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1

Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth  

PubMed Central

Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

2010-01-01

2

YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (YRBSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) was developed to monitor priority health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The YRBSS monitors six categories of behavio...

3

Nevada Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relatively small number of preventable behaviors, such as drinking alcohol and driving, failing to wear seat belts, and engaging in unprotected intercourse, contribute greatly to morbidity and mortality among youth and young adults. An extensive survey of the risk behaviors of one state's youth is described here. A total of 1,538 responses from…

Adams, Ken; And Others

4

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a comprehensive analysis of trends in youth risk behaviors in Lancaster County, as measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) administered in 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999. Our report covers five areas of health risk behavior: unintentional and intentional injuries, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and

Lancaster County

5

Colorado: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 1991, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to a sample of 1,412 high school students in Colorado public schools to collect information about priority health-risk behaviors among adolescents. Questionnaires were received from 1,170 students, a response rate of 83%. Classes in Colorado's 280 public schools were also selected to…

Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver.

6

Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2001 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to monitor health-risk behaviors of the nations high school students. This report contains findings from the 2001 Wisconsin YRBS in eight priority areas: protective assets, unintentional injuries,…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

7

Nevada Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses results of the Nevada Department of Education's fourth statewide administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Students in grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 (N=2,702) from 75 public high schools participated in the study. Nevada high school students reported behaviors that equaled or exceeded goals established in the national…

Soule, Penelope P.; Sharp, Joyce

8

Results Of The 2003 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to measure the major health risk behaviors performed by youth. These health risk behaviors include: behaviors that contribute to intentional and unintentional injuries; the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs; sexual behaviors that contribute…

Engstrom, Martha C.; Parrie, Chelsey; Miller, Russell; Li, Yuan

2004-01-01

9

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, United States, 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual report from the Centers for Disease Control "monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults -- behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity." Statistical tables in this report provide extensive data on the four leading causes of death for persons aged 10-24, accounting for 75 percent of all mortalities for this group: motor-vehicle accidents, other intentional injuries, homicide, and suicide.

10

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: 2011 National Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

11

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

12

Living on the edge -- risk, protection, behavior, and outcomes of Argentine youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk and protective factors influence behaviors and outcomes for youth. While risk factors expose youth to risk-taking behavior that compromises well-beingand hinders personal development, protective factors mediate risk and act as protective mechanisms that insulate youth from negative outcomes. This paper groups youth by risk levels using a cluster analysis methodology, and identifies the risk and protective factors that characterize

Michael Justesen

2008-01-01

13

Health and Risk Behaviors of Massachusetts Youth, 2007: The Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…

Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

2008-01-01

14

Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results, 1995. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An 84-item multiple choice Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 2,092 students in 62 public high schools in New Hampshire during the spring of 1995. The survey covered behaviors in six categories: (1) behaviors that result in unintentional or intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that…

New Hampshire State Dept. of Education, Concord.

15

An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

2002-01-01

16

HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Male Violent Youth Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…

Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.

2010-01-01

17

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

2006-01-01

18

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Students with Disabilities: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

19

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Grades 7-8: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

20

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Alternative Schools Students: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

21

Reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the test-retest reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire.Methods: A sample of 4619 male and female high school students from white, black, Hispanic, and other racial\\/ethnic groups completed the YRBS questionnaire on two occasions approximately two weeks apart. The questionnaire assesses a broad range of health risk behaviors. This study used a protocol that

Nancy D Brener; Laura Kann; Tim McManus; Steven A Kinchen; Elizabeth C Sundberg; James G Ross

2002-01-01

22

Developing a Community Response To Reduce Youth Risk Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a collaborative community response coordinated by a local school health advisory board (SHAB) that addressed key findings from a youth risk behavior survey. Objective data helped focus school and community efforts, and the leadership of the SHAB successfully partnered a response with a number of community organizations. Surveys showed…

Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.; Thompson, Jon M.; Caulkins, Patricia

2001-01-01

23

Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Executive Summary and Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1999 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was conducted as part of a national survey effort by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A stratified random sample of classrooms in all public schools with ninth through twelfth grades was taken. The YRBS was administered to 1,336 students in 46 public schools in Wisconsin in…

Sloan, Matt

24

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

25

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

26

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

27

Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System--2013.  

PubMed

Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire, the addition of new populations, and the development of innovative methods for data collection. PMID:23446553

Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H

2013-03-01

28

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

29

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Montana High Schools: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) report is a continuation of the surveillance and reporting system for adolescent risk behaviors developed by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of the Youth

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

30

Preliminary Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results--1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides the results of a 1993 survey of 2,684 New Hampshire high school students in regard to risk taking, personal violence, suicide, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education, sexual activity, nutrition, and exercise. It found that in the preceding 30 days, 10.8 percent of students…

Johnson, Joyce, Comp.

31

Youth Assets and Sexual Risk Behavior: Differences between Male and Female Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…

Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon

2010-01-01

32

Dating Violence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in a Sample of At-Risk Israeli Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This exploratory study examines the reported dating violence and its association with sexual risk behavior among Israeli adolescents, who are at risk for dropping out of school. Methodology: A convenience sample of 105 at-risk youth (51 boys and 54 girls) completed self-administered anonymous, questionnaires in small same-gender groups.…

Schiff, Miriam; Zeira, Anat

2005-01-01

33

Homeless Youths’ HIV Risk Behaviors with Strangers: Investigating the Importance of Social Networks  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths’ HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14–21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19–21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14–18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths’ HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV. PMID:23613136

2013-01-01

34

Predicting School Weapon Possession: A Secondary Analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines responses of 40,435 students from the "Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey" and uses student self-reported school risk behaviors to "predict" recent weapon possession at school. Although school risk behaviors were moderately correlated with school weapon possession, many frequent weapon carriers displayed zero school risks. Argues…

Furlong, Michael J.; Bates, Michael P.; Smith, Douglas C.

2001-01-01

35

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for American Indian Students in Urban Schools: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

36

Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

2013-01-01

37

Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

2012-01-01

38

Students with Special Needs: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Special Education Assistance. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

2012-01-01

39

Suicide Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Attempted Suicide. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

2013-01-01

40

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry

41

Risk Behavior and Perception Among Youths Residing in Urban Public Housing Developments  

PubMed Central

The scientific literature and popular media suggest that variations in housing structure and neighborhood influence risk behaviors among youths living in low-income urban communities. To explore the importance of these factors on early sexual intercourse, substance use, drug trafficking, and school truancy, data from a community-based survey, conducted in six public housing developments in a major eastern metropolis, were analyzed. The survey group consisted of 300 youths aged 9 through 15 years. There were minimal differences in three potential mediators of risk behaviors (e.g., perceived social support, parenting style, and perceived risk exposure) and in self-reported adolescent risk behaviors among youths residing in different housing developments and between youths residing in high-rise and in low-rise structures. These findings do not support the hypothesis that within a risk-dense low-income environment, variations in building structure or in neighborhood are associated with differences in adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:19313105

Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Black, Maureen M.; Romer, Daniel; Ricardo, Izabel; Kaljee, Linda

1994-01-01

42

Alcohol-Related Risk Behaviors and Sports Participation Among Adolescents: An Analysis of 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined alcohol-related behaviors among adolescent sports participants. Male sports participants were more likely to report heavy drinking and driving after drinking in the past month. Females were less likely to report ever drinking, early drinking, and drinking in the past month.

Darren Mays; Nancy J. Thompson

2009-01-01

43

Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.  

PubMed

We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well. PMID:24494349

Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

2013-12-01

44

Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

2014-01-01

45

An Empirical Test of Ecodevelopmental Theory in Predicting HIV Risk Behaviors among Hispanic Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecodevelopmental theory is a theoretical framework used to explain the interplay among risk and protective processes associated with HIV risk behaviors among adolescents. Although ecodevelopmentally based interventions have been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth, this theory has not yet been directly…

Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Bandiera, Frank; Schwartz, Seth J.; de la Vega, Pura; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda

2010-01-01

46

Behavioral Characteristics of Children and Youth at Risk for Out-of-Home Placements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviors of 66 youth, 8 to 18 years old, with emotional and behavioral disorders that put them at risk for placements outside their homes and/or communities were investigated. Behaviors most predictive of at-risk status were physical aggression, extreme noncompliance, peer interactions, and extreme verbal abuse. (Author/SW)

Quinn, Kevin P.; And Others

1995-01-01

47

Changes in Risk-Taking among High School Students, 1991-1997: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using nationally representative data from students in grades 9 to 12 from the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) of 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997, this study examined changes in high school students' participation in health risk behaviors. Ten specific health risk behaviors were identified, each of which poses potential immediate and…

Boggess, Scott; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Porter, Laura

48

Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and HIV\\/STI Risk Behaviors Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting additional factors,\\u000a such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship\\u000a between psychological distress and sexual risk behaviors was prospectively examined over the four high school years in a sample\\u000a of urban youth (N = 850; 80% African American;

Katherine S. Elkington; José A. Bauermeister; Marc A. Zimmerman

2010-01-01

49

Effects of At-School Victimization and Sexual Orientation on Lesbian, Gay, or Bisexual Youths' Health Risk Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the link between victimization at school and health risk behaviors using representative data comparing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths and heterosexual youths. Methods: Data from the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey taken in Massachusetts and Vermont were exam- ined. This sample included 9188 9th through 12th grade students; 315 of these students were identified as LGB.

DANIEL E. BONTEMPO; ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI

2002-01-01

50

HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

2008-01-01

51

Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors among Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk behaviors was prospectively examined over the four…

Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

2010-01-01

52

Online Social Networking Technologies, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk and Testing Behaviors Among Homeless Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates associations between online social networking and sexual health behaviors among homeless youth in Los\\u000a Angeles. We analyzed survey data from 201 homeless youth accessing services at a Los Angeles agency. Multivariate (regression\\u000a and logistic) models assessed whether use of (and topics discussed on) online social networking technologies affect HIV knowledge,\\u000a sexual risk behaviors, and testing for sexually

Sean D. Young; Eric Rice

2011-01-01

53

Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness  

PubMed Central

The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706

Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

2014-01-01

54

Healthy Wyoming: Start with Youth Today. Results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior and School Health Education Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Wyoming School Health Education Survey (SHES). Thirty-five schools participated in the YRBS, with 3,513 students in grades 9-12; 92 public schools with students in grades 7-12 participated in the SHES. Statistical data from the YRBS are provided in the…

Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Behavior Lab.

55

HIV Risk Behavior of Runaway Youth in San Francisco: Age of Onset and Relation to Sexual Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined HIV risk behaviors among runaway youth by age at onset and sexual orientation. Adolescents age 12-21 years seeking health care at two clinics completed interviews and blood testing. Gay/lesbian/bisexual youth reported higher levels and earlier onset of sexual and drug-using behavior than heterosexual youth and were at exceptionally high…

Moon, Martha W.; McFarland, William; Kellogg, Timothy; Baxter, Michael; Katz, Mitchell H.; MacKellar, Duncan; Valleroy, Linda A.

2000-01-01

56

Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

2015-01-01

57

Religious Involvement and Its Association to Risk Behaviors among Older Youth in Foster Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined religious involvement and its association to risk behaviors (sexual behavior, marijuana use, alcohol use, and cigarette use) among older youth in foster care (N=383). Three dimensions of religious involvement were assessed—church or religious service attendance, religious practices, and religious beliefs. Findings showed that gender, ethnic group membership, sexual abuse history, and placement type were significantly associated with

Lionel D. Scott Jr; Michelle R. Munson; J. Curtis McMillen; Marcia T. Ollie

2006-01-01

58

School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

2012-01-01

59

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 1999. CDC Surveillance Summaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, approximately three-fourths of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from only four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from this 1999 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey demonstrate that numerous high school students engage in behaviors that increase the…

MMWR: Morbidity and Morality Weekly Report, 2000

2000-01-01

60

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Middle School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This youth risk behavior survey was completed by 7,667 students at 127 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) middle schools. The document is organized around the six categories of behavior that contribute substantially to the leading causes of death, illness, and social problems in the United States: unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use;…

Everett, Sherry; Sussman, Michele; Ranslow, Steve; Shaughnessy, Lana

61

Sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. It is of public health importance to investigate this topic to inform sex education, policymaking, and prevention and intervention programs. Methods Based on the Youth Sexuality Survey conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association (FPAHK) in 2011, this study explored the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among 1,126 unmarried youth aged 18 to 27 years. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to examine factors associated with unmarried youth’s premarital sex, casual relationships, multiple sex partners, and premarital pregnancy. Results Unmarried youth in Hong Kong had adequate sex knowledge, but contraceptive knowledge was deficient. The majority of unmarried youth (63.8%) held liberal attitudes toward premarital sex and about half held liberal attitudes toward any form of sexual activity and premarital pregnancy. Around 60% held conservative attitudes toward causal sex relationships and multiple sex partners. Males tended to hold more liberal attitudes toward high-risk sex behaviors than female youth. Approximately 41.5% of unmarried youth reported having engaged in premarital sex, whereas less than 10% engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Males also reported higher amounts of premarital sex, casual sex relationships, and multiple sex partners. Females reported higher levels of sexual coercion. Logistic regressions indicated that being older, coming from a divorced family, out of school status and liberal attitudes toward risky sex behavior were more likely to engage in premarital sex or high-risk sex behaviors, and being female, being better educated and being immigrants were less likely to engage in premarital sex. However, being immigrants was more likely to engage in casual relationship and to have multiple partners. Conclusions Premarital sex is becoming more prevalent among unmarried youth in Hong Kong, and a small proportion of young adults are engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Sex education and HIV prevention programs should equip them with adequate knowledge on contraception and condom use. Intervention programs can start with their attitudes toward sex. PMID:23895326

2013-01-01

62

The Role of Acculturation and Family Functioning in Predicting HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Delinquent Youth  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the relationship between Berry’s acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry’s four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population. PMID:22532299

Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine

2012-01-01

63

Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2005: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Republic of Palau, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territorial, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories,…

Lippe, Jaclynn; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura; Speicher, Nancy

2008-01-01

64

Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2003: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Palau  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territory, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories, and cities…

Balling, Allison; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Speicher, Nancy; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura

2005-01-01

65

A Meta-Analysis of Culturally Sensitive Interventions Designed to Reduce High-Risk Behaviors Among African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) in reducing high risk behaviors with African American youth. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of CSIs across seven studies. African American youth who participated in CSIs were less likely to engage in high risk behaviors compared to those who did not participate. The effect size

Kelly F. Jackson; David R. Hodge; Michael G. Vaughn

2010-01-01

66

Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.  

PubMed

Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth. PMID:19888644

Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

2010-10-01

67

Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

2012-01-01

68

Continuities in Problem Behavior Among High Risk Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of a test of a structural model reflecting the longitudinal relationships of psychosocial problems among youths involved in a Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded clinical trial for juveniles that participated in a diversion program. The project is evaluating the efficacy of an intensive 16-week case management service to youths and their families. The present study

Richard Dembo; Jennifer Wareham; Norman Poythress; Kathleen Meyers; Brittany Cook; James Schmeidler

2007-01-01

69

Tobacco use among High School Athletes and Nonathletes: Results of the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used to compare use of tobacco between athletes and nonathletes. Both female and male athletes were less likely to have smoked, which was truer for the more involved athletes. Both female and male athletes were more likely to have tried smokeless tobacco, with the effect greater for more involved…

Melnick, Merrill J.; Miller, Kathleen E.; Sabo, Donald F.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.

2001-01-01

70

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Middle School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from a spring 1997 survey of all middle-school students (grades 6-8) enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by 6,990 students in 115 of the 122 BIA-funded middle schools; the overall response rate was 74 percent.…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve

71

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on or near a Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

72

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students in Urban Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

73

Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,

Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström

2010-01-01

74

Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Alcohol Use: A Parallel Process Growth Model Analysis  

PubMed Central

Truant youths represent a challenging, yet very promising group of at-risk youth to study. In addition to problems in school, they frequently experience troubled family situations, emotional/ psychological problems, involvement in substance use, and delinquency. Given the problems often experienced by truant youth, it is likely they are engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Identification of these youths’ problems and early placement into effective intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. The current study presents interim findings from an ongoing, NIDA-funded experimental, Brief Intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parent/guardians. Baseline, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow up data were analyzed to determine whether alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors were longitudinally related, examine the effects of the intervention on longitudinal alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, identify latent subgroups of youths in the data for alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, and determine whether the intervention influenced these subgroups. Results indicated alcohol use and sexual risk were longitudinally related. Subgroups of youth were also identified based on alcohol use and sexual risk behavior levels and trends. Further, limited treatment effects were observed for alcohol use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25242878

Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer

2011-01-01

75

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 55, Number SS-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: October 2004-January 2006. Description of the System: The Youth Risk

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

2006-01-01

76

Reducing High Risk Behaviors among Street Living Youth: Outcomes of an Integrated Prevention Intervention.  

PubMed

Research efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk behavior among street living youth have shown disappointing outcomes, with few studies reporting reduced risk behaviors. The current study tested the impact of an integrated HIV prevention intervention, and predictors of change, for youth (N=270) between the ages of 14 to 20 years receiving substance use treatment through a drop-in center. Condom use, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners and behaviors associated with an overall HIV risk index were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Findings suggest that HIV prevention integrated with substance use treatment is associated with increased condom use and reduced sex partners. However, the effects on condom use were short lived and dissipated by 12 months post-baseline. Higher treatment attendance and baseline substance use predicted increased condom use. Although no significant change was observed in the overall HIV risk index, increases in depressive symptoms were associated with increases in the index score, as well as more sexual partners. Future research should determine whether successful intervention requires reinforcement of risk reduction behaviors while youth remain homeless. PMID:25104870

Carmona, Jasmin; Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Letcher, Amber

2014-08-01

77

Indicators of Victimization and Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents: Analyses From Youth Risk Behavior Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We used nuanced measures of sexual minority status to examine disparities in victimization and their variations by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Methods. We conducted multivariate analyses of pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Results. Although all sexual minorities reported more fighting, skipping school because they felt unsafe, and having property stolen or damaged at school than did heterosexuals, rates were highest among youths who identified as bisexual or who reported both male and female sexual partners. Gender differences among sexual minorities appeared to be concentrated among bisexuals and respondents who reported sexual partners of both genders. Sexual minority youths reported more fighting than heterosexual youths, especially at younger ages, and more nonphysical school victimization that persisted through adolescence. White and Hispanic sexual minority youths reported more indicators of victimization than did heterosexuals; we found few sexual minority differences among African American and Asian American youths. Conclusions. Victimization carries health consequences, and sexual minorities are at increased risk. Surveys should include measures that allow tracking of disparities in victimization by sexual minority status. PMID:24328633

Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle

2014-01-01

78

Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

2014-01-01

79

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for American Indian Students on Montana Reservations: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) report is a continuation of the surveillance and reporting system for adolescent risk behaviors developed by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of the YRBS is…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

2005-01-01

80

Continuities in Problem Behavior among High Risk Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the results of a test of a structural model reflecting the longitudinal relationships of psychosocial problems among youths involved in a Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded clinical trial for juveniles that participated in a diversion program. The project is evaluating the efficacy of an intensive 16-week case management service…

Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Cook, Brittany; Schmeidler, James

2007-01-01

81

Religious Climate and Health Risk Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youths: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether the health risk behaviors of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are determined in part by the religious composition of the communities in which they live. Methods. Data were collected from 31?852 high school students, including 1413 LGB students, who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens survey in 2006 through 2008. Supportive religious climate was operationalized according to the proportion of individuals (of the total number of religious adherents) who adhere to a religion supporting homosexuality. Comprehensive data on religious climate were derived from 85 denominational groups in 34 Oregon counties. Results. Among LGB youths, living in a county with a religious climate that was supportive of homosexuality was associated with significantly fewer alcohol abuse symptoms (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.40, 0.85) and fewer sexual partners (OR?=?0.77; 95% CI?=?0.60, 0.99). The effect of religious climate on health behaviors was stronger among LGB than heterosexual youths. Results remained robust after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusions. The religious climate surrounding LGB youths may serve as a determinant of their health risk behaviors. PMID:22397347

Pachankis, John E.; Wolff, Joshua

2012-01-01

82

Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, a second survey was conducted of all 9th through 12th graders enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). As in 1994, the survey instrument used was the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, developed by the Centers for Disease Control. Surveys were completed by 5,606 students out of a total high school population of 7,780.…

Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve

83

Sadness, suicide, and bullying in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey -- 2011.  

