identification of Potential Aggressive Behavior in Rural At-Risk Minority Youth: A Community Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New Mexico ranks high in youth violence, substance abuse, poverty, teen pregnancies, and school dropout rates. In response, Western New Mexico University developed a special master's program in bilingual special education, attended primarily by minority-group school personnel, and implemented a program to address the cycle of poverty by training…

French, Laurence Armand; Rodriguez, Richard F.

1998-01-01

142

Relationships between Youth Sport Participation and Selected Health Risk Behaviors from 1999 to 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: How adolescents spend their out-of-school time represents one of the most important factors for predicting positive youth development. Sport participation relates to many beneficial outcomes. However, current economic conditions threaten high school sport programs around the United States. This investigation examined relationships by…

Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Donovan, Kristine A.

2010-01-01

143

Changes in Risk-Taking among High School Students, 1991-1997: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on data from three major national surveys of teenagers's risk-taking behavior conducted by the US government and University-based social scientists, in June 2000 the Urban Institute released this report assessing the levels of teenagers's involvement in one or more identified risk-taking behaviors. These behaviors include "regular alcohol use, binge drinking, regular tobacco use, marijuana use, other illegal drug use, fighting, weapon carrying, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and risky sexual activity." The report indicates that risk-taking behavior has actually declined overall among adolescents from 1990 to 1997. However, for one demographic group, Hispanics, the levels have almost doubled. The reports also analyze teenagers's participation in "desirable family, school, or community activities" and conclude that "many risk-taking teens earn good grades, go to church, play sports, or spend quality time with their parents," suggesting, according to the researchers, that a more complicated understanding of vulnerable teens is required than the typical good/bad stereotypes often circulated.

Boggess, Scott.; Lindberg, Laura D.; Porter, Laura.

2000-01-01

144

Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

2011-01-01

145

A Comparison of ATV-Related Behaviors, Exposures, and Injuries Between Farm Youth and Nonfarm Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All terrain vehicles (ATVs) are a popular form of transportation and recreation for youth. ATVs are also convenient for farm-related activities. However, the impact of the farming environment on ATV-related injuries is not clear. To determine differences in ATV-related behaviors, exposures, risk factors, and injuries between farm youth and their…

Jones, Chester S.; Bleeker, Jeanne

2005-01-01

146

Risk Comparison among Youth Who Report Sex with Same-Sex versus Both-Sex Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines risk behavior among youth attending support groups for sexual minority youth in Richmond, Virginia, using a structured survey, with particular attention to partner selection and its relationship to risk. Within this generally high-risk group, youth reporting sex partners of both sexes had significantly higher risk profiles,…

Moon, Martha W.; Fornili, Katherine; O'Briant, Amanda L.

2007-01-01

147

School bullying, cyberbullying, or both: Correlates of teen suicidality in the 2011 CDC youth risk behavior survey.  

PubMed

While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8-2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality. PMID:24768228

Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan

2014-07-01

148

Effects of 2 Prevention Programs on High-Risk Behaviors Among African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: For boys, the SDC and SCI significantly re- duced the rate of increase in violent behavior (by 35% and 47% compared with HEC, respectively), provoking behavior (41% and 59%), school delinquency (31% and 66%), drug use (32% and 34%), and recent sexual inter- course (44% and 65%), and improved the rate of in- crease in condom use (95% and

Brian R. Flay; Sally Graumlich; Eisuke Segawa; James L. Burns; Michelle Y. Holliday

2004-01-01

149

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidty and Mortality Weekly Repor, Early Release, Vo.l. 60.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk ...

2011-01-01

150

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Surveillance Summaries, Volume 60, No. 7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk ...

D. Chyen E. O. Olsen H. Wechsler L. Kann S. Kinchen T. McManus W. A. Harris

2011-01-01

151

Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Results Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Conclusion Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.

Kim, Hyun-Sun

2010-01-01

152

Teaching: Behaviorally Disordered Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication presents five articles dealing with research and methodology for teachers of behaviorally disordered children. In the first paper, R. Gable et al. describe "A Classroom-based Curriculum Validation Process for Teaching the Behaviorally Disordered," which focuses on static and dynamic evaluation of curricular materials. E. Anderson…

Zabel, Mary Kay, Ed.

153

Youth, Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior, and Mental Health: a Study of University Students in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Little focus has been paid to the role of mental health among young people with regard to risky sexual behavior and HIV prevention\\u000a in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between poor mental health and risky sexual\\u000a behavior (HIV\\/AIDS) among a population of university students in Uganda.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students completed

Anette Agardh; Elizabeth Cantor-Graae; Per-Olof Östergren

154

Discotheques and the Risk of Hearing Loss among Youth: Risky Listening Behavior and Its Psychosocial Correlates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit strength" as…

Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

2010-01-01

155

The effects of cumulative risk and protection on problem behaviors for youth in an urban school-based system of care.  

PubMed

The present study examined the cumulative effects of risk and protective factors on internalizing and externalizing problems for a sample of youth who were diagnosed with a severe emotional disturbance and enrolled in an urban school-based system of care. The sample included 139 Latino and African American children (ages 5-19; 65 % male) and their families. After controlling for demographic variables, the results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that cumulative risk and protection were significantly related to internalizing problem behaviors, and cumulative protection was negatively related to externalizing problem behaviors. The findings support the importance of including or increasing strength building approaches, in addition to risk reduction, in order to maximize prevention and intervention efforts for system-of-care populations. PMID:22865290

Whitson, Melissa L; Bernard, Stanley; Kaufman, Joy S

2013-10-01

156

Serving At-Risk Youth: One Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camping Unlimited for at-risk youth, which originally ran from 1969-76, was recently revived at Blue Star Camps (Hendersonville, North Carolina) with 150 youth from southern Florida. The one-week stay, funded by several partnerships and organized by youth programs in the home county, included all regular camp activities. Increased staff and…

Becker, William A.; Popkin, Rodger

1998-01-01

157

Young People's Sexual Risk Behaviors in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in Nigeria are poorly documented. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in order to plan appropriate intervention measures. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey using…

Abdulraheem, I. S.; Fawole, O. I.

2009-01-01

158

Toronto street youth and HIV\\/AIDS: prevalence, demographics, and risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purposes of this study were: (a) to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in Toronto street youth through paired blood and saliva specimens; (b) to identify the HIV risk and prevention behaviors of street involved youth; and (c) to identify demographic or other factors that may contribute to the risk of street youth becoming infected with HIV\\/acquired immunodeficiency

Dale DeMatteo; Carol Major; Barbara Block; Randall Coates; Margaret Fearon; Eudice Goldberg; Susan M. King; Margaret Millson; Michael O’Shaughnessy; Stanley E. Read

1999-01-01

159

Problem Behaviors of Homeless Youth: A Social Capital Perspective  

PubMed Central

Homeless youth are one of the most marginalized groups in our society. Many researchers identify much higher levels of various problem behaviors among these youth compared to their non-homeless peers. The current study examined the utility of social capital in predicting problem behaviors among homeless youth. Overall, the theoretically derived social capital variable significantly predicted substance use frequency, sexual risk behavior, depression, delinquent behavior as well as number of days homeless. Thus, social capital was useful in understanding and predicting the current life situation among these youth and may be worthy of further study. Findings suggest that meaningful change should utilize interventions that go beyond the individual and are geared towards modifying the social context of individuals’ lives.

Bantchevska, Denitza; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Glebova, Tatiana; Slesnick, Natasha

2008-01-01

160

Retaliatory attitudes and violent behaviors among assault-injured youth  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the impact of retaliatory attitudes on subsequent violent behavior and fight-related injuries among youth who presented to the emergency department with assault-injuries. Design Assault-injured youth were interviewed at baseline, 6 months and 18 months to assess fighting behavior, retaliatory attitudes, weapon carrying and injury history as part of a larger randomized control trial. Setting Two emergency departments in urban areas. Participants One hundred twenty-nine adolescents aged 10 to 15. Outcome measures Fighting behavior, assault-injury, weapon carrying, and aggressive behavior. Results Higher retaliatory attitudes at baseline were associated with more aggression and a higher frequency of fighting over time. Conclusions Retaliatory attitudes may fuel cycles of violence among youth. Medical professionals in acute care settings have an opportunity to identify youths at risk of future assault injury by assessing retaliation, providing anticipatory guidance and referring to intervention programs.

Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Johnson, Sara B.; Haynie, Denise L.; Chung, Shang-en; Cheng, Tina L.

2011-01-01

161

Sadness, suicide, and their association with video game and internet overuse among teens: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2007 and 2009.  

PubMed

We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the 2009 YRBS, had a significantly higher risk for sadness (adjusted and weighted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 2.1, 1.7-2.5), suicidal ideation (1.7, 1.3-2.1), and suicide planning (1.5, 1.1-1.9). The same pattern was found in the 2007 survey. These findings support an association between excessive video game and Internet use and risk for teen depression and suicidality. PMID:21463355

Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale

2011-06-01

162

A descriptive study of youth risk behavior in urban and rural secondary school students in El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is an important stage of life for establishing healthy behaviors, attitudes, and lifestyles that contribute to current and future health. Health risk behavior is one indicator of health of young people that may serve both as a measure of health over time as well as a target for health policies and programs. This study examined the prevalence and

Andrew E Springer; BJ Selwyn; Steven H Kelder

2006-01-01

163

Does Stress Increase the Risk of Atopic Dermatitis in Adolescents? Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBWS-VI)  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the relationship between level of stress in middle and high school students aged 12–18 and risk of atopic dermatitis. Data from the Sixth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-VI), a cross-sectional study among 74,980 students in 800 middle schools and high schools with a response rate of 97.7%, were analyzed. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis with severity. A total of 5,550 boys and 6,964 girls reported having been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. Younger students were more likely to have atopic dermatitis. Interestingly, the educational level of parents was found to be associated with having atopic dermatitis and having more severe condition. In particular, girls with mothers with at least college education had a 41% higher risk of having atopic dermatitis and severe atopic condition (odds ratio (OR))?=?1.41, 95% CI, 1.22–1.63; P<0.0001) compared with those with mothers who had attended middle school at most. Similar trend was shown among both boys and girls for their father's education level. The stress level was found to be significantly associated with the risk of atopic dermatitis. Compared to boys with who reported “no stress”, boys with “very high” stress had 46% higher the risk of having more severe atopic dermatitis (OR?=?1.46, 95% CI, 1.20–1.78; P<0.0001), 44% higher (OR?=?1.44, 95% CI, 1.19–1.73; P<0.0001) with “high” stress, and 21% higher (OR?=?1.21, 95% CI, 1.00–1.45; P?=?0.05) with “moderate” stress. In contrast, we found no statistically significant relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis in girls. This study suggests that stress and parents' education level were associated with atopic dermatitis. Specifically, degree of stress is positively correlated with likelihood of being diagnosed with this condition and increasing the severity.

Kwon, Jeoung A.; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Sohee

2013-01-01

164

Teacher-Student Relationships among Behaviorally At-Risk African American Youth from Low-Income Backgrounds: Student Perceptions, Teacher Perceptions, and Socioemotional Adjustment Correlates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examines teacher-student relationships among African American youth from low-income backgrounds (N = 193). Students and their teachers completed measures of teacher-student relationship quality and measures pertaining to emotional, behavioral, and school-related adjustment. Results indicated that African American youth who fell…

Murray, Christopher; Zvoch, Keith

2011-01-01

165

Beyond Risk: Resilience in the Lives of Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several decades of research tell us that sexual minority youth are among those most at risk for the negative outcomes of frequent concern in the lives of young people: academic failure, emotional distress, compromised relationships, risk behavior, and suicidality. We know much less about resilience, the characteristics and factors that explain or…

Russell, Stephen T.

2005-01-01

166

Callous-Unemotional Traits and Social Information Processing: Multiple Risk-Factor Models for Understanding Aggressive Behavior in Antisocial Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined multiple risk factor models of links among callous-unemotional traits, aggression beliefs, social information\\u000a processing, impulsivity, and aggressive behavior in a sample of 150 antisocial adolescents. Consistent with past research,\\u000a results indicated that beliefs legitimizing aggression predicted social information processing biases and that social information\\u000a processing biases mediated the effect of beliefs on aggressive behavior. Callous-unemotional traits accounted

Timothy R. Stickle; Neil M. Kirkpatrick; Lauren N. Brush

2009-01-01

167

Response to trauma in Haitian youth at risk.  

PubMed

In order to characterize undesirable behavior (drug use, fighting, criminal activity) among Haitian youth at risk and determine the relationship between traumatic experience and that kind of behavior, investigators recruited 292 Haitian youths via networks of informal social relations in two zones of Miami/Dade County strongly identified with Haitian ethnicity. Each recruit responded to an interview schedule eliciting sociodemographic information and self-reported activities, including involvement in youth-dominated groups. They also reported traumatic experience. Clinicians administered CAPS to a subset of those respondents who self reported traumatic experience. Staff ethnographers selected respondents for in-depth interviews and family studies to provide contextual depth for findings of the interview schedule and the CAPS assessments. Although traumatic experience may still play a role in mental health outcomes among children, childhood victimization among Haitian children does not appear to be related to the drug use and undesirable behaviors associated with unsupervised youth, including formation of gangs. PMID:16275637

Douyon, Richard; Herns Marcelin, Louis; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Page, J Bryan

2005-01-01

168

Response to Trauma in Haitian Youth at Risk  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In order to characterize undesirable behavior (drug use, fighting, criminal activity) among Haitian youth at risk and determine the relationship between traumatic experience and that kind of behavior, investigators recruited 291 Haitian youths via networks of informal social relations in two zones of Miami/Dade County strongly idenitified with Haitian ethnicity. Each recruit responded to an interview schedule eliciting sociodemographic information and self-reported activities, including involvement in youth-dominated groups. They also reported traumatic experience. Clinicians administered CAPS to a subset of those respondents who self-reported traumatic experience. Staff ethnographers selected respondents for in-depth interviews and family studies to provide contextual depth for findings of the interview schedule and the CAPS assessments. Although traumatic experience may still play a role in mental health outcomes among children, childhood victimization among Haitian children does not appear to be related to the drug use and undesirable behaviors associated with unsupervised youth, including formation of gangs.

Douyon, Richard; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Page, J. Bryan

2006-01-01

169

Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Religion: Findings from a National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities…

Sinha, Jill W.; Cnaan, Ram A.; Gelles, Richard J.

2007-01-01

170

Affect regulation and HIV risk among youth in therapeutic schools  

PubMed Central

The acquisition of affect regulation skills is often impaired or delayed in youth with mental health problems but the relationship between affect dysregulation and risk behaviors has not been well studied. Baseline data from adolescents (N =418; ages 13–19) recruited from therapeutic school settings examined the relationship between affect dysregulation, substance use, self-cutting, and sexual risk behavior. Analyses of covariance demonstrated that adolescents who did not use condoms at last sex, ever self-cut, attempted suicide, used alcohol and other drugs and reported less condom use self-efficacy when emotionally aroused were significantly more likely (p < .01) to report greater difficulty with affect regulation than peers who did not exhibit these behaviors. General patterns of difficulty with affect regulation may be linked to HIV risk behavior, including condom use at last sex. HIV prevention strategies for youth in mental health treatment should target affect regulation in relation to multiple risk behaviors.

Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Lescano, Celia; Donenberg, Geri; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Mello, Justin

2012-01-01

171

Behavioral Assessment and Interventions in Youth Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral assessment and interventions have found an increasing range of applications in both research and applied work with youth sport populations. Behavioral assessment has been used for both descIiptive and program evaluation purposes, and one of its major uses has been in the study of coaching behaviors and their effects on young athletes. Operant and cognitive-behavioral interventions have been targeted

Ronald E. Smith; Frank L. Smoll; Donald S. Christensen

1996-01-01

172

Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Urban Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Rates of overweight in youth have increased at an alarming rate, particularly in minority youth, and depressive symptoms may affect the ability of youth to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors to manage weight and reduce their risk for health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressive…

Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Grey, Margaret

2009-01-01

173

The Effects of a Mentoring Program on At-Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines an intensive mentoring program that focuses on youth deemed at-risk for juvenile delinquency or mental illness. Results indicate significant improvement in problematic behaviors for the intervention group. Mentoring appeared to affect African American youth differently than Caucasian and Latino youth. Findings support the positive…

Keating, Lisa M.; Tomishima, Michelle A.; Foster, Sharon; Alessandri, Michael

2002-01-01

174

Risk Factors for Utah Youth Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Utah Youth Suicide Study provides information on the government agency contacts of suicide completers, and outlines new suicide risk factors. For example, 65% of suicide victims were found in the Juvenile Justice system, and most had multiple minor offenses over several years. The demographics of Utah youth suicide, as collected by the Utah Office of the Medical Examiner, are

Douglas D. Gray; Jennifer S. Achilles; M. A. John; A. Workman; William McMahon

175

After School: Connecting Children at Risk with Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors--An RWJF National Program. Program Results Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The intermediaries--Boston After…

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008

2008-01-01

176

Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide. Volume 2: Risk Factors for Youth Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commissioned papers by a work group on risk factors for youth suicide, which examined environmental, behavioral, socio-cultural, biological, and psychological factors associated with an increased likelihood of suicide among young people are presented in this document. The following papers are presented: (1) "Sociodemographic, Epidemiologic, and…

Davidson, Lucy, Ed.; Linnoila, Markku, Ed.

177

Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Asian American Outpatient Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical record abstraction was conducted to identify correlates of suicidal behaviors in a sample of 285 Asian American youths. Acculturation interacted with risk factor of parent-child conflict to predict suicidality. Finding underscores the importance of culture as a context for determining the relevance of stressors for potentiating…

Lau, Anna S.; Jernewall, Nadine M.; Zane, Nolan; Myers, Hector F.

2002-01-01

178

Models to Guide System Reform for At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy reform for at-risk youth is complicated by involvement of various service sectors. Issues related to coordinating systems of care in a dynamic policy environment are not new, but surprisingly little has been written to guide practitioners and policymakers in addressing them (Friedman in "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"…

McCarter, Susan A.; Haber, Mason G.; Kazemi, Donna

2010-01-01

179

Youth Violence: Psychosocial Risk Factors, Treatment, Prevention, and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews youth violence literature and discusses relevant psychosocial risk factors, treatment approaches, prevention programs, and recommendations. Research indicates violent behavior is linked with multiple psychosocial factors and that the most effective treatment and prevention programs are those that address the multiple factors…

Kashani, Javad H.; Jones, Michael R.; Bumby, Kurt M.; Thomas, Lisa A.

1999-01-01

180

Problem Behavior and Urban, Low-Income Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a school-based social–emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-income, urban youth. Design A matched-pair, cluster RCT. Setting/participants Participants were drawn from 14 Chicago Public Schools over a 6-year period of program delivery with outcomes assessed for a cohort of youth followed from Grades 3 to 8. Data were collected from Fall 2004 to Spring 2010, and analyzed in Spring 2012. Intervention The Positive Action program includes a scoped and sequenced K–12 classroom curriculum with six components: self-concept, social and emotional positive actions for managing oneself responsibly, and positive actions directed toward physical and mental health, honesty, getting along with others, and continually improving oneself. The program also includes teacher, counselor, family, and community training as well as activities directed toward schoolwide climate development. Main outcome measures Youth reported on their normative beliefs in support of aggression and on their bullying, disruptive and violent behaviors; parents rated youths’ bullying behaviors and conduct problems; schoolwide data on disciplinary referrals and suspensions were obtained from school records. Results Multilevel growth-curve modeling analyses conducted on completion of the trial indicated that Positive Action mitigated increases over time in (1) youth reports of normative beliefs supporting aggressive behaviors and of engaging in disruptive behavior and bullying (girls only); and (2) parent reports of youth bullying behaviors (boys only). At study end-point, students in Positive Action schools also reported a lower rate of violence-related behavior than students in control schools. Schoolwide findings indicated positive program effects on both disciplinary referrals and suspensions. Program effect sizes ranged from ?0.26 to ?0.68. Conclusions These results extend evidence of the effectiveness of the Positive Action program to low-income, minority, urban school settings and to middle school–aged youth. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01025674.

Lewis, Kendra M.; Schure, Marc B.; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Silverthorn, Naida; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R.