PubMed

Bullying is a common exposure in high school and more recently cyberbullying has become prevalent among teens. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of school bullying and cyberbullying and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 11.6% of students reported only school bullying, 6.2% only cyberbullying, and 10.2% both forms of bullying. We determined "feeling unsafe at school" was a significant risk factor for depression and all suicide questions. We also found that being a victim of school bullying, cyberbullying, or both, increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, and plan. PMID:24383197

Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan; Messias, Erick

2013-10-01

84

Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Risk Behaviors of Tobacco, Alcohol, Sexual Behaviors, and Diet and Physical Activity: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age (?14 years), and race/ethnicity. Results. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean?=?5.3 vs 3.8; P?risk behavior: odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.2, 1.4) to 4.0 (95% CI?=?3.6, 4.7), except for a diet low in fruit and vegetables (OR?=?0.7; 95% CI?=?0.5, 0.8). We found sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Conclusions. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities. PMID:24328632

Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Reisner, Sari L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle

2014-01-01

85

Successful Programs for At-Risk Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five successful, ongoing programs that were designed to change the behavior of at-risk youths, including: Drug Free Youth in Touch; At-Risk Programs Promoting Leisure Education; Youth-in-Action; the Mayor's Night Hoops Program; and Youth Outdoor Adventures. Interviews with program managers pointed to the marketing concept as the most…

Everett, Charlie; Chadwell, Jason; McChesney, Jon C.

2002-01-01

86

Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Alcohol Use: A Parallel Process Growth Model Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truant youths frequently experience family problems, emotional/psychological issues, substance misuse, and delinquency. They are likely engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate than the general youth population. Early intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. We present interim findings from an…

Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer

2014-01-01

87

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

2011-01-01

88

Attitudinal and Behavioral Characteristics Predict High Risk Sexual Activity in Rural Tanzanian Youth  

PubMed Central

The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12–26 years of age) across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin), age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:24927421

Aichele, Stephen R.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; James, Susan; Grimm, Kevin

2014-01-01

89

COMT Val158Met Genotype as a Risk Factor for Problem Behaviors in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth exhibiting Val-homozygosity would have greater average…

Albaugh, Matthew D.; Harder, Valerie S.; Althoff, Robert R.; Rettew, David C.; Ehli, Erik A.; Lengyel-Nelson, Timea; Davies, Gareth E.; Ayer, Lynsay; Sulman, Julie; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.

2010-01-01

90

Sadness, suicide, and drug misuse in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011.  

PubMed

Exposure to drugs is unfortunately common among high school students and its use has been linked to depression and suicide risk. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of drug abuse and to measure its association with teen suicidality. Three types of substance misuse were reported by more than 10% of Arkansas high school students: cannabis (33.3% ever use). inhalants (18.7% ever use). and prescription drugs without a prescription (13.2% ever use). We found in all suicide outcomes a stronger association with prescription drug abuse, followed by inhalant abuse, then cannabis abuse. PMID:24719998

Kaley, Sean; Mancino, Michael J; Messias, Erick

2014-02-01

91

A Family Intervention to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior, Substance Use, and Delinquency Among Newly Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

Purpose We evaluate the efficacy of a short family intervention in reducing sexual risk behavior, drug use, and delinquent behaviors among homeless youth. Methods A randomized controlled trial of 151 families with a homeless adolescent aged 12 to 17 years. Adolescents were recruited from diverse sites in southern California from March 2006 through June 2009 and assessed at recruitment (baseline), 3, 6, and 12 months later. Families were randomly assigned to an intervention condition with five weekly home-based intervention sessions or a control condition (standard care). Main outcome measures reflect self-reported sexual, substance use and delinquent behaviors over the last 90 days. Results Sexual risk (e.g., mean number of partners) (p < .001), alcohol use (p = .003), hard drug use (p < .001), and delinquent behaviors (p = .001) decreased significantly more over 12 months in the intervention condition compared to the control condition. Marijuana use, however, significantly increased in the intervention condition compared to the control condition (p < .001). Conclusion An intervention to re-engage families of homeless youth has significant benefits in reducing risk over 12 months. PMID:22443839

Milburn, Norweeta G.; Iribarren, Francisco Javier; Rice, Eric; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Solorio, Rosa; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Desmond, Katherine; Lee, Alex; Alexander, Kwame; Maresca, Katherine; Eastmen, Karen; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Duan, Naihua

2011-01-01

92

Residential trajectory and HIV high-risk behaviors among Montréal street youth--a reciprocal relationship.  

PubMed

Evidence has linked residential instability and engagement in high-risk behaviors. This paper longitudinally examines the relationship between changes in residential stability and changes in HIV risk behaviors among Montréal street youth (SY). Between April 2006 and May 2007, 419 SY (18-25 years old) were recruited in a cohort study. SY (using Montréal street youth agencies services) were eligible if they had had at least one 24-hour episode of homelessness in the previous 30 days. Baseline and follow-up interviews, carried out every 3 months, included completion of a questionnaire (based on Life History Calendar Technique) assessing daily sleeping arrangements since the last interview, and monthly sexual and drug use behaviors. Using mixed-effects logistic regression method, we examined the association between various risk behaviors and residential stability, reached when a youth resided in any of the following settings for a whole month: own place; friends'/partner's/parent's place; any types of housing service (excluding emergency shelters). Analyses were carried out controlling for gender, age, education level, lifetime duration of homelessness, childhood sexual trauma, and lifetime mental health disorders. As of January 2009, 360 SY (79% boys) had completed at least one follow-up interview, representing 4,889 months of follow-up. Residential stability was significantly associated with the following: sex exchange (adjusted odd ratio [AOR], 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.37), drug injection (AOR, 0.55; CI, 0.33-0.76), daily alcohol consumption (AOR, 0.58; CI, 0.42-0.74), polydrug consumption (AOR, 0.61; CI, 0.50-0.73), polydrug consumption excluding marijuana (AOR, 0.55; CI, 0.45-0.65), and multiple sex partners (?3 partners; AOR, 0.57; CI, 0.40-0.74). Our results suggest a reciprocal relationship between residential instability and HIV risk behaviors. This calls for more integrated services combining both individual and structural-level interventions to improve the health of street youth. PMID:21494896

Roy, Elise; Robert, Marie; Vaillancourt, Eric; Boivin, Jean-François; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Martin, Isabelle

2011-08-01

93

Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

2013-01-01

94

Selected Indicators of Adolescent Suicide in High School Students: Results of the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a survey show that high school students in North Carolina think about, attempt, and are injured as the result of a suicide attempt with alarming frequency. This report summarizes suicide-related data from the North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993). Younger students are more at risk of suicide than older students; more than one…

Mikow, Victoria A.

95

Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

96

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 61, Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2010-December 2011. Description of the…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Flint, Katherine H.; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Lim, Connie; Wechsler, Howell

2012-01-01

97

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: January-December 2007. Description of the System: The…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

2008-01-01

98

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 59, Number SS-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2008-December 2009. Description of the…

Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Whittle, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

2010-01-01

99

A Multimodal Behavioral Intervention to Impact Adherence and Risk Behavior among Perinatally and Behaviorally HIV-Infected Youth: Description, Delivery, and Receptivity of Adolescent Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…

Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence

2011-01-01

100

The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Among High School Students: Findings from the 1997 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess whether adolescents with a history of sexual abuse were more likely than those with no such history to engage in sexual risk behaviors. Methods: Data for this study were obtained through the 1997 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a self-report questionnaire administered to a representative sample of 9th through 12th graders (N = 4014) to assess a

Anita Raj; Jay G. Silverman; Hortensia Amaro

2000-01-01

101

Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Perinatal HIV Infection in the United States: Predictors and Implications for Intervention Development  

PubMed Central

Background.?Factors associated with initiation of sexual activity among perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected (PHIV+) youth, and the attendant potential for sexual transmission of antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistant HIV, remain poorly understood. Methods.?We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of PHIV+ youth aged 10–18 years (mean, 13.5 years) enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study between 2007 and 2009. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) were used to collect sexual behavior information. Results.?Twenty-eight percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 23%–33%) (92/330) of PHIV+ youth reported sexual intercourse (SI) (median initiation age, 14 years). Sixty-two percent (57/92) of sexually active youth reported unprotected SI. Among youth who did not report history of SI at baseline, ARV nonadherence was associated with sexual initiation during follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.32–6.25). Youth living with a relative other than their biological mother had higher odds of engaging in unprotected SI than those living with a nonrelative. Thirty-three percent of youth disclosed their HIV status to their first sexual partner. Thirty-nine of 92 (42%) sexually active youth had HIV RNA ?5000 copies/mL after sexual initiation. Viral drug resistance testing, available for 37 of these 39 youth, identified resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 62%, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 57%, protease inhibitors in 38%, and all 3 ARV classes in 22%. Conclusions.?As PHIV+ youth become sexually active, many engage in behaviors that place their partners at risk for HIV infection, including infection with drug-resistant virus. Effective interventions to facilitate youth adherence, safe sex practices, and disclosure are urgently needed. PMID:23139252

Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Mellins, Claude; Kacanek, Deborah; Malee, Kathleen; Allison, Susannah; Hazra, Rohan; Siberry, George K.; Smith, Renee; Paul, Mary; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Seage, George R.

2013-01-01

102

Psychosocial characteristics associated with frequent physical fighting: findings from the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

PubMed

The goal of the current study was to determine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates associated with frequent fighting among US high school students. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N=16 410). Multivariate logistic regression analyses determined associations between demographic and psychosocial correlates of frequent fighting. Among students, 13.6% reported fighting once, 15.3% reported fighting 2-11 times and 2.6% reported fighting 12 or more times in the past year. Risk factors associated with frequent fighting were weapon carrying (adjusted OR=10.55; 95% CI 7.40 to 15.05), suicide attempt (adjusted OR=6.16; 95% CI 3.70 to 10.28), binge drinking (adjusted OR=3.15; 95% CI 2.16 to 4.59) and feeling too unsafe to go to school (adjusted OR=3.09; 95% CI 2.00 to 4.77). There is a clear need to better understand the patterns and psychosocial characteristics of frequent physical fighting and the prevention and interventions strategies that may be most relevant for these vulnerable youth. PMID:22962417

Swahn, Monica H; Bossarte, Robert M; Palmier, Jane B; Yao, Huang; Van Dulmen, Manfred H M

2013-04-01

103

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Selected Steps Communities, United States, 2007 and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Pacific Island United States Territories, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "MMWR" contains the following studies: (1) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Selected Steps…

Shaw, Frederic E., Ed.

2008-01-01

104

Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural african american male youth: testing a model based on life history theory.  

PubMed

Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests. PMID:25501863

Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

2015-04-01

105

Victimization by Bullying and Harassment in High School: Findings from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a Southwestern State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…

Bauman, Sheri

2008-01-01

106

Neighborhood Structural Inequality, Collective Efficacy, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

We draw on collective efficacy theory to extend a contextual model of early adolescent sexual behavior. Specifically, we hypothesize that neighborhood structural disadvantage—as measured by levels of concentrated poverty, residential instability, and aspects of immigrant concentration—and diminished collective efficacy have consequences for the prevalence of early adolescent multiple sexual partnering. Findings from random effects multinomial logistic regression models of the number of sexual partners among a sample of youth, age 11 to 16, from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 768) reveal evidence of neighborhood effects on adolescent higher-risk sexual activity. Collective efficacy is negatively associated with having two or more sexual partners versus one (but not zero versus one) sexual partner. The effect of collective efficacy is dependent upon age: The regulatory effect of collective efficacy increases for older adolescents. PMID:18771063

BROWNING, CHRISTOPHER R.; BURRINGTON, LORI A.; LEVENTHAL, TAMA; BROOKS-GUNN, JEANNE

2011-01-01

107

Transgender Youth and Life-Threatening Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority status is a key risk factor for suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; however, it has not been studied among transgender youth. Fifty-five transgender youth reported on their life-threatening behaviors. Nearly half of the sample reported having seriously thought about taking their lives and one quarter reported suicide…

Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

2007-01-01

108

Psychiatric Disorders, High-Risk Behaviors, and Chronicity of Episodes Among Predominantly African American Homeless Chicago Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective This cross-sectional study investigated the relationships between psychiatric and substance-related disorders, high-risk behaviors, and the onset, duration, and frequency of homelessness among homeless youth in Chicago. Methods Sixty-six homeless youth were recruited from two shelters in Chicago. Demographic characteristics, psychopathology, substance use, and risk behaviors were assessed for each participant. Results Increased frequency and duration of homeless episodes were positively correlated with higher rates of psychiatric diagnoses. Increased number of psychiatric diagnoses was positively correlated with increased high-risk behaviors. Participants with diagnoses of Current Suicidality, Manic Episodes, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Substance Abuse, and Psychotic Disorder had a higher chronicity of homelessness than those without diagnoses. Conclusions Significant differences were evident between the three time parameters, suggesting that stratification of data by different time variables may benefit homelessness research by identifying meaningful subgroups who may benefit from individualized interventions. PMID:25130234

Castro, Anne L.; Gustafson, Erika L.; Ford, Ashley E.; Edidin, Jennifer P.; Smith, Dale L.; Hunter, Scott J.; Karnik, Niranjan S.

2014-01-01

109

Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

2013-01-01

110

Individual and Social Network Sexual Behavior Norms of Homeless Youth at High Risk for HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Although previous research shows that homeless youth engage in numerous risky sexual behaviors, little is known about whether or not specific rules govern this conduct within their social networks and how group norms influence subsequent sexual actions. The current study utilizes 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate different elements of their sexual behavior. Findings reveal that their decision to have sex generally depends on chemistry and physical appearance whereas a potential partner’s risky sexual history and heavy substance use discourages youth from engaging in sex. Both males and females discuss condom usage as it relates to unknown sexual history, availability, pregnancy, and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sixteen homeless youth indicate that they do not discuss safe sex practices with their partners or social network members. PMID:23162182

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

111

Individual and Social Network Sexual Behavior Norms of Homeless Youth at High Risk for HIV Infection.  

PubMed

Although previous research shows that homeless youth engage in numerous risky sexual behaviors, little is known about whether or not specific rules govern this conduct within their social networks and how group norms influence subsequent sexual actions. The current study utilizes 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate different elements of their sexual behavior. Findings reveal that their decision to have sex generally depends on chemistry and physical appearance whereas a potential partner's risky sexual history and heavy substance use discourages youth from engaging in sex. Both males and females discuss condom usage as it relates to unknown sexual history, availability, pregnancy, and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sixteen homeless youth indicate that they do not discuss safe sex practices with their partners or social network members. PMID:23162182

Tyler, Kimberly A; Melander, Lisa A

2012-12-01

112

Is This the Place...for Healthy Kids? Results of the 1997 Utah Youth Risk Behavior and 1996 School Health Education Profile Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes results from the 1997 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1996 Utah School Health Education Profile (SHEP). The YRBS surveyed 9th-12th graders in a random sample of schools about their behaviors that risk their health. Results indicated that students still engage in behaviors that put them at risk for injury or…

Robertson, Brian

113

Youth Risk Taking Behavior: The Role of Schools. A Center Policy & Practice Analysis Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk taking is natural. As the bumper stickers says: "Risk taking happens!" Risk taking behavior may be beneficial or harmful. Some risk taking is unintentional. But a considerable amount stems from proactive or reactive motivation. For schools, some forms of student risk taking behavior are a necessity, and some forms are a problem. With respect…

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

2007-01-01

114

Cocaine Use and Delinquent Behavior among High-Risk Youths: A Growth Model of Parallel Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…

Dembo, Richard; Sullivan, Christopher

2009-01-01

115

Comparison of Paper-and-Pencil versus Web Administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Risk Behavior Prevalence Estimates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined whether paper-and-pencil and Web surveys administered in the school setting yield equivalent risk behavior prevalence estimates. Data were from a methods study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in spring 2008. Intact classes of 9th- or 10th-grade students were assigned randomly to complete a…

Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Denniston, Maxine M.; McManus, Tim; Kyle, Tonja M.; Roberts, Alice M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, James G.

2010-01-01

116

2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey High School Results and 2011 Comparative Report for: Grades 7-8; American Indian Students on or near a Reservation; American Indian Students in Urban Schools; Nonpublic Accredited Schools; Alternative Schools; Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

117

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.  

PubMed

More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

2015-05-01

118

A Longitudinal Study of the Prevalence, Development, and Persistence of HIV/STI Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth: Implications for Health Care in the Community  

PubMed Central

Objective . To examine the prevalence, development, and persistence of sex and drug behaviors that place delinquent youth at risk for human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI). Methods At the baseline interview, HIV/STI drug and sex risk behaviors were assessed in a stratified random sample of 800 juvenile detainees, aged 10 to 18 years. Participants were re-interviewed approximately 3 years later (mean [SD] follow-up, 3.2 [0.3] years; median follow-up, 3.1 years). The final sample in these analyses (n = 724) includes 316 females and 408 males, 393 African Americans, 198 Hispanics, 131 non-Hispanic whites, and 2 participants who self-identified as “other.” Results Nearly three quarters of youth engaged in one or more unprotected sexual risk behaviors at follow-up. Over 60% had engaged in 10 or more risk behaviors at their baseline interview, and nearly two thirds of them persisted in 10 or more risk behaviors at follow-up. Among youth living in the community, many behaviors were more prevalent at follow-up than at baseline. Among incarcerated youth, the opposite pattern prevailed. Development and persistence of HIV/STI risk behaviors differed by gender, race/ethnicity, and age, even after adjusting for incarceration status. Compared with females, males had higher prevalence rates of many HIV/STI risk behaviors and were more likely to persist in some behaviors and develop new ones. Yet, injection risk behaviors were more prevalent among females than males and were also more likely to develop and persist. Compared with persons younger than 18, persons 18 and older had higher prevalence rates of many HIV/STI risk behaviors at follow-up. Overall, there were few racial and ethnic differences in patterns of HIV/STI risk behaviors; most involved the initiation and persistence of substance use among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics. Conclusions Because detained youth have a median stay of only 2 weeks, HIV/STI risk behaviors in delinquent youth are a community public health problem, not just a problem for the juvenile justice system. Improving the coordination among systems that provide HIV/STI interventions to youth – primary care, education, mental health, and juvenile justice – can reduce the prevalence of risk behaviors and substantially reduce the spread of HIV/STI in young people. PMID:17473083

Romero, Erin Gregory; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Welty, Leah J.; Washburn, Jason J.