2013-01-01

181

Middle School Risk Behavior 1995 Survey Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Middle School Questionnaire, produced by the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was administered for the first time in North Carolina in 1995. The survey monitored high-priority health-risk behaviors, including: (1) weapons and violence; (2) suicide-related behaviors; (3) vehicle safety; (4)…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

182

Caregiver Depression and Youth Disruptive Behavior Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the rates of depressive symptoms and service use among caregivers whose children receive treatment for disruptive behavior disorders. Descriptive analyses examined preliminary baseline data from the Family Groups for Urban Youth with Disruptive Behaviors study for 212 caregivers to determine rates of caregiver depressive symptoms and lifetime mental health service use. Findings indicate that caregivers manifest substantially

Geetha Gopalan; Kara Dean-Assael; Kathryn Klingenstein; Anil Chacko; Mary M. Mckay

2010-01-01

183

Population Density and Youth Antisocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretical models concerning how neighborhood contexts adversely influence juvenile antisocial behavior frequently focus on urban neighborhoods; however, previous studies comparing urban and rural areas on the prevalence of youth antisocial behavior have yielded mixed results. The current study uses longitudinal data on the offspring of a…

Harden, K. Paige; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol; Turkheimer, Eric; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

184

Teaching: Behaviorally Disordered Youth. Volume 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains an advice column and five papers on teaching behaviorally disordered youth. The "Grand Rounds" column offers advice on two teaching situations involving extremely disruptive classroom behavior and elective mutism. "The Franklin-Jefferson Program: Demonstration of an Integrated Social Learning Approach to Educational Services…

Zabel, Mary Kay, Ed.

185

Sexual risk taking among Taiwanese youth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand sexual risk-taking behavior among Taiwanese youth. Thirty-six participants were purposively selected for two to three semistructured, in-depth individual interviews. The constant comparative method and coding process were used for data analysis. The core category of preserving the fantasy of romantic innocence emerged from the initial data analysis to explain how and why young people engage in sexual risk taking. Accordingly, the subcategories of suppressing carnal knowledge and being swept away by love were developed. Suppressing carnal knowledge consisted of keeping silent, having an inadequate sexual education, and having stereotypical thinking and was identified as an explanation as to why young people cannot relate knowledge to actual practice. Being swept away by love included a false knowledge of one's sexual partner, shifting levels of intimacy, and nonacceptance of one's own sexuality. This conceptualization emphasizes the reasons why young people engage in sexual risk taking; that is, cultural reluctance to discuss sexuality openly. The implication of this theorizing is that interventions to reduce sexual risk taking should be done on an individual basis and should consider one's developmental context in order to increase one's skills in effectively discussing sex and sexuality. PMID:11841684

Yeh, Chao-Hsing

2002-01-01

186

Measuring Risk and Protection in Communities Using the Communities that Care Youth Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Communities That Care Youth Survey measures risk and protective factors shown in prior studies to predict adolescent problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence. This paper describes the development and validation of cut points for the risk and protective factor scales in the Communities That Care Youth Survey that…

Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Brooke-Weiss, Blair L.; Catalano, Richard F.

2007-01-01

187

Family Connectedness and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Urban Youth Attending Alternative High Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: Youth in alternative high schools engage in risky sexual behavior at higher rates than do their peers in regu- lar schools, placing themselves at an increased risk of sexually transmitted disease and unintended pregnancy. Family connectedness is associated with reduced adolescent sexual risk-taking, although this association has not been tested among alternative school youth. METHODS: A sample of 976

Christine M. Markham; Susan R. Tortolero; S. Liliana Escobar-Chaves; Guy S. Parcel; Ronald Harrist; Robert C. Addy

2003-01-01

188

Physical activity, dietary practices, and other health behaviors of at-risk youth attending alternative high schools.  

PubMed

This study assessed the interest of alternative high school staff in intervention research on students' eating and physical activity habits and the feasibility of conducting such research in alternative school settings. A two-phase descriptive design incorporated both quantitative and qualitative methods. In fall/winter 2001-2002, alternative high school administrators in Minnesota were surveyed (response rate = 83%; n = 130/157). During summer 2002, one-on-one, semistructured interviews were conducted with key school personnel (n = 15) from urban and suburban schools. Findings indicated few schools had been invited to participate in research on nutrition (11%) and physical activity (7%). However, more than 80% of administrators reported interest in their students participating in such research. Most schools offered health and PE classes and had access to indoor gym facilities and outdoor play areas. While most schools offered a school lunch program, participation was low, cold lunches were common, and food often was unappealing. Beverage and snack vending machines were common. Overall, the physical environment of most alternative schools did not support physical activity and healthy eating as normative behavior. Interest in interventions on physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary practices, and other priority health-risk behavior common in students attending alternative schools was high among teachers and administrators. Results suggest research in alternative high schools is feasible and successful implementation and evaluation of programs possible. PMID:15193001

Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie; Fulkerson, Jayne A

2004-04-01

189

Developmental Interventions with Behaviorally Disordered Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews the developmental perspective in interventions with behaviorally disordered youth and considers developmentally based models (such as the engineered classroom, the conceptual level model, and the developmental task instructional system). The Intervention by Prescription (IBP) model, an integrated problem solving system, is…

Rezmierski, Virginia E.

190

The Behavioral Dynamics of Youth Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role played by past cigarette consumption and individual heterogeneity in recurrent and persistent youth smoking behavior is studied. The study is based on data collected from teenagers of all the 50 United States, over a period extending from 1988 to 1992.

Gilleskie, Donna B.; Strumpf, Koleman S.

2005-01-01

191

Risky Business: Building Resources for At-Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information and suggestions about supporting at-risk youth in Colorado and how to enhance their learning. It provides a framework for working with at-risk youth, but its objectives and strategies can be modified as conditions and needs change. The first section provides an overview of at-risk youth in the new millennium, and…

Thomson, Alexander

192

HIV Information and Behavioral Skills Moderate the Effects of Relationship Type and Substance Use on HIV Risk Behaviors Among African American Youth  

PubMed Central

Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic is disproportionately impacting young African Americans. Efforts to understand and address risk factors for unprotected sex in this population are critical in improving prevention efforts. Situational risk factors, such as relationship type and substance use before sex, are in need of further study. This study explored how established cognitive predictors of risky sexual behavior moderated the association between situational factors and unprotected sex among low-income, African American adolescents. The largest main effect on the number of unprotected sex acts was classifying the relationship as serious (event rate ratio=10.18); other significant main effects were alcohol use before sex, participant age, behavioral skills, and level of motivation. HIV information moderated the effect of partner age difference, motivation moderated the effects of partner age difference and drug use before sex, and behavioral skills moderated the effects of alcohol and drug use before sex. This novel, partnership-level approach provides insight into the complex interactions of situational and cognitive factors in sexual risk taking.

Byck, Gayle R.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Henry, David; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle

2013-01-01

193

Risk Behaviors Associated with Cigarette Use among Asian American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. This study examined the association between several common youth risk behaviors, including cigarette use among Asian American adolescents, using data (N=408) from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The weighted univariate and multivariate logistic…

Kwon, Harry T.; Wang, Min Qi; Valmidiano, Lillian L.

2005-01-01

194

Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed.

Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

2014-01-01

195

Listening to At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this chapter I describe the micro "risk society" of Limerick City and St. Augustine's Youth Encounter Project in terms of the social and cultural background of the interviewees, their perceived family and community identity, and their wider socialisation influences. The project is situated down one of the notorious Limerick lanes made famous in…

Child & Youth Services, 2007

2007-01-01

196

Examining the Developmental Process of Risk for Exposure to Community Violence among Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

Considerable research has documented the effects of community violence exposure on adolescents’ behavior and mental health functioning, yet there has been less research on the process by which early risks increase the likelihood that youth will be exposed to community violence. The current study used data from a community epidemiologically-defined sample of 623 urban youth followed from first grade through adolescence to examine the process by which early-onset aggressive behavior and poor academic readiness influenced risk for community violence exposure. Consistent with transactional developmental theories, early-onset aggressive and disruptive behavior was associated with poor academic readiness; these early risks contributed to later peer rejection, and subsequent conduct problems and greater affiliation with deviant peers, which in turn increased youths’ exposure to community violence. Having an enhanced understanding of the risk process directs attention to potential targets for preventive interventions for youth at risk for subsequent exposure to violence.

Lambert, Sharon F.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Cammack, Nicole L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

197

National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) 1995 Data (on Diskette).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), an epidemiologic surveillance system, was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to monitor the prevalence of youth behaviors that most influence health. The 1995 National C...

1997-01-01

198

A Risk Profile Comparison of Runaway and Non-Runaway Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of data from 1985 visits by 110 runaway and 655 non-runaway youth to an outpatient medical clinic reveals that runaway youth are at greater risk for a wide variety of medical problems and of health-compromising behaviors including suicide, depression, prostitution, and drug use. (Author/BJV)

Yates, Gary L.; And Others

1988-01-01

199

The Nature of the Relationship between Anxious Youth, Spirituality, and Factors of Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests youth anxiety increases the chance of risky behaviors and academic difficulties, whereas spirituality moderates. To confirm these findings, this research investigated the nature of spirituality and trait anxiety on at-risk factors in high school youth. The Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the…

Erickson, Doreen Austin

2009-01-01

200

The Role of Families and Care Givers as Risk and Protective Factors in Preventing Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research which discusses the risk and protective functions that families and other caregivers provide in influencing the development of aggressive behavior in youth. Currently, there is an emphasis on providing violence prevention programs in the school environment, typically with little parental or caregiver involvement. By enhancing the role of families and caregivers in youth violence prevention programs,

Le'Roy E. Reese; Elizabeth M. Vera; Thomas R. Simon; Robin M. Ikeda

2000-01-01

201

At-Risk Youth Appearance and Job Performance Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…

Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.

2008-01-01

202

Gang involvement: psychological and behavioral characteristics of gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth.  

PubMed

Research has noted the existence of a loose and dynamic gang structure. However, the psychological processes that underpin gang membership have only begun to be addressed. This study examined gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth across measures of criminal activity, the importance they attach to status, their levels of moral disengagement, their perceptions of out-group threat, and their attitudes toward authority. Of the 798 high school students who participated in this study, 59 were identified as gang members, 75 as peripheral youth, and 664 as nongang youth. Gang members and peripheral youth were more delinquent than nongang youth overall; however, gang members committed more minor offenses than nongang youth and peripheral youth committed more violent offenses than nongang youth. Gang members were more anti-authority than nongang youth, and both gang and peripheral youth valued social status more than nongang youth. Gang members were also more likely to blame their victims for their actions and use euphemisms to sanitize their behavior than nongang youth, whereas peripheral youth were more likely than nongang youth to displace responsibility onto their superiors. These findings are discussed as they highlight the importance of examining individual differences in the cognitive processes that relate to gang involvement. PMID:20718002

Alleyne, Emma; Wood, Jane L

2010-01-01

203

Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and key journals/meeting abstracts were searched. We included studies that compared children and adolescents (? 18 years) who used MA to those who did not. One reviewer extracted the data and a second checked for completeness and accuracy. For discrete risk factors, odds ratios (OR) were calculated and when appropriate, a pooled OR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was calculated. For continuous risk factors, mean difference and 95% CI were calculated and when appropriate, a weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI was calculated. Results were presented separately by comparison group: low-risk (no previous drug abuse) and high-risk children (reported previous drug abuse or were recruited from a juvenile detention center). Results Twelve studies were included. Among low-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: history of heroin/opiate use (OR = 29.3; 95% CI: 9.8–87.8), family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9), risky sexual behavior (OR = 2.79; 95% CI: 2.25, 3.46) and some psychiatric disorders. History of alcohol use and smoking were also significantly associated with MA use. Among high-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: family history of crime (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.3), family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9), family history of alcohol abuse (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.8–5.6), and psychiatric treatment (OR = 6.8; 95% CI: 3.6–12.9). Female sex was also significantly associated with MA use. Conclusion Among low-risk youth, a history of engaging in a variety of risky behaviors was significantly associated with MA use. A history of a psychiatric disorder was a risk factor for MA for both low- and high-risk youth. Family environment was also associated with MA use. Many of the included studies were cross-sectional making it difficult to assess causation. Future research should utilize prospective study designs so that temporal relationships between risk factors and MA use can be established.

Russell, Kelly; Dryden, Donna M; Liang, Yuanyuan; Friesen, Carol; O'Gorman, Kathleen; Durec, Tamara; Wild, T Cameron; Klassen, Terry P

2008-01-01

204

Education and Training Needs of School Staff Relevant to Preventing Risk Behaviors and Promoting Health Behaviors Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Questioning Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national-level needs assessment of high school psychologists, social workers, counselors, and nurses was conducted to identify training and educational resource material needs of these staff relevant to providing health and mental health services to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning (GLBQ) youth. Systematic sampling procedures were employed with professional membership lists of five national organizations. A self-administered survey, extensively pilot

Richard J. Sawyer; J. Davidson Porter; Thomas C. Lehman; Clinton Anderson; Karen M. Anderson

2006-01-01

205

Youth Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Trajectories and subsequent Gambling among Urban Male Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines the association between aggressive/disruptive behavior development in two distinct developmental periods, childhood (i.e., grades 1–3) and early adolescence (i.e., grades 6–10) and subsequent gambling behavior in late adolescence up to age 20. Method The sample consists of 310 urban males of predominately minority and low socioeconomic status followed from first grade to late adolescence. Separate general growth mixture models (GGMM) were estimated to explore the heterogeneity in aggressive/disruptive behavior development in the above-mentioned two time periods. Results Three distinct behavior trajectories were identified for each time period: a chronic high, a moderate increasing and a low increasing class for childhood, and a chronic high, a moderate increasing followed by decreasing and a low stable class for early adolescence. There was no association between childhood behavior trajectories and gambling involvement. Males with a moderate behavior trajectory in adolescence where two times more likely to gamble compared to those in the low stable class (OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.11, 3.24). Those with chronic high trajectories during either childhood or early adolescence (OR=2.60, 95% CI=1.06, 6.38; OR=3.19, 95% CI=1.18, 8.64, respectively) were more likely to be at-risk/problem gamblers than those in the low class. Conclusions Aggressive/disruptive behavior development in childhood and early adolescence is associated with gambling and gambling problems in late adolescence among urban male youth. Preventing childhood and youth aggressive/disruptive behavior may be effective to prevent youth problem gambling.

Martins, Silvia S.; Liu, Weiwei; Hedden, Sarra L.; Goldweber, Asha; Storr, Carla L.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Stinchfield, Randy; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Petras, Hanno

2013-01-01

206

Suicidal behavior in Latinos: focus on the youth.  

PubMed

The multicultural nature of American society presents clinicians and mental health providers with the unique challenge of working with mentally ill patients from many different cultural backgrounds. Although research investigating suicidal behavior among Latinos is limited, the literature suggests the presence of two distinct phenomena: (a) the prevalence of completed suicide among Latinos as a group is lower than the national rate and (b) the prevalence of suicidal behavior among Latino youth between the ages of 10-24 years is greater than in other ethnic groups, especially among females. Acculturation, family conflicts, physical abuse and sexual abuse, among other factors, have been suggested to increase the risk of depression and suicide among young Latinos. To ameliorate suicidal behavior among Latino youth, more research is needed about specific risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately, suicide prevention. Research focused on identifying risk and mediating factors for suicidal behavior in young Latinos is particularly relevant, given the size and rapid growth of the Latino population in the United States of America. PMID:20306758

Guzmán, Alvaro; Koons, Ann; Postolache, Teodor T

2009-01-01

207

Substance use and risky sexual behavior among homeless and runaway youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To (a) characterize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors of homeless youth; (b) determine whether substance use is associated with risky sexual behavior in this population; and, if so, (c) explore explanations for this relationship.Methods: A purposive sample of 327 homeless youth (ages 14–21 years) in Washington, DC, were surveyed in 1995 and 1996. Survey items were adapted from

SusanL Bailey; CarolS Camlin; SusanT Ennett

1998-01-01

208

Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for HIV Prevention among South African Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the efficacy of sexual risk reduction interventions among South African youth. Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify studies published between 2007 and early 2013. Studies were eligible if they (1) targeted youth age 9–26, (2) evaluated sexual risk reduction interventions and (3) reported at least one behavioral outcome. Independent raters coded study characteristics, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated; positive effect sizes indicated less sexual risk behavior and incident STIs. Results Ten studies (k = 11, N = 22,788; 54% female; 79% Black-African) were included. Compared to controls, interventions were successful at delaying sexual intercourse and, among sexually active youth, at increasing condom use. A single study found reductions in the incidence of herpes simplex virus-2, but not HIV. Conclusions Implementing behavioral interventions to delay sexual debut and improve condom use can help to reduce the transmission of HIV among South African youth.

Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Walstrom, Paige; Harrison, Abigail; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.

2014-01-01

209

HIV Risk Behavior Among Delinquent and Mentally 111 Teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HIV knowledge survey and qualitative interview were administered to 20 case managers in community-based programs for troubled youth to assess HIV knowledge and their perception of client HIV risk behaviors. Participants had good HIV knowledge. Case managers perceived client youth to be at high risk for HIV infection due to unsafe sexual practices, survival sex, vulnerability to victimization, and

Michael D. Smith; David Wyatt Seal; Shannon Hartley

2006-01-01

210

Risky decision-making: An fMRI study of youth at high risk for alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents with a family history of alcoholism (FHP) are at risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD), and some studies indicate that FHP individuals show deficits in executive functioning. The ability to make adaptive decisions is one aspect of successful executive functioning that is often measured during risk-taking tasks; however, this behavior has not been examined in FHP youth. Since impaired decision-making could predispose FHP youth to make poor choices related to alcohol use, the current study examined the neural substrates of risk-taking in FHP adolescents and their family history negative (FHN) peers. Methods Thirty-one (18 FHP, 13 FHN) youth between 13-15 years old were included in this study. All youth had used little to no alcohol prior to study involvement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the neural substrates of risk-taking during the Wheel of Fortune (WOF) decision-making task (Ernst et al., 2004) in FHP and FHN youth. Results FHP youth did not differ from FHN youth in risk-taking behavior, but showed less brain response during risky decision-making in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right cerebellar regions compared to FHN peers. Conclusions Despite no behavioral differences on the WOF decision-making task, FHP youth exhibited atypical neural response during risk-taking compared to FHN peers. Atypical brain activity, in regions implicated in executive functioning could lead to reduced cognitive control, which may result in risky choices regarding alcohol use. This could help explain the higher rates of AUDs seen in FHP adolescents. Further examination of risky behavior and associated brain response over the course of adolescence is necessary to characterize the vulnerabilities of FHP youth in the absence of alcohol abuse.

Cservenka, Anita; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2011-01-01

211

Positive Support: Mentoring and Depression among High-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Positive Support" examines potential benefits of matching high-risk youth with faith-based mentors. Drawing on surveys and interviews with young people who participated in the National Faith-Based Initiative, we found that mentored youth were less likely to show signs of depression than the youth who were not matched with a mentor. This in turn…

Bauldry, Shawn

2006-01-01

212

Risky Sexual Behaviors among a Sample of Gang-identified Youth in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; use of condoms, children, and other pregnancies; group sex; and STIs and sex with drug users. We argue that gang youth are a particular public health concern, due to their heightened risky sexual activity, and that behavioral interventions targeting gang youth need to include a component on reducing sexual risks and promoting safe sexual health.

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

2011-01-01

213

Risky Sexual Behaviors among a Sample of Gang-identified Youth in Los Angeles.  

PubMed

Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; use of condoms, children, and other pregnancies; group sex; and STIs and sex with drug users. We argue that gang youth are a particular public health concern, due to their heightened risky sexual activity, and that behavioral interventions targeting gang youth need to include a component on reducing sexual risks and promoting safe sexual health. PMID:21949598

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

2009-11-01

214

Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Youth With and Without Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among recently diagnosed youth with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic youth and investigate whether demographic, behavioral, or metabolic factors might account for observed differences. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from 106 type 2 diabetic and 189 nondiabetic multiethnic youth, aged 10–22 years, were analyzed. Prevalence of CVD risk factors were age and race/ethnicity adjusted using direct standardization. Multiple linear regression models were sequentially adjusted for demographic, behavioral (dietary saturated fat intake and physical activity), and metabolic (body adiposity and glycemia) factors to explore possible mechanisms associated with differences in CVD risk factors between the case and control groups. RESULTS—Compared with control subjects, youth with type 2 diabetes had a higher prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, large waist circumference, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, and high albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P < 0.05 for each risk factor). Type 2 diabetic youth also had higher levels of apolipoprotein B, fibrinogen, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein, and leptin; lower adiponectin levels; and denser LDL particles (P < 0.05 for each risk factor). Adjustment for BMI, waist circumference, and A1C substantially attenuated differences in the CVD risk factors between the case/control groups, except for fibrinogen and IL-6, which remained significantly higher in type 2 diabetic youth. CONCLUSIONS—Compared with control youth, type 2 diabetic youth have a less favorable CVD risk factor profile. Adiposity and glycemia are important contributors to differences in CVD risk profiles among type 2 diabetic and control youth. Inflammatory and prothrombotic factors may also play an important role.

West, Nancy A.; Hamman, Richard F.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Liese, Angela D.; Zeitler, Philip S.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Dabelea, Dana

2009-01-01

215

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2012-01-01

216

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12 - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Mobility and Morality Weekly Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the hea...

D. Chyen E. O. Olsen H. Wechsler L. Kann S. Kinchen T. McManus W. A. Harris

2011-01-01

217

Risk Versus Direct Protective Factors and Youth Violence  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have examined predictors of youth violence associated with the individual child, the family, school, and the surrounding neighborhood or community. However, few studies have examined predictors using a systematic approach to differentiate and compare risk and direct protective factors. Purpose This study examines risk and protective factors associated with youth violence in an ongoing longitudinal panel study of 808 students from 18 Seattle public elementary schools followed since 1985 when they were in fifth grade. Predictors span the individual, family, school, peer, and neighborhood domains. Methods Data were collected annually, beginning in 1985, to age 16 years, and then again at age 18 years. This paper provides findings of analyses in which continuous predictor variables, measured at ages 10–12 years, were trichotomized to reflect a risk end of the variable, a direct protective end, and a middle category of scores. Youth violence was measured at ages 13–14 years and 15–18 years. Results Bivariate analyses of risk and direct protective factors identified the following predictors of violence at ages 13–14 years and 15–18 years. Risk for violence was increased by earlier antisocial behavior (e.g., prior violence, truancy, nonviolent delinquency), attention problems, family conflict, low school commitment, and living in a neighborhood where young people were in trouble. Direct protective factors at ages 10–12 years include a low level of attention problems, low risk-taking, refusal skills, school attachment, and low access and exposure to marijuana at ages 10–12 years. Multivariate regressions showed neighborhood risk factors to be among the most salient and consistent predictors of violence after accounting for all other variables in the tested models. Conclusions Relatively few direct protective factors were identified in these statistical tests, suggesting the need for further review and possible refinement of the measures and methods that were applied. Implications provide important information for programs and policy.

Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun; Hawkins, J. David

2012-01-01

218

Kids Speak: Preferred Parental Behavior at Youth Sport Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fifer, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However, it is unlikely that…

Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M.

2011-01-01

219

Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and…

Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

2013-01-01

220

Gaps between Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Disclosure during Outpatient Visits  

PubMed Central

Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the gaps between disclosed high-risk behaviors in low-income, mainly Hispanic youth and the identification of these risks by health care providers. Methods. This cross-sectional study included youth 13–19 years old who participated in a study on latent tuberculosis treatment. Youth were interviewed at baseline by bilingual research assistants; the provider visit was assessed by the chart review. Results. Of 221 youth, the majority (96%) were identified as Hispanic, 45% were foreign-born, and 46% were male. A total of 399 risk behaviors were revealed to research staff by the participants; only 24 risk behaviors were revealed to providers. Conclusions. The majority of risk behaviors based on the chart review were neither queried nor disclosed to the physicians. Physicians providing care to adolescents should consider strategies to improve disclosure as a necessary precursor to interventions.

Hill, Linda L.; Hovell, Melbourne; Kelley, Norma; Baird, Sara; Sipan, Carol; Schmitz, Katharine; Friedman, Lawrence

2013-01-01

221

Survival Sex Work and Increased HIV Risk Among Sexual Minority Street-Involved Youth  

PubMed Central

Objectives Exchanging sex for money, drugs, or other commodities for survival is associated with an array of HIV risks. We sought to determine if street-involved drug-using sexual minority youth are at greater risk for survival sex work and are more likely to engage in risk behaviors with clients. Methods We examined factors associated with survival sex work among participants enrolled in the At Risk Youth Study using logistic regression. Self-reported risk behaviors with clients were also examined. Results Of 558 participants eligible for this analysis, 75 (13.4%) identified as a sexual minority and 63 (11.3%) reported survival sex work in the past 6 months. Sexual minority males (adjusted odds ratio = 16.1, P < .001) and sexual minority females (adjusted odds ratio = 6.87, P < 0.001) were at significantly greater risk for survival sex work. Sexual minority youth were more likely to report inconsistent condom use with clients (odds ratio = 4.30, P = 0.049) and reported a greater number of clients in the past 6 months (median = 14 vs. 3, P = 0.008). Conclusions Sexual minority street youth are not only more likely to engage in survival sex work but also demonstrate elevated HIV risk behavior. These findings suggest that harm reduction and HIV prevention programs for sexual minority youth who exchange sex are urgently required.

Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Wood, Evan

2013-01-01

222

A Prevention Program for Middle-School High Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 5-year federally funded substance abuse prevention program targeted 426 high risk middle-school youth from 4 school districts in Nassau County, New York. Combining a child-centered model with a systemic approach, the program's goal was to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol and other drug use. High-risk youth were identified by school…

Gittman, Elizabeth; Cassata, Marian

223

Promoting healthy outcomes among youth with multiple risks: innovative approaches.  

PubMed

Adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior problems, and mental health problems have extremely high social costs and lead to overburdened mental health and juvenile justice systems in the United States and Europe. The prevalence of these problems is substantial, and at-risk youth often present with a combination of concerns. An understanding of risk and protective factors at multiple levels, including the child, family, peer, school, and community, has influenced intervention development. At the individual and family levels, the most effective and cost-effective programs work intensively with youth and their families or use individual and group cognitive-behavioral approaches. However, there is a paucity of careful studies of effective policies and programs in the juvenile justice system. Research is needed that focuses on adoption, financing, implementation, and sustainable use of evidence-based programs in public service systems. In addition, the field needs to understand better for whom current programs are most effective to create the next generation of more effective and efficient programs. PMID:23297659

Greenberg, Mark T; Lippold, Melissa A

2013-01-01

224

A Brief Screening Measure of Adolescent Risk Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of…

Lescano, Celia M.; Hadley, Wendy S.; Beausoleil, Nancy I.; Brown, Larry K.; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail

2007-01-01

225

New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (YRRS). 2005 Report of State Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 2005, the New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM YRRS) was conducted in New Mexico public high schools, with 5,679 students in grades nine through twelve participating from 20 public high schools in the state. The NM YRRS is a tool that can assist administrators and policy makers in identifying health risk behaviors among…

Green, Dan; Penaloza, Linda J.; Chrisp, Eric; Dillon, Mary; Cassell, Carol M.; Tsinajinnie, Eugene; Rinehart, Judith; Ortega, Willa

2006-01-01

226

Youths' HIV Risk in the Justice System: A Critical but Neglected Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventive measures that can help in the juvenile system to address HIV risk and psychiatric disorders among detained youths are discussed. Early holistic interventions concluded by incorporating relevant family, peer, school and community factors could decrease later HIV risk behavior is presented.

Brown, Larry K.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Whiteley, Laura Brave

2008-01-01

227

Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... City, San Diego, and San Francisco—that collected data on high school students’ sexual identity (heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, ... Risk Behavior Surveillance Overall Results Slides Participation Map - High School Participation Map - ... Files & Methods Requesting Data Files Data Request Form ...

228

Behaviors of Youth Involved in the Child Welfare System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Using data from a nationally representative panel study, the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), we address the following questions: (a) What are the youth, family, community, and child welfare system risk factors that place youth (ages 11-14 years) living at home, who are referred for maltreatment, at increased…

Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ruffolo, Mary C.; Ortega, Robert M.; Clarke, Jenell

2008-01-01

229

Exclusionary health policy: responding to the risk of poor health among sexual minority youth in Canada.  

PubMed

Measuring indicators of health status and demographics are essential in the population health approach. In Canada, sexual minority youth face increased risk for poor health outcomes in behavioral and mental health indicators, yet the health policy response has been severely lacking. The current population health approach exacerbates the social exclusion of a vulnerable, at-risk population. The authors examine health status through the social determinants of health to highlight the need for including sexual identity, attraction, and behavior in youth population health surveys. Additional interventions that address the social determinants of health are needed. PMID:24188299

Ylioja, Thomas; Craig, Shelley L

2014-01-01

230

Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of At-Risk Youth Following Participation in a Required Ninth-Grade Academic Support Study Center Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overall, pretest-posttest results for achievement, behavior, and engagement for at-risk boys not eligible (n = 13) and eligible (n = 9) for participation in the free or reduced price lunch program who completed a school-year long academic support study center program were not statistically different over time and end of school year for cumulative…

Wagner, Jeffrey P.

2012-01-01

231

Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts  

PubMed Central

This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings.

Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina

2011-01-01

232

Choking Game: CDC's Findings on a Risky Youth Behavior  

MedlinePLUS

... Injury Center Research Update The Choking Game: CDC´s Findings on a Risky Youth Behavior Centers for Disease ... adolescents from the choking game. Highlights from their findings address some common questions about this public health ...

233

Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences...Prevalence, Drug Use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors. A FYSB Research Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professionals who work with runaway, throwaway, and homeless youth have long known that many of these young people leave home to escape abusive and/or destructive family situations. This update presents the findings of a national study on such children. Results of the study, "Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences: Prevalence,…

Johnson, Bassin, and Shaw, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

234

Correlates of sexual risk among sexual minority and heterosexual South african youths.  

PubMed

We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n?=?822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B?=?3.90; SE?=?0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR?=?3.11; CI?=?1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149

Thurston, Idia B; Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M; Otwombe, Kennedy N; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E

2014-07-01

235

Suicide Interventions Targeted toward At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne

2012-01-01

236

Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

2008-01-01

237

Parental Detection of Youth's Self-Harm Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rate and predictors of parental detection of youth self-harm behavior and relationship with help-seeking were examined in 7,036 parent-child dyads from the 1999 and 2004 surveys of Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain. Youth self-harm behavior was reported by 463 (6.6%) children and adolescents but only 190 (2.7%) of the…

Mojtabai, Ramin; Olfson, Mark

2008-01-01

238

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

PubMed Central

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. To current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths’ reinforcement sensitivity–behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)–is associated with specific clinical outcomes and increases risk for the development of such problems following exposure to violence. Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, Latino youth (N=168) provided reports of BIS/BAS and emotional/behavioral problems at Time 1, exposure to violence between Time 1 and Time 2, and clinical symptoms at Time 2. Results suggested that reinforcement sensitivity moderated the relation between violence exposure and psychopathology, such that increasing levels of BIS were associated with elevated risk for internalizing and posttraumatic stress symptoms following exposure to violence whereas BAS increased risk for externalizing problems. The importance of building on existing knowledge to understand minority youth psychopathology is discussed.

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2013-01-01

239

Mass Media as an HIV-Prevention Strategy: Using Culturally Sensitive Messages to Reduce HIV-Associated Sexual Behavior of At-Risk African American Youth  

PubMed Central

The evidence base and theoretical frameworks for mass media HIV-prevention campaigns in the United States are not well-developed. We describe an intervention approach using culturally sensitive mass media messages to enhance protective beliefs and behavior of African American adolescents at risk for HIV. This approach exploits the potential that mass media messages have, not only to reach a large segment of the adolescent population and thereby support normative change, but also to engage the most vulnerable segments of this audience to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors. The results from an ongoing HIV-prevention trial implemented in 2 medium-sized cities in the United States illustrate the effectiveness of this intervention approach.

Sznitman, Sharon; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Fortune, Thierry; Juzang, Ivan

2009-01-01

240

Correlates of Externalizing Behavior Symptoms among Youth within Two Impoverished, Urban Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether risk factors associated with child externalizing behavior symptoms differ between two similar low-income, urban communities, using baseline parent data of 154 African American youth (ages 9-15) participating in the Collaborative HIV-Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) family program. Separate…

Gopalan, Geetha; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Bannon, William M.; McKay, Mary M.

2009-01-01

241

Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

2013-01-01

242

A conceptual framework for reducing risky teen driving behaviors among minority youth  

PubMed Central

Teenage drivers, especially males, have higher rates of motor vehicle crashes and engage in riskier driving behavior than adults. Motor vehicle deaths disproportionately impact youth from poor and minority communities and in many communities there are higher rates of risky behaviors among minority youth. In this paper, the authors review the data on teens, risky driving behaviors, and morbidity and mortality. They identify areas in which known disparities exist, and examine strategies for changing teen driving behavior, identifying what has worked for improving the use of seat belts and for reducing other risky behaviors. A multifaceted, multilevel model based on ecological theory is proposed for understanding how teens make choices about driving behaviors, and to understand the array of factors that can influence these choices. The model is used to create recommendations for comprehensive intervention strategies that can be used in minority communities to reduce disparities in risk behaviors, injury, disability, and death.

Juarez, P; Schlundt, D G; Goldzweig, I; Stinson, N

2006-01-01

243

Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: Associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.  

PubMed

Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth. PMID:25047297

Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

2014-08-01

244

Prevalence of youth access to alcohol, guns, illegal drugs, or cigarettes in the home and association with health-risk behaviors.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of access to alcohol, guns, drugs, or cigarettes in the home and its association with related health-risk behaviors among adolescents.METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 1995 in-home survey of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health which used a nationally representative school-based sample (N = 6,504) of adolescents in grades 7-12. We used logistic regression analysis, adjusted for gender, race/ethnicity and age, to examine the associations between access to alcohol, guns, drugs, and cigarettes in the home and the practice of risk behaviors involving those variables.RESULTS: Overall, 1,817 (28%) adolescents reported having easy access to alcohol in the home, 1,616 (25%) had access to a gun, 189 (3%) had access to drugs, and 2,067 (32%) had access to cigarettes. Associations were found between easy home access to alcohol and drinking during the past 12 months (Adj. OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.89-2.47), ever being drunk at school (Adj. OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.85-2.95, and ever driving drunk (Adj. OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.29-2.09). Access to a gun at home was associated with carrying a gun to school (Adj. OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.40-4.64). Associations were also found between access to drugs and cigarettes in the home and ever using drugs and smoking regularly.CONCLUSIONS: Easy access to alcohol, guns, and cigarettes in the home is prevalent among adolescents and may increase involvement in risky behaviors. Limiting access therefore is important in order to reduce the occurrence of health-risk behaviors associated with substance use, deliquency and injury among adolescents. PMID:11018352

Swahn; Hammig

2000-10-01

245

Suicide Risk in Youth with Intellectual Disability: The Challenges of Screening  

PubMed Central

Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), often diagnosed with co-morbid psychiatric disorders, are a vulnerable population who may be at risk for developing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that direct suicide screening can rapidly and effectively detect suicide risk and facilitate further clinical evaluation and management. Currently, there are no measures that screen for suicide risk designed specifically for individuals with ID. A review of the literature was conducted: 1) to estimate the prevalence of suicidal thoughts, behaviors and deaths by suicide in children and adolescents with ID; 2) to describe associations between youth with ID and suicide risk; 3) to identify the limitations of commonly used suicide screening measures developed for non-ID youth. The literature review confirms that suicide risk exists in this population; youth with ID think about, attempt and die by suicide. Standardized suicide risk screening is challenged by the lack of measures developed for this population. A summary of the findings is followed by a discussion of the practical clinical considerations surrounding the assessment of suicide risk in youth with ID.

Ludi, Erica; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Greenbaum, Rachel; Pao, Maryland; Bridge, Jeffrey; Reynolds, William; Horowitz, Lisa

2012-01-01

246

The Behavioral Assessment of Parents and Coaches at Youth Sports: Validity and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A behavioral assessment system for scoring the behaviors of parents and coaches at youth sports games is described within this paper. The Youth Sports Behavior Assessment System (YSBAS) contains nine behavioral categories describing behaviors commonly seen during youth sports. The developmental process of YSBAS and the observer-training program…

Apache, R. R.

2006-01-01

247

Population Density and Alcohol-Related Risk Behaviors among US High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By better understanding differences in health-risk behaviors among youth in rural, suburban and urban communities, health educators and other public health practitioners can more appropriately focus prevention and health care programs. In this study, we examined data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to determine whether…

Greggo, Jennifer; Jones, Sherry Everett; Kann, Laura

2005-01-01

248

Understanding the Downward Extension of Psychopathy to Youth: Implications for Risk Assessment and Juvenile Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychopathy is an important construct in adult risk assessment resulting from strong associations to antisocial behavior and criminal recidivism. A recent trend is the downward extension of psychopathic traits to explain juvenile violence. Applying the concept of psychopathy to youthful offenders has great potential; however, its application to adolescence is fraught with uncertainty. This article discusses how the search for

Michael J. Vitacco; Gina M. Vincent

2006-01-01

249

Offsetting Risks: High School Gay-Straight Alliances and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…

Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.

2011-01-01

250

Offsetting Risks: High School Gay-Straight Alliances and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to lower levels of problematic substance use, depressive symptoms, and psychological

Nicholas C. Heck; Annesa Flentje; Bryan N. Cochran

2011-01-01

251

Youth Engagement and Suicide Risk: Testing a Mediated Model in a Canadian Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…

Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

2010-01-01

252

The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked closely at the…

Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

2013-01-01

253

The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked closely at the…

Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

2013-01-01

254

The Children and Youth At-Risk Effort in Hawaii.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hawaii Project on Children and Youth At-Risk represents a long-term effort to strengthen the individual school's capacity to meet the special needs of students at-risk. According to the project's definition, a student is at-risk if he/she has consistently failed to make satisfactory school progress, if that failure could be positively…

Koki, Stanley I.

255

Discriminative Validity of the General Behavior Inventory Using Youth Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the ability of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI) to discriminate between diagnostic groups using youth self-report. One hundred and ninety-seven youths ages 10–17 years presenting at a midwestern urban outpatient clinic specializing in mood disorders completed the GBI as part of the intake process. Diagnoses were determined by a structured clinical interview (K-SADS) administered by either

Carla Kmett Danielson; Eric A. Youngstrom; Robert L. Findling; Joseph R. Calabrese

2003-01-01

256

Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.

Singh, Sonal

2011-01-01

257

Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

Singh, Sonal

2011-01-01

258

Alcohol Use and Delinquent Behaviors among Youths. The NSDUH Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol use by youths has been linked to delinquent behaviors, such as stealing, illicit drug use, and problems in school. Research also indicates that early drinkers are more likely than nondrinkers to engage in delinquent behaviors. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks persons aged 12 or older to report their alcohol use in…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

2005-01-01

259

Trajectories of Youthful Antisocial Behavior: Categories or Continua?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitatively distinct trajectories of antisocial behavior could be identified in 1,708 children (843 boys, 865 girls) from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (NLSY-C). Repeated ratings were made on the Behavior Problems Index (BPI: Peterson and Zill "Journal of Marriage and…

Walters, Glenn D.; Ruscio, John

2013-01-01

260

Religion and American Adolescent Delinquency, Risk Behaviors and Constructive Social Activities. A Research Report of the National Study of Youth and Religion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used data from the Monitoring the Future Survey of high school seniors to examine the impact of religion on U.S. adolescents' participation in constructive youth activities. Overall, religion positively related to participation in constructive activities. Students who participated in religious activities tended to be less likely to…

Smith, Christian; Faris, Robert

261

A Classification of High-Risk Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the results of developing and evaluating a classification of 315 arrested youths processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center in Tampa, Florida. Cluster analysis of summary measures of nine baseline alcoholother drug use and self-reported delinquency variables identified four groups of youths: (a) low-level delinquents and drug users, (b) high-level delinquents, (c) hair-test-identified marijuana and cocaine

Richard Dembo; James Schmeidler

2003-01-01

262

Youth Living with HIV and Partner-specific Risk for the Secondary Transmission of HIV  

PubMed Central

Summary A comparison of risks for the secondary transmission of HIV between young HIV-infected women-who-have-sex-with-men (WSM) and men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) found that recent partner-specific sexual risk behaviors are high among both populations. However, differences in the specific behaviors between WSM and MSM support population-specific interventions to reduce the secondary transmission of HIV. Background Secondary transmission remains a significant concern among HIV-infected youth. Little is known, however, about how partner-specific sexual risk behaviors for the secondary transmission of HIV may differ between the two largest subgroups of HIV positive youth, women-who-have-sex-with-men (WSM) and men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), Methods During 2003-2004, a convenience sample of HIV-infected youth, 13-24 years of age, were recruited from 15 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network clinical sites. Approximately 10-15 youth were recruited at each site. Participants completed an ACASI survey including questions about sex partners in the past year. Cross-sectional data analyses, including bivariate and multivariable regressions using generalized estimating equations, were conducted during 2008 to compare recent partner-specific sexual risk behaviors between WSM and MSM. Results Of 409 participants, 91% (371) were included in this analysis, including 176 WSM and 195 MSM. Ninety-two percent (163 WSM, 177 MSM) provided information on characteristics of their sexual partners. There were significant differences between the two groups in recent partner-specific sexual risk behaviors including: lower rates of condom use at last sex among WSM (61% WSM vs. 78% MSM; p=0.0011); a larger proportion of the sex partners of MSM reported as concurrent (56% MSM vs. 36% WSM; p=0.0001); and greater use of hard drugs at last sex by MSM and/or their partner (18% MSM vs. 4% WSM; p=0.0008). When measuring risk as a composite measure of sexual risk behaviors known to be associated with HIV transmission, both groups had high rates of risky behaviors, 74.7% among young MSM compared to 68.1% of WSM. Conclusions These data suggest that recent partner-specific sexual risk behaviors for HIV transmission are high among young infected MSM and WSM. These findings suggest the need to offer interventions to reduce the secondary transmission of HIV to all HIV-positive youth in care. However, differences in risk behaviors between young MSM and WSM supports population-specific interventions.