2009-01-01

119

Latent Class Analysis of Lifestyle Characteristics and Health Risk Behaviors among College Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the context of a wide range of risk behaviors among emerging adults (ages 18–25 years), approximately\\u000a half of whom in the USA enroll in post-secondary educational institutions. The objective of this research was to examine behavioral\\u000a patterning in weight behaviors (diet and physical activity), substance use, sexual behavior, stress, and sleep among undergraduate\\u000a students. Health survey data

Melissa Nelson Laska; Keryn E. Pasch; Katherine Lust; Mary Story; Ed Ehlinger

2009-01-01

120

THE METH PROJECT AND TEEN METH USE: NEW ESTIMATES FROM THE NATIONAL AND STATE YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEYS.  

PubMed

In this note, we use data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys for the period 1999 through 2011 to estimate the relationship between the Meth Project, an anti-methamphetamine advertising campaign, and meth use among high school students. During this period, a total of eight states adopted anti-meth advertising campaigns. After accounting for pre-existing downward trends in meth use, we find little evidence that the campaign curbed meth use in the full sample. We do find, however, some evidence that the Meth Project may have decreased meth use among White high school students. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25294722

Anderson, D Mark; Elsea, David

2014-10-01

121

Prevention Effects Moderate the Association of 5-HTTLPR and Youth Risk Behavior Initiation: Gene x Environment Hypotheses Tested via a Randomized Prevention Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk

Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride

2009-01-01

122

Use of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to Monitor Trends for Nutrition and Physical Activity in a Midwest City School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used by a city school district (approximately 11,000 students) in the upper Midwest to monitor trends for nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors both within and between years and to compare with national 2003 data. Methods: Independent random samples were obtained in 1999 (387 middle…

Edwards, Jane U.; Magel, Rhonda

2007-01-01

123

Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

2008-01-01

124

Identifying Sexual Orientation Health Disparities in Adolescents: Analysis of Pooled Data From the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005 and 2007  

PubMed Central

We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation–related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury. PMID:24328640

Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L.

2014-01-01

125

Screening for Alcohol Risk in Predominantly Hispanic Youths: Positive Rates and Behavioral Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined relationships between CAGE alcohol risk scores and predisposing factors for alcohol use, current alcohol use, and behavioral consequences in a large sample of secondary students. Students completed the CAGE, measures of demographics, potential predisposing factors, and consequences of alcohol use. More than 18% of…

Tomaka, Joe; Salaiz, Rebekah A.; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Thompson, Sharon; McKinnon, Sarah; O'Rourke, Kathleen

2012-01-01

126

Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

Wiener, R. Constance

2014-01-01

127

Epidemiology of Youth Suicide and Suicidal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people in the U.S. and represents a significant public health problem worldwide. This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior. Recent Findings The suicide rate among children and adolescents in the U.S. has increased dramatically in recent years and has been accompanied by substantial changes in the leading methods of youth suicide, especially among young girls. Much work is currently underway to elucidate the relationships between psychopathology, substance use, child abuse, bullying, internet use, and youth suicidal behavior. Recent evidence also suggests sex-specific and moderating roles of gender in influencing risk for suicide and suicidal behavior. Summary Empirical research into the causal mechanisms underlying youth suicide and suicidal behavior is needed to inform early identification and prevention efforts. PMID:19644372

Cash, Scottye J.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

128

Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

E-print Network

the emergence of gender differences in adolescent depressiveal. Gender differences in risk behaviors among adolescentsGender differences in the relationship between depression and suicidal ideation in young adolescents.

West, Bethany A; Swahn, Monica H; McCarty, Frances

2010-01-01

129

Sadness, Suicide, and Their Association with Video Game and Internet Overuse among Teens: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 and 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…

Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale

2011-01-01

130

Kids, Schools, & Health--Where Do We Stand? Results of the New Mexico 1991 Youth Risk Behavior and 1992 School Health Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the results of two statewide surveys: (1) The 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey; and (2) The 1992 New Mexico School Health Education Survey. These findings are intended to be used by educators across New Mexico to help focus the development of effective school-based comprehensive health education programs. Childrens' health…

Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.

131

Is This the Place...for Healthy Kids? Results of the 1991 Utah Youth Risk Behavior and School Health Education Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the results of two statewide surveys conducted during Spring, 1991: the 1992 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Utah School Health Education Survey (SHES). Sixty-three schools were randomly selected to participate in the state-level YRBS, and all 311 public and private schools with students in grades 7…

Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

132

Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Selected Indicators. Findings for 9th-12th Grade Students from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…

Mikow, Victoria A.

133

A Snapshot of Homelessness in Massachusetts Public High Schools: 2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data collected by the Massachusetts Department of Education (Department) during the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) suggest that, despite significant efforts to identify homeless students, many are going undetected by their schools. Since the reauthorization of the McKinney Vento Homeless Assistance Education Improvement Act under the No…

Massachusetts Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

134

Maternal caregiving and girls’ depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth  

PubMed Central

Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), all of whom have had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from the home of their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having a biological mother who has experienced recurrent depression. Study analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls’ trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point across the study period. Results suggest increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for antisocial behavior, for girls at familial risk for depression, but decreasing trajectories for girls in foster care. A similar pattern of results was noted for antisocial behavior trajectories, controlling for depressive symptoms. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the identification of family level promotive factors aimed at reducing negative developmental trajectories among high-risk youth. PMID:25422973

Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

2014-01-01

135

Social influences on the sexual behavior of youth at risk for HIV exposure.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Adolescents are increasingly at risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases, especially in poor urban minority communities. To aid the design of interventions in these communities, this study investigated the role of knowledge, attitudes, perceived parental monitoring, and peer behavior in the onset and progression of sexual behavior in children at risk for exposure to HIV. METHODS. A computerized personal interview was administered to 300 African-American 9- to 15-year-old children living in six public housing developments in a large US city. RESULTS. Although children's knowledge about the hazards of sex increased with age, their sexual activity also increased (from 12% sexually experienced at 9 years of age to more than 80% experienced at 15 years of age). Parental monitoring appeared able to influence sexual activity. However, the perceived behavior of friends was associated with the rate at which sexual activity progressed with age and the degree to which condom use was maintained with age. CONCLUSIONS. The early onset and prevalence of sexual behavior and the importance of peer group influence call for early interventions that simultaneously influence the parents and peers in children's social networks. PMID:8203696

Romer, D; Black, M; Ricardo, I; Feigelman, S; Kaljee, L; Galbraith, J; Nesbit, R; Hornik, R C; Stanton, B

1994-01-01

136

Youth Risk Assessment in Complex Agency Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advancements in the delivery of community-based services and tight utilization management of high-cost treatment options result in youths with serious behavior problems receiving intervention in lower levels of care than was true ten or fifteen years ago. This shift in where services tend to be delivered necessitates enhancement of risk assessment…

Groner, Mark R.; Solomon, Jean

2007-01-01

137

Youth Perceptions of Their School Violence Risks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to gauge youth perceptions of school violence, this study links two perceptual bias literatures: third-person perception and optimistic bias. The intersection of the two literatures may be especially beneficial in understanding how adolescents process and interpret public health messages and subsequently engage in risk behaviors or…

Chapin, John

2008-01-01

138

Changes in Risk-Taking among High School Students, 1991-1997: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on data from three major national surveys of teenagers's risk-taking behavior conducted by the US government and University-based social scientists, in June 2000 the Urban Institute released this report assessing the levels of teenagers's involvement in one or more identified risk-taking behaviors. These behaviors include "regular alcohol use, binge drinking, regular tobacco use, marijuana use, other illegal drug use, fighting, weapon carrying, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and risky sexual activity." The report indicates that risk-taking behavior has actually declined overall among adolescents from 1990 to 1997. However, for one demographic group, Hispanics, the levels have almost doubled. The reports also analyze teenagers's participation in "desirable family, school, or community activities" and conclude that "many risk-taking teens earn good grades, go to church, play sports, or spend quality time with their parents," suggesting, according to the researchers, that a more complicated understanding of vulnerable teens is required than the typical good/bad stereotypes often circulated.

Boggess, Scott.

2000-01-01

139

Dating Violence Among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence, sexual, and substance use behaviors. METHODS Logistic regression models for clustered data from 7th grade students attending 10 Texas urban middle schools were used to examine cross-sectional associations between dating violence victimization and risk behaviors. RESULTS The sample (N = 950) was 48.5% African American, 36.0% Hispanic, 55.7% female, mean age 13.1 years (SD 0.64). About 1 in 5 reported physical dating violence victimization, 48.1% reported nonphysical victimization, and 52.6% reported any victimization. Adjusted logistic regression analyses indicated that physical, nonphysical, and any victimization was associated with ever having sex, ever using alcohol, and ever using drugs. CONCLUSIONS Over 50% of sampled middle school students had experienced dating violence, which may be associated with early sexual initiation and substance use. Middle school interventions that prevent dating violence are needed. PMID:23586886

Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

2015-01-01

140

Changing Health Behavior in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author considers the need for changing health behavior in youth. The author begins by discussing how people learn health behavior which could help educators in understanding the reasons why it is often difficult to effect changes--and how educators may succeed. If the aim of health educators is to change behavior, the author…

Hochbaum, Godfrey M.

2010-01-01

141

Relationships between Youth Sport Participation and Selected Health Risk Behaviors from 1999 to 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: How adolescents spend their out-of-school time represents one of the most important factors for predicting positive youth development. Sport participation relates to many beneficial outcomes. However, current economic conditions threaten high school sport programs around the United States. This investigation examined relationships by…

Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Donovan, Kristine A.

2010-01-01

142

Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

2011-01-01

143

Risk Comparison among Youth Who Report Sex with Same-Sex versus Both-Sex Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines risk behavior among youth attending support groups for sexual minority youth in Richmond, Virginia, using a structured survey, with particular attention to partner selection and its relationship to risk. Within this generally high-risk group, youth reporting sex partners of both sexes had significantly higher risk profiles,…

Moon, Martha W.; Fornili, Katherine; O'Briant, Amanda L.

2007-01-01

144

School bullying, cyberbullying, or both: correlates of teen suicidality in the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

PubMed

While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8-2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality. PMID:24768228

Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan

2014-07-01

145

Youth Sports and Concussion Risk  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Youth Sports and Concussion Risk A thletes sometimes joke about “getting your bell rung” or feeling a “stinger” after taking a hit ... car crash, or a sports injury. CONCUSSIONS AND SPORTS One of the most common ways children and ...

146

A prospective study of youth gambling behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the course and outcomes of adolescent gambling. This prospective study describes findings from a 3-wave (Time 1 (T1), Time 2 (T2), and Time 3 (T3)) assessment of gambling behaviors among youth (N 305). Stable rates of any gambling and regular gambling (weekly or daily) were observed across T1, T2, and T3. The rate of at-risk gambling

Ken C. Winters; Randy D. Stinchfield; Andria Botzet; Nicole Anderson

2002-01-01

147

Interagency Collaboration with High-Risk Gang Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the results of a study on interagency collaboration required to make major systemic changes in order to address the needs of emotionally and behaviorally disturbed youth. Interviews were conducted with practitioners from a cross-section of agencies that worked with high-risk gang youth. The intent was to examine both the…

Okamoto, Scott K.

148

Project Adventure's Programs for Youth at Risk: A Developing Continuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Adventure has seven programs for at-risk and adjudicated youth in Georgia, all using adventure counseling to help youth confront and manage their behaviors. Some programs are day programs for suspended students that involve family counseling and work. Others are residential programs for drug addicts, sexual offenders, and other adjudicated…

Walsh, Jean

2002-01-01

149

Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…

Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

2013-01-01

150

Discotheques and the Risk of Hearing Loss among Youth: Risky Listening Behavior and Its Psychosocial Correlates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit strength" as…

Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

2010-01-01

151

At-Risk Youth: A Selected Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This select bibliography lists books, articles, and reports, almost all of which were published since 1980, on at-risk youth. The following areas are included: (1) general; (2) dropouts; (3) drug and alcohol abusers; (4) youth offenders; (5) teen parents; (6) young children at risk; and (7) unemployed youth. For each item the following information…

Crohn, Leslie

152

Stress, behavior, and biology: Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in youth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Psychological stress is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathogenesis during childhood. Stress promotes atherogenic behaviors in children including snacking of energy dense foods and reduced physical activity; and it also increases adiposity. Stress-induced CV reactivity may also be athe...

153

Teaching: Behaviorally Disordered Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication presents five articles dealing with research and methodology for teachers of behaviorally disordered children. In the first paper, R. Gable et al. describe "A Classroom-based Curriculum Validation Process for Teaching the Behaviorally Disordered," which focuses on static and dynamic evaluation of curricular materials. E. Anderson…

Zabel, Mary Kay, Ed.

154

Serving At-Risk Youth: One Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camping Unlimited for at-risk youth, which originally ran from 1969-76, was recently revived at Blue Star Camps (Hendersonville, North Carolina) with 150 youth from southern Florida. The one-week stay, funded by several partnerships and organized by youth programs in the home county, included all regular camp activities. Increased staff and…

Becker, William A.; Popkin, Rodger

1998-01-01

155

Toronto street youth and HIV\\/AIDS: prevalence, demographics, and risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purposes of this study were: (a) to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in Toronto street youth through paired blood and saliva specimens; (b) to identify the HIV risk and prevention behaviors of street involved youth; and (c) to identify demographic or other factors that may contribute to the risk of street youth becoming infected with HIV\\/acquired immunodeficiency

Dale DeMatteo; Carol Major; Barbara Block; Randall Coates; Margaret Fearon; Eudice Goldberg; Susan M. King; Margaret Millson; Michael O’Shaughnessy; Stanley E. Read

1999-01-01

156

Multiple Identification and Risks: Examination of Peer Factors across Multiracial and Single-Race Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiracial youth are thought to be more vulnerable to peer-related risk factors than are single-race youth. However, there have been surprisingly few well-designed studies on this topic. This study empirically investigated the extent to which multiracial youth are at higher risk for peer influenced problem behavior. Data are from a representative…

Choi, Yoonsun; He, Michael; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Toumbourou, John W.

2012-01-01

157

A descriptive study of youth risk behavior in urban and rural secondary school students in El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is an important stage of life for establishing healthy behaviors, attitudes, and lifestyles that contribute to current and future health. Health risk behavior is one indicator of health of young people that may serve both as a measure of health over time as well as a target for health policies and programs. This study examined the prevalence and

Andrew E Springer; BJ Selwyn; Steven H Kelder

2006-01-01

158

Does Stress Increase the Risk of Atopic Dermatitis in Adolescents? Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBWS-VI)  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the relationship between level of stress in middle and high school students aged 12–18 and risk of atopic dermatitis. Data from the Sixth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-VI), a cross-sectional study among 74,980 students in 800 middle schools and high schools with a response rate of 97.7%, were analyzed. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis with severity. A total of 5,550 boys and 6,964 girls reported having been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. Younger students were more likely to have atopic dermatitis. Interestingly, the educational level of parents was found to be associated with having atopic dermatitis and having more severe condition. In particular, girls with mothers with at least college education had a 41% higher risk of having atopic dermatitis and severe atopic condition (odds ratio (OR))?=?1.41, 95% CI, 1.22–1.63; P<0.0001) compared with those with mothers who had attended middle school at most. Similar trend was shown among both boys and girls for their father's education level. The stress level was found to be significantly associated with the risk of atopic dermatitis. Compared to boys with who reported “no stress”, boys with “very high” stress had 46% higher the risk of having more severe atopic dermatitis (OR?=?1.46, 95% CI, 1.20–1.78; P<0.0001), 44% higher (OR?=?1.44, 95% CI, 1.19–1.73; P<0.0001) with “high” stress, and 21% higher (OR?=?1.21, 95% CI, 1.00–1.45; P?=?0.05) with “moderate” stress. In contrast, we found no statistically significant relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis in girls. This study suggests that stress and parents' education level were associated with atopic dermatitis. Specifically, degree of stress is positively correlated with likelihood of being diagnosed with this condition and increasing the severity. PMID:23940513

Kwon, Jeoung A.; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Sohee

2013-01-01

159

Effects of after-school programs with at-risk youth on attendance and externalizing behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The popularity, demand, and increased federal and private funding for after-school programs have resulted in a marked increase in after-school programs over the past two decades. After-school programs are used to prevent adverse outcomes, decrease risks, or improve functioning with at-risk youth in several areas, including academic achievement, crime and behavioral problems, socio-emotional functioning, and school engagement and attendance; however, the evidence of effects of after-school programs remains equivocal. This systematic review and meta-analysis, following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, examined the effects of after-school programs on externalizing behaviors and school attendance with at-risk students. A systematic search for published and unpublished literature resulted in the inclusion of 24 studies. A total of 64 effect sizes (16 for attendance outcomes; 49 for externalizing behavior outcomes) extracted from 31 reports were included in the meta-analysis using robust variance estimation to handle dependencies among effect sizes. Mean effects were small and non-significant for attendance and externalizing behaviors. A moderate to large amount of heterogeneity was present; however, no moderator variable tested explained the variance between studies. Significant methodological shortcomings were identified across the corpus of studies included in this review. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed. PMID:25416228

Kremer, Kristen P; Maynard, Brandy R; Polanin, Joshua R; Vaughn, Michael G; Sarteschi, Christine M

2015-03-01

160

Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Religion: Findings from a National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities…

Sinha, Jill W.; Cnaan, Ram A.; Gelles, Richard J.

2007-01-01

161

SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL LEARNING: A FRAMEWORK FOR PROMOTING MENTAL HEALTH AND REDUCING RISK BEHAVIORS IN CHILDREN AND YOUTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many programs have been developed to help schools enhance their students' health and reduce the prevalence of problem behaviors such as drug use, violence, and high-risk sex. How should educators make selections among these? This article describes criteria based on theory, re- search, and best educational practice that identify key social and emotional learning (SEL) compe- tencies and program features

John W. Payton; Dana M. Wardlaw; Patricia A Graczyk; Michelle R. Bloodworth; Carolyn J. Tompsett; Roger P. Weissberg

2000-01-01

162

Sexual and Drug Use Behavior in Perinatal HIV-Infected Youth: Mental Health and Family Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study found that youth and caregiver mental health problem have greater impact than key environmental factors and family functioning on sex and drug use risk behaviors in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (PHIV+) and PHIV- youths. No differences in the rates of sexual risk behavior and substance use were observed between…

Mellins, Claude A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Dolezal, Curtis; McKay, Mary; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Abrams, Elaine J.