Jennings, Jacky M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Harris, D. Robert; Muenz, Larry R.; Barnes, William; Lee, Sonia; Auerswald, Colette L.

2009-01-01

263

Prevent Alcohol and Risk Related Trauma in Youth program  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe Prevent Alcohol and Risk Related Trauma in Youth (P.A.R.T.Y) program is a 1-day injury awareness and prevention program for youth ages 15 and older, developed in 1986 at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Canada.MethodsStudents follow the course of injury from occurrence, through transport, treatment, rehabilitation and community re-integration phases. They interact with a team of health professionals that

J M Banfield

2010-01-01

264

Self-Reported Health Behavior and Attitudes of Youths 12-17 Years, United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of self-report health behavior and attitudes of American youths based on questionnaire responses of a national probability sample of noninstitutionalized youths 12 through 17 years of age. Topics include behavior and attitudes relating to ge...

J. Scanlon

1975-01-01

265

The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Understanding Risk, Protection, and Substance Use among High-Risk Youth. Monograph Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…

Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

266

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Youth  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Randomized clinical trials indicate that approximately two-thirds of children treated with CBT will be free of their primary diagnosis at posttreatment. Although several CBT treatment packages have been investigated in youth with diverse anxiety disorders, common core components have been identified. A comprehensive assessment, development of a good therapeutic relationship and working alliance, cognitive restructuring, repeated exposure with reduction of avoidance behavior, and skills training comprise the core procedures for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth.

Seligman, Laura D.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

267

Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Risks Among Homeless Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…

Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.

2004-01-01

268

Positive Support: Mentoring and Depression Among High-Risk Youth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the time that the National Faith-Based Initiative for High-Risk Youth (NFBI) began in 1998, little evidence existed about the effectiveness of mentoring programs for high-risk young people. Two out of three significant studies evaluating the effect of ...

2006-01-01

269

Parenting behaviors and anxious self-talk in youth and parents.  

PubMed

The present study examined the association between parental anxious self-talk, parenting behaviors, and youth anxious self-talk. Parents and youth ages 7 to 14 (M = 10.17; N = 208; 53% male) seeking treatment for anxiety were evaluated for anxiety symptoms, youth anxious self-talk, parental anxious self-talk, and youth-perceived parenting behavior. Youth and parental anxious self-talk were assessed by both child and parent self-reports; youth-perceived parenting behaviors were assessed by youth-reports. Parenting behaviors included separate ratings of paternal and maternal (a) acceptance, (b) psychological control, and (c) firm/behavioral control. Correlational analyses revealed that maternal anxious self-talk, but not paternal anxious self-talk, was significantly associated with youth's anxious self-talk. Maternal anxious self-talk had an inverse association with youth-perceived maternal acceptance, but was not associated with youth-perceived maternal psychological or behavioral control. Higher youth-perceived maternal acceptance was significantly associated with lower youth anxious self-talk. Youth-perceived maternal acceptance partially mediated the association between mother's anxious self-talk and youth's anxious self-talk. However, this mediation effect disappeared when taking into account youth depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to clinical implications and future directions in research. PMID:24773220

Wei, Chiaying; Cummings, Colleen M; Villabø, Marianne A; Kendall, Philip C

2014-06-01

270

Sex, contraception and childbearing among high-risk youth: do different factors influence males and females?  

PubMed

The correlates of high-risk adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated through use of data from the 1979-92 waves of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the linked 1994 young adult data file on their children. The sample was comprised of 959 youth, most of whom were 14-18 years old at the time of the 1994 survey, who were the oldest child of the original female respondents. The analysis of risk behaviors was restricted to the 483 youth known to be sexually active. Compared to their non-sexually-active counterparts, sexually active youth had lower family incomes, mothers with lower educational attainment, and mothers who themselves became sexually active at a young age (mean, 15.5 years). Sexual activity at an early age was further associated with substance abuse, a view of oneself as a risk taker, and a history of running away from home. Early age at first coitus, nonuse of contraception, and adolescent childbearing were significantly linked with depression, feeling like a failure, and little sense of control over one's life in female respondents. In contrast, sexually active teen males reported low levels of depression and felt in control of their lives. After parenthood, tentative evidence of maturity emerged for both genders. Young mothers reduced their alcohol consumption and spent less time with peers who drank; young fathers exhibited lower levels of willingness to take risks, higher depression, and greater involvement in socially productive activities. PMID:9711453

Kowaleski-Jones, L; Mott, F L

1998-01-01

271

Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors of American Youth with an Emphasis on Youth from Disadvantaged Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation commissioned a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviors of disadvantaged youth in America to identify the critical gaps in environmental education so that resources can be targeted more effectively. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative research among disadvantaged students through…

Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.

272

Are Mexican American Adolescents at Greater Risk of Suicidal Behaviors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reexamination of ethnicity as a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior, focusing on whether Mexican American youths are at increased risk, was undertaken. Data from a sample of 4,175 African, European, and Mexican Americans, aged 11-17, are presented. We examined lifetime attempts and past year attempts, thoughts, and plans. Odds ratios,…

Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

2007-01-01

273

Cumulative experiences of violence among high-risk urban youth.  

PubMed

This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence and high degree of overlap among multiple types of violence exposure. Childhood physical, sexual (CSA), and emotional (CEA) abuse were interrelated and were associated with ECV. Cumulative experiences of childhood abuse (CCA) had a graded association with IPV victimization. In multivariate analyses, CCA and ECV were independently associated with IPV victimization. Gender moderated the effect of one association: CEA raised the risk of IPV victimization for girls but not for boys. Only CSA predicted IPV perpetration. Findings suggest that cumulative exposures to violence create cumulative risk for experiencing more violence. Shelter-dwelling, urban youth may be particularly vulnerable to this additive effect. PMID:18319372

Taylor, Catherine A; Boris, Neil W; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A; Rice, Janet C; Zeanah, Charles H

2008-11-01

274

Racial\\/Ethnic Differences in Caregiver Strain and Perceived Social Support Among Parents of Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined several hypotheses related to racial\\/ethnic variations in caregiver strain and perceived social support among parents caring for children with emotional\\/behavioral problems. A subsample of youth from the Patterns of Care (POC) study, which drew a stratified random sample of high-risk youth active to 1 of 5 public sectors of care, was used to test these hypotheses. When

Kristen M. McCabe; May Yeh; Anna Lau; Ann Garland; Richard Hough

2003-01-01

275

Career Information Motivates At-Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses the concern that too many youth leave high school without constructive plans for the future. Career planning helps some young people develop a sense of connectedness leading to commitment and follow-through. The Career Information System (CIS) is an interactive, computer-based system helping students explore occupational and…

McKinlay, Bruce; Bloch, Deborah Perlmutter

1989-01-01

276

Understanding Youthful Risk Taking and Driving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Injuries from motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for young persons, accounting for more than one-fifth of all deaths in the late teenage years. Youthful drivers are substantially overrepresented in motor vehicle crashes compared to all o...

1995-01-01

277

Literacy for Youth: What Counts As Success in Programs for Youth at Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined what counts as success in literacy and numeracy programs for youth at risk in Victoria. It explored the relationship between discourses around best practice in government reports and through examining academic writings, surveying providers and policymakers, and speaking with practitioners and participants. Main findings indicated…

Ovens, Carolyn

278

Effects of Familial Attachment, Social Support, Involvement, and Self-Esteem on Youth Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.

2010-01-01

279

Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining

J. Mark Eddy

2005-01-01

280

Lowering Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in High-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among children and youth who develop type 2 diabetes (T2DM) there are a number of genetic and environmental factors that lead to a combination of insulin resistance and relative-cell secretory failure of the pancreas. These factors include ethnicity (highest in American Indian youth), obesity, sedentary behavior, family history of T2DM, puberty,…

Bobo, Nichole; Schantz, Shirley; Kaufman, Francine R.; Kollipara, Sobha

2009-01-01

281

Gender and the Effects of an Economic Empowerment Program on Attitudes Toward Sexual Risk-Taking Among AIDS-Orphaned Adolescent Youth in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis article examines gender differences in attitudes toward sexual risk–taking behaviors of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)–orphaned youth participating in a randomized control trial testing an economic empowerment intervention in rural Uganda.

Fred M. Ssewamala; Leyla Ismayilova; Mary McKay; Elizabeth Sperber; William Bannon Jr.; Stacey Alicea

2010-01-01

282

Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

2014-01-01

283

Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and

Kelly Russell; Donna M Dryden; Yuanyuan Liang; Carol Friesen; Kathleen O'Gorman; Tamara Durec; T Cameron Wild; Terry P Klassen

2008-01-01

284

Outcomes of sexual behaviors among sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe what we know about positive and negative outcomes of sexual behavior among sexual minority youth. This discussion takes into account physical outcomes, psychological and emotional outcomes, and outcomes related to identity development. Lastly, I discuss the limitations of prior research and propose several goals for future research to expand our understanding of this topic. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24962360

Morgan, Elizabeth M

2014-06-01

285

Muscular fitness and clustered cardiovascular disease risk in Australian youth.  

PubMed

Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the association of muscular fitness phenotypes (strength, endurance and power) on CVD risk in youth has not been examined. We examined the cross-sectional association between muscular fitness phenotypes with individual and clustered CVD risk factors and determined if any potential associations are independent of CRF. Participants were 1,642 youth aged 9, 12, and 15 years from the Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey that had muscular strength (dynamometer), power (standing long-jump), and endurance (push-ups) as well as CRF (1.6 km run-time) measured. Outcomes included established risk factors (body mass index, waist circumference, blood lipids and blood pressure) and a clustered CVD risk-score. Muscular strength, endurance, and power were inversely associated with clustered CVD risk (all P < 0.05). After adjustment for body mass index, the association remained for muscular endurance and power (all P ? 0.001), but not strength. Muscular power was inversely related to prevalence of clustered CVD risk (?80th percentile) within low (P trend < 0.001), moderate (Ptrend < 0.001), and high (Ptrend = 0.001) CRF categories. Among youth, low muscular fitness levels as well as low CRF should be avoided for primary CVD prevention. PMID:22183088

Magnussen, Costan G; Schmidt, Michael D; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison

2012-08-01

286

Firefighters' cardiovascular risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Cardiac events are strongly associated with line-of-duty deaths among firefighters. The frequency with which firefighters succumb to cardiovascular events while on duty is well documented. Many firefighters have undiagnosed or undertreated hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, as well as poor dietary habits and marginal physical fitness. Extremely high heart rates while engaged in fire suppression increase the risk for cardiovascular risk within the fire service. Cultural factors such as shift work and crew cohesion create multiple levels of influence on firefighters' decisions about engaging in positive health behaviors. This review highlights the significance of primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases that is culturally congruent with the fire service. PMID:24571052

Banes, Catherine J

2014-01-01

287

Trends in Sexual Risk Behavior and Unprotected Sex among High School Students, 1991-2005: The Role of Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To determine the trends in sexual activity and unprotected sex among substance-using youth, we examined data from the 1991-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys on drug and alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors. Method: We examined the association of alcohol and illicit drug use with recent sexual activity and unprotected sex. We assessed…

Anderson, John E.; Mueller, Trisha E.

2008-01-01

288

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for Hispanic Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

289

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for Black Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

290

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for White Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

291

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for All Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

292

Severe Behavior Disorders of Children and Youth. Monograph in Behavioral Disorders. Summer, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph on severe behavior disorders of children and youth presents 23 papers on juvenile delinquency, behavior disorders at the secondary level, and self control instruction. Some of the papers included are: "A Comparison of Varied Teacher-to-Child Ratio on the Adaptive and Attending Behaviors of Two Autistic Children" (M. Zener, et al.);…

Rutherford, Robert B., Jr., Ed.; And Others

293

Therapist Alliance-Building Behavior Within a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the specific behavior of therapists contributing to a child client's perception of a therapeutic alliance with youth (n = 56) who received a manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety disorders. The first 3 sessions were coded for 11 therapist behaviors hypothesized to predict ratings of alliance. Child, therapist, and observer…

Creed, Torrey A.; Kendall, Philip C.

2005-01-01

294

Health risk behaviors of Texas students attending dropout prevention/recovery schools in 1997.  

PubMed

This study determined prevalence of health risk behaviors of 9th through 12th grade students attending dropout prevention/recovery alternative schools in Texas in 1997. Participants were 470 youth whose health risk behaviors were assessed using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in an anonymous, self-administered format. Behaviors measured included frequency of weapon-carrying and fighting, suicide-related behaviors, substance use, and sexual behaviors. A substantial percentage of alternative school students reported participating in behaviors that placed them at acute or chronic health risk. Differences in the prevalence of risk behaviors were noted by gender, racial/ethnic, and age subgroups. In addition, alternative school students frequently engaged in multiple risk behaviors. These findings suggest a need for comprehensive school-based health education/intervention programs to reduce the prevalence of risk behaviors in populations of alternative school students. PMID:10098115

Weller, N F; Tortolero, S R; Kelder, S H; Grunbaum, J A; Carvajal, S C; Gingiss, P M

1999-01-01

295

Toward a New Paradigm in Substance Abuse and Other Problem Behavior Prevention for Youth: Youth Development and Empowerment Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses a paradigm shift taking place in the field of substance-abuse prevention for youth. Introduces the youth development and empowerment (YD&E) approach, an innovative program for treating substance abuse and other problem behavior. Discusses the process of implementing the YD&E program. (MKA)

Kim, Sehwan; Crutchfield, Charles; Williams, Charles; Hepler, Nancy

1998-01-01

296

Longitudinal Links between Contextual Risks, Parenting, and Youth Outcomes in Rural African American Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collected longitudinal data from rural, African American, single mother-headed families with young adolescents to examine longitudinal links between contextual risks, parenting, and youth outcome. Accumulated risks related to lower levels of the competence-promoting parenting practices that were linked directly with youth outcomes via youth

Kim, Sooyeon; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride

2003-01-01

297

Empowering Youth-At-Risk with Skills for School and Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains papers from a conference on at-risk youth that focused on building strengths and empowering youth by giving them skills for school and life. Following an introduction titled "Motivational Strategies for Empowering Youth-At-Risk" by Dan Rea and Robert Warkentin, the papers are: (1) "The Role of Learning Environments: Social…

Rea, Dan, Ed.; Warkentin, Robert, Ed.

298

Building Self-Esteem in At-Risk Youth. Peer Group Programs and Individual Success Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the problems of high-risk youth are well known and raise widespread concern, few alternative educations exist to help troubled youth who are poor. This book describes various peer-group programs to rehabilitate high-risk youth. Following the introduction, chapter 1 describes the goals, stages, and techniques of peer-group programs.…

Frank, Ivan C.

299

PROBLEM PROFILES OF AT-RISK YOUTH IN TWO SERVICE PROGRAMS: A MULTI-GROUP, EXPLORATORY LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

Baseline data collected in two brief intervention projects (BI-Court and Truancy Project) were used to assess similarities and differences in subgroups of at-risk youth. Classifications of these subgroups were based on their psychosocial characteristics (e.g., substance use). Multi-group latent class analysis (LCA) identified two BI-Court subgroups of youth, and three Truant subgroups. These classes can be viewed as differing along two dimensions, substance use involvement and emotional/behavioral issues. Equality tests of means across the latent classes for BI-Court and Truancy Project youths found significant differences that were consistent with their problem group classification. These findings highlight the importance of quality assessments and allocating appropriate services based on problem profiles of at-risk youth.

Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora; Gulledge, Laura; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Schmeidler, James; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven

2011-01-01

300

Health risk behavior of rural secondary school students in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A socioculturally appropriate health risk behavior instrument, modeled after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), was administered to 717 secondary school students in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Comparisons of risk behaviors by gender and school grade were made using univariate procedures and multiple logistic regression. Males were significantly more likely than females to have had sexual intercourse (odds ratio = 5.02, p < .0001) and to report drug use behaviors. Males also were significantly more likely to report early initiation (by age 13 years) of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. School site violence and drug use behaviors also were prevalent in this sample. An interaction between gender and grade was evident for some behaviors. Additional research may further the understanding of these risk behaviors and facilitate development of effective, culturally relevant risk reduction programs. PMID:11575689

Gwede, C K; McDermott, R J; Westhoff, W W; Mushore, M; Mushore, T; Chitsika, E; Majange, C S; Chauke, P

2001-10-01

301

Prevention of Youth Suicides and Suicidal Behavior  

MedlinePLUS

... Sharaf e al., JCAPN, 2009) Important Resources for Suicide Prevention American Association of Suicidology resources Warning Signs of ... suicidewarning-signs Risk Factors for Suicide and other suicide prevention fact sheets at http://www.suicidology.org/web/ ...

302

Pathways to Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Detained Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study recruited 559 youths from detention centers (mean age was 15.4 years; 50.1% of detainees were girls) to investigate pathways that link witnessing community violence in the 12 months before detainment to drug and sexual risk behaviors in the two months preceding detainment. Through the use of audio-computer-assisted technology, data were…

Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2008-01-01

303

Sexual Behavior, Risk Beliefs, and Assertiveness among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HIV risk behaviors were examined with 457 adolescents, ages 12 to 19, from four environments (community, high school, and two youth conferences). Over half reported being sexually experienced, with an average age of 13.6 for willingly engaging in first sexual intercourse. Boys reported engaging in intercourse at a significantly younger age than…

Lang, Michelle A.

304

Change Trajectories for the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report: Identifying Youth at Risk for Treatment Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used longitudinal youth outcome data in routine mental health services to test a system for identifying cases at risk for treatment failure. Participants were 2,715 youth (M age = 14) served in outpatient managed care and community mental health settings. Change trajectories were developed using multilevel modeling of archival data.…

Cannon, Jennifer A. N.; Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Burlingame, Gary M.

2010-01-01

305

Concordance between self-reported substance use and toxicology among HIV-infected and uninfected at risk youth  

PubMed Central

Background Substance use by youth living with HIV (YLWH) is a concern, given potential interactions with virus-associated immune suppression and adverse effects on risk behaviors, neurocognition, and adherence. Self-report substance use measures provide efficient cost-effective assessments. Analyses describe self-reported substance use among YLWH and examine agreement with toxicology assays. Methods Seventy-eight youth age 18–24 years (87% male, 71% African–American) with behaviorally acquired HIV-1 infection and 55 uninfected youth completed the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test to assess drug use frequency, including tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol, over the prior three months. Elisa-based toxicology assays were used to detect 27 substances in plasma. Chi-square tests compared substance use between YLWH and uninfected youth; Kappa statistics compared agreement between self-report and toxicology. Results YLWH reported marijuana (49%), tobacco (56%), and alcohol (87%) use, with 20%, 28% and 3% reporting daily use of each substance, respectively; other substance use was uncommon. Uninfected youth reported less tobacco use but otherwise similar substance use. All youth who reported daily use of marijuana or tobacco had positive plasma toxicology results, while concordance decreased with less frequent self-reported use. Among youth reporting no substance use, few tested positive (4% YLWH, 2% uninfected youth for cannabis; 8%YLWH for tobacco). Conclusions Youth report high rates of marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol use. Concordance between self-report and toxicology for marijuana and tobacco use, particularly for daily users, supports self-report as a valid indicator of substance use in research studies of youth with or without HIV-1 infection.

Nichols, Sharon L.; Lowe, Amanda; Zhang, Xinrui; Garvie, Patricia A.; Thornton, Sarah; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Hou, Wei; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Sleasman, John W.

2014-01-01

306

Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

2013-01-01

307

Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior

de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

2014-01-01

308

Family Functioning, Substance Use and Related Problem Behaviors: Hispanic vs. Anglo Runaway Youths  

PubMed Central

Runaway youths represent a neglected clinical group, and few studies have examined ethnicity differences within this population. Substance use, family functioning and related problem behaviors were examined in a sample of Hispanic and Anglo runaway youths with substance abuse diagnoses (N = 145). Youths, aged 12–17, were recruited from two urban, southwestern runaway shelters. Within single-parent families, Anglo youths reported more marijuana use, and, regardless of family constitution, reported more tobacco use than did Hispanic youths. Overall, Anglo youths reported more externalizing problems and more conflict tactics used in resolving disagreements with their primary caretaker while Hispanic youths reported higher depression and familism scores. Given the differences found between Hispanic and Anglo youths, the findings argue that culturally sensitive interventions for runaway youths and families are warranted.

Slesnick, Natasha; Vasquez, Christina; Bittinger, Joyce

2008-01-01

309

Influence of Caring Youth Sport Contexts on Efficacy-Related Beliefs and Social Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding what factors influence positive youth development has been advocated by youth development researchers (P. L. Benson, 2006; J. S. Eccles & J. A. Gootman, 2002). Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine whether perceptions of a caring youth sport context influenced prosocial and antisocial behavior through efficacy-related beliefs, that is, positive and negative affective self-regulatory efficacy (ASRE)

Lori A. Gano-Overway; Maria Newton; T. Michelle Magyar; Mary D. Fry; Mi-Sook Kim; Marta R. Guivernau

2009-01-01

310

Influence of Caring Youth Sport Contexts on Efficacy-Related Beliefs and Social Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding what factors influence positive youth development has been advocated by youth development researchers (P. L. Benson, 2006; J. S. Eccles & J. A. Gootman, 2002). Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine whether perceptions of a caring youth sport context influenced prosocial and antisocial behavior through…

Gano-Overway, Lori A.; Newton, Maria; Magyar, T. Michelle; Fry, Mary D.; Kim, Mi-Sook; Guivernau, Marta R.

2009-01-01

311

Programs and Policies that Promote Positive Youth Development and Prevent Risky Behaviors: An International Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter provides an international perspective on the promotion of positive development and the prevention of risky behavior among youth. We discuss some of the specific challenges that youth face in low- and middle-income countries and identify six key evidence-based policies and programs that aim to promote positive youth development and…

Naudeau, Sophie; Cunningham, Wendy; Lundberg, Mattias K. A.; McGinnis, Linda

2008-01-01

312

Psychometric Properties of a Youth Self-Report Measure of Neglectful Behavior by Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aimed to empirically assess psychometric properties of a multi-dimensional youth self-report measure of neglectful behavior by parents. Method: Data were gathered from 593 12-year-old youth participating in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) consortium; 272 also had data at age 14. Youth responded…

Dubowitz, Howard; Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Pitts, Steven C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Thompson, Richard; Black, Maureen M.; Runyan, Desmond

2011-01-01

313

Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

2010-01-01

314

Student Assistance Programs and High Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual discusses a method for developing a comprehensive drug abuse prevention and intervention program for students in special education. The first section contains introductory material regarding high risk students in general and implications for special education. The second section outlines material on specific types of high-risk

Casale, Jenni

315

Protective Factors Associated with Fewer Multiple Problem Behaviors among Homeless/Runaway Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although homeless youth exhibit numerous problem behaviors, protective factors that can be targeted and modified by prevention programs to decrease the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors are less apparent. The current study tested a model of protective factors for multiple problem behavior in a sample of 474 homeless youth (42% girls;…

Lightfoot, Marguerita; Stein, Judith A.; Tevendale, Heather; Preston, Kathleen

2011-01-01

316

The Youth Form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI--Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart" behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy…

Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Desmond, Frederic F.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Smith, Tasia M.

2012-01-01

317

Disordered Eating Behaviors in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: Prospective Pilot Assessment Following Initiation of Insulin Pump Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background There is risk for disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetes, especially related to insulin manipulation. Implementation of insulin pump therapy may encourage either normalization of eating behaviors or a greater focus on food intake due to renewed emphasis on carbohydrate counting. There is need for prospective studies to assess disordered eating behaviors upon implementation of pump therapy using diabetes-specific measurement tools. Subjects and Methods In a multicenter pilot study, 43 youth with type 1 diabetes, 10–17 years old, were assessed prior to pump initiation and after 1 and 6 months of pump therapy. Youth completed the Diabetes-specific Eating Problems Survey-Revised (DEPS-R), a validated measure of risk for both diabetes-specific and general disordered eating behaviors. Results Youth (45% female), 13.3 years old with diabetes for 2.1 years, had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.3±1.3% (68±14.5?mmol/mol) at baseline. DEPS-R scores decreased over time (P=0.01). Overall rate of high risk for eating disorders was low. Overweight/obese youth endorsed more disordered eating behaviors than normal-weight participants. DEPS-R scores were correlated with z-score for body mass index at all three time points and with hemoglobin A1c after 1 and 6 months. Hemoglobin A1c did not change significantly over the 6 months and was higher in overweight/obese compared with normal-weight participants. Conclusions Initiation of insulin pump therapy was associated with diminished endorsement of disordered eating behaviors in youth with type 1 diabetes. Longer follow-up studies are needed to assess the impact of insulin pump therapy on glycemic control, weight status, and disordered eating behaviors in this vulnerable population.

Markowitz, Jessica T.; Alleyn, Cielo A.; Phillips, Roxanne; Muir, Andrew; Young-Hyman, Deborah

2013-01-01

318

Predicting the Onset of Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative Youths with HIV-Positive Mothers: The Role of Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Social-Interaction Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves. Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and…

Mellins, Claude A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Ouzama; Warne, Patricia; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.

2007-01-01

319

Do Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Family Functioning Increase the Risk of Hispanic Adolescent HIV Risk Behaviors?  

PubMed Central

In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent–adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent–adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV risk behaviors, including substance use and sexual risk behaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and their families.

CORDOVA, DAVID; HUANG, SHI; LALLY, MEGHAN; ESTRADA, YANNINE; PRADO, GUILLERMO

2014-01-01

320

Do Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Family Functioning Increase the Risk of Hispanic Adolescent HIV Risk Behaviors?  

PubMed

In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent-adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV risk behaviors, including substance use and sexual risk behaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and their families. PMID:24617745

Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Lally, Meghan; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

2014-06-01

321

The Added Risk of Opioid Problem Use among Treatment-Seeking Youth with Marijuana and/or Alcohol Problem Use  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the added risk of opioid problem use (OPU) in youth with marijuana/alcohol problem use (MAPU). Method 475 youth (ages 14–21 years) with OPU+MAPU were compared to a weighted sample of 475 youth with MAPU only (i.e., no OPU) before and after propensity score matching on gender, age, race, level of care, and weekly use of marijuana/alcohol. Youth were recruited from 88 drug treatment sites participating in eight Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded grants. At treatment intake, participants were administered the Global Appraisal of Individual Need to elicit information on demographic, social, substance, mental health, HIV, physical and legal characteristics. Odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results The added risk of OPU among MAPU youth was associated with greater comorbidity: higher rates of psychiatric symptoms and trauma/victimization; greater needle-use and sex-related HIV-risk behaviors and greater physical distress. The OPU+MAPU group was less likely to be African American or other race and more likely to be age 15–17 years, Caucasian; report weekly drug use at home and among peers; engage in illegal behaviors and be confined longer; have greater substance abuse severity and poly drug use; and use mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Conclusions These findings expand on the existing literature and highlight the substantial incremental risk of OPU on multiple comorbid areas, among treatment-seeking youth. Further evaluation is needed to assess their outcomes following standard drug treatment and to evaluate specialized interventions for this subgroup of severely impaired youth.

Subramaniam, Geetha A; Ives, Melissa L.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Dennis, Michael L.

2009-01-01

322

Negative life events: risk to health-related quality of life in children and youth with HIV infection.  

PubMed

Children and youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection are living longer because of improved drug therapies, but they may be at risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes because of nondisease factors. Families affected by HIV disease are more likely to experience major negative life events (NLEs). The effects of NLEs, shown to impact HRQOL in children with other chronic illnesses, have not been evaluated in children with HIV infection. The primary objective of this study was to determine if NLEs occurring in the previous 12 months were associated with increased risk for poorer outcomes in three measures of HRQOL (health perception, behavior problems, and symptom distress) in a cohort of children and youth with HIV infection. The authors conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data determined in 1999 from 1,018 children and youth 5 to 21 years of age enrolled in a longitudinal follow-up study. Multivariate logistic regressions estimated the odds for worse HRQOL outcomes. Children and youth with one or more NLEs had significantly lower health perceptions, more behavior problems, and greater symptom distress than children with no reported NLEs. The occurrence of NLEs may present a significant nondisease risk for diminished HRQOL among children and youth challenged by HIV disease. Nursing efforts to support these younger patients and their families sustaining major family disruption caused by NLEs may improve overall health outcomes in this vulnerable population. PMID:17338981

Howland, Lois C; Storm, Deborah S; Crawford, Sybil L; Ma, Yunsheng; Gortmaker, Steven L; Oleske, James M

2007-01-01

323

Profiles of problematic behaviors across adolescence: covariations with indicators of positive youth development.  

PubMed

Previous analyses of data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD) have examined concurrent trajectories of positive development and risk/problem behaviors among adolescents, finding complex and not necessarily inverse relationships among them. In this article, we expand on prior research by employing a person-centered approach to modeling risk behaviors, assessing development from approximately 6th grade through 12th grade among 4,391 adolescents (59.9% female). Latent profiles involving the problematic behaviors of delinquency, depressive symptoms, substance use, sexual activity, disordered eating behaviors, and bullying were then assessed for concurrent relationships with the Five Cs of PYD: Competence, Confidence, Character, Caring, and Connection. We found six latent profiles, based primarily on mental health, aggression, and alcohol use, with significant differences in Confidence levels among many of the profiles, as well as some differences in the four other Cs. We discuss directions for future research and implications for application to youth policies and programs. PMID:24562425

Arbeit, Miriam R; Johnson, Sara K; Champine, Robey B; Greenman, Kathleen N; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

2014-06-01

324

Repeated Changes in Reported Sexual Orientation Identity Linked to Substance Use Behaviors in Youth  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previous studies have found that sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual) adolescents are at higher risk of substance use than heterosexuals, but few have examined how changes in sexual orientation over time may relate to substance use. We examined the associations between change in sexual orientation identity and marijuana use, tobacco use, and binge drinking in U.S. youth. Methods Prospective data from 10,515 U.S. youth ages 12-27 years in a longitudinal cohort study were analyzed using sexual orientation identity mobility measure M (frequency of change from 0 [no change] to 1 [change at every wave]) in up to five waves of data. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate substance use risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals; interactions by sex and age group were assessed. Results All substance use behaviors varied significantly by sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were at higher risk for all outcomes, excluding binge drinking in males, and mobility score was positively associated with substance use in most cases (p<.05). The association between mobility and substance use remained significant after adjusting for current sexual orientation and varied by sex and age for selected substance use behaviors. This association had a higher positive magnitude in females than males and in adolescents than young adults. Conclusions In both clinical and research settings it is important to assess history of sexual orientation changes. Changes in reported sexual orientation over time may be as important as current sexual orientation for understanding adolescent substance use risk.

Ott, Miles Q.; Wypij, David; Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L.; Gordon, Allegra R.; Austin, S. Bryn

2012-01-01

325

The prevalence of eating behaviors among Canadian youth using cross-sectional school-based surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. Methods The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grades 5-12) from four regions in Canada. The regions were Hamilton and Thunder Bay (both in Ontario), the Province of Prince Edward Island, and the Province of Quebec. Results Consuming breakfast daily was reported by 70% of grade 5-8 students, and 51% of grade 9-12’s. Among students in grade 9-12, 52% reported eating with family members daily, compared with 68% in grade 5-8. Just over half of students in grade 5-8, and 70% in grade 9-12 reported eating at a fast-food place once a week or more. Among grade 5-8 students 68% reported eating in front of the television at least once per week, compared to 76% in grade 9-12. Obese students were more likely to watch TV while eating, and less likely to eat with a family member and eat breakfast. Conclusions The findings suggest that only a modest proportion of youth report dietary patterns that have previously been associated with healthy eating and reduced risk of obesity. Later adolescence may be a critical time for intervention in health-related behaviors.

2014-01-01

326

Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... youth homelessness based on current evidence about what works. Click here to find out more about the Framework. Communities Engaged in Youth Homelessness In communities across the country, organizations, schools, researchers, philanthropic partners and young people are ...

327

Correlates of Externalizing Behavior Symptoms Among Youth Within Two Impoverished, Urban Communities  

PubMed Central

The current study examines whether risk factors associated with child externalizing behavior symptoms differ between two similar low-income urban communities, using baseline parent data of 154 African American youth (ages 9–15) participating in the Collaborative HIV-Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) family program. Separate multiple regression analyses of each city sample indicated that greater child externalizing symptoms were associated with increasing parenting hassles for New York families (n = 46), but greater parent mental health symptoms for participants in Chicago (n = 108). Understanding such distinctions between communities is an important first step towards tailoring services to unique community needs.

Gopalan, Geetha; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Bannon, William M.; McKay, Mary M.

2011-01-01

328

Risk Factors for Homelessness Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Developmental Milestone Approach  

PubMed Central

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are over-represented in the homeless population. To examine why some LGB youths become homeless, this report compares homeless and non-homeless LGB youths. Of the 156 LGB youths, 48% reported ever being homeless (i.e., running away or being evicted from home). Results indicate that sexual orientation awareness and the initiation of sexual behavior occurred earlier in homeless than in non-homeless LGB youths and predated the first homeless episode. Substance use was more frequent and first occurred at an earlier age in homeless as compared to non-homeless LGB youths; however, substance use occurred subsequent to first homelessness. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with homelessness; and, early sexual orientation development was related to homelessness among youths without a history of sexual abuse. Findings suggest that interventions should help youths cope with their unfolding sexual orientation and work to prevent or address the consequences of sexual abuse.

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

2011-01-01

329

Moving On: Transitions for Youth with Behavioral Disorders. Working with Behavioral Disorders: CEC Mini-Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet reviews the literature on transitional services for youth with behavior disorders, provides examples of successful programs and activities, and identifies key elements of successful programs. Specific sections of the monograph address the following areas: long-term life adjustment; transition studies; vocational assessment; social…

Bullis, Michael; Gaylord-Ross, Robert

330

Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains digital age youth information behaviors from a holistic perspective. In order to bridge the empirical

Kyungwon Koh

2011-01-01

331

Parental Social Support and the Physical Activity-Related Behaviors of Youth: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…

Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.

2010-01-01

332

A Systematic Review of Environmental Correlates of Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational…

van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, A.; Ferreira, I.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Giskes, K.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.

2007-01-01

333

Predicting Residential Treatment Outcomes for Emotionally and Behaviorally Disordered Youth: The Role of Pretreatment Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined outcomes with 170 children and youth admitted to residential treatment with complex mental health problems. Overall, outcomes at 2 years post-treatment was predicted by children and youth's behavioral pretreatment status reflected in lower internalizing and externalizing behavior at admission. These findings recognize a cluster…

den Dunnen, Wendy; St. Pierre, Jeff; Stewart, Shannon L.; Johnson, Andrew; Cook, Steven; Leschied, Alan W.

2012-01-01

334

Youth-caregiver Agreement on Clinical High-risk Symptoms of Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Early identification of individuals who will go on to develop schizophrenia is a difficult endeavor. The variety of symptoms experienced by clinical high-risk youth make it difficult to identify who will eventually develop schizophrenia in the future. Efforts are being made, therefore, to more accurately identify at-risk individuals and factors that predict conversion to psychosis. As in most assessments of children and adolescents, however, both youth and parental report of symptomatology and resulting dysfunction are important to assess. The goals of the current study were to assess the extent of cross-informant agreement on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), a widely-used tool employed to determine clinical high-risk status. A total of 84 youth-caregiver pairs participated. Youth and caregiver raters displayed moderate overall agreement on SIPS-rated symptoms. Both youth and caregiver ratings of youth symptomatology contributed significantly to predicting conversion to psychosis. In addition, youth age and quality of youth-caregiver relationships appear to be related to cross-informant symptom ratings. Despite differences on individual SIPS domains, the majority of dyads agreed on youth clinical high-risk status. Results highlight the potential clinical utility of using caregiver informants to determine youth psychosis risk.

Golembo-Smith, Shana; Bachman, Peter; Senturk, Damla; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

2014-01-01

335

The Authoritative Parenting Index: Predicting Health Risk Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health research demonstrates increasing interest in mobilizing parental influence to prevent health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. This research focuses on authoritative parenting, which previous studies suggest can prevent health risk behaviors among youth. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a new survey measure of authoritative parenting, data from studies of (1) substance use in a sample

Christine Jackson; Lisa Henriksen; Vangie A. Foshee

1998-01-01

336

An interprofessional model for serving youth at risk for substance abuse: the team case study.  

PubMed

Three models of interprofessional education appropriate for serving youth at risk for substance abuse are described. One of the models, the team case study, was evaluated by school personnel trained in its use. Results indicated that participants were more sensitive to the multiple needs of youth at risk, experienced increased comfort in seeking consultation from other agents working with such youth, and were more confident of their abilities to select and implement appropriate interventions for youth at risk for substance abuse following their training. PMID:7658299

Cobia, D C; Center, H; Buckhalt, J A; Meadows, M E

1995-01-01

337

Telephone vs. face-to-face notification of HIV results in high-risk youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To increase the number of high-risk and homeless youth who receive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test results and posttest counseling.Methods: Oral HIV testing and counseling were offered to high-risk and homeless youth at sites at which youth congregate throughout Portland, Oregon. Subjects were randomized to receive test results and posttest counseling either in a face-to-face manner or with the

Rachel C Tsu; Michael L Burm; Jennifer A Gilhooly; C. Wayne Sells

2002-01-01

338

The behavioral contributors to highway crashes of youthful drivers.  

PubMed

The per-mile crash rate of drivers under age 20 is over five times that of the adult population in general, while that of 16-year-old novices is approximately ten times that of adults. Reports of over 2,000 non-fatal crashes involving young drivers were analyzed for behavioral crash contributors as a step in orienting preventive efforts. The great majority of non-fatal crashes resulted from errors in attention, visual search, speed relative to conditions, hazard recognition, and emergency maneuvers, with high speeds and patently risky behavior accounting from but a small minority. The pattern of errors for novices did not differ significantly from that of more experienced youth. PMID:11558091

McKnight, A J; McKnight, A S

2000-01-01

339

Youth Depression in the Family Context: Familial Risk Factors and Models of Treatment  

PubMed Central

Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of parent and family factors is associated with youth risk for depression, ranging from parental pathology to parental cognitive style to family emotional climate. Next, treatment approaches for youth depression that have been empirically tested are described and then summarized in terms of their level of parent inclusion, including cognitive–behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and family systems approaches. Families have mostly not been incorporated into clinical treatment research with depressed adolescents, with only 32% of treatments including parents in treatment in any capacity. Nonetheless, the overall effectiveness of treatments that involve children and adolescents exclusively is very similar to that of treatments that include parents as agents or facilitators of change. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings and directions for further research.

Sander, Janay B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.

2006-01-01

340

Associations of Dating Violence Victimization with Lifetime Participation, Co-Occurrence, and Early Initiation of Risk Behaviors among U.S. High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association of victimization in a physically violent dating relationship with risk behaviors, age of risk behavior initiation, and co-occurrence of risk behaviors among students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Data were from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Nearly 9% of students reported…

Eaton, Danice K.; Davis, Kristen S.; Barrios, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Noonan, Rita K.

2007-01-01

341

Recognition for positive behavior as a critical youth development construct: conceptual bases and implications on youth service development.  

PubMed

Recognition for positive behavior is an appropriate response of the social environment to elicit desirable external behavior among the youth. Such positive responses, rendered from various social systems, include tangible and intangible reinforcements. The following theories are used to explain the importance of recognizing positive behavior: operational conditioning, observational learning, self-determination, and humanistic perspective. In the current work, culturally and socially desirable behaviors are discussed in detail with reference to Chinese adolescents. Positive behavior recognition is especially important to adolescent development because it promotes identity formation as well as cultivates moral reasoning and social perspective thinking from various social systems. The significance of recognizing positive behavior is illustrated through the support, tutorage, invitation, and subsidy provided by Hong Kong's social systems in recognition of adolescent volunteerism. The practical implications of positive behavior recognition on youth development programs are also discussed in this work. PMID:22666155

Law, Ben M F; Siu, Andrew M H; Shek, Daniel T L

2012-01-01

342

Attempted suicide and associated risk factors among youth in urban Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Suicide is a major social and health issue in Japan. We assessed prevalence of attempted suicide and explored individual,\\u000a interpersonal, behavioral, and psychological risk factors associated with attempted suicide in a general community sample\\u000a of youth in a metropolitan Japanese city.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Survey of 2,095 participants age between 15 and 24 who were recruited using street-intercept techniques.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Overall, 6% of males

Yasuharu Hidaka; Don Operario; Mie Takenaka; Sachiko Omori; Seiichi Ichikawa; Takuma Shirasaka

2008-01-01

343

Programs and policies that promote positive youth development and prevent risky behaviors: an international perspective.  

PubMed

This chapter provides an international perspective on the promotion of positive development and the prevention of risky behavior among youth. We discuss some of the specific challenges that youth face in low- and middle-income countries and identify six key evidence-based policies and programs that aim to promote positive youth development and prevent risky behavior. We also propose a set of practical recommendations for policymakers and other stakeholders on how to develop and implement an effective youth portfolio in the context of limited financial resources. PMID:19021247

Naudeau, Sophie; Cunningham, Wendy; Lundberg, Mattias K A; McGinnis, Linda

2008-01-01

344

On the Association between Sexual Attraction and Adolescent Risk Behavior Involvement: Examining Mediation and Moderation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk

Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F.

2008-01-01

345

Alternatives for Youth-At-Risk: Outdoor Experiences for a Special Population. An Occasional Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camping or other outdoor experience is seen as an alternative to incarceration for youth-at-risk, matching the excitement of the street-gang society or peer group, while simultaneously giving youth-at-risk a sense of the reason for teamwork, adherence to a group-respected value system, regard for skills and abilities of others, plus a…

Lingle, Kendall I.