2009-01-01

163

Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Urban Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Rates of overweight in youth have increased at an alarming rate, particularly in minority youth, and depressive symptoms may affect the ability of youth to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors to manage weight and reduce their risk for health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressive…

Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Grey, Margaret

2009-01-01

164

After School: Connecting Children at Risk with Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors--An RWJF National Program. Program Results Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The intermediaries--Boston After…

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008

2008-01-01

165

Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents. Part 2. Examining the Causes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of Part 2 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. Part 2 contains five readings on causal factors related to at-risk behaviors. "The Harmful Effects of Dysfunctional Family…

Palmo, Artis J.; And Others

166

Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide. Volume 2: Risk Factors for Youth Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commissioned papers by a work group on risk factors for youth suicide, which examined environmental, behavioral, socio-cultural, biological, and psychological factors associated with an increased likelihood of suicide among young people are presented in this document. The following papers are presented: (1) "Sociodemographic, Epidemiologic, and…

Davidson, Lucy, Ed.; Linnoila, Markku, Ed.

167

Are Students with Asthma at Increased Risk for Being a Victim of Bullying in School or Cyberspace? Findings from the 2011 Florida Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adolescents with asthma are at risk for psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to determine whether high school students with asthma are at increased risk for bullying in school and cyberspace, and to explore the role of depressive symptoms in moderating this association. Methods: A secondary data analysis was…

Gibson-Young, Linda; Martinasek, Mary P.; Clutter, Michiko; Forrest, Jamie

2014-01-01

168

Middle School Risk Behavior 1995 Survey Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Middle School Questionnaire, produced by the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was administered for the first time in North Carolina in 1995. The survey monitored high-priority health-risk behaviors, including: (1) weapons and violence; (2) suicide-related behaviors; (3) vehicle safety; (4)…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

169

Integrating Technology into the Curriculum for "At-Risk" Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Independent Learning Project (ILP) discusses the best practices in educational technology to improve the behavior, instruction, and learning of at-risk youth, for whom technology offers unique opportunities. Research is compiled from numerous scholarly print and online sources. A guide for teachers provides detailed strategies, software…

McCall, Denise

2009-01-01

170

Models to Guide System Reform for At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy reform for at-risk youth is complicated by involvement of various service sectors. Issues related to coordinating systems of care in a dynamic policy environment are not new, but surprisingly little has been written to guide practitioners and policymakers in addressing them (Friedman in "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"…

McCarter, Susan A.; Haber, Mason G.; Kazemi, Donna

2010-01-01

171

Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Asian American Outpatient Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical record abstraction was conducted to identify correlates of suicidal behaviors in a sample of 285 Asian American youths. Acculturation interacted with risk factor of parent-child conflict to predict suicidality. Finding underscores the importance of culture as a context for determining the relevance of stressors for potentiating…

Lau, Anna S.; Jernewall, Nadine M.; Zane, Nolan; Myers, Hector F.

2002-01-01

172

Stress, Behavior, and Children and Youth Who Are Deafblind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children and youth who are deafblind with multiple disabilities have several identified risk factors for experiencing toxic levels of stress, and such stress is known to impair physical, mental, and emotional health. This single-case multiple baseline study examined the frequency and duration of behaviors thought to indicate stress, the duration…

Nelson, Catherine; Greenfield, Robin G.; Hyte, Holly A.; Shaffer, Jason P.

2013-01-01

173

Can an Intense After-School Program for At-Risk Youth Help Prevent Risky Behaviors? Evidence from a Randomized Trial in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first to use a randomized trial i n the US to analyze the short- and long-term impact s of an afterschool program that offered disadvantaged high-school youth: mentoring, educational services, and financial r ewards to attend program activities, complete high-school and enroll in post-secondary education on youths' enga gement in risky behaviors, such as substance abuse,

Núria Rodríguez-Planas

174

Psychosocial Functioning Problems over Time among High-Risk Youths: A Latent Class Transition Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report the results of latent class analyses and latent class transition analyses of antisocial behavior risk factors among 137 youths participating in a juvenile diversion program. The study examined the youths' latent classifications using baseline and 1-year follow-up measures of family, peer, education, and mental health risk

Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Schmeidler, James

2008-01-01

175

Measuring Risk and Protection in Communities Using the Communities that Care Youth Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Communities That Care Youth Survey measures risk and protective factors shown in prior studies to predict adolescent problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence. This paper describes the development and validation of cut points for the risk and protective factor scales in the Communities That Care Youth Survey that…

Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Brooke-Weiss, Blair L.; Catalano, Richard F.

2007-01-01

176

HIV Risk Profile and Prostitution Among Female Street Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors among female street youths involved in prostitution and those with no history of prostitution. Youths aged 14 to 25 years were recruited into the Montreal Street Youth Cohort. Semiannually, youths completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Statistical analyses comparing characteristics and HIV risk factors for girls involved in

Amy E. Weber; Jean-Francois Boivin; Lucie Blais; Nancy Haley; Elise Roy

2002-01-01

177

Risky Sexual Behaviors in First and Second Generation Hispanic Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though official data document that Hispanic youth are at a great risk for early sexual intercourse, STDs, and teen pregnancy, only few etiological studies have been conducted on Hispanic youth; almost no work has examined potential generational differences in these behaviors, and thus, these behaviors may have been mistakenly attributed to…

Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

2009-01-01

178

Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence  

PubMed Central

Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.

2013-01-01

179

Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence.  

PubMed

Although "association with delinquent peers" is commonly identified as "a risk factor for youth violence," this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these "doubly diverse" friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and "delinquent peers." It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K

2013-08-01

180

Cultivating Trust among Urban Youth at Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining data from interviews with students in the Upward Bound program (a federally sponsored program that provides academic support to students at risk who are preparing for college entrance), this study seeks to strengthen an understanding of the role of trust among urban youth at risk in the educational organizations that serve them. This…

Owens, Michael A.; Johnson, Bob L., Jr.

2008-01-01

181

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 53, Number SS-2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, 70.8% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10-24 years result from only four causes: motor-vehicle crashes (32.3%), other unintentional injuries (11.7%), homicide (15.1%), and suicide (11.7%). Substantial morbidity and social problems also result from the approximately 870,000 pregnancies that occur each year among…

Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Lowry, Richard; Harris, William A.; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Collins, Janet

2004-01-01

182

Risk Behaviors Associated with Cigarette Use among Asian American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. This study examined the association between several common youth risk behaviors, including cigarette use among Asian American adolescents, using data (N=408) from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The weighted univariate and multivariate logistic…

Kwon, Harry T.; Wang, Min Qi; Valmidiano, Lillian L.

2005-01-01

183

School-based behavioral interventions are recommended to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Youth  

Cancer.gov

School-based behavioral interventions are recommended to Increase Vegetable and Fruit Consumption Among Youth Consumption of five or more daily servings of vegetables and fruit is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure,

184

Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed. PMID:24921019

Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

2014-01-01

185

Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

2005-01-01

186

The Role of Families and Care Givers as Risk and Protective Factors in Preventing Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research which discusses the risk and protective functions that families and other caregivers provide in influencing the development of aggressive behavior in youth. Currently, there is an emphasis on providing violence prevention programs in the school environment, typically with little parental or caregiver involvement. By enhancing the role of families and caregivers in youth violence prevention programs,

Le'Roy E. Reese; Elizabeth M. Vera; Thomas R. Simon; Robin M. Ikeda

2000-01-01

187

Examining the Developmental Process of Risk for Exposure to Community Violence Among Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research has documented the effects of community violence exposure on adolescents' behavior and mental health functioning, yet there has been less research on the process by which early risks increase the likelihood that youth will be exposed to community violence. The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 623 urban youth followed from 1st grade

Sharon F. Lambert; Catherine P. Bradshaw; Nicole L. Cammack; Nicholas S. Ialongo

2011-01-01

188

Case Management as a Significant Component of Usual Care Psychotherapy for Youth with Disruptive Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) represent the majority of youth served in usual care (UC) psychotherapy, and are at high risk for maladaptive outcomes. Little is known about UC psychotherapeutic strategies utilized with this population. Researchers and clinicians suggest that case management (CM) is a major activity occurring in…

Zoffness, Rachel; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Roesch, Scott

2009-01-01

189

Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and key journals/meeting abstracts were searched. We included studies that compared children and adolescents (? 18 years) who used MA to those who did not. One reviewer extracted the data and a second checked for completeness and accuracy. For discrete risk factors, odds ratios (OR) were calculated and when appropriate, a pooled OR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was calculated. For continuous risk factors, mean difference and 95% CI were calculated and when appropriate, a weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI was calculated. Results were presented separately by comparison group: low-risk (no previous drug abuse) and high-risk children (reported previous drug abuse or were recruited from a juvenile detention center). Results Twelve studies were included. Among low-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: history of heroin/opiate use (OR = 29.3; 95% CI: 9.8–87.8), family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9), risky sexual behavior (OR = 2.79; 95% CI: 2.25, 3.46) and some psychiatric disorders. History of alcohol use and smoking were also significantly associated with MA use. Among high-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: family history of crime (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.3), family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9), family history of alcohol abuse (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.8–5.6), and psychiatric treatment (OR = 6.8; 95% CI: 3.6–12.9). Female sex was also significantly associated with MA use. Conclusion Among low-risk youth, a history of engaging in a variety of risky behaviors was significantly associated with MA use. A history of a psychiatric disorder was a risk factor for MA for both low- and high-risk youth. Family environment was also associated with MA use. Many of the included studies were cross-sectional making it difficult to assess causation. Future research should utilize prospective study designs so that temporal relationships between risk factors and MA use can be established. PMID:18957076

Russell, Kelly; Dryden, Donna M; Liang, Yuanyuan; Friesen, Carol; O'Gorman, Kathleen; Durec, Tamara; Wild, T Cameron; Klassen, Terry P

2008-01-01

190

Cognitive-Behavioral-Expressive Interventions with Aggressive and Resistant Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, youth placed in residential treatment facilities demonstrate violent. aaaressive behavior. Research on national, regional and local levels consistently demonstrate that youth referred for residential placement evidence violent and aggressive ideation and behavior. Tpically, such youth have experienced abuse and come from families of origin characterized by violence as well as probable sexual and substance abuse. Trends in the provision

Daniel L. Davis; Lucinda H. Booster

1993-01-01

191

Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey  

PubMed Central

Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

Cho, Kang-Ok

2014-01-01

192

Choking Game: CDC's Findings on a Risky Youth Behavior  

MedlinePLUS

... Media Publications Injury Center Research Update The Choking Game: CDC´s Findings on a Risky Youth Behavior Centers ... and Prevention. Unintentional Strangulation Deaths from "The Choking Game" Among Youths Aged 6 - 19 Years – United States, ...

193

Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for HIV Prevention among South African Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the efficacy of sexual risk reduction interventions among South African youth. Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify studies published between 2007 and early 2013. Studies were eligible if they (1) targeted youth age 9–26, (2) evaluated sexual risk reduction interventions and (3) reported at least one behavioral outcome. Independent raters coded study characteristics, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated; positive effect sizes indicated less sexual risk behavior and incident STIs. Results Ten studies (k = 11, N = 22,788; 54% female; 79% Black-African) were included. Compared to controls, interventions were successful at delaying sexual intercourse and, among sexually active youth, at increasing condom use. A single study found reductions in the incidence of herpes simplex virus-2, but not HIV. Conclusions Implementing behavioral interventions to delay sexual debut and improve condom use can help to reduce the transmission of HIV among South African youth. PMID:24476351

Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Walstrom, Paige; Harrison, Abigail; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.

2014-01-01

194

Gang involvement: psychological and behavioral characteristics of gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth.  

PubMed

Research has noted the existence of a loose and dynamic gang structure. However, the psychological processes that underpin gang membership have only begun to be addressed. This study examined gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth across measures of criminal activity, the importance they attach to status, their levels of moral disengagement, their perceptions of out-group threat, and their attitudes toward authority. Of the 798 high school students who participated in this study, 59 were identified as gang members, 75 as peripheral youth, and 664 as nongang youth. Gang members and peripheral youth were more delinquent than nongang youth overall; however, gang members committed more minor offenses than nongang youth and peripheral youth committed more violent offenses than nongang youth. Gang members were more anti-authority than nongang youth, and both gang and peripheral youth valued social status more than nongang youth. Gang members were also more likely to blame their victims for their actions and use euphemisms to sanitize their behavior than nongang youth, whereas peripheral youth were more likely than nongang youth to displace responsibility onto their superiors. These findings are discussed as they highlight the importance of examining individual differences in the cognitive processes that relate to gang involvement. PMID:20718002

Alleyne, Emma; Wood, Jane L

2010-01-01

195

Youth aggressive/disruptive behavior trajectories and subsequent gambling among urban male youth.  

PubMed

This study examines the association between aggressive/disruptive behavior development in two distinct developmental periods-childhood (i.e., Grades 1-3) and early adolescence (i.e., Grades 6-10)-and subsequent gambling behavior in late adolescence up to age 20. The sample consists of 310 urban males of predominately minority and low socioeconomic status followed from first grade to late adolescence. Separate general growth mixture models were estimated to explore the heterogeneity in aggressive/disruptive behavior development in the aforementioned two periods. Three distinct behavior trajectories were identified for each period: a chronic high, a moderate increasing, and a low increasing class for childhood, and a chronic high, a moderate increasing, followed by decreasing and a low stable class for early adolescence. There was no association between childhood behavior trajectories and gambling involvement. Males with a moderate behavior trajectory in adolescence where two times more likely to gamble compared to those in the low stable class (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.11, 3.24). Those with chronic high trajectories during either childhood or early adolescence (OR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.06, 6.38; OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.18, 8.64, respectively) were more likely to be at-risk/problem gamblers than those in the low class. Aggressive/disruptive behavior development in childhood and early adolescence is associated with gambling and gambling problems in late adolescence among urban male youth. Preventing childhood and youth aggressive/disruptive behavior may be effective to prevent youth problem gambling. PMID:23410188

Martins, Silvia S; Liu, Weiwei; Hedden, Sarra L; Goldweber, Asha; Storr, Carla L; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Stinchfield, Randy; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Petras, Hanno

2013-01-01

196

Youth Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Trajectories and subsequent Gambling among Urban Male Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines the association between aggressive/disruptive behavior development in two distinct developmental periods, childhood (i.e., grades 1–3) and early adolescence (i.e., grades 6–10) and subsequent gambling behavior in late adolescence up to age 20. Method The sample consists of 310 urban males of predominately minority and low socioeconomic status followed from first grade to late adolescence. Separate general growth mixture models (GGMM) were estimated to explore the heterogeneity in aggressive/disruptive behavior development in the above-mentioned two time periods. Results Three distinct behavior trajectories were identified for each time period: a chronic high, a moderate increasing and a low increasing class for childhood, and a chronic high, a moderate increasing followed by decreasing and a low stable class for early adolescence. There was no association between childhood behavior trajectories and gambling involvement. Males with a moderate behavior trajectory in adolescence where two times more likely to gamble compared to those in the low stable class (OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.11, 3.24). Those with chronic high trajectories during either childhood or early adolescence (OR=2.60, 95% CI=1.06, 6.38; OR=3.19, 95% CI=1.18, 8.64, respectively) were more likely to be at-risk/problem gamblers than those in the low class. Conclusions Aggressive/disruptive behavior development in childhood and early adolescence is associated with gambling and gambling problems in late adolescence among urban male youth. Preventing childhood and youth aggressive/disruptive behavior may be effective to prevent youth problem gambling. PMID:23410188

Martins, Silvia S.; Liu, Weiwei; Hedden, Sarra L.; Goldweber, Asha; Storr, Carla L.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Stinchfield, Randy; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Petras, Hanno

2013-01-01

197

Cluster Profiles of Youths Living in Urban Poverty: Factors Affecting Risk and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined risk and protective factors among a sample of 157 youths between grades and 8 who resided in three urban public housing developments. The relationship between identified patterns of risk and protection and educational and behavioral outcomes was assessed. Indicators of risk and protection were based on an ecological and…

Anthony, Elizabeth K.

2008-01-01

198

Bridging Positive Youth Development and Mental Health Services for Youth with Serious Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth development approaches have grown in popularity, yet the appropriateness of these strategies for adolescents with serious behavior problems has rarely been addressed. Life-course research examining the onset and developmental course of problem behaviors suggests that youth with different patterns of behavior problems may not equally benefit…

Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Brown, Jennifer S.; Hamilton, Stephen F.

2008-01-01

199

Health Risk Behaviors among California College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risk behaviors among students attending 4-year colleges in California were examined. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey for College Students was administered in a two-stage (29 universities, 5,652 students) random sample. All campuses and 3,810 (69%) students participated in the survey. In the 30 days preceding the survey, 36.7% of the students had binged at least once while drinking; 25.3%

Kevin Patrick; Jennifer R. Covin; Mark Fulop; Karen Calfas; Chris Lovato

1997-01-01

200

Substance use and risky sexual behavior among homeless and runaway youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To (a) characterize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors of homeless youth; (b) determine whether substance use is associated with risky sexual behavior in this population; and, if so, (c) explore explanations for this relationship.Methods: A purposive sample of 327 homeless youth (ages 14–21 years) in Washington, DC, were surveyed in 1995 and 1996. Survey items were adapted from

SusanL Bailey; CarolS Camlin; SusanT Ennett

1998-01-01

201

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System  

MedlinePLUS

... Instructions Frequently Asked Questions Training Manual Resources Glossary Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool FAQs Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool High Quality Physical Education ...

202

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

2012-01-01

203

Modeling HIV Risk in Highly Vulnerable Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the structure of several HIV risk behaviors in an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of 8,251 clients from 10 innovative demonstration projects intended for adolescents living with, or at risk for, HIV. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified 2 risk factors for men (sexual intercourse with men and a…

Huba, G. J.; Panter, A. T.; Melchior, Lisa A.; Trevithick, Lee; Woods, Elizabeth R.; Wright, Eric; Feudo, Rudy; Tierney, Steven; Schneir, Arlene; Tenner, Adam; Remafedi, Gary; Greenberg, Brian; Sturdevant, Marsha; Goodman, Elizabeth; Hodgins, Antigone; Wallace, Michael; Brady, Russell E.; Singer, Barney; Marconi, Katherine

2003-01-01

204

A Brief Screening Measure of Adolescent Risk Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of…

Lescano, Celia M.; Hadley, Wendy S.; Beausoleil, Nancy I.; Brown, Larry K.; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail

2007-01-01

205

Promoting Healthy Outcomes Among Youth with Multiple Risks: Innovative Approaches  

PubMed Central

Adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior problems, and mental health problems have extremely high social costs and lead to overburdened mental health and juvenile justice systems in the United States and Europe. The prevalence of these problems is substantial, and at-risk youth often present with a combination of concerns. An understanding of risk and protective factors at multiple levels, including the child, family, peer, school, and community, has influenced intervention development. At the individual and family levels, the most effective and cost-effective programs work intensively with youth and their families or use individual and group cognitive-behavioral approaches. However, there is a paucity of careful studies of effective policies and programs in the juvenile justice system. Research is needed that focuses on adoption, financing, implementation, and sustainable use of evidence-based programs in public service systems. In addition, the field needs to understand better for whom current programs are most effective to create the next generation of more effective and efficient programs. PMID:23297659

Greenberg, Mark T.; Lippold, Melissa A.