1980-01-01

346

Risk Factors for Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use among Runaway Youth Utilizing Two Services Sectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high rates of substance use among American adolescents are challenging; however, runaway youth are at particularly high-risk for substance use. Runaway youth utilizing two service sectors, emergency crisis shelters and juvenile detention centers, were recruited to evaluate differences in risk factors associated with substance use. Findings…

Thompson, Sanna J.; Zittel-Palmara, Kimberley M.; Forehand, Gregory

2005-01-01

347

Preventing Substance Use in High Risk Youth: Evaluation Challenges and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs to prevent substance use among high risk youth can pose numerous challenges for program evaluators including FEASIBILITY ISSUES such as Participant Recruitment and Retention, Identifying High Risk Youth, and Obtaining a Control\\/Comparison Group; MEASUREMENT ISSUES such as Social Desirability Bias and Instrument Reliability; METHODOLOGIC ISSUES such as Attrition (both selective and differential), Inadequate Implementation and Variable Dose, Low Statistical

Ken Resnicow; Ronald Braithwaite; Colleen Dilorio; Roger Vaughan; Marcia I. Cohen; Gary A. Uhl

2001-01-01

348

Youth Depression in the Family Context: Familial Risk Factors and Models of Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of parent and family factors is associated with youth risk

Janay B. Sander; Carolyn A. McCarty

2005-01-01

349

Risk Factors for Sexual Victimization Among Male and Female Homeless and Runaway Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk factors associated with the likelihood of being sexually victimized by a stranger or friend/acquaintance since being on the street was examined among 372 homeless and runaway youth. Young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers using a systematic sampling strategy. Youth who engaged in more high-risk

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Cauce, Ana Mari

2004-01-01

350

Sexual Values and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Youths  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Understanding Latino youths’ sexual values is key to informing HIV prevention efforts. Few studies have examined associations between culturally based sexual values and behaviors among Latinos. METHODS A sample of 839 sexually active Latinos aged 16–22 residing in San Francisco were interviewed in 2003–2006. Multiple regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between sexual values and behaviors, while adjusting for language use (a proxy for acculturation) and other covariates. RESULTS The importance attached to female virginity was negatively associated with the number of sexual partners women had had in their lifetime (odds ratio, 0.8) and in the past year (0.9), and was positively associated with women’s nonuse of condoms, rather than consistent use, during the first month of their current relationships (1.8). For men, the importance of satisfying sexual needs increased with the numbers of lifetime and recent sexual partners (1.4 and 1.1, respectively), and with inconsistent condom use in the first month of their relationships (1.9). Comfort with sexual communication was positively associated with inconsistent use or nonuse of condoms in the last month of both men’s and women’s current relationships (2.0–2.2). For women, considering satisfaction of sexual needs important was associated with more sexual partners only among those who attached little value to female virginity. CONCLUSIONS It is important to integrate themes of virginity and sexual desire into intervention curricula so youth can better understand how these sexual norms influence their developing sexual identities and behaviors.

Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena; Ozer, Emily J.

2010-01-01

351

Violent behavior among urban youth attending alternative schools.  

PubMed

This study described violent behavior and aggression among youth attending alternative schools, and examined sociodemographic factors associated with such violence. The study involved 494 students attending 10 alternative schools in Houston, Texas. Data were collected between November 2000 and February 2001 by audio-enabled laptop computers equipped with headphones. Students self-reported an average of 11.8 aggressive acts during the week prior to the survey. Students reported a 30-day weapon carrying prevalence of 22.7%; 30-day gun carrying prevalence of 11.1%; 30-day knife or club prevalence of 17.2%; 12-month fighting prevalence of 50.6%; and 12-month prevalence of injuries due to fighting of 6.5%. Association between demographic variables, self-reported aggressive behavior, and other forms of aggression was examined using multivariate logistic regression. Students were divided into four mutually exclusive violence-related categories: no fighting and no weapon (referent), fighting only, carrying weapon only, fighting and weapon carrying. Student aggression was significantly associated with fighting and weapon carrying, with incremental increases at each level (OR 1.1 per unit of increase, 95% CI 1.1-1.2) and in presence of the covariates. Among Houston's alternative school students, the prevalence of violent behavior (weapon carrying, gun carrying, knife or club carrying, fighting, and treatment by a doctor or nurse for injuries) is higher compared to regular high school students. Aggression related strongly to weapon carrying and fighting in the sample. Data indicate alternative school youth urgently need prevention and treatment programs to help them live in safer environments. PMID:12557630

Escobar-Chaves, S Liliana; Tortolero, Susan R; Markham, Christine; Kelder, Steve H; Kapadia, Asha

2002-11-01

352

Risk of Losing Insurance During the Transition into Adulthood Among Insured Youth with Disabilities  

PubMed Central

To compare insured youth (age 15–25 years) with and without disabilities on risk of insurance loss. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation 2001. Descriptive statistics characterized insured youth who maintained and lost insurance for at least 3 months over a 3-year time frame. We conducted logistic regression to calculate the association between disability and insurance loss. Adjustment variables were gender, race, ethnicity, age, work or school status, poverty status, type of insurance at study onset, state generosity, and an interaction between disability and insurance type. This study includes 2,123 insured youth without disabilities, 320 insured youth with non-severe disabilities, and 295 insured youth with severe disabilities. Thirty-six percent of insured youth without disabilities lost insurance compared to 43% of insured youth with non-severe disabilities and 41% of insured youth with severe disabilities (P = .07). Youth with non-severe disabilities on public insurance have an estimated 61% lower odds of losing insurance (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.93; P = .03) compared to youth without disabilities on public insurance. Further, youth with severe disabilities on public insurance have an estimated 81% lower odds of losing insurance (OR: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.40; P < .001) compared to youth without disabilities. When examining youth with private insurance, we find that youth with severe disabilities have 1.63 times higher odds (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.57; P = .04) of losing health insurance compared to youth without disabilities. Insurance type interacts with disability severity to affect odds of insurance loss among insured youth.

Grembowski, David; Watts, Carolyn

2010-01-01

353

Drugs use and risk behavior in a university community.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate drug use and risk behaviors among students of the University of Guayaquil in Ecuador. To evaluate this issue, we used the questionnaire "Youth Risk Behavior Survey" (YRBS). The study sample consisted of 751 undergraduate students: 328 (44%) male and 423 (56%) female. Average age was 20 years old and 85,5% of the students were single. Alcohol, tobacco and marihuana were the most consumed substances among students, who use them for entertainment. Drug consumption (legal or illegal) among students has become an issue for specialized research as well as an important field of intervention for public policies. PMID:16501792

Piedra Chavez, Ketty Aracely; O'Brien, Beverley; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

2005-01-01

354

Preventing Youth Incarceration Through Reading Remediation: Issues and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of court-involved youths have experienced academic failure, school exclusion, and dropout. Researchers have identified factors that increase a youth's risk for court involvement and incarceration. The risk factors include individual, family, community, peer, and school factors. Researchers actually have identified specific school-based policies and practices that may exacerbate the risks for delinquent behavior and incarceration among youths. For

Christine A. Christle; Mitchell L. Yell

2008-01-01

355

A prospective look at substance use and criminal behavior in urban ADHD youth: what is the role of maltreatment history on outcome?  

PubMed

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence/early adulthood. Here, we characterize the antisocial outcomes of a sample of urban, lower-socioeconomic-status, ethnically diverse ADHD youth and investigate the impact of maltreatment history on criminal and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes. Ninety-eight participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood were re-assessed 10 years later and compared with controls. Regression analyses investigated the effect of maltreatment on antisocial outcomes among four groups based on ADHD and maltreatment status. ADHD subjects and controls did not differ in rates of arrest, conviction, incarceration, or recidivism. ADHD youth were younger at their first arrest with higher rates of SUDs when compared to controls. Controls and ADHD subjects with maltreatment had significantly higher rates of SUDs compared to the no-ADHD/no-maltreatment group. Only ADHD youth with maltreatment had significantly higher rates of arrest than the reference group. In contrast to prior studies, ADHD youth did not differ from controls on most measures of antisocial behavior. Maltreatment increased the rate of arrest only among ADHD youth, though increased the rate of SUD for ADHD youth and controls. This suggests that ADHD youth, in the absence of maltreatment, are at no greater risk of SUDs or arrest than controls without maltreatment. PMID:24610394

De Sanctis, Virginia A; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

2014-06-01

356

The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of…

Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard

357

A Pilot Study Connecting Youth with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties to Summer Work Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the potential contributions of adolescent employment to postschool success, many youth who experience emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) do not access these opportunities. This intervention study examined the effects of a package of strategies designed to increase access to summer work experiences. Fifty-seven youth with EBD from…

Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Owens, Laura

2011-01-01

358

A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary be- havior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environ- mental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational studies on environmental correlates of energy, fat, fruit\\/ vegetable,

Klazine van der Horst; A. Oenema; I. Ferreira; W. Wendel-Vos; K. Giskes; F. van Lenthe; J. Brug

2006-01-01

359

The Impact of Educational Reform on the Attitudes and Behavior of Chinese Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the influence of the new educational strategy on the changing structure of opportunities for Chinese youth, discusses current educational inequalities which emerged from post-Mao reform, and analyzes the effect of new policies on youth attitudes and behaviors. (IAH)

Rosen, Stanley

1988-01-01

360

Confessions of a Baseball Mom: The Impact of Youth Sports on Parents' Feelings and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore parents' emotional investment in and behaviors in response to youth sports, the author conducted a mixed-methods investigation to answer four research questions: (1)How do parents feel about their children's participation in organized youth team sports? (2) Which situations trigger which feelings? (3) How do parents' feelings influence…

Peter, Nancy E.

2011-01-01

361

Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: The Inner Workings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…

Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

2013-01-01

362

The Integration of Research and Practice in the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of youth problem behaviors is increasingly guided by science. Sound epidemiological research is coming to guide preventive efforts. Valid methods of monitoring the incidence and prevalence of youth problems increasingly shape preventive practice. The identification of empirically supported prevention interventions is becoming more sophisticated, and numerous scientific organizations have begun to engage in dissemination activities. These trends will

Anthony Biglan; Patricia J. Mrazek; Douglas Carnine; Brian R. Flay

2003-01-01

363

Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviors in Youths with Mild or Borderline Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six types of antisocial and delinquent behaviors (e.g., property destruction and authority avoidance) were assessed in 526 youths (11 to 24 years of age) with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and 1,030 11- to 18-year-olds without intellectual disabilities. Overall, 10% to 20% of youths with intellectual disabilities exhibited some type…

Douma, Jolanda C. H.; Dekker, Marielle C.; de Ruiter, Karen P.; Tick, Nouchka T.; Koot, Hans M.

2007-01-01

364

Using the Primary Socialization Theory to Predict Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Black and White Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Using the Primary Socialization Theory (PST), we examined substance use and sexual risk-taking behaviors between Black (N = 1,464) and White (N = 3,946) adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 1, public use (Add Health). Self-reported substance use and sexual risk-taking behaviors, PST constructs, and covariates were assessed using regression modeling techniques. Black youth were more likely to initiate sex, while White youth were more likely to report lifetime alcohol use. The PST predicted risk for White but not Black youth. The study’s limitations are noted, and implications for future research are discussed.

Francis, Shelley A.; Thorpe, Roland J.

2011-01-01

365

Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.  

PubMed

Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits. PMID:21153441

Ferguson, Christopher J

2011-09-01

366

Personality Inventory for Youth: Screening for High-Risk Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alarming number of adolescents regularly engage in activities that place them at risk for adverse mental and physical health consequences. In addition to risk-taking behaviors, adolescent psychopathology raises concern. Research indicates that the majority of adolescents who are severely emotionally disturbed do not receive any kind of mental…

Ziegenhorn, Leslie; And Others

367

The Drift toward Problem Behavior during the Transition to Adolescence: The Contributions of Youth Disclosure, Parenting, and Older Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective associations of mothers' parenting processes, youth disclosure, and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a 3-year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and was negatively related to problem behavior, and…

Low, Sabina; Snyder, James; Shortt, Joann Wu

2012-01-01

368

Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

2012-01-01

369

Do dopamine gene variants and prenatal smoking interactively predict youth externalizing behavior?  

PubMed

Externalizing behaviors (encompassing antisocial, impulsive, and substance use behaviors) are pervasive and impairing across a multitude of settings and developmental contexts. These behaviors, though often investigated separately, are highly comorbid. Prenatal tobacco exposure in interaction with various genetic influences has predicted later externalizing behavior, and recent evidence supports investigating sex differences in these patterns. In the current study, we extend this work by (a) examining two functional genetic markers in the dopamine system: the transporter gene (DAT1) and the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) in interaction with prenatal tobacco exposure to predict a latent composite of externalizing behavior and (b) testing whether these patterns differ by sex of youth in a community sample of adolescents (n=176). The relatively small sample is partially offset by high quality, multi-method prospective measurement. We assessed prenatal tobacco exposure using prospective repeated cotinine-corrected reports and externalizing behaviors were assessed utilizing multiple measures across three waves. The interaction between DAT1 (but not DRD4) and prenatal tobacco exposure was statistically significant in boys, and patterns appeared to differ by sex. Risk for externalizing behaviors for exposed boys increased linearly as a function of the 10r DAT1 allele. For exposed girls, there was a trend such that DAT1 heterozygotes had a marginally higher risk than homozygotes. This pattern was not explained by passive gene-environment correlation. Elucidating sex-specific pathways through which early adverse exposures and genetic susceptibilities contribute to externalizing behavior can inform early targeted prevention efforts for those children at highest risk. PMID:24064458

O'Brien, T Caitlin; Mustanski, Brian S; Skol, Andrew; Cook, Edwin H; Wakschlag, Lauren S

2013-01-01

370

Transgender Female Youth and Sex Work: HIV Risk and a Comparison of Life Factors Related to Engagement in Sex Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the HIV risk behaviors and life experiences of 151 transgender female youth, ages 15–24, in Los Angeles\\u000a and Chicago. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to identify life factors associated with ever\\u000a having engaged in sex work. Sixty-seven percent of participants had ever engaged in sex work and 19% self-reported being HIV\\u000a positive. Many factors

Erin C. Wilson; Robert Garofalo; Robert D. Harris; Amy Herrick; Miguel Martinez; Jaime Martinez; Marvin Belzer

2009-01-01

371

Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92) and boys (N = 110). Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1) overweight; (2) female; or (3) having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity.

Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Schmalz, Dorothy L

2006-01-01

372

Correlates of physical activity behavior in rural youth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical activity behavior in a sample of rural, predominantly African American youth. Three hundred sixty-one fifth-grade students from two rural counties in South Carolina (69% African American, median age = 11 years) completed a questionnaire designed to measure beliefs and social influences regarding physical activity, physical activity self-efficacy, perceived physical activity habits of family members and friends, and access to exercise and fitness equipment at home. After school physical activity and television watching were assessed using the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR). Students were classified as physically active according to a moderate physical activity standard: two or more 30-min blocks at an intensity of 3 METs (metabolic equivalents) or greater, and a vigorous physical activity standard: one or more 30-min blocks at an intensity of 6 METs or greater. According to the moderate physical activity standard, 34.9% of students were classified as low-active. Multivariate analysis revealed age, gender, television watching, and exercise equipment at home to be significant correlates of low activity status. According to the vigorous physical activity standard, 32.1% of the students were classified as low-active. Multivariate analysis revealed age, gender, television watching, and self-efficacy with respect to seeking support for physical activity to be significant correlates of low activity status. In summary, gender and the amount of television watching were found to be the most important correlates of physical activity in rural, predominantly African American youth. PMID:9294878

Pate, R R; Trost, S G; Felton, G M; Ward, D S; Dowda, M; Saunders, R

1997-09-01

373

Comparison of HIV Risks among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Heterosexual Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

Youth who are homeless and gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) are one of the most disenfranchised and marginalized groups in our society. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare HIV in GLB homeless youth with their heterosexual counterparts. Participants for this study included 268 youth involved in treatment outcome studies with substance abusing homeless youth. Results suggest that GLB youth have greater HIV risks and that these risks are greater among bisexual females. In examining the predictors of sexual health risks, survival sex emerged as the most significant. Survival sex was high among females regardless of their sexual orientation and also among gay males. Implications of these findings suggest that a greater emphasis needs to be paid to preventive interventions among this population.

Gangamma, Rashmi; Toviessi, Paula; Serovich, Julianne

2008-01-01

374

An exploration of multisystemic factors contributing to sexual risk-taking in minority suburban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual risk-taking in minority youth in the United States is a public health concern that has been linked to theories of neighborhood effects and urban deprivation. We used a qualitative interview method to explore possible factors contributing to sexual risk-taking among minority youth in a densely populated, high-risk, segregated suburban community, with a purposive sample of 34 participants who were

Julie Askew; Darlene Rampasaud; Ingrid Solano; Jessica Donaldson

2012-01-01

375

Asthma and mental health among youth in high-risk service settings.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence of asthma and mental health problems among representative samples of youth in high-risk service settings and the community, and to examine the relationship between asthma and mental health in these groups. Methods: Data were drawn from the Alternative Service Use Patterns of Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbance Study (SED) (n?=?1181), a combined representative, cross-sectional sample of youth in various clinical settings and the community. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between asthma and mental disorders. Demographic characteristics were investigated as potential confounders. Results: Asthma was common among 15.2% of youth in service settings and 18.8% of youth in the community. The prevalence of mental disorders was extremely high among youth with and without asthma in all service settings, and asthma was associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders among youth in the community, but not among youth in service settings. The relationship between asthma and internalizing disorders among youth in the community does not appear entirely attributable to confounding by demographics. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with and extend previous data by showing that both asthma and mental disorders are disproportionately common among youth in high-risk service settings. Almost half of youth with asthma in service settings meet diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder. Clinicians and policy makers who are responsible for the health care of youth in these high-risk groups should be aware that asthma is common, and that the prevalence of internalizing disorders are especially common among those with asthma. PMID:24628526

Goodwin, Renee D; Hottinger, Kate; Pena, Lillian; Chacko, Anil; Feldman, Jonathan; Wamboldt, Marianne Z; Hoven, Christina

2014-08-01

376

The Relationship between Cumulative Risk and Promotive Factors and Violent Behavior among Urban Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose Resiliency theory posits that some youth exposed to risk factors do not develop negative behaviors due to the influence of promotive factors. This study examines the effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on adolescent violent behavior and tests two models of resilience – the compensatory model and the protective model – in a sample of adolescent patients (14- 18 years old; n = 726) presenting to an urban emergency department (ED) who report violent behavior. Cumulative measures of risk and promotive factors consist of individual characteristics and peer, family, and community influences. Method Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the two models of resilience (using cumulative measures of risk and promotive factors) for violent behavior within a sample of youth reporting violent behavior. Results Higher cumulative risk was associated with higher levels of violent behavior. Higher levels of promotive factors were associated with lower levels of violent behavior and moderated the association between risk and violent behaviors. Conclusion Our results support the risk-protective model of resiliency and suggest that promotive factors can help reduce the burden of cumulative risk for youth violence.

Stoddard, Sarah A.; Whiteside, Lauren; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.

2013-01-01

377

The Age of Initiation of Drug Use and Sexual Behavior May Influence Subsequent HIV Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk.

Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael

2013-01-01

378

Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

2013-01-01

379

An Interprofessional Model for Serving Youth at Risk for Substance Abuse: The Team Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three models of interprofessional education appropriate for serving youth at risk for substance abuse are described. The evaluation of the team case study model indicated that the participants were more sensitive to the needs of the youths, experienced increased comfort in consulting other agents, and were more confident in their ability to select…

Cobia, Debra C.; And Others

1995-01-01

380

A Qualitative Evaluation of a Mentor Program for At-Risk Youth: The Participants' Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a qualitative evaluation of the first year of a mentor program for at-risk high school youth in a low income urban setting with high rates of youth and violent crime. Pre and posttest data were collected employing a standardized set of open-ended questions regarding the program and the mentees' relationships with their mentors. Overall there appears to

Diane de Anda

2001-01-01

381

Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

2014-06-01

382

Preliminary Testing of a Program to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Youth.(research Papers)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Type 2 diabetes is increasing among youth, with minority youth at highest risk. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a school-based program to prevent type 2 diabetes in youth at risk. Forty-one participants (age 12.6 [+ or -] 1.1 years; 63% female, 51% African American, 44% Hispanic, and 5% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of…

Grey, Margaret; Berry, Diane; Davidson, Maryanne; Galasso, Pam; Gustafson, Elaine; Melkus, Gail

2004-01-01

383

Relations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations among early family risk, children's behavioral regulation at 54 months and kindergarten, and academic achievement in first grade using data on 1298 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Family risk was indexed by ethnic…

Sektnan, Michaella; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan; Morrison, Frederick J.