2015-01-01

206

Promoting healthy outcomes among youth with multiple risks: innovative approaches.  

PubMed

Adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior problems, and mental health problems have extremely high social costs and lead to overburdened mental health and juvenile justice systems in the United States and Europe. The prevalence of these problems is substantial, and at-risk youth often present with a combination of concerns. An understanding of risk and protective factors at multiple levels, including the child, family, peer, school, and community, has influenced intervention development. At the individual and family levels, the most effective and cost-effective programs work intensively with youth and their families or use individual and group cognitive-behavioral approaches. However, there is a paucity of careful studies of effective policies and programs in the juvenile justice system. Research is needed that focuses on adoption, financing, implementation, and sustainable use of evidence-based programs in public service systems. In addition, the field needs to understand better for whom current programs are most effective to create the next generation of more effective and efficient programs. PMID:23297659

Greenberg, Mark T; Lippold, Melissa A

2013-01-01

207

Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

France, Alan

2008-01-01

208

Risk factor analysis and the youth question  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the ‘youth question’ is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is still the case but new

Alan France

2008-01-01

209

New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (YRRS). 2005 Report of State Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 2005, the New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM YRRS) was conducted in New Mexico public high schools, with 5,679 students in grades nine through twelve participating from 20 public high schools in the state. The NM YRRS is a tool that can assist administrators and policy makers in identifying health risk behaviors among…

Green, Dan; Penaloza, Linda J.; Chrisp, Eric; Dillon, Mary; Cassell, Carol M.; Tsinajinnie, Eugene; Rinehart, Judith; Ortega, Willa

2006-01-01

210

Analysis of the Fiscal Resources Supporting At-Risk Youth, Ages 13-24, in Hawaii  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hawaii's largest populations of at-risk youth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…

Silloway, Torey; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dahlin, Melissa

2012-01-01

211

Measuring Youth Sexual Risk-Taking in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Programmatic Recommendations from Different Methodological Approaches  

PubMed Central

No studies have examined the applicability of varying methods for identifying youth at high risk of unintended pregnancies and contracting HIV. This study compares sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors of youth (ages 15-24) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti surveyed using three different study methodologies. The three study methodologies are compared in terms of their utility for identifying high risk youth and utility for program planning. The three study methodologies are: a representative sample of youth from the 2005/6 Demographic and Health Survey (HDHS); a 2004 facility-based study; and a 2006/7 venue-based study that used the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method. The facility-based and PLACE studies included larger proportions of single, sexually experienced youth and youth who knew someone with HIV/AIDS than the HDHS. More youth in the PLACE study had multiple sexual partners in the last year and received money or gifts for sex compared to youth in facilities. At first and last sex, more PLACE youth used contraception including condoms. Pregnancy experience was most common in the facility-based data; however, more ever-pregnant PLACE youth reported ever terminating a pregnancy. Program managers seeking to target prevention activities should consider using facility- or venue-based methods to identify and understand the behaviors of high-risk youth. PMID:23012724

Speizer, Ilene S.; Beauvais, Harry; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Outlaw, Theresa Finn; Roussel, Barbara

2013-01-01

212

Kids Speak: Preferred Parental Behavior at Youth Sport Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fifer, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However, it is unlikely that…

Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M.

2011-01-01

213

Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile  

PubMed Central

Objectives Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures. Methods Analysis was based on 919 adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which parents’ use of corporal punishment and positive family measures were associated with youth externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to contribute to understanding how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes. Results Both mother’s and father’s use of corporal punishment were associated with greater youth externalizing behavior. Additionally, increases in positive parenting practices, such as parental warmth and family involvement, were met with decreases in youth externalizing behavior when controlling for youth demographics, family socioeconomic status, and parents’ use of corporal punishment. Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Conclusions Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors. Therefore, findings of this study add to the growing evidence concerning the negative consequences of corporal punishment for youth outcomes. PMID:22766372

Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

2012-01-01

214

Paternal, perceived maternal, and youth risk factors as predictors of youth stage of substance use a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined paternal, perceived maternal, and youth risk factors at Time 1 (T1) (e.g., substance use, violent victimization, parental rules) as predictors of the stage of substance use in the adolescent child at Time 2 (T2). Participants (N = 296) consisted of drug-abusing fathers and one of their adolescent children, aged 12 to 20 years. Fathers and youths were each administered structured interviews separately and in private. Adolescents were re-interviewed approximately one year later. Pearson correlation analyses showed that the paternal, perceived maternal, and youth risk factors were significantly related to adolescent stage of substance use at T2. With an increase in risk factors, there was an increase in T2 stage of substance use in the child. Findings imply that father-oriented treatment programs should focus on how paternal behaviors, such as illegal drug use, inadequate parenting skills, and a poor father-child relationship contribute to youth problem behaviors, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. PMID:16785222

Castro, Felipe González; Brook, Judith S; Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

215

Are Youth at Risk? Reevaluating the Deficit Model of Youth Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Puts the label "at risk" in perspective as it relates to youth. Points out that today's adolescents have lower rates of suicide, unwed pregnancy, drug abuse, smoking, and drunk driving than young and middle-aged adults. Suggests that extension youth education moves toward a condition-focused, resiliency model that recognizes the vitality and…

Astroth, Kirk A.

1993-01-01

216

Reductions in HIV Risk Among Runaway Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runaway youth are 6–12 times more likely to become infected with HIV than other youth. Using a quasi-experimental design, the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was evaluated over 2 years among 2 groups of runaways: (1) those at 2 shelters who received Street Smart, an intensive HIV intervention program, and (2) youth at 2 control shelters. Street Smart provided

Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Juwon Song; Marya Gwadz; Martha Lee; Ronan Van Rossem; Cheryl Koopman

2003-01-01

217

Correlates of sexual risk among sexual minority and heterosexual South African youths.  

PubMed

We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149

Thurston, Idia B; Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M; Otwombe, Kennedy N; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E

2014-07-01

218

Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts  

PubMed Central

This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings. PMID:21414831

Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina

2011-01-01

219

Suicide Interventions Targeted toward At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne

2012-01-01

220

Overlooked, misunderstood and at-risk: Exploring the lives and HIV risk of ethnic minority male-to-female transgender youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To describe the real life challenges and HIV-risk behaviors of male-to-female (MTF) transgender youth from communities of color. Methods: A convenience sample (n 51) of ethnic-minority MTF transgender youth aged 16 -25 years completed an anonymous questionnaire including demographics, psychosocial measures, and participation in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Descriptive analyses and analyses of association were used to

Robert Garofalo; Joanne Deleon; Elizabeth Osmer; Mary Doll; Gary W. Harper

2006-01-01

221

The Sexual Behaviors of Street Youth: A Descriptive Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed 420 street youths in a midwestern city to analyze their sexual behaviors. Ninety-one percent were sexually active, and nearly half were engaged in sex for survival. Discusses the need to coordinate comprehensive social services to prevent an increase in the number of street youth. (SLD)

Clark, Jeffrey K.; Wood, Martin L.; Lucas, Barbara; Russell, Lisa

1999-01-01

222

Mass Media as an HIV-Prevention Strategy: Using Culturally Sensitive Messages to Reduce HIV-Associated Sexual Behavior of At-Risk African American Youth  

PubMed Central

The evidence base and theoretical frameworks for mass media HIV-prevention campaigns in the United States are not well-developed. We describe an intervention approach using culturally sensitive mass media messages to enhance protective beliefs and behavior of African American adolescents at risk for HIV. This approach exploits the potential that mass media messages have, not only to reach a large segment of the adolescent population and thereby support normative change, but also to engage the most vulnerable segments of this audience to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors. The results from an ongoing HIV-prevention trial implemented in 2 medium-sized cities in the United States illustrate the effectiveness of this intervention approach. PMID:19833995

Sznitman, Sharon; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Fortune, Thierry; Juzang, Ivan

2009-01-01

223

Prevalence of youth access to alcohol, guns, illegal drugs, or cigarettes in the home and association with health-risk behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of access to alcohol, guns, drugs, or cigarettes in the home and its association with related health-risk behaviors among adolescents.METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 1995 in-home survey of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health which used a nationally representative school-based sample (N = 6,504) of adolescents in grades 7–12. We used logistic

MH Swahn; BJ Hammig

2000-01-01

224

A Case-Control Study of Risk and Protective Factors for Incarceration Among Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

Purpose Each day in the United States, approximately 100,000 youth are under correctional supervision. The purpose of this study is to examine the early risk and protective factors for incarceration using a high-risk sample of urban youth. Methods Data were obtained from 2,165 (54 who were incarcerated) youth who participated in Project Northland Chicago. Participants were matched exactly on gender, race/ethnicity, and aggressive behavior in sixth grade. Bivariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were used to examine the risk and protective factors present at sixth grade that increased the odds of incarceration at 12th grade. Results The early risk factors for incarceration were age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71–3.69), having been sent to detention (1–3 times: OR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.15–4.37; 4+times: OR = 3.49; 95% CI 1.40–8.72), and the number of hours spent participating in a sport (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.03–1.20). Substance use was not significantly related to incarceration after adjusting for other behavioral and contextual risk factors. Conclusions General problem behaviors (nonaggressive) strongly predict incarceration among at-risk youth. Implications for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:23810428

Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Komro, Kelli A.

2013-01-01

225

Cultural measures associated with risky sexual behaviors among Latino youth in Southern California: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Context Cultural variables have been associated with sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth, but findings across studies are inconsistent. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal study of Latino youth in Southern California followed from 2005–2012 to test whether cultural variables measured in high school were associated with sexual risk behaviors in emerging adulthood, and whether gender moderated these associations. We conducted logistic and ordinal regression analyses. Participants were 995 Latino youth. Results The cultural value of respect for parents was negatively associated with an earlier age at sexual debut (odds ratio, 0.8) and not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse (0.8). U.S. cultural practices (a measure of acculturation) was positively associated with being sexually active (1.2), having concurrent sexual partners (1.5), and among males only, with a higher number of sexual partners (1.3). Second- and third- generation immigrant youth had lower odds of not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse when compared to first-generation youth (0.6 and 0.5, respectively). Among females, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with lower odds of more sexual partners (0.8). By contrast, among males, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with higher odds of more sexual partners (1.4). Conclusions The cultural measures associated with Latino youth’s sexual behaviors differed across outcomes and by gender. Understanding how culture is related to the sexual behaviors of Latino youth may help inform the development of culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions. PMID:24786352

Thing, James P.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.

2014-01-01

226

Attempted Suicide and Associated Health Risk Behaviors among Native American High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide represents the second-leading cause of death among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth aged 15-24 years. Data from the 2001 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine the association between attempted suicide among high school students and unintentional injury and violence behaviors, sexual risk

Shaughnessy, Lana; Doshi, Sonal R.; Jones, Sherry Everett

2004-01-01

227

A longitudinal examination of parenting processes and Latino youth's risky sexual behaviors.  

PubMed

Latino adolescents engage in riskier sexual behaviors compared to their peers, shown by their higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and lower rates of condom usage; therefore, examining the precursors and correlates of these risky sexual behaviors is important for prevention-intervention program development. Based on cultural-ecological, symbolic interaction, and gender socialization perspectives, we examined associations among mothers' and fathers' parenting and Latino youth's sexual risk over a 5 year period. Further, we investigated the direct and moderating roles of acculturation (e.g., language spoken in the home), nativity (e.g., citizenship status), and adolescents' gender. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 1,899 Latino youth; 49 % female), we conducted a multi-level path model controlling for adolescents' age and prior sexual experience. Our findings revealed that more strictness by mothers and less strictness by fathers at Time 1 were related to lower sexual risk for adolescents at Time 2. Additionally, more monitoring by fathers at Time 2 was associated with lower sexual risk for adolescents at Time 3. Significant gender differences were found such that there were stronger associations among parenting processes and sexual risk for girls than for boys. Finally, we found support for the immigrant paradox (foreign-born youth reported lower sexual risk than US-born youth) and greater gender differences (boys had riskier sexual behaviors than girls) for immigrant compared to US-born youth. The findings reveal the complex associations among parenting processes, nativity status, gender, and sexual risk for Latino adolescents. PMID:24186702

Killoren, Sarah E; Deutsch, Arielle R

2014-12-01

228

Offsetting Risks: High School Gay-Straight Alliances and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…

Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.

2011-01-01

229

Youth Engagement and Suicide Risk: Testing a Mediated Model in a Canadian Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…

Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

2010-01-01

230

Diversity within: Subgroup Differences of Youth Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…

Choi, Yoonsun

2008-01-01

231

Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

2005-01-01

232

Pathways to Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Detained Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose Among a sample of detained youth, to investigate pathways that link witnessing community violence, in the 12 months prior to being detained, to drug and sexual risk behaviors, in the two months preceding detainment. Methods Using A-CASI technology, data was collected from 559 detained adolescents on demographics, family factors, peer influences, religiosity, witnessing community violence, and drug and sexual risk behaviors. Results Controlling for demographics and family variables, findings indicated positive associations between witnessing community violence and drug and sexual risk behaviors. Witnessing community violence was directly linked to sexual risk behaviors, and indirectly associated with these risk behaviors, through gang membership and perceived risky peer norms. Additionally, witnessing community violence was indirectly linked to substance use through gang membership and perceived risky peer norms. Conclusions Interventions targeting change in peer affiliations and perceived norms may be an effective strategy for reducing risky drug and sexual behaviors among detained youth. PMID:20228887

Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2010-01-01

233

The 1993 Iowa Youth Survey: Normative and Trend Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of youths and high-risk behavior was designed to explore four issues: (1) the status of substance use and other at-risk behaviors among Iowa youth; (2) important trends in youth substance use and non-use behaviors; (3) major factors involved in encouraging non-use and health-promoting behaviors among Iowa youth; and (4) what the…

Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

234

A conceptual framework for reducing risky teen driving behaviors among minority youth  

PubMed Central

Teenage drivers, especially males, have higher rates of motor vehicle crashes and engage in riskier driving behavior than adults. Motor vehicle deaths disproportionately impact youth from poor and minority communities and in many communities there are higher rates of risky behaviors among minority youth. In this paper, the authors review the data on teens, risky driving behaviors, and morbidity and mortality. They identify areas in which known disparities exist, and examine strategies for changing teen driving behavior, identifying what has worked for improving the use of seat belts and for reducing other risky behaviors. A multifaceted, multilevel model based on ecological theory is proposed for understanding how teens make choices about driving behaviors, and to understand the array of factors that can influence these choices. The model is used to create recommendations for comprehensive intervention strategies that can be used in minority communities to reduce disparities in risk behaviors, injury, disability, and death. PMID:16788113

Juarez, P; Schlundt, D G; Goldzweig, I; Stinson, N

2006-01-01

235

Practice Behaviors of Youth Soccer Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coaching youth athletes has much in common with teaching physical education. Over the past three decades there has been substantive research in physical education settings that has given educators empirical support for effective teaching practices to improve the learner's performance. However, little research has taken place in youth sport…

Smith, Robert C.; Ward, Phillip; Rodrigues-Neto, Manoel; Zhang, Peng

2009-01-01

236

The Contingent Effects of Risk Perception on Risk-Taking Behavior: Adolescent Participative Orientation and Marijuana Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewing marijuana use as a risk-taking behavior, we find that the perception of high risk related to regular use of marijuana has no simple direct effect on that risk-taking behavior. Rather, the effect of risk perception is contingent upon the extent of youth participation in activities such as going to parties, going to bars, attending concerts and visiting friends. The

Che-Fu Lee; Yang Su; Barbara P. Hazard

1998-01-01

237

Lowering the Risk of Secondary HIV Transmission: Insights From HIV-Positive Youth and Health Care Providers  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Both perinatally and behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth engage in sexually risky behaviors, and a better understanding of the perceptions of these youth and of health care providers regarding disclosure of HIV status and risk reduction would aid in the development of behavioral interventions for such youth. METHODS In spring 2007, some 20 HIV-positive inner-city youth (aged 13–24) and 15 health care providers who work with HIV-infected youth participated in in-depth, semistructured interviews. Youth were recruited at an HIV clinic, AIDS clinics and an AIDS service organization, and had received care from participating providers. Detailed contextual and thematic discourse analysis was performed on interview transcriptions. RESULTS Eighteen of the 20 youth had disclosed their HIV status to another individual at least once. Eleven reported being sexually active, and three of these had been perinatally infected. Qualitative analysis revealed four subthemes related to disclosure: stigma and emotions, trust issues, reasons for disclosing and strategies for addressing disclosure. Five subthemes were identifi ed related to sexual risk reduction: dating challenges, attitudes toward condom use, self-effi cacy for condom use negotiation, pregnancy attitudes and sexual risk reduction strategies. Providers reported that access to more engaging and interactive educational tools within the clinic setting could enhance their risk reduction counseling with HIV-positive youth. CONCLUSIONS HIV-positive youth experience multiple challenges regarding disclosure and sexual risk reduction, and health care providers need innovative tools that can be used in clinic settings to improve adolescents’ skills in reducing risky sexual behavior. PMID:20618750

Markham, Christine M.; Bui, Thanh; Shegog, Ross; Paul, Mary E.

2011-01-01

238

Parental Knowledge and Youth Risky Behavior: A Person Oriented Approach  

PubMed Central

Most studies isolate the effects of one knowledge-related behavior on youth outcomes. This study explores the relationship between subgroups of mother–youth dyads that use specific combinations of parental knowledge-related behaviors and youth risky behavior. Using a sample of 796 rural 6th graders (53 % female), we assessed mother and youth reports of maternal knowledge, active parent monitoring efforts, youth disclosure, parental supervision, and the amount of parent–youth communication to identify five knowledge latent classes: High-Monitors, Maternal Over-Estimators, Low-Monitors, Communication-Focused, and Supervision-Focused. Delinquency, antisocial peers, and substance use were associated with increased odds of membership in the Supervision-Focused class, relative to the High Monitors. Membership in the Low Monitors and Maternal Over-Estimators classes was associated with unhealthy attitudes towards substances and for Low Monitors, substance use. The discussion focuses on the value of using a person-oriented approach to understand parental knowledge and risky behavior during early adolescence and intervention implications. PMID:23269564

Greenberg, Mark T.; Collins, Linda M.

2013-01-01

239

Religion and American Adolescent Delinquency, Risk Behaviors and Constructive Social Activities. A Research Report of the National Study of Youth and Religion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used data from the Monitoring the Future Survey of high school seniors to examine the impact of religion on U.S. adolescents' participation in constructive youth activities. Overall, religion positively related to participation in constructive activities. Students who participated in religious activities tended to be less likely to…

Smith, Christian; Faris, Robert

240

Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

Singh, Sonal

2011-01-01

241

Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

Singh, Sonal

2011-01-01

242

Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Risks Among Homeless Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…

Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.

2004-01-01

243

America's Shame, America's Hope: Twelve Million Youth at Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The undereducation of at-risk youth is a critical issue overlooked by the education reform movement of the 1980s, as represented by the report, "A Nation At Risk." This group, whose members are predominantly economically, culturally, racially, and ethnically disadvantaged, is leaving school unprepared for further education or available work.…

Smith, R. C.; Lincoln, Carol A.

244

Trajectories of Youthful Antisocial Behavior: Categories or Continua?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitatively distinct trajectories of antisocial behavior could be identified in 1,708 children (843 boys, 865 girls) from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (NLSY-C). Repeated ratings were made on the Behavior Problems Index (BPI: Peterson and Zill "Journal of Marriage and…

Walters, Glenn D.; Ruscio, John

2013-01-01

245

Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

Morgan, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

246

A Systematic Review of Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for African American Youth at Risk for HIV\\/STI Infection, 1988–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the United States, African American youth are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually\\u000a transmitted infections (STIs). An estimated 1.2 million people are living with HIV\\/AIDS (Glynn & Rhodes, 2005). Data from\\u000a 33 states in the United States with confidential name-based reporting show that in 2006 African Americans of all ages represented\\u000a 49% of HIV\\/AIDS diagnosis, although

Khiya Marshall; Nicole Crepaz; Ann O’Leary

247

DIVERSITY WITHIN: SUBGROUP DIFFERENCES OF YOUTH PROBLEM BEHAVIORS AMONG ASIAN PACIFIC ISLANDER AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS.  

PubMed

This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American counterparts. Many of these differences remained after adjusting for parental education. Controlling for immigrant status explained only some of the subgroup differences. The results suggest several shortcomings to the "model minority" stereotype that is often applied to API American youth. Research and practice should not overlook the higher risk for problem behaviors among certain API American subgroups. The findings highlight the need for more resources for API Americans, especially for the API subgroups facing higher risks. PMID:18645632

Choi, Yoonsun

2008-01-01

248

Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of Youth at Risk Following a Pre-Eighth-Grade Summer Academic Enrichment Program and Participation in a School-Wide, School Year Long, Ownership, Mastery, and Grading Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No significant differences in beginning eighth-grade pretest compared to ending eighth-grade posttest California Achievement Test Normal Curve Equivalent Scores were found for youth at risk who completed a pre-eighth-grade summer academic enrichment program where comparisons for reading vocabulary t(19) = 0.46, p = 0.33 (one-tailed), d = 0.107,…

Alati, David K.

2011-01-01

249

Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

2005-01-01

250

Effects of Familial Attachment, Social Support, Involvement, and Self-Esteem on Youth Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.

2010-01-01

251

Views on Parent-Child Connectedness among English- and Spanish-Speaking Parents of High-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study highlights findings from focus groups on parent-child connectedness conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of high-risk youth in the southern United States. The primary aim of the study was to extend research on parent-child connectedness, a broad protective factor for adolescent risk behavior. In addition to describing…

Scarborough, Megan; Kulkarni, Shanti; Lewis, Carol M.; Palen, Lori-Ann; Wade, Emily; Pierce, Amy

2011-01-01

252

Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

2014-01-01

253

The impact of youth, family, peer and neighborhood risk factors on developmental trajectories of risk involvement from early through middle adolescence.  

PubMed

Few studies have analyzed the development course beginning in pre-/early adolescence of overall engagement in health-risk behaviors and associated social risk factors that place individuals in different health-risk trajectories through mid-adolescence. The current longitudinal study identified 1276 adolescents in grade six and followed them for three years to investigate their developmental trajectories of risk behaviors and to examine the association of personal and social risk factors with each trajectory. Group-based trajectory modeling was applied to identify distinctive trajectory patterns of risk behaviors. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of the personal and social risk factors on adolescents' trajectories. Three gender-specific behavioral trajectories were identified for males (55.3% low-risk, 37.6% moderate-risk, increasing, and 7.1% high-risk, increasing) and females (41.4% no-risk, 53.4% low-risk, increasing and 5.2% moderate to high-risk, increasing). Sensation-seeking, family, peer, and neighborhood factors at baseline predicted following the moderate-risk, increasing trajectory and the high-risk, increasing trajectory in males; these risk factors predicted following the moderate to high-risk, increasing trajectory in females. The presence of all three social risk factors (high-risk neighborhood, high-risk peers and low parental monitoring) had a dramatic impact on increased probability of being in a high-risk trajectory group. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early personal and social risk factors on subsequent risk behaviors in early to middle adolescence. Future adolescent health behavior promotion interventions might consider offering additional prevention resources to pre- and early adolescent youth who are exposed to multiple contextual risk factors (even in the absence of risk behaviors) or youth who are early-starters of delinquency and substance use behaviors in early adolescence. PMID:24530616

Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Marshall, Sharon; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita

2014-04-01

254

Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…

Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

2011-01-01

255

Literacy for Youth: What Counts As Success in Programs for Youth at Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined what counts as success in literacy and numeracy programs for youth at risk in Victoria. It explored the relationship between discourses around best practice in government reports and through examining academic writings, surveying providers and policymakers, and speaking with practitioners and participants. Main findings indicated…

Ovens, Carolyn

256

Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

2003-01-01

257

NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY-NAÏVE YOUTH WITH BEHAVIORALLY ACQUIRED HIV  

PubMed Central

Purpose Youth living with HIV account for over one-third of new HIV infections and are at high risk of adverse psychosocial, everyday living, and health outcomes. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are known to affect health outcomes of HIV-infected adults even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Thus, the current study aimed to characterize the prevalence and clinical correlates of HAND in youth living with HIV. Here we report baseline neurocognitive data for behaviorally HIV-infected youth enrolled in a prospective study evaluating strategies of antiretroviral treatment initiation and use. Methods Two hundred twenty participants, age 18-24, naïve to treatment (except for prevention of mother to child HIV transmission; n=3), completed a comprehensive neurocognitive, substance use, and behavioral health assessment battery. Results 64.7% of youth met criteria for HAND (96.4% asymptomatic, 3.5% syndromic), with deficits in episodic memory and fine-motor skills emerging as the most commonly affected ability areas. Multivariable models showed that lower CD4 count, longer time since HIV diagnosis, and high risk alcohol use were uniquely associated with neurocognitive deficits. Conclusions Over two-thirds of youth with behaviorally acquired HIV evidence neurocognitive deficits, which have modest associations with more advanced HIV disease as well as other factors. Research is needed to determine the impact of such neuropsychiatric morbidity on mental health and HIV disease treatment outcomes (e.g., non-adherence) and transition to independent living responsibilities in HIV-infected youth, as well as its long-term trajectory and possible responsiveness to cognitive rehabilitation and pharmacotherapy. PMID:23972941

Nichols, Sharon L.; Bethel, James; Garvie, Patricia A.; Patton, Doyle E; Thornton, Sarah; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Ren, Weijia; Major-Wilson, Hanna; Puga, Ana; Woods, Steven P.

2013-01-01

258

Parenting behaviors and anxious self-talk in youth and parents.  

PubMed

The present study examined the association between parental anxious self-talk, parenting behaviors, and youth anxious self-talk. Parents and youth ages 7 to 14 (M = 10.17; N = 208; 53% male) seeking treatment for anxiety were evaluated for anxiety symptoms, youth anxious self-talk, parental anxious self-talk, and youth-perceived parenting behavior. Youth and parental anxious self-talk were assessed by both child and parent self-reports; youth-perceived parenting behaviors were assessed by youth-reports. Parenting behaviors included separate ratings of paternal and maternal (a) acceptance, (b) psychological control, and (c) firm/behavioral control. Correlational analyses revealed that maternal anxious self-talk, but not paternal anxious self-talk, was significantly associated with youth's anxious self-talk. Maternal anxious self-talk had an inverse association with youth-perceived maternal acceptance, but was not associated with youth-perceived maternal psychological or behavioral control. Higher youth-perceived maternal acceptance was significantly associated with lower youth anxious self-talk. Youth-perceived maternal acceptance partially mediated the association between mother's anxious self-talk and youth's anxious self-talk. However, this mediation effect disappeared when taking into account youth depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to clinical implications and future directions in research. PMID:24773220

Wei, Chiaying; Cummings, Colleen M; Villabø, Marianne A; Kendall, Philip C

2014-06-01

259

Racial\\/Ethnic Differences in Caregiver Strain and Perceived Social Support Among Parents of Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined several hypotheses related to racial\\/ethnic variations in caregiver strain and perceived social support among parents caring for children with emotional\\/behavioral problems. A subsample of youth from the Patterns of Care (POC) study, which drew a stratified random sample of high-risk youth active to 1 of 5 public sectors of care, was used to test these hypotheses. When

Kristen M. McCabe; May Yeh; Anna Lau; Ann Garland; Richard Hough

2003-01-01

260

Guns and Sublethal Violence: A Comparative Study of At-Risk Youth in Two Canadian Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first in Canada to examine gun usage and harm to others, with original interview data, and aims to identify the correlates of sublethal violence among at-risk youth in Toronto and Montreal. Toronto youth showed 50% higher levels of this violence than Montreal youth. Despite having a common profile of conduct disorder and prior delinquency, Toronto youth

Jennifer E. Butters; James Sheptycki; Serge Brochu; Patricia G. Erickson

2011-01-01

261

Adolescent Female Athletes' Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance (YRBS) of a sample of U.S. female adolescents (N = 7839) were compared to a cohort of 9th through 12th grade high performance female athletes (N = 141) with regard to risk-taking behavior on eight items related to sexual activity (i.e., ever engaged in sexual

Michael P. Savage; Derek R. Holcomb

1999-01-01

262

Pregnancy Risk Among Older Youth Transitioning Out Of Foster Care.  

PubMed

Youth served in the foster care system have higher rates of pregnancy than general population youth; yet we have little information about risk and protective factors to target in order to prevent early pregnancy in this population. We assessed early pregnancy risk and protective factors known for general population adolescents for their relevance to youth in the foster care system. Using data from a longitudinal study of 325 older youth from the foster care system, we examined bivariate and multivariate relationships between these factors and pregnancy between age 17 and 19 using logistic regression. Models examined risk for early parenting separately by gender. The pregnancy rate increased by 300% between ages 17 and 19. At 19, 55% of females had been pregnant, while 23% of males had fathered a child. Although this study assessed multiple known factors, few were significant for this high risk group. Females who were not sexually active at age 17 were less likely to become pregnant, but those who reported using birth control were as likely to become pregnant as those who did not. Also, females with a history of arrest were more likely to have a pregnancy between 17 and 19. Males who left the foster care system before their 19(th) birthday were more likely to make someone pregnant. Youth from the foster care system are at exceptional risk of early pregnancy, no matter their maltreatment history, religiosity, school connectedness, or academic achievement, particularly in the years between 17 and 19. This high risk group needs pregnancy prevention interventions and access to effective birth control. PMID:24489422

Oshima, Karen M Matta; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; McMillen, J Curtis

2013-10-01

263

Pregnancy Risk Among Older Youth Transitioning Out Of Foster Care  

PubMed Central

Youth served in the foster care system have higher rates of pregnancy than general population youth; yet we have little information about risk and protective factors to target in order to prevent early pregnancy in this population. We assessed early pregnancy risk and protective factors known for general population adolescents for their relevance to youth in the foster care system. Using data from a longitudinal study of 325 older youth from the foster care system, we examined bivariate and multivariate relationships between these factors and pregnancy between age 17 and 19 using logistic regression. Models examined risk for early parenting separately by gender. The pregnancy rate increased by 300% between ages 17 and 19. At 19, 55% of females had been pregnant, while 23% of males had fathered a child. Although this study assessed multiple known factors, few were significant for this high risk group. Females who were not sexually active at age 17 were less likely to become pregnant, but those who reported using birth control were as likely to become pregnant as those who did not. Also, females with a history of arrest were more likely to have a pregnancy between 17 and 19. Males who left the foster care system before their 19th birthday were more likely to make someone pregnant. Youth from the foster care system are at exceptional risk of early pregnancy, no matter their maltreatment history, religiosity, school connectedness, or academic achievement, particularly in the years between 17 and 19. This high risk group needs pregnancy prevention interventions and access to effective birth control. PMID:24489422

Narendorf, Sarah Carter; McMillen, J. Curtis

2013-01-01

264

Lowering Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in High-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among children and youth who develop type 2 diabetes (T2DM) there are a number of genetic and environmental factors that lead to a combination of insulin resistance and relative-cell secretory failure of the pancreas. These factors include ethnicity (highest in American Indian youth), obesity, sedentary behavior, family history of T2DM, puberty,…

Bobo, Nichole; Schantz, Shirley; Kaufman, Francine R.; Kollipara, Sobha

2009-01-01

265

Youth "At Risk"? Young People, Sexual Health and Consent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…

Powell, Anastasia

2007-01-01

266

Exploring Dreamspace through Video Art with At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis is an art-based research video demonstration of an alternate medium for art therapy. It postulates the value and validity of media arts as a therapeutic modality by way of adopting the major motion picture green screening technique for therapy with an at-risk youth population. Four male participants, raging from 16 to 19 years of age,…

Ehinger, Jon

2009-01-01

267

Influence of prior sexual risk experience on response to intervention targeting multiple risk behaviors among adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To identify correlates of sexual risk variations among African-American adolescents, and to examine the influence of prior sexual experience on response to a HIV risk-reduction intervention. Methods: Eight hundred seventeen African-American youth aged 13 to 16 years living in and around urban public housing in Baltimore were recruited to participate in a HIV risk-reduction intervention targeting multiple risk behaviors.

Ying Wu; James J. Burns; Bonita F. Stanton; Xiaoming Li; Carole V. Harris; Jennifer Galbraith; Liang Wei

2005-01-01

268

Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior.  

PubMed

Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

2014-12-22

269

Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.  

PubMed

Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. PMID:22497848

Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

2012-07-01

270

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for Hispanic Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

271

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for All Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

272

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for White Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

273

Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for Black Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

274

Trends in Sexual Risk Behavior and Unprotected Sex among High School Students, 1991-2005: The Role of Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To determine the trends in sexual activity and unprotected sex among substance-using youth, we examined data from the 1991-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys on drug and alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors. Method: We examined the association of alcohol and illicit drug use with recent sexual activity and unprotected sex. We assessed…

Anderson, John E.; Mueller, Trisha E.

2008-01-01

275

Changing Health Behavior in Youth: Plus 40 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those in health education, the year 1969 marked the debut of "School Health Review," the forerunner to the current "American Journal of Health Education." The inaugural issue of "School Health Review," in September of 1969 included the article, "Changing Health behavior in Youth," by Dr. Godfrey M. Hochbaum. This article reviews the 1969…

Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Kammermann, Sandra K.

2010-01-01

276

Service Provisions for Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) have poorer outcomes compared to their peers with and without disabilities. As a result, the federal government has mandated transition services to improve supports and ultimately student outcomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS-2), this secondary analysis…

Dean, Latoya Lavan

2012-01-01

277

Antisocial Male Youth: Considering Patterns of Vulnerability and Problem Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains presentation slides from a study on antisocial male youth. The study sought to identify an antisocial taxon, and to demonstrate that taxon membership would possess external validity and predict antisocial behavior correlates (low school achievement, poor family relations, and internalizing problems). The results revealed 9…

Wekerle, Chris; Skilling, Tracey; Adlaf, Edward; Paglia, Angela; Leung, Eman

278

Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to…

Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

2012-01-01

279

Best self visualization method with high-risk youth.  

PubMed

The healing process of the Best Self Visualization Method (BSM) is described within the framework of meditation, neuroscience, and psychodynamic theory. Cases are drawn from the treatment of high-risk youth, who have histories of poverty, survival of sexual and physical abuse, and/or current risk for perpetrating abuse. Clinical use of BSM is demonstrated in two case illustrations, one of group psychotherapy and another of individual therapy. PMID:23775428

Schussel, Lorne; Miller, Lisa

2013-08-01

280

Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining

J. Mark Eddy

2005-01-01

281

Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to healthy eating behaviors in urban Native American youth  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict healthy eating behavior in a group of urban Native American youth. Methods Native American boys and girls (n = 139), ages 9–18 years old, were given a self-administered survey to assess eating behavior using the TBP constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm, barriers, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control). Youth were also measured for height and weight and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses of TBP model were performed with SPSS software. Results No association was found between intention and healthy eating behavior. However, independently healthy eating behavior was correlated with barriers (0.46), attitude (0.44), perceived behavioral control (0.35), and subjective norm (0.34). The most predictive barriers to eating healthy included the availability and taste of foods. Boys' eating behavior was most predicted by subjective norm, while girls' eating behavior was most predicted by barriers. Conclusion Lack of association between intention and healthy eating behavior suggests that factors other than intentions may drive healthy eating behaviors in urban Native American youth. Results indicate that programs promoting healthy eating to youth might focus on collaborating with families to make healthy foods more appealing to youth. PMID:16734903

Fila, Stefanie A; Smith, Chery

2006-01-01

282

Testing the Model Minority Stereotype: Youth Behaviors across Racial and Ethnic Groups.  

PubMed

Using data from a large nationally representative sample of adolescents attending school, this study tests the stereotype that youth of Asian Pacific Islander ethnicity (API) are the model minority. The results suggest that, except for substance use, API American youth do not report fewer delinquent behaviors than white youth; in fact, API American youth report slightly higher numbers of aggressive offenses than white youth, and female API American youth report greater numbers of nonaggressive offenses than white female youth. Also, API American youth report higher rates of nonaggressive offenses and substance use than do black youth. The mental health and social service needs of API American youth are thus at least as great as those of white youth. The need for such services increases with the length of residency in the United States. PMID:21572913

Choi, Yoonsun; Lahey, Benjamin B

2006-09-01

283

Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

2013-01-01

284

Pathways to Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Detained Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study recruited 559 youths from detention centers (mean age was 15.4 years; 50.1% of detainees were girls) to investigate pathways that link witnessing community violence in the 12 months before detainment to drug and sexual risk behaviors in the two months preceding detainment. Through the use of audio-computer-assisted technology, data were…

Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2008-01-01

285

Sexual Behavior, Risk Beliefs, and Assertiveness among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HIV risk behaviors were examined with 457 adolescents, ages 12 to 19, from four environments (community, high school, and two youth conferences). Over half reported being sexually experienced, with an average age of 13.6 for willingly engaging in first sexual intercourse. Boys reported engaging in intercourse at a significantly younger age than…

Lang, Michelle A.

286

Empowering Youth-At-Risk with Skills for School and Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains papers from a conference on at-risk youth that focused on building strengths and empowering youth by giving them skills for school and life. Following an introduction titled "Motivational Strategies for Empowering Youth-At-Risk" by Dan Rea and Robert Warkentin, the papers are: (1) "The Role of Learning Environments: Social…

Rea, Dan, Ed.; Warkentin, Robert, Ed.

287

Young People in Risk Society: The Restructuring of Youth Identities and Transitions in Late Modernity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on empirical research and theoretical writings, this book examines how concepts such as risk society and individualization may be used in the field of youth studies. It explores young peoples' identities, youth cultures, and a multiplicity of ways in which risk can be understood and influence youth policy agendas in the future. Chapter 1,…

Cieslik, Mark, Ed.; Pollock, Gary, Ed.