2010-01-01

384

Towards a Conceptual Model Linking Community Violence Exposure to HIV-Related Risk Behaviors among Adolescents: Directions for Research  

PubMed Central

Purpose To present a conceptual framework which accounts for the relationship between community violence exposures and youth HIV risk behaviors. Methods This article provides an overview of existing research on the links between community violence exposure and HIV risk for youth and offers a conceptual framework for clarifying how community violence exposure might contribute to HIV sexual risk. Results Increasing empirical findings substantiate that the links between community violence exposure and HIV risk behaviors among youth are mediated by psychological problem behaviors, low school success and negative peer influences. Conclusions Researchers have identified the behaviors that place teens at risk for becoming infected with HIV. However, most scholars have overlooked the potential importance of community violence exposure in influencing such behaviors. This paper presents new directions for adolescent research and HIV interventions based on an integrated conceptual framework.

Voisin, Dexter R.; Jenkins, Esther J.; Takahashi, Lois

2012-01-01

385

Increased Intrasubject Variability in Response Time in Youths with Bipolar Disorder and At-Risk Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intrasubject variability in response time (ISV-RT) was higher in youths with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with first-degree relatives with BD compared to youths without BD. ISV-RT may be a risk marker for BD.

Brotman, Melissa A.; Rooney, Melissa H.; Skup, Martha; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

2009-01-01

386

At-Risk and Delinquent Youth. Multiple Programs Lack Coordinated Federal Effort. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Accounting Office evaluated federal programs that serve at-risk and delinquent youth. The work, which took place over several years, focused on: (1) who administers such programs; (2) how much money is spent on federal programs for at-risk youth; and (3) what is known about their effectiveness. Overall, its is apparent that multiple…

Blanchette, Cornelia M.

387

Working, Sex Partner Age Differences, and Sexual Behavior among African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in the workplace has been proposed as a potential structural-level HIV\\/STI prevention strategy for youth. Only\\u000a a few cross-sectional studies have explored the effect of work during adolescence and young adulthood on sexual behavior and\\u000a their results have been mixed. This study builds on this literature by exploring whether work influences youths’ sexual behavior\\u000a in a cohort of African

José A. Bauermeister; Marc Zimmerman; Yange Xue; Gilbert C. Gee; Cleopatra H. Caldwell

2009-01-01

388

Engagement, Residential Treatment Staff Cognitive and Behavioral Disputations, and Youths’ Problem-Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the researchers examined the relationship between residential treatment staff members’ use of cognitive and\\u000a behavioral disputations and problem-solving skills just prior to discharge for 59 youths with emotional and behavioral disorders.\\u000a The researchers also assessed the direct and indirect effects of engagement in treatment on problem-solving. Measures completed\\u000a by youths, childcare staff, and clinicians were used in

Jacquelyn N. Raftery; Camela M. Steinke; Amanda B. Nickerson

2010-01-01

389

The phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11 % of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger's disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993

Storch, Eric A; Sulkowski, Michael L; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse B; Mutch, P Jane; Jones, Anna M; Murphy, Tanya K

2013-10-01

390

Siblings Are Special: Initial test of a New Approach for Preventing Youth Behavior Problems  

PubMed Central

Purpose A growing body of research documents the significance of siblings and sibling relationships for development, mental health, and behavioral risk across childhood and adolescence. Nonetheless, few well-designed efforts have been undertaken to promote positive and reduce negative youth outcomes by enhancing sibling relationships. Methods Based on a theoretical model of sibling influences, we conducted a randomized trial of Siblings Are Special, a group-format afterschool program for 5th graders with a younger sibling in 2nd through 4th grade, which entailed 12 weekly afterschool sessions and 3 Family Nights. We tested program efficacy with a pre-posttest design with 174 families randomly assigned to condition. In home visits at both time points we collected data via parent questionnaires, child interviews, and observer-rated videotaped interactions and teachers rated children’s behavior at school. Results The program enhanced positive sibling relationships, appropriate strategies for parenting siblings, and child self-control, social competence, and academic performance; program exposure was also associated with reduced maternal depression and child internalizing problems. Results were robust across the sample, not qualified by sibling gender, age, family demographics, or baseline risk. No effects were found for sibling conflict, collusion or child externalizing problems; we will examine follow-up data to determine if short-term impacts lead to reduced negative behaviors over time. Conclusions The breadth of the SAS program’s impact is consistent with research suggesting that siblings are an important influence on development and adjustment and supports our argument that a sibling focus should be incorporated into youth and family-oriented prevention programs.

Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; Hostetler, Michelle L.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Jones, Damon; McHale, Susan M.

2012-01-01

391

Cross-national study of risky sexual behavior among gang-involved youth in metropolitan Boston and San Salvador, El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although conformity to peer norms poses significant risks for adolescent sexual behavior, information is limited on types of gang-related activities that predict risky sexual behavior among gang-involved youth. Using data from Boston (n?=?375) and San Salvador (n?=?207), we compared the two groups on key characteristics and assessed factors associated with risky sexual behaviors. Number of arrests and aggression predicted number

Bipasha Biswas; René Olate; Michael G. Vaughn

2011-01-01

392

Sexual behavior and perceived peer norms: Comparing perinatally infected and affected youth  

PubMed Central

A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51% female; ages 9–16) perinatally exposed to HIV (61% HIV+). Using logistic regression, we tested the association between sexual behavior and HIV status, demographic characteristics, and peer influences regarding sexual behavior. PHIV youth were less likely to be sexually active. Among sexually active youth, PHIV youth were more likely to engage in touching behavior than HIV-negative youth and were less likely to engage in penetrative sex. Youths reporting that a greater number of their peers believed that sexually active boys were “cool” or “popular” were more likely to report sexual behavior. The association between sexual behavior and peers believing sexually active girls were “cool” or “popular” varied by age, gender, and HIV status. Furthermore, friends’ sexual activity was associated with sexual intercourse. Prevention programs should strengthen messages addressing peer norms regarding sexuality, as well as address specific issues related to adolescent HIV.

Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude

2009-01-01

393

Youth Risk Factors and Educational Outcomes of Mentored and Non-Mentored Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As mentoring is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve youth educational outcomes, it is important to continue to examine the effects of mentoring on these youth outcomes. This study uses secondary data from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and transcript data from the Adolescent…

Castellanos-Brown, Karen

2010-01-01

394

Psychosocial correlates of substance use behaviors among African American youth.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional data were collected on substance use behaviors and potential correlates in 1,494 African American students enrolled in grades 5-12 in eight schools in a central Alabama school district. Using a risk and asset framework, self-reported recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use were analyzed by identifying and measuring levels of influence, including individual, family, and school. For alcohol and marijuana use, recurrent risk factors were age, being hit by a parent, affiliation with gangs, and a tolerant attitude of peers toward drug use. For cigarette use, risk factors were peer-oriented: associations with gangs or cohorts holding lenient attitudes about substance use. For all substances, salient asset factors were academic achievement and parental monitoring. Findings suggest that efforts to reduce substance use behaviors should be directed at adolescents in terms of academic achievement and grade level as well as their social environments. For the latter, peer/family risks and family/school assets should be the foci for programs to minimize the short- and long-term consequences of these behaviors. Hence, the emphasis should be placed on modeling attitudes, preventing gang and family violence, encouraging parental supervision, and building positive teacher-student interactions. PMID:15727405

Wright, Darlene R; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M

2004-01-01

395

Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth. Sixth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed as an introductory text on special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. Part 1 addresses the problems in the definition of emotional and behavioral disorders, the prevalence of the disorders, the growth of the field of emotional and behavior disorders, and major current trends. Part 2…

Kauffman, James M.

396

Self-Injurious Behavior in Gifted and Talented Youth: What Every Educator Should Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) are increasing in the general adolescent population, giving rise to concerns about the impact these behaviors have on gifted and talented youth. Educators of the gifted may not have adequate understanding of these behaviors, limiting their effectiveness in supporting gifted students engaging in SIB. This article…

Wood, Susannah M.; Craigen, Laurie M.

2011-01-01

397

Displacement and Suicide Risk for Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Mental Health Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examined the relationship between suicide behaviors and displacement, as defined by out-of-home placement, in a sample of juvenile-justice-involved youth with mental health issues. Participants included boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 18 who were enrolled in a juvenile justice diversion program for children with mental or behavioral health problems. Data collected included youth-reported suicide and

Jeff M. Kretschmar; Daniel J. Flannery

2011-01-01

398

Major depressive disorder in a Kenyan youth sample: relationship with parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on mental health problems during childhood and youth development phases have reported that families of children diagnosed with a depressive disorder tend to be dysfunctional. These dysfunctions have been shown to be mediating factors for children to develop psychiatric disorders in the future. Objective This study was designed to investigate whether perceived parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders have any relationship with youth presenting with major depressive disorder. Methodology The study sample had a total number of 250 purposely selected youth attending the Youth Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. Results This study found associations between major depressive disorders (MDD) in the youth and co-morbid psychiatric disorders among the youth: conduct disorder (OR = 2.93, 95% CI 1.04 to 8.26, p = 0.035), any anxiety disorder (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.20 to 4.87, p = 0.012), drug abuse (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 2.01 to 5.76, p < 0.001), alcohol use (OR = 3.29, 95% CI 1.94 to 5.57, p < 0.001), and suicidal behavior (OR = 5.27, 95% CI 2.39 to 11.66, p < 0.001). The results also indicate that a higher proportion of youth between 16 and 18 years had major depressive disorder than the youth below 16 years or above 18 years of age (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.40 to 5.05, p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis shows that both rejecting maternal behavior (AOR = 2.165, 95% CI 1.060 to 4.422, p = 0.003) and maternal MDD (AOR = 5.27, 95% CI 1.10 to 14.76, p < 0.001) are associated with MDD in youth. Conclusion Negative maternal parenting behavior and maternal depressive disorder are associated with major depressive disorder in children.

2013-01-01

399

Risk and Protective Profiles Among Never Exposed, Single Form, and Multiple Form Violence Exposed Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth,

Paula S. Nurius; Patricia L. Russell; Jerald R. Herting; Carole Hooven; Elaine A. Thompson

2009-01-01

400

Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth  

PubMed Central

American Indian (AI) adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools in a sample of 24 AI adolescents. Participants experienced significant decreases in anxiety and PTSD symptoms, and avoidant coping strategies, as well as a marginally significant decrease in depression symptoms. Improvements in anxiety and depression were maintained 6 months post-intervention; improvements in PTSD and avoidant coping strategies were not. Feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability of CBITS are discussed in the context of efforts to develop culturally sensitive interventions for AI youth.

Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Milford, Jaime

2011-01-01

401

A national study of risk and protective factors for substance use among youth in the child welfare system.  

PubMed

While child welfare services are intended, in part, to diminish maltreatment's negative impact on adolescents' development, there is evidence that receiving child welfare services affects adolescents' substance use adversely. The literature on the extent and correlates of this problem is still emerging. The present study aims to fill part of this gap by examining the association between baseline psychosocial risk and protective factors on engagement in substance use behavior over a period of 36 months for child welfare involved youth. It further compares substance use behavior between youth placed in out-of-home care and those who remained with their biological families. Data come from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), a national probability study of children and adolescents undergoing investigation for abuse or neglect. The sample for this analysis was restricted to 827 youth who were 11 years or older at baseline data collection. Key findings include a high rate of social substance use (47.7%) and illicit substance use (17.4%). There was a limited role of protective factors in mitigating risk behavior for social substance use (caregiver connectedness; OR=0.51, p<0.05). Avoiding foster care placement was a protective factor for illicit substance use (OR=0.43, p<0.05). Delinquency was a risk factor associated with both social substance use (OR=1.06, p<0.01) and hard substance use (OR=1.10, p<0.001). Given the high prevalence of substance use among child welfare involved youth, prevention efforts for this population require a better understanding of biological, psychological, and social protective factors. The child welfare system is an untapped resource that has the potential to be a gateway to and a platform for substance abuse prevention services that should be incorporated into child welfare safety and permanency interventions. PMID:22321315

Traube, Dorian E; James, Sigrid; Zhang, Jinjin; Landsverk, John

2012-05-01

402

Fructose Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study  

PubMed Central

Aims High consumption of dietary fructose has been shown to contribute to dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure in adults, but there are few data in youth, particularly those at greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine the association between fructose intake and CVD risk factors in a diverse population of youth with type 1diabetes (T1D). Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, including 2085 youth ages 10–22 years with T1D, of which 22% were racial/ethnic minority and 50% were female. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake. Results Median daily fructose consumption was 7.9% of total calories. Fructose intake was positively associated with triglycerides (p<.01), but not with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or blood pressure after adjustment for physical activity and socio-demographic, clinical, and dietary covariates. An increase in fructose intake of 22 grams (equivalent to a 12 oz. can of soda) was associated with a 23% higher odds of borderline/ high versus low triglycerides (p<.005). Conclusion These data suggest that children with T1D should moderate their intake of fructose, particularly those with borderline or high triglycerides.

Couch, Sarah C.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Shah, Amy S.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Merchant, Anwar T.; Liese, Angela D.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Pihoker, Catherine; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

2013-01-01

403

The Influence of School-Based Natural Mentoring Relationships on School Attachment and Subsequent Adolescent Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relatively new area of research suggests that naturally occurring mentoring relationships may influence the development of adolescents by protecting against risk behaviors. Few studies have explored how these relationships function to reduce risk behavior among youth, especially in the school context. Based on previous research and theory, we…

Black, David S.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A.

2010-01-01

404

Beyond the "Model Minority" Stereotype: Trends in Health Risk Behaviors among Asian/Pacific Islander High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Asian/Pacific Islander (API) students have been stereotyped as the "model minority." The objective of this study was to examine the trends in health risk behaviors among API students who participated in the San Diego City Schools Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) between 1993 and 2005. Methods: High school students from the San Diego…

Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2009-01-01

405

Externalizing Symptomatology Among Adoptive Youth: Prevalence and Preadoption Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of symptomatology related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was examined in a statewide sample of adopted youth, aged 4–18 years (n = 808). The use of normed questionnaires in a nonclinical sample decreased biases associated with past research on adopted children. According to parental report, a striking number of the youth qualified as

Cassandra Simmel; Devon Brooks; Richard P. Barth; Stephen P. Hinshaw

2001-01-01

406

The Associations between Parents' References to Their Own Past Substance Use and Youth's Substance-Use Beliefs and Behaviors: A Comparison of Latino and European American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using primary socialization theory and theory of planned behavior, this study examined how targeted parent-child communication against substance use and parents' references to the negative consequences of their own past substance use (from the youth's perspective) directly and indirectly relate to Latino and European American youth's external…

Kam, Jennifer A.; Middleton, Ashley V.

2013-01-01

407

Youth Count: The Vermont Youth Report, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the well-being of Vermont's youth. The report balances at-risk youth data with survey results related to "positive youth development," an approach that promotes beneficial attributes of youth and their communities. Following an introduction and discussion of positive youth development and youth well-being…

Farber, Wendy; Burgess, Beth

408

Predictors of Aggressive Behaviors among Rural Middle School Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

  This study determined multivariate sets of predictors for verbal and physical aggression among rural middle school youth.\\u000a Surveys were obtained from 1,440 7th and 8th grade youth from six middle schools in five geographically dispersed states.\\u000a Multivariate logistic regression identified final predictive models. Similar, but varying sets of predictors were identified\\u000a across types of aggression. The most consistent set of

Randall C. Swaim; Kimberly L. Henry; Kathleen Kelly

2006-01-01

409

Effect of an Injury Awareness Education Program on Risk-Taking Behaviors and Injuries in Juvenile Justice Offenders: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRisk-taking behavior is a leading cause of injury and death amongst young people.Methodology and Principal FindingsThis was a retrospective cohort study on the effectiveness of a 1-day youth injury awareness education program (Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth, P.A.R.T.Y.) program in reducing risk taking behaviors and injuries of juvenille justice offenders in Western Australia. Of the 3659 juvenile justice

Kwok M. Ho; Edward Litton; Elizabeth Geelhoed; Monica Gope; Maxine Burrell; Jacqueline Coribel; Angela McDowall; Sudhakar Rao

2012-01-01

410

Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth  

PubMed Central

Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed youth, children and adolescents frequently report ongoing residual symptoms and often relapse following acute treatment. Recent adult trials have begun examining augmentation with psychosocial treatment after successful medication treatment to enhance medication response and prevent future relapse. This strategy has not yet been examined in youth with depression. Here we present initial efforts to develop a sequential, combination treatment strategy to promoting rapid remission and to prevent relapse in depressed youth. We describe efforts to adapt CBT to prevent relapse (RP-CBT) in youth who respond to pharmacotherapy. The goals of RP-CBT include: preventing relapse, increasing wellness, and developing skills to promote and sustain a healthy emotional lifestyle. We describe the rationale for, components of, and methods used to develop RP-CBT. The results from a small open series sample demonstrate feasibility and indicate that youth appear to tolerate RP-CBT well. A future test of the treatment in a randomized controlled trial is described.

Kennard, Beth D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

2010-01-01

411

Thinking about the Future as a Way to Succeed in the Present: A Longitudinal Study of Future Orientation and Violent Behaviors among African American Youth  

PubMed Central

Previous research has linked higher levels of hopelessness about one's future to violent behavior during adolescence; however, little is known about this relationship over time for adolescents. Using growth curve modeling, we tested the association between future orientation and violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of African American youth (n = 681). Variation based on demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, SES, previous violence) was explored. At baseline, differences in violent behavior varied by demographic characteristics. Overall, violent behavior decreased with age. Higher levels of future orientation were associated with greater decreases in violent behavior over time. Demographic characteristics were not associated with change in violent behavior overtime. Our findings suggest that future orientation can act as a promotive factor for at risk African American youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in violence prevention efforts.

Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

2011-01-01

412

Examining Externalizing Behavior Trajectories of Youth in Group Homes: Is there Evidence for Peer Contagion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concerns about peer contagion are often cited in critiques of group treatments for troubled youths, few studies have\\u000a examined the effects of exposure to deviant peers in residential group care settings. This study used administrative data\\u000a of youth served at Boys Town, a nationally-known group care provider. Using latent class growth analysis, this study identified\\u000a the externalizing behavior trajectories

Bethany R. Lee; Ron Thompson

2009-01-01

413

Association Between Life Satisfaction and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between perceived life satisfaction and sexual risk-taking behaviors were examined in a statewide sample of public high school students (n = 4,758) using the self-report CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Adjusted polychotomous logistic regression analyses and multivariate models (via SUDAAN) constructed separately, revealed a significant race by gender interaction for each race-gender group. Age of first intercourse (=13),

Robert F. Valois; Keith J. Zullig; E. Scott Huebner; Sandra K. Kammermann; J. Wanzer Drane

2002-01-01

414

Youth Maltreatment and Gang Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although childhood maltreatment has been found to contribute to a variety of youth problem behaviors, the implications of being maltreated on gang involvement remain unclear. This research examines whether physical and sexual maltreatment raises the risk of gang involvement among secondary school students. Findings show that being maltreated increases the probability of gang involvement, independent of demographic factors. When youth

KEVIN M. THOMPSON; RHONDA BRAATEN-ANTRIM

1998-01-01

415

Multisystemic therapy for disruptive behavior problems in youths with autism spectrum disorders: a progress report.  

PubMed

Youths with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often engage in serious disruptive behaviors that interfere with their ability to successfully manage day-to-day responsibilities and contribute to relationship problems with caregivers, peers, and teachers. Effective treatments are needed to address the factors linked with disruptive behavior problems in this population of youths. Multisystemic therapy (MST) is a comprehensive family- and community-based treatment approach that has been effective with other difficult-to-treat populations of youths and holds promise for youths with ASD. In this article, we review the broad range of factors associated with disruptive behaviors among youths with ASD and discuss how MST interventions can be adapted to address those factors. We also present a framework for our adaptation of the MST model for youths with ASD. This framework includes a recently completed pilot study as well as an ongoing efficacy trial that together have served to identify key interventions for our adaptation of the MST model. PMID:24749815

Wagner, David V; Borduin, Charles M; Kanne, Stephen M; Mazurek, Micah O; Farmer, Janet E; Brown, Rachel M A

2014-07-01

416

Perceptions about Recovery Needs and Drug-Avoidance Recovery Behaviors among Youth in Substance Abuse Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Method Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. Results The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Conclusion Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.

Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M. Douglas; Glik, Deborah C.; Zavalza, Christina

2014-01-01

417

Reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist for the Assessment of Behavioral Problems of Children and Youth with Mild Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist with 42 children and youth with mild mental retardation. Use of kappa coefficients and intra-class correlations at item and syndrome levels indicated that the Child Behavior Checklist may not always represent a reliable checklist for the assessment of psychopathology in this…

Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

2000-01-01

418

The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Findings on Designing and Implementing Effective Prevention Programs for Youth at High Risk. Monograph Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. It provides concrete guidance regarding what elements of design and implementation are…

Hermann, Jack; Sambrano, Soledad; Springer, J. Fred; Nister, Mary; Sale, Elizabeth; Brounstein, Paul J.; Cordray, David; Shadish, Will; Kasim, Rafa; Pan, Wei

419

Community Risk and Resiliency Factors Related to Drug Use of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

This exploratory, qualitative study examined the community-based risk and resiliency factors related to drug use of rural Native Hawaiian youth. Forty-seven youth from five middle schools participated in focus groups that examined the ecological context of drug use for rural Hawaiian youth. Findings indicated that youth in the study were part of large extended networks of families, and that these networks became a defining characteristic of the rural communities in the study. These familial networks functioned as sources of risk and protection related to drug use for youth participants. Implications for community based practice are discussed.

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Po'a-Kekuawela, Ka'ohinani; Chin, Coralee I. H.; Nebre, La Risa H.

2009-01-01

420

Understanding gardening and dietary habits among youth garden program participants using the Theory of Planned Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedentary lifestyles, along with diets low in fruits, vegetables, and complex carbohydrates, and high in fat and total energy are increasing among youth. These unhealthy behaviors contribute to an increase in childhood overweight, which is associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Healthful dietary behaviors, such as eating a balanced and varied diet may be addressed in garden-based

Lauren Lautenschlager; Chery Smith

2007-01-01

421

The Parents Association for Youth Sports: A Proactive Approach to Spectator Behavior Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across today's youth sports landscape, unsportsmanlike behavior is occurring with alarming frequency. It is happening on the sidelines with out-of-control volunteer coaches and in the stands with overbearing parents. Sadly, this behavior has seeped onto the playing field and produced an ugly string of incidents involving youngsters, too. This…

Bach, Greg

2006-01-01

422

Persuasive Communication in the Mass Media: Implications for Preventing Drug-Related Behavior among Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the efficacy of anti-drug public service announcements (PSAs) for preventing drug-related behavior (DRB) among youth. Focuses on persuasive communication and drug prevention and the factors associated with DRB. Claims that the success of any anti-drug PSA will be limited to that scope of behavior targeted for change. (RJM)

Davis, Norris

1997-01-01

423

Engagement, Residential Treatment Staff Cognitive and Behavioral Disputations, and Youths' Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the researchers examined the relationship between residential treatment staff members' use of cognitive and behavioral disputations and problem-solving skills just prior to discharge for 59 youths with emotional and behavioral disorders. The researchers also assessed the direct and indirect effects of engagement in treatment on…

Raftery, Jacquelyn N.; Steinke, Camela M.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

2010-01-01

424

The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…

Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.

2007-01-01

425

Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement  

MedlinePLUS

... and Academic Achievement What is the relationship between health-risk behaviors and academic achievement? Data presented below from ... Percentage of high school students who engaged in health-risk behaviors, by type of grades earned (mostly A’s, ...

426

Personality Factors Underlying Suicidal Behavior Among Military Youth  

PubMed Central

Background: Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors. Objectives: One of the underlying factors in suicidal behavior is individuals' personality. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised of the Iranian Armed Forces. To recruit the sample of the research, 1659 soldiers were selected by multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Results: There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323) between neuroticism and suicide ideation; however, significant negative correlations existed between three other personality traits --extraversion [r = -0.306], agreeableness [r = -0.227], and conscientiousness [r = -0.271] and suicidal ideation. Unlike neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness personality factors could reduce significantly (as much 14% as are predicted) levels of suicidal ideation. Conclusions: Based on these results, neuroticism might increase suicide, but extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits are associated with a reduced risk of suicide.

Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

2014-01-01

427

Identifying Patterns of Early Risk for Mental Health and Academic Problems in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

This investigation examined profiles of individual, academic, and social risks in elementary school, and their association with mental health and academic difficulties in adolescence. Latent profile analyses of data from 574 urban youth revealed three risk classes. Children with the “well-adjusted” class had assets in the academic and social domains, low aggressive behavior, and low depressive symptoms in elementary school, and low rates of academic and mental health problems in adolescence. Children in the “behavior-academic-peer risk” class, characterized by high aggressive behavior, low academic achievement, and low peer acceptance, had conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use in adolescence. Children with the “academic-peer risk” class also had academic and peer problems but they were less aggressive and had higher depressive symptoms than the “behavior-academic-peer risk” class in the first grade; the “academic-peer risk” class had depression, conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use during adolescence. No differences were found between the risk classes with respect to adolescent outcomes.

Valdez, Carmen R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

428

High-risk sexual behaviors.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a time of life characterized by danger because of the many changes that occur, the many ties that are severed: ties to childhood, ties to the child's body as it begins to take on an adult appearance, ties to a once-familiar body image and psyche as hormones complete the transformation to adulthood, ties to an unconscious that is struggling to restructure itself anew. The creation of the romantic couple is a danger inherent in any human society. This text was written from the professional practices of each author in a multidisciplinary approach combining the approaches of public health, risk reduction, and sexual, psychological and clinical care of adolescents. How to help anticipate the dangers is to use preventive insurance verifying that security is guaranteed before committing. Risk-taking is accepting all the challenges that boost the self with oneself and with others. The risk is therefore also the commitment in love. It is still the risk to speak, to feel, to express feelings, choices, and refusal of unwanted sex. The ability of adolescents to play and defeat the risk by learning the ethical value not only to protect themselves from contracting AIDS, but also to protect others is part of the pedagogy of risk. This pedagogy of risk, as we have seen, includes three areas: information, care and initiation into love. Adolescents must be supported in their emergence by responsible people to protect them from the dangers ahead. The support is not only to prevent them from engaging in risky behavior, but to help them better manage their anxieties and support the fragility of their families in a network approach. Not knowing how to confront the risk stifles the chance of allowing the child to grow up to be independent and helps reassure parents who may resent being removed from the empowerment of their children. PMID:22846539

Troussier, Thierry; Benghozi, Pierre; Ganem, Marc

2012-01-01

429

"Strengthifying" Data on Assets versus Risks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most discussions of youth behavior focus on the small group engaged in high-risk activities, ignoring the majority of youth who are developing in prosocial ways. This article provides a rationale for reversing this self-fulfilling prophecy which creates the impression that problem behavior is the norm. It describes the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

Kerosky, Michael; Zlatkovski, Ariel

2012-01-01

430

Change in DASH diet score and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study  

PubMed Central

Youth with diabetes are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been shown to improve CVD risk. In this study, we evaluated whether changes in diet quality as characterized by DASH are associated with changes in CVD risk factors in youth with diabetes over time. Longitudinal mixed models were applied to data from 797 participants in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study representing three time points: baseline, 12- and 60-month follow-up. Data were restricted to youth whose diabetes was first diagnosed in 2002–2005. DASH-related adherence was poor and changed very little over time. However, an increase in DASH diet score was significantly associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels in youth with type 1 diabetes (?=?0.20, P-value=0.0063) and a decrease in systolic blood pressure among youth with type 2 diabetes (?=?2.02, P-value=0.0406). Improvements in dietary quality may be beneficial in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, further work in larger groups of youth with type 1 and 2 diabetes is desirable.

Barnes, T L; Crandell, J L; Bell, R A; Mayer-Davis, E J; Dabelea, D; Liese, A D

2013-01-01

431

Youth Substance Use and Body Composition: Does Risk in One Area Predict Risk in the Other?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study…

Pasch, Keryn E.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2012-01-01

432

Position-Specific HIV Risk in a Large Network of Homeless Youths  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined interconnections among runaway and homeless youths (RHYs) and how aggregated network structure position was associated with HIV risk in this population. Methods. We collected individual and social network data from 136 RHYs. On the basis of these data, we generated a sociomatrix, accomplished network visualization with a “spring embedder,” and examined k-cores. We used multivariate logistic regression models to assess associations between peripheral and nonperipheral network position and recent unprotected sexual intercourse. Results. Small numbers of nominations at the individual level aggregated into a large social network with a visible core, periphery, and small clusters. Female youths were more likely to be in the core, as were youths who had been homeless for 2 years or more. Youths at the periphery were less likely to report unprotected intercourse and had been homeless for a shorter duration. Conclusions. HIV risk was a function of risk-taking youths' connections with one another and was associated with position in the overall network structure. Social network–based prevention programs, young women's housing and health programs, and housing-first programs for peripheral youths could be effective strategies for preventing HIV among this population.

Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Monro, William

2012-01-01

433

High prevalence of HIV/AIDS risky sexual behaviors among street youth in gondar town: a community based cross sectional study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Street youth are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS and all kinds of health risks. This study assessed HIV/AIDS risky sexual behaviors and its predictors among street youth in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study was conducted on 467 street youth living in Gondar town. A pre tested and structured questionnaire via interview was used to collect data. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of associations. RESULTS: A total of 288 (61.7%) respondents had sexual intercourse in their life time. Among these 264(91.7%) had more than one lifetime sexual partners. In addition, 80.5% of them used condom inconsistently in the last 12 months. Khat chewing was found to be predictor of having multiple sexual partners. Rural former residence and longer duration of stay on the street are also identified as predictors of inconsistent condom use. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of HIV/AIDS risky sexual behaviors were observed among street youth in Gondar town. Interventions aimed at reducing sexual risky behaviors among street youth should focus on reducing the duration of stay on the street and chat chewing. PMID:23767966

Tadesse, Negash; Awoke Ayele, Tadesse; Birhanu Mengesha, Zelalem; Addis Alene, Kefyalew

2013-06-15

434

Developmental Trajectory of Sexual Risk Behaviors from Adolescence to Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23 and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high…

Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

2012-01-01

435

Barrios and Burbs: Residential Context and Health-Risk Behaviors among Angeleno Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing size of the Latino immigrant population in the United States underscores the need for a more complete understanding of the role that social context plays in influencing the health of immigrants and their children. This analysis explores the possibility that residential location influences the health-risk behaviors of Latino youth in…

Frank, Reanne; Cerda, Magdalena; Rendon, Maria

2007-01-01

436

Risks, Assets, and Negative Health Behaviors among Arkansas' Hispanic Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between risk, assets, and negative health behaviors among a large sample of Hispanic adolescents. Data were collected from over 1,000 Hispanic youth in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 attending school in a moderate size school district in Northwest Arkansas. Logistic regression models examined the variation in the odds…

Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Choudary, Wendie; Kearney, Anne; Piko, Bettina F.

2013-01-01

437

Personality Differences Predict Health-Risk Behaviors in Young Adulthood: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, the authors identified youth involved in each of 4 different health-risk behaviors at age 21: alcohol dependence, violent crime, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving habits. At age 18, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to assess 10 distinct personality traits. At age 3, observational measures were used to classify children into

Avshalom Caspi; Dot Begg; Nigel Dickson; HonaLee Harrington; John Langley; Terrie E. Moffitt; Phil A. Silva

1997-01-01

438

Diabetes in Navajo Youth  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To estimate the prevalence and incidence of diabetes, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for chronic complications among Navajo youth, using data collected by the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study (SEARCH study). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The SEARCH study identified all prevalent cases of diabetes in 2001 and all incident cases in 2002–2005 among Navajo youth. We estimated denominators with the user population for eligible health care facilities. Youth with diabetes also attended a research visit that included questionnaires, physical examination, blood and urine collection, and extended medical record abstraction. RESULTS—Diabetes is infrequent among Navajo youth aged <10 years. However, both prevalence and incidence of diabetes are high in older youth. Among adolescents aged 15–19 years, 1 in 359 Navajo youth had diabetes in 2001 and 1 in 2,542 developed diabetes annually. The vast majority of diabetes among Navajo youth with diabetes is type 2, although type 1 diabetes is also present, especially among younger children. Navajo youth with either diabetes type were likely to have poor glycemic control, high prevalence of unhealthy behaviors, and evidence of severely depressed mood. Youth with type 2 diabetes had more metabolic factors associated with obesity and insulin resistance (abdominal fat deposition, dyslipidemia, and higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio) than youth with type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS—Our data provide evidence that diabetes is an important health problem for Navajo youth. Targeted efforts aimed at primary prevention of diabetes in Navajo youth and efforts to prevent or delay the development of chronic complications among those with diabetes are warranted.

Dabelea, Dana; DeGroat, Joquetta; Sorrelman, Carmelita; Glass, Martia; Percy, Christopher A.; Avery, Charlene; Hu, Diana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Beyer, Jennifer; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Testaverde, Lisa; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Hamman, Richard F.

2009-01-01

439

Religion's Role in Promoting Health and Reducing Risk Among American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although past research has long documented religion's salutary impact on adult health-related behaviors and outcomes, relatively little research has examined the relationship between religion and adolescent health. This study uses large, nationally representative samples of high school seniors to examine the relationship between religion and behavioral predictors of adolescent morbidity and mortality. Relative to their peers, religious youth are less

John M. Wallace; Tyrone A. Forman

1998-01-01

440

Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

2012-01-01

441

The predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) among institutionalised adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the short-term predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) in a sample of institutionalised adolescents. Subjects were 208 adolescents in general residential adolescent psychiatry, correctional schools, or adolescent forensic units. Demographic features and the information needed to assess violence risk with SAVRY were retrieved from medical files

Monica Gammelgård; Anna-Maija Koivisto; Markku Eronen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

2008-01-01

442

Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of…

Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

2014-01-01

443

Resiliency in Action: Practical Ideas for Overcoming Risks and Building Strengths in Youth, Families, & Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contained in this publication are re-prints of articles which deal with guiding youth and families from risk to resiliency that appeared in the journal, Resiliency in Action. This compilation shares the results of scientific studies showing how people overcome risk, trauma, and adversity. The articles exemplify how the field of psychology is…

Henderson, Nan, Ed.; Benard, Bonnie, Ed.; Sharp-Light, Nancy, Ed.

444

History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multiethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV\\/AIDS infection. They participated in

Flavio Francisco Marsiglia; Tanya Nieri; Elizabeth Valdez; Maria Gurrola; Catherine Marrs

2009-01-01

445

Children and Youth: The Evolution of At Risk to "High Promise" Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is impossible to make global generalisations about children and youth from a phenomenological inquiry into the experiences of such a limited number of participants in just one city, Limerick, Ireland, and one case, St. Augustine's. The goal of phenomenological research is, however, not to seek generalisations but to expose the individual case,…

Child & Youth Services, 2007

2007-01-01

446

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disordered Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Child and Family Modalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This randomized clinical trial compared the relative efficacy of individual (child) cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT), family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT), and a family-based education/support/attention (FESA) active control for treating anxiety disordered youth ages 7-14 years (M = 10.27). Youth (N = 161; 44% female; 85% Caucasian, 9%…

Kendall, Philip C.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Suveg, Cynthia

2008-01-01

447

Radical Change Theory, Youth Information Behavior, and School Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

School libraries confront significant changes in the digital age, the age of Web 2.0 and of participatory culture. Radical Change theory, based on the digital age principles of interactivity, connectivity, and access, is germane to understanding these transformations. The theory was originally developed to explain changes in digital age books for youth. It is expanded here through the creation of

Eliza T. Dresang; Kyungwon Koh

2009-01-01

448

Behavioral Strategies for Constructing Nonviolent Cultures With Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence is widely recognized as a critical social issue in the United States, and many approaches to prevention have been developed in recent years. Emerging research suggests that only approaches that are deeply embedded in cultural, community, and organizational contexts are likely to be powerful enough to have a meaningful collective impact. No programs of this kind that are

MARK A. MATTAINI; MELISSA S. MCGUIRE

2006-01-01

449

Gender Differences in Monitoring and Deviant Peers as Predictors of Delinquent Behavior among Low-Income Urban African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Juvenile delinquency is an ongoing social problem particularly among low-income urban youth who are regularly exposed to numerous risk factors. Although much research has been conducted in this area, the most at-risk youth have been largely neglected. This study examines the role of peer deviance in mediating the influence of adult monitoring on…

O'Donnell, Philip; Richards, Maryse; Pearce, Steven; Romero, Edna

2012-01-01

450

Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition  

PubMed Central

Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0% white, 23.9% African American, and 20.0% Hispanic) between the ages of 13 and 24 years (M = 20.1 years, SD = 2.5) who were randomly sampled from 41 shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles. Travelers were almost twice as likely as non-travelers to exhibit recent heavy drinking, 37% more likely to exhibit recent marijuana use, and five times as likely to have injected drugs. Travelers also had more recent sex partners and were more likely to report having casual or need-based sexual partners and combining sex with substance use. Mediation analyses suggest that travelers' deviant peer associations and disconnection to conventional individuals and institutions may drive their elevated substance use. Differences in sexual risk behaviors are likely attributable to demographic differences between the two groups. Overall, these differences between travelers and non-travelers suggest different service needs and the need for different service approaches.

Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

2011-01-01

451

Social Networks and Risk for Depressive Symptoms in a National Sample of Sexual Minority Youth  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N=14,212). Wave 1 (1994–1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents’ social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents.

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Xuan, Ziming

2012-01-01

452

The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent\\u000a athletes. The sample consisted of N=260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed\\u000a that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the variance in prosocial behavior could be

Esther A. Rutten; Geert Jan J. M. Stams; Gert J. J. Biesta; Carlo Schuengel; Evelien Dirks; Jan B. Hoeksma

2007-01-01

453

Behavioral and Emotional Strengths among Youth in Systems-of-Care and the Effect of Race/Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Behavioral and emotional strengths are important to consider when understanding youth mental health and treatment. This study examined the association between youth strengths and functional impairment, and whether this association is modified by race/ethnicity. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of strengths on impairment, and examine whether race and ethnicity modified this relationship in 8,129 Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native youth, between 5 and 18 years of age. Results suggest that youth with average and above average strengths were less likely to have impairment compared to youth with below average strengths. Race and ethnicity modified this relationship in both expected and unexpected ways. Among youth with average and above average strengths, racial and ethnic minority youth appear to have more impairment than Caucasian youth. However, among youth with below average strengths, racial and ethnic minority youth have less impairment than Caucasian youth. Findings highlight the importance of incorporating strengths-based approaches in youth mental health treatment and the need for further research to understand the specific nature of strengths as it effects impairment across racial/ethnic groups. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

Barksdale, Crystal L.; Azur, Melissa; Daniels, Amy M.

2009-01-01

454

Early Adolescent Risk Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Externalizing Behavioral Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…

Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard

2011-01-01

455

Reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist for the assessment of behavioral problems of children and youth with mild mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of psychopathology in persons with mental retardation requires reliable and valid instruments. In the present study, the reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist was determined, using data of 42 children and youth with mild mental retardation, with ages from 10 to 18 years. Kappa coefficients and intra-class correlations were computed to determine the reliability at item level and

Petri J. C. M. Embregts

2000-01-01

456

Understanding Pregnancy-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Mixed-Methods Study of Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Pregnancy rates are substantially higher among homeless youth than in the general population of youth, yet little is known about homeless adolescents’ and young adults’ pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors. METHODS Pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors were examined among two samples of sexually active homeless 13–24-year-olds in Los Angeles County. Data from 37 semistructured interviews conducted in March–April 2011 were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Data from a structured survey with 277 respondents, conducted between October 2008 and August 2009, were analyzed primarily using regression modeling. RESULTS More than half of interview respondents held ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy, and ambivalent youth reported less contraceptive use than others. The interviews identified several potential influences on pregnancy attitudes: barriers associated with homelessness, readiness to settle down, desire to achieve goals, belief that a child would create something positive in life, and family and partners. In the survey, having positive attitudes toward pregnancy was positively associated with duration of homelessness (odds ratio, 1.6), contact with relatives (1.1) and relationship commitment (1.8); it was negatively associated with frequency of drinking (0.9). Relationship commitment was positively associated with nonuse of an effective contraceptive method at last sex (1.5). CONCLUSIONS Effective and accessible pregnancy prevention and family planning programs for homeless youth are needed. Youths’ ambivalence toward pregnancy and feelings of relationship commitment warrant attention as possible areas for programs to address.

Tucker, Joan S.; Sussell, Jesse; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Kennedy, David P.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

2012-01-01

457

Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users. CYT Cannabis Youth Treatment Series, Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual, a supplement to Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1, presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) appro...

C. Webb M. Scudder Y. Kaminer R. Kadden

2003-01-01

458

Children and youth in foster care: disentangling the relationship between problem behaviors and number of placements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this research was to provide a prospective look at the relationship between change in placement and problem behaviors over a 12-month period among a cohort of foster children.Method: The sample contained 415 youth, and was part of a larger cohort of children who entered foster care in San Diego, California and remained in placement for at

Rae R Newton; Alan J Litrownik; John A Landsverk

2000-01-01

459

Acculturation, Peer Relations, and Delinquent Behavior of Chinese-Canadian Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines acculturation, peer relations, and delinquency in a sample of Chinese-Canadian youth using the Behavioral Acculturation Scale (Szapocznik) Results reveal that adherence to Chinese culture was related to lower delinquency, whereas the opposite was true for North American acculturation. Reports on the unexpected finding that association…

Wong, Siu Kwong

1999-01-01

460

Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth.  

PubMed

A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention. PMID:24357109

Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

2014-06-01