288

Psychological and behavioral adjustment in female youths with high or low psychopathic traits.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in female juvenile delinquency. Using a sample of 236 young females from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and schools in the Lisbon area, a group of female youths with high psychopathic traits (n=118; M=15.84 years of age; range=14-18 years of age) and a group of female youths with low psychopathic traits (n=118; M=15.77 years of age; range=14-18 years of age) were formed based on the Portuguese version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-Self-report (APSD-SR). The results showed that young females with high psychopathic traits start engaging in criminal activities and come into contact with the justice system earlier in life; exhibit higher levels of behavioral problems, conduct disorder, delinquent behaviors and serious criminality; and demonstrate lower levels of self-esteem and pro-social behavior. The importance of some variables in predicting group membership (high versus low psychopathic traits) was established through a binary logistic regression. Our findings reinforce the importance of the psychopathy construct for the early identification of potentially high-risk female youths and for the assessment of female youths who have already come into contact with the judicial system. PMID:24674739

Pechorro, Pedro Santos; Poiares, Carlos Alberto; Vieira, Rui Xavier; Marôco, João; Nunes, Cristina; de Jesus, Saul Neves

2014-01-01

289

An Exploratory Study of College Health-Risk Behaviors: Implications for Campus Programs and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed six categories of college students' health risk behaviors. Student survey data indicated that respondents were engaging in risk behaviors that could impact educational achievement and lead to serious consequences. Youth tended to enter college with established patterns of risk. Most regularly consumed large amounts of alcohol. Differences…

Fetro, Joyce V.; Wood, Ralph; Drolet, Judy C.

2000-01-01

290

Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior

de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

2014-01-01

291

Latent Classes of Externalizing Behaviors in Youth with Early Maltreatment Histories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent class analyses were used to identify subsets of 217 12-year-old youth with early maltreatment histories based on youth and caregiver reports of externalizing behavior problems. The identified classes were validated using symptom counts and diagnoses for disruptive behavior disorders collected from youth and caregiver reports 2 years later.…

Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Roesch, Scott C.

2012-01-01

292

Feasibility of Adapting Multisystemic Therapy to Improve Illness Management Behaviors and Reduce Asthma Morbidity in High Risk African American Youth: A Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…

Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

293

Negative Body Image and Disordered Eating Behavior in Children and Adolescents: What Places Youth at Risk and How Can These Problems be Prevented?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we examine the prevalence of negative body image and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., excessive dieting, binge eating, inappropriate weight loss techniques) in children and adolescents. We also explore correlates and predictors of the development of these problems, including individual, familial, and social factors, as well as discuss factors that may serve a protective function. In addition, we

Heather L. Littleton; Thomas Ollendick

2003-01-01

294

Therapist Alliance-Building Behavior Within a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the specific behavior of therapists contributing to a child client's perception of a therapeutic alliance with youth (n = 56) who received a manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety disorders. The first 3 sessions were coded for 11 therapist behaviors hypothesized to predict ratings of alliance. Child, therapist, and observer…

Creed, Torrey A.; Kendall, Philip C.

2005-01-01

295

Severe Behavior Disorders of Children and Youth. Monograph in Behavioral Disorders. Summer, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph on severe behavior disorders of children and youth presents 23 papers on juvenile delinquency, behavior disorders at the secondary level, and self control instruction. Some of the papers included are: "A Comparison of Varied Teacher-to-Child Ratio on the Adaptive and Attending Behaviors of Two Autistic Children" (M. Zener, et al.);…

Rutherford, Robert B., Jr., Ed.; And Others

296

Change Trajectories for the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report: Identifying Youth at Risk for Treatment Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used longitudinal youth outcome data in routine mental health services to test a system for identifying cases at risk for treatment failure. Participants were 2,715 youth (M age = 14) served in outpatient managed care and community mental health settings. Change trajectories were developed using multilevel modeling of archival data. Expected change trajectories served as the basis for a warning

Jennifer A. N. Cannon; Jared S. Warren; Philip L. Nelson; Gary M. Burlingame

2010-01-01

297

The role of positive youth development practices in building resilience and enhancing wellbeing for at-risk youth.  

PubMed

Services that utilise positive youth development practices (PYD) are thought to improve the quality of the service experience leading to better outcomes for at-risk youth. This article reports on a study of 605 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who were concurrent clients of two or more service systems (child welfare, juvenile justice, additional education, mental health). It was hypothesised that services adopting PYD approaches would be related to increases in youth resilience and better wellbeing outcomes. It was also hypothesised that risks, resilience, service experiences and wellbeing outcomes would differ by age, gender and ethnicity. Youth completed a self-report questionnaire administered individually. Path analysis was used to determine the relationship between risk, service use, resilience and a wellbeing outcome measure. MANOVA was then used to determine patterns of risk, service use, resilience and wellbeing among participants based on their demographic characteristics. Services using PYD approaches were significantly related to higher levels of youth resilience. Similarly, increased resilience was related to increased indicators of wellbeing, suggesting the mediating role of resilience between risk factors and wellbeing outcomes. When professionals adopt PYD practices and work with the positive resources around youth (their own resilience processes) interventions can make a significant contribution to wellbeing outcomes for at-risk youth. PMID:25770347

Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn; Thimasarn-Anwar, Tewaporn; Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael

2015-04-01

298

Coaching Behavior of Girls Youth Softball Coaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined coaches' behavior and classified the types and rates of coaches' behavior by time of athletic season (early or late), win/loss record, and throughout the time frame within a single contest. Subjects included all the volunteer coaches in a 13 team, softball program for 10-12 year old girls. The season consisted of a double…

Rupnow, Allan; Stotlar, David

299

Concordance between self-reported substance use and toxicology among HIV-infected and uninfected at risk youth  

PubMed Central

Background Substance use by youth living with HIV (YLWH) is a concern, given potential interactions with virus-associated immune suppression and adverse effects on risk behaviors, neurocognition, and adherence. Self-report substance use measures provide efficient cost-effective assessments. Analyses describe self-reported substance use among YLWH and examine agreement with toxicology assays. Methods Seventy-eight youth age 18–24 years (87% male, 71% African–American) with behaviorally acquired HIV-1 infection and 55 uninfected youth completed the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test to assess drug use frequency, including tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol, over the prior three months. Elisa-based toxicology assays were used to detect 27 substances in plasma. Chi-square tests compared substance use between YLWH and uninfected youth; Kappa statistics compared agreement between self-report and toxicology. Results YLWH reported marijuana (49%), tobacco (56%), and alcohol (87%) use, with 20%, 28% and 3% reporting daily use of each substance, respectively; other substance use was uncommon. Uninfected youth reported less tobacco use but otherwise similar substance use. All youth who reported daily use of marijuana or tobacco had positive plasma toxicology results, while concordance decreased with less frequent self-reported use. Among youth reporting no substance use, few tested positive (4% YLWH, 2% uninfected youth for cannabis; 8%YLWH for tobacco). Conclusions Youth report high rates of marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol use. Concordance between self-report and toxicology for marijuana and tobacco use, particularly for daily users, supports self-report as a valid indicator of substance use in research studies of youth with or without HIV-1 infection. PMID:24309297

Nichols, Sharon L.; Lowe, Amanda; Zhang, Xinrui; Garvie, Patricia A.; Thornton, Sarah; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Hou, Wei; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Sleasman, John W.

2014-01-01

300

Quality of Parent Communication about Sex and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behavior among Youth in Psychiatric Care: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The number of HIV infections among adolescents is increasing, and youth in psychiatric care are at particular risk because of their high rates of risky sexual behavior. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study examining AIDS-risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care, this pilot study investigated the relationship…

Wilson, Helen W.; Donenberg, Geri

2004-01-01

301

Do parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increase the risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors?  

PubMed

In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent-adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV risk behaviors, including substance use and sexual risk behaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and their families. PMID:24617745

Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Lally, Meghan; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

2014-06-01

302

Behavior-Oriented Approaches to Reducing Youth Gun Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Advocacy groups on both sides of the guns issue frequently point to changing personal behavior—of both parents and children—as a key element in reducing gun violence among youth. Efforts to bring about these changes range from community-based cam- paigns, to laws and programs that encourage parents to store their guns safely, to educa- tional initiatives that focus on keeping

Marjorie S. Hardy

303

Potential pathways from stigmatization and externalizing behavior to anger and dating aggression in sexually abused youth.  

PubMed

Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame attributions) to anger and dating aggression. One hundred sixty youth (73% female, 69% ethnic/racial minorities) with confirmed CSA histories were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery (T1, when they were 8-15 years of age), and again 1 and 6 years later (T2 and T3). Externalizing behavior and abuse-specific stigmatization were assessed at T1 and T2. Anger and dating aggression were assessed at T3. The structural equation model findings supported the proposed relations from stigmatization following the abuse to subsequent dating aggression through anger. Only externalizing behavior at T1 was related to later dating aggression, and externalizing was not related to subsequent anger. This longitudinal research suggests that clinical interventions for victims of CSA be sensitive to the different pathways by which youth come to experience destructive conflict behavior in their romantic relationships. PMID:23148553

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A; Cleland, Charles M; Barrett, Ellen P

2013-01-01

304

Governing individualized risk biographies: new class intellectuals and the problem of youth at?risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparent crisis of youth at?risk is a key marker in contemporary debates about young people among a range of intellectuals, social commentators and experts in various domains and centres of expertise. Drawing on aspects of the reflexive modernization, governmentality and feminist literatures, this paper explores how risk discourses emerge as a means for rendering reality knowable—a technique that facilitates

Peter Kelly

2007-01-01

305

Youth risk behaviour in a Chinese population: a territory-wide youth risk behavioural surveillance in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence rates of different categories of youth risk behaviour by age, sex and parental education. The study population consisted of 26,111 Hong Kong students, aged 10–19 years, recruited from 48 primary (primary grades 4–6) and secondary schools (secondary grades 1–7). Less than one-third of subjects participated in vigorous exercise regularly, about one-third consumed an unhealthy

A Lee; C. K. K Tsang

2004-01-01

306

Identification of Suicide Risk Among Rural Youth: Implications for the Use of HEADSS  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nurse practitioners have the power to detect suicide risk and prevent suicide, a problem plaguing rural areas of the United States. Suicide risk assessment can be completed using the HEADSS (Home, Education, Activities, Drug use and abuse, Sexual behavior, and Suicidality and depression) interview instrument. The purpose of this study was to determine if HEADSS is appropriate for guiding suicide risk assessment of rural adolescents. Method High school students in Southwestern Pennsylvania completed qualitative questions from the Child Behavior Checklist and Coping Response Inventory as part of the Intervention to Promote Mental Health in Rural Youth. Qualitative content analysis was performed. Results Prominent themes identified by participants included academic performance, relationships, dislikes about school, friends, death, mental health, and the future. Several minor themes concerned safety. Most known risk factors for suicide were concerns of participants. Discussion The expansion of HEADSS to include death and safety should be considered. The modified version—HEADDSSS— can be used to guide suicide risk assessment of youth in rural Pennsylvania, ensuring both thoroughness of assessment and safety. PMID:20417887

Biddle, Virginia Sue; Sekula, L. Kathleen; Zoucha, Rick; Puskar, Kathryn R.

2009-01-01

307

Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to healthy eating behaviors in urban Native American youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict healthy eating behavior in a group of urban Native American youth. METHODS: Native American boys and girls (n = 139), ages 9–18 years old, were given a self-administered survey to assess eating behavior using the TBP constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm, barriers, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral

Stefanie A Fila; Chery Smith

2006-01-01

308

Risk factors of future smoking among thai youth: a secondary analysis of the thai global youth tobacco survey.  

PubMed

The study aimed to identify the risk factors for future smoking among Thai youth aged 13 to 15 years (seventh to ninth grade). Data from the nationally representative 2005 Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 15 774) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Among nonsmoking Thai youth, boys were much more likely to have intention of future smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37-0.84). Younger youth were more likely to be cigarette smokers in the future (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Youth having the intention of smoking from a friend's cigarette offer were 5.29 times more likely to have intention of future smoking, compared with those who did not (95% CI = 3.75-7.46). Understanding and targeting youth at higher risk for future smoking can provide for a lowering of the youth smoking rate in Thailand and contribute to the country's continued efforts in effective youth tobacco control. PMID:23666838

Lee, Gyeongsil; Lee, Joann; Lee, Sungkyu

2015-03-01

309

Programs and Policies that Promote Positive Youth Development and Prevent Risky Behaviors: An International Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter provides an international perspective on the promotion of positive development and the prevention of risky behavior among youth. We discuss some of the specific challenges that youth face in low- and middle-income countries and identify six key evidence-based policies and programs that aim to promote positive youth development and…

Naudeau, Sophie; Cunningham, Wendy; Lundberg, Mattias K. A.; McGinnis, Linda

2008-01-01

310

Psychometric Properties of a Youth Self-Report Measure of Neglectful Behavior by Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aimed to empirically assess psychometric properties of a multi-dimensional youth self-report measure of neglectful behavior by parents. Method: Data were gathered from 593 12-year-old youth participating in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) consortium; 272 also had data at age 14. Youth responded…

Dubowitz, Howard; Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Pitts, Steven C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Thompson, Richard; Black, Maureen M.; Runyan, Desmond

2011-01-01

311

Family Functioning, Substance Use and Related Problem Behaviors: Hispanic vs. Anglo Runaway Youths  

PubMed Central

Runaway youths represent a neglected clinical group, and few studies have examined ethnicity differences within this population. Substance use, family functioning and related problem behaviors were examined in a sample of Hispanic and Anglo runaway youths with substance abuse diagnoses (N = 145). Youths, aged 12–17, were recruited from two urban, southwestern runaway shelters. Within single-parent families, Anglo youths reported more marijuana use, and, regardless of family constitution, reported more tobacco use than did Hispanic youths. Overall, Anglo youths reported more externalizing problems and more conflict tactics used in resolving disagreements with their primary caretaker while Hispanic youths reported higher depression and familism scores. Given the differences found between Hispanic and Anglo youths, the findings argue that culturally sensitive interventions for runaway youths and families are warranted. PMID:18795144

Slesnick, Natasha; Vasquez, Christina; Bittinger, Joyce

2008-01-01

312

Differential Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent-Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Antisocial Youth: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extended the findings from previous meta-analytic work by comparing the effectiveness of behavioral parent-training (BPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Youth demographic variables were also examined as potential moderators of the effectiveness of these 2 types of interventions. Thirty BPT…

McCart, Michael R.; Priester, Paul E.; Davies, W. Hobard; Azen, Razia

2006-01-01

313

The Youth Form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI–Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called health-smart behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy drinks, and engaging in physical activity. Design: The MB-HSBI–Youth was developed through several research phases

Carolyn M. Tucker; Kenneth G. Rice; Frederic F. Desmond; Wei Hou; Lillian B. Kaye; Tasia M. Smith

2012-01-01

314

Parallel Development of Risk Behaviors in Adolescence: Potential Pathways to Co-Occurrence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used data from 5,382 adolescents from the 1997 United States (US) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to investigate developmental pathways of alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual risk behaviors, and delinquency across ages 14 to 20; examine interrelationships among these risk behaviors across adolescence; and evaluate…

Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

2012-01-01

315

The Authoritative Parenting Index: Predicting Health Risk Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health research demonstrates increasing interest in mobilizing parental influence to prevent health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. This research focuses on authoritative parenting, which previous studies suggest can prevent health risk behaviors among youth. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a new survey measure of authoritative parenting, data from studies of (1) substance use in a sample

Christine Jackson; Lisa Henriksen; Vangie A. Foshee

1998-01-01

316

Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

2014-01-01

317

Associations of Dating Violence Victimization With Lifetime Participation, Co-Occurrence, and Early Initiation of Risk Behaviors Among U.S. High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association of victimization in a physically violent dating relationship with risk behaviors, age of risk behavior initiation, and co-occurrence of risk behaviors among students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Data were from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Nearly 9% of students reported experiencing dating violence victimization. Dating violence victimization

Danice K. Eaton; Kristen S. Davis; Lisa Barrios; Nancy D. Brener; Rita K. Noonan

2007-01-01

318

Associations of Dating Violence Victimization with Lifetime Participation, Co-Occurrence, and Early Initiation of Risk Behaviors among U.S. High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association of victimization in a physically violent dating relationship with risk behaviors, age of risk behavior initiation, and co-occurrence of risk behaviors among students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Data were from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Nearly 9% of students reported…

Eaton, Danice K.; Davis, Kristen S.; Barrios, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Noonan, Rita K.

2007-01-01

319

The Youth Form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI--Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart" behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy…

Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Desmond, Frederic F.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Smith, Tasia M.

2012-01-01

320

2005 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, nearly two-thirds of all deaths among young people aged 10-14 years result from only five causes: motor-vehicle crashes (23.4%), other unintentional injuries (15.7%), cancer (12.5%), suicide (7.2%), and homicide (5.2%). Across all age groups in the United States, the leading causes of illness and death are related to the…

Shanklin, Shari L.; Brener, Nancy; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Kann, Laura

2007-01-01

321

Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Study, 2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, nearly two-thirds of all deaths among young people 10-14 years of age result from only five causes: motor-vehicle crashes (22.1%), other unintentional injuries (16.7%), cancer (12.9%), suicide (6.8%), and homicide (4.7%). Leading causes of illness and death in all age groups in the United States are related to the following:…

Whalen, Laura G.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kinchen, Steve; McManus, Tim; Shanklin, Shari L.; Kann, Laura

2005-01-01

322

A comparison of risk factors associated with suicide ideation/attempts in american Indian and white youth in montana.  

PubMed

We examined racial/ethnic and gender-specific associations between suicide ideation/attempts and risky behaviors, sadness/hopelessness, and victimization in Montana American Indian and White youth using 1999-2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in stratified racial/ethnic-gender groups. The primary results of this study show that although the American Indian youth had more statistically significant suicidal thoughts and attempts than the White youth, they had fewer statistically significant predictors compared to the White youth. Sadness/hopelessness was the strongest, and the only statistically significant, predictor of suicide ideation/attempts common across all four groups. The unhealthy weight control cluster was a significant predictor for the White youth and the American Indian/Alaska Native girls; the alcohol/tobacco/marijuana cluster was a significant predictor for the American Indian boys only. Results show important differences across the groups and indicate directions for future research targeting prevention and intervention. PMID:25010183

Manzo, Karen; Tiesman, Hope; Stewart, Jera; Hobbs, Gerald R; Knox, Sarah S

2015-01-01

323

Predicting the Onset of Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative Youths with HIV-Positive Mothers: The Role of Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Social-Interaction Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves.\\u000a Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables\\u000a on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and without HIV-positive mothers. Adolescents\\u000a and their mothers were interviewed

Claude A. Mellins; Curtis Dolezal; Elizabeth Brackis-Cott; Ouzama Nicholson; Patricia Warne; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg

2007-01-01

324

On the Association between Sexual Attraction and Adolescent Risk Behavior Involvement: Examining Mediation and Moderation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk

Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F.

2008-01-01

325

The prevalence of eating behaviors among Canadian youth using cross-sectional school-based surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. Methods The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grades 5-12) from four regions in Canada. The regions were Hamilton and Thunder Bay (both in Ontario), the Province of Prince Edward Island, and the Province of Quebec. Results Consuming breakfast daily was reported by 70% of grade 5-8 students, and 51% of grade 9-12’s. Among students in grade 9-12, 52% reported eating with family members daily, compared with 68% in grade 5-8. Just over half of students in grade 5-8, and 70% in grade 9-12 reported eating at a fast-food place once a week or more. Among grade 5-8 students 68% reported eating in front of the television at least once per week, compared to 76% in grade 9-12. Obese students were more likely to watch TV while eating, and less likely to eat with a family member and eat breakfast. Conclusions The findings suggest that only a modest proportion of youth report dietary patterns that have previously been associated with healthy eating and reduced risk of obesity. Later adolescence may be a critical time for intervention in health-related behaviors. PMID:24708863

2014-01-01

326

Probation officers' perceptions of youths' risk of reoffending and use of risk assessment in case management.  

PubMed

Juvenile probation officers (JPOs) are required to make numerous decisions about the case management of young offenders on a daily basis. This multi-site study examined JPOs' (N=64) perceptions of the typical youth's risk of reoffending before implementation of a risk/needs assessment (RNA) tool, and their self-reported, case management decision-making after implementation of an RNA tool. Results indicated that JPOs tended to overestimate the likely base rates of reoffending while RNA tool estimates were more accurate. Further, most JPOs appeared to be making service referral and placement decisions commensurate with youths' risk levels, regardless of whether they claimed to use the RNA tool in their decisions. Variability in application of risk to case management practices was more a function of the probation office than of the specific JPO. Implications for use of risk assessment in juvenile probation are discussed. PMID:22740174

Perrault, Rachael T; Paiva-Salisbury, Melissa; Vincent, Gina M

2012-01-01

327

Youth-caregiver Agreement on Clinical High-risk Symptoms of Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Early identification of individuals who will go on to develop schizophrenia is a difficult endeavor. The variety of symptoms experienced by clinical high-risk youth make it difficult to identify who will eventually develop schizophrenia in the future. Efforts are being made, therefore, to more accurately identify at-risk individuals and factors that predict conversion to psychosis. As in most assessments of children and adolescents, however, both youth and parental report of symptomatology and resulting dysfunction are important to assess. The goals of the current study were to assess the extent of cross-informant agreement on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), a widely-used tool employed to determine clinical high-risk status. A total of 84 youth-caregiver pairs participated. Youth and caregiver raters displayed moderate overall agreement on SIPS-rated symptoms. Both youth and caregiver ratings of youth symptomatology contributed significantly to predicting conversion to psychosis. In addition, youth age and quality of youth-caregiver relationships appear to be related to cross-informant symptom ratings. Despite differences on individual SIPS domains, the majority of dyads agreed on youth clinical high-risk status. Results highlight the potential clinical utility of using caregiver informants to determine youth psychosis risk. PMID:24092494

Golembo-Smith, Shana; Bachman, Peter; Senturk, Damla; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

2014-01-01

328

Sexual Activity and Other High-Risk Behaviors in Adolescents with Chronic Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a literature review of high-risk behaviors, including sexual activity, in adolescents with chronic illness. Three different models describing biopsychosocial constructs for risky behaviors are discussed. Regarding specific behaviors, findings from the literature include a substantial prevalence of sexual activity, but low level of knowledge and low prevalence of contraceptive use, in youth with chronic illness. Regarding substance

Linbee S Valencia; Barbara A Cromer

2000-01-01

329

Correlates of Externalizing Behavior Symptoms Among Youth Within Two Impoverished, Urban Communities  

PubMed Central

The current study examines whether risk factors associated with child externalizing behavior symptoms differ between two similar low-income urban communities, using baseline parent data of 154 African American youth (ages 9–15) participating in the Collaborative HIV-Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) family program. Separate multiple regression analyses of each city sample indicated that greater child externalizing symptoms were associated with increasing parenting hassles for New York families (n = 46), but greater parent mental health symptoms for participants in Chicago (n = 108). Understanding such distinctions between communities is an important first step towards tailoring services to unique community needs. PMID:21731119

Gopalan, Geetha; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Bannon, William M.; McKay, Mary M.

2011-01-01

330

Risk Factors for Homelessness Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Developmental Milestone Approach.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are over-represented in the homeless population. To examine why some LGB youths become homeless, this report compares homeless and non-homeless LGB youths. Of the 156 LGB youths, 48% reported ever being homeless (i.e., running away or being evicted from home). Results indicate that sexual orientation awareness and the initiation of sexual behavior occurred earlier in homeless than in non-homeless LGB youths and predated the first homeless episode. Substance use was more frequent and first occurred at an earlier age in homeless as compared to non-homeless LGB youths; however, substance use occurred subsequent to first homelessness. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with homelessness; and, early sexual orientation development was related to homelessness among youths without a history of sexual abuse. Findings suggest that interventions should help youths cope with their unfolding sexual orientation and work to prevent or address the consequences of sexual abuse. PMID:22347763

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce

2012-01-01

331

Risk Factors for Homelessness Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Developmental Milestone Approach  

PubMed Central

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are over-represented in the homeless population. To examine why some LGB youths become homeless, this report compares homeless and non-homeless LGB youths. Of the 156 LGB youths, 48% reported ever being homeless (i.e., running away or being evicted from home). Results indicate that sexual orientation awareness and the initiation of sexual behavior occurred earlier in homeless than in non-homeless LGB youths and predated the first homeless episode. Substance use was more frequent and first occurred at an earlier age in homeless as compared to non-homeless LGB youths; however, substance use occurred subsequent to first homelessness. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with homelessness; and, early sexual orientation development was related to homelessness among youths without a history of sexual abuse. Findings suggest that interventions should help youths cope with their unfolding sexual orientation and work to prevent or address the consequences of sexual abuse. PMID:22347763

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

2011-01-01

332

District Youth in Brief: Perceived Risk in Binge Drinking In Which Wards Were DC Youth More Likely to Binge  

E-print Network

one-third of DC youth age 12 to 17 in Ward 3 perceived weekly binge drinking a great risk, compared-2008 NSDUH surveys. Key = Perceived Great Risk of Weekly Binge Drinking (Ages 12-17) = Past Month Binge Drinking (Ages 12-17) #12;

Milchberg, Howard

333

Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

2012-01-01

334

Project SuccessComprehensive Intervention Services for Middle School High-Risk Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project Success is a comprehensive, middle schoolprogramfor the early intervention of alcohol and otherdrug (ATOD) use by high-risk youth to reduce riskfactors and increase resiliency across environmental domains. Referred youth had high levels of ATOD use and risk, lowerself-esteem, more absences, and lower grades than normative peers. For 6 to 12 months, each cohort of students participated in a variety

Nancy Richards-Colocino; Patricia McKenzie; Rae R. Newton

1996-01-01

335

Preventing Substance Use in High Risk Youth: Evaluation Challenges and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs to prevent substance use among high risk youth can pose numerous challenges for program evaluators including FEASIBILITY ISSUES such as Participant Recruitment and Retention, Identifying High Risk Youth, and Obtaining a Control\\/Comparison Group; MEASUREMENT ISSUES such as Social Desirability Bias and Instrument Reliability; METHODOLOGIC ISSUES such as Attrition (both selective and differential), Inadequate Implementation and Variable Dose, Low Statistical

Ken Resnicow; Ronald Braithwaite; Colleen Dilorio; Roger Vaughan; Marcia I. Cohen; Gary A. Uhl

2001-01-01

336

Youth Depression in the Family Context: Familial Risk Factors and Models of Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of parent and family factors is associated with youth risk

Janay B. Sander; Carolyn A. McCarty

2005-01-01

337

Who's Looking Out for At-Risk Youth: The States' Excellence in Education Commissions. A Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of state commissions concerned with educational excellence showed that the majority of these commissions are not involved with the problems of at-risk youth. The definition of at-risk youth includes the following: (1) young people from poor families of all races, including minorities and immigrants, who face discriminatory policies and…

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

338

America's Shame, America's Hope: Twelve Million Youth at Risk. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an executive summary of a report asserting that the under-education of a body of students, known as "at-risk" youth, presents a crisis in American public education that has been overlooked by the educational reform movement of the 1980s. These youth are referred to as "at-risk" because they leave school unprepared for either…

Smith, R. C.; Lincoln, Carol A.

339

Awareness, Attitudes, and Use of Crisis Hotlines among Youth At-Risk for Suicide.  

PubMed

Crisis hotlines have been central to suicide prevention efforts; however, utilization among youth remains low. A sample of at-risk youth was surveyed about their awareness, utilization, and attitudes toward local and national crisis hotlines. Youth reported low rates of awareness and utilization, yet expressed a strong interest in phone hotlines (41% vs. 59% for new media categories combined). Youth reported stigma, but that help-seeking could be positively influenced by peers and adults in their support system. Implications include making crisis services available across several mediums and the importance of engaging trusted others in youth suicide awareness campaigns and prevention efforts. PMID:25093445

Crosby Budinger, Meghan; Cwik, Mary F; Riddle, Mark A

2015-04-01

340

A Systematic Review of Environmental Correlates of Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational…

van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, A.; Ferreira, I.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Giskes, K.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.

2007-01-01

341

Long-term consequences of pubertal timing for youth depression: Identifying personal and contextual pathways of risk.  

PubMed

This research explored sex differences in the pathways linking pubertal timing to depression across 4 years. A sample of 167 youth (M age = 12.41 years, SD = 1.19) and their caregivers completed measures of puberty and semistructured interviews of interpersonal stress and youth depression. Youth reported on psychological (negative self-focus, anxious arousal) and social-behavioral (coping) characteristics; parents reported on youths' social-behavioral characteristics (withdrawal/social problems) and deviant peer affiliations. Early maturation predicted stable high trajectories of depression in girls; although early maturing boys showed low initial levels of depression, they did not differ from girls by the final wave of the study. Latent growth curve analyses identified several psychological, social-behavioral, and interpersonal pathways accounting for the contribution of pubertal timing to initial and enduring risk for depression in girls as well as emerging risk for depression in boys. These findings provide novel insight into multilevel processes accounting for sex differences in depression across the adolescent transition. PMID:25422971

Rudolph, Karen D; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Lambert, Sharon F; Natsuaki, Misaki N

2014-11-01

342

Recognition for Positive Behavior as a Critical Youth Development Construct: Conceptual Bases and Implications on Youth Service Development  

PubMed Central

Recognition for positive behavior is an appropriate response of the social environment to elicit desirable external behavior among the youth. Such positive responses, rendered from various social systems, include tangible and intangible reinforcements. The following theories are used to explain the importance of recognizing positive behavior: operational conditioning, observational learning, self-determination, and humanistic perspective. In the current work, culturally and socially desirable behaviors are discussed in detail with reference to Chinese adolescents. Positive behavior recognition is especially important to adolescent development because it promotes identity formation as well as cultivates moral reasoning and social perspective thinking from various social systems. The significance of recognizing positive behavior is illustrated through the support, tutorage, invitation, and subsidy provided by Hong Kong's social systems in recognition of adolescent volunteerism. The practical implications of positive behavior recognition on youth development programs are also discussed in this work. PMID:22666155

Law, Ben M. F.; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

2012-01-01

343

Dropout Prevention for Rural At-Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Louisiana Tech University conducted a program to reduce drop-out probabilities for at-risk special needs adolescents as part of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). Eighty-six students between the ages of 14 and 16 were chosen as "at-risk" based on economic disadvantage, lower academic performance, behavioral and adjustment problems, family…

D'Alonzo, Bruno; And Others

344

Risk Factors for Alcohol Use Among Inner-City Minority Youth: A Comparative Analysis of Youth Living in Public and Conventional Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

National survey data indicate that drug use among our nation's secondary school youth is once again on the rise. Nowhere is this concern more dramatic than with inner-city youth who seem disproportionately affected by the risks associated with drug use. Urban youth residing in public housing developments may be extremely vulnerable as a result of their exposure to high rates

Christopher Williams; Lawrence M. Scheier; Gilbert J. Botvin; Eli Baker; Nicole Miller

1997-01-01

345

Trends in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Behaviors among High School Students--United States, 1991-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors among high school students in the United States during 1991-2005. Data from 8 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted during that period were analyzed. During 1991-2005, the percentage of US high school students engaging in HIV-related sexual risk

Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Romero, Lisa

2006-01-01

346

Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.  

PubMed

Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits. PMID:21153441

Ferguson, Christopher J

2011-09-01

347

Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

2012-01-01

348

The Age of Initiation of Drug Use and Sexual Behavior May Influence Subsequent HIV Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk. PMID:24381791

Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael

2013-01-01

349

Youth Court: A Community Solution for Embracing At-Risk Youth. A National Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth court, also called teen court, peer jury, or student court, is an alternative to the traditional juvenile justice system and school disciplinary proceedings that empower youth and communities to take an active role in addressing the early stages of youth delinquency. The program provides communities with an opportunity to ensure immediate…

Pearson, Sarah S.; Jurich, Sonia

2005-01-01

350

The Relationship between Cumulative Risk and Promotive Factors and Violent Behavior among Urban Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose Resiliency theory posits that some youth exposed to risk factors do not develop negative behaviors due to the influence of promotive factors. This study examines the effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on adolescent violent behavior and tests two models of resilience – the compensatory model and the protective model – in a sample of adolescent patients (14- 18 years old; n = 726) presenting to an urban emergency department (ED) who report violent behavior. Cumulative measures of risk and promotive factors consist of individual characteristics and peer, family, and community influences. Method Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the two models of resilience (using cumulative measures of risk and promotive factors) for violent behavior within a sample of youth reporting violent behavior. Results Higher cumulative risk was associated with higher levels of violent behavior. Higher levels of promotive factors were associated with lower levels of violent behavior and moderated the association between risk and violent behaviors. Conclusion Our results support the risk-protective model of resiliency and suggest that promotive factors can help reduce the burden of cumulative risk for youth violence. PMID:22744013

Stoddard, Sarah A.; Whiteside, Lauren; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.

2013-01-01

351

Preventing Youth Incarceration Through Reading Remediation: Issues and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of court-involved youths have experienced academic failure, school exclusion, and dropout. Researchers have identified factors that increase a youth's risk for court involvement and incarceration. The risk factors include individual, family, community, peer, and school factors. Researchers actually have identified specific school-based policies and practices that may exacerbate the risks for delinquent behavior and incarceration among youths. For

Christine A. Christle; Mitchell L. Yell

2008-01-01

352

Sexual Values and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Youths  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Understanding Latino youths’ sexual values is key to informing HIV prevention efforts. Few studies have examined associations between culturally based sexual values and behaviors among Latinos. METHODS A sample of 839 sexually active Latinos aged 16–22 residing in San Francisco were interviewed in 2003–2006. Multiple regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between sexual values and behaviors, while adjusting for language use (a proxy for acculturation) and other covariates. RESULTS The importance attached to female virginity was negatively associated with the number of sexual partners women had had in their lifetime (odds ratio, 0.8) and in the past year (0.9), and was positively associated with women’s nonuse of condoms, rather than consistent use, during the first month of their current relationships (1.8). For men, the importance of satisfying sexual needs increased with the numbers of lifetime and recent sexual partners (1.4 and 1.1, respectively), and with inconsistent condom use in the first month of their relationships (1.9). Comfort with sexual communication was positively associated with inconsistent use or nonuse of condoms in the last month of both men’s and women’s current relationships (2.0–2.2). For women, considering satisfaction of sexual needs important was associated with more sexual partners only among those who attached little value to female virginity. CONCLUSIONS It is important to integrate themes of virginity and sexual desire into intervention curricula so youth can better understand how these sexual norms influence their developing sexual identities and behaviors. PMID:20415881

Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena; Ozer, Emily J.

2010-01-01

353

Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Youth in Juvenile Detention  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, lethality of suicide attempts, and the relationship between psychiatric disorder and recent attempts in newly detained juveniles. Methods The sample included 1829 juveniles, aged 10 to 18 years, sampled after intake to a detention center in Chicago, IL. Interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) to assess for thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, suicide plans, lifetime suicide attempts, number of attempts, age at first attempt, attempts within the last 6 months, method of suicide attempts, and psychiatric disorder. Results More than one-third of juvenile detainees and nearly half of females had felt hopeless or thought about death in the 6 months prior to detention. Approximately 1 of 10 (10.3%, CI: 7.7% – 12.8%) juvenile detainees had thought about committing suicide in the past 6 months, and 1 of 10 (11.0%, CI: 8.3% – 13.7%) had ever attempted suicide. Recent suicide attempts were most prevalent in females and youth with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions Fewer than half of detainees with recent thoughts of suicide had told anyone about their ideation. Identifying youth at risk for suicide -- especially those suffering from depressive and anxiety disorders -- is a crucial step to preventing suicide. PMID:18216737

Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Teplin, Linda A.; King, Devon C.; Dulcan, Mina K.

2010-01-01

354

Understanding AIDS-Risk Behavior Among Adolescents in Psychiatric Care: Links to Psychopathology and Peer Relationships  

PubMed Central

Objective: Severely mentally ill youths are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection, but little is known about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk behavior in adolescents who seek outpatient mental health services or about the links between psychiatric problems and particular high-risk behaviors. This pilot study used structural equation modeling to conduct a path analysis to explore the direct and indirect effects of adolescent psychopathology on risky sex, drug/alcohol use, and needle use. Method: Ethnically diverse youths (N = 86) and their caregivers who sought outpatient psychiatric services in Chicago completed questionnaires of adolescent psychopathology. Youths reported their relationship attitudes, peer influence, sexual behavior, and drug/alcohol use. Results: Different AIDS-risk behaviors were associated with distinct forms of adolescent psychopathology (e.g., delinquency was linked to drug/alcohol use, whereas aggression was related to risky sexual behavior), and peer influence mediated these linkages. Some patterns were similar for caregiver- and adolescent-reported problems (e.g., peer influence mediated the relation between delinquency and drug/alcohol use), but others were different (e.g., caregiver-reported delinquency was associated with risky sex, whereas adolescent-reported delinquency was not). Conclusions: Findings underscore the complexity of factors (types of informants and dimensions of psychopathology) that underlie AIDS risk in troubled youths, and they offer specific directions for designing and implementing uniquely tailored AIDS prevention programs, for example, by targeting delinquent behavior and including high-risk peers and important family members in interventions. PMID:11392341

DONENBERG, GERI R.; EMERSON, ERIN; BRYANT, FRED B.; WILSON, HELEN; WEBER-SHIFRIN, ERYN

2005-01-01

355

Using the theory of planned behavior to predict aggression and weapons carrying in urban african american early adolescent youth.  

PubMed

Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the risk and protective factors for aggressive behaviors and weapons carrying. As the baseline assessment of an intervention trial, survey data were collected on 452 sixth-grade students (50% girls; 96.6% African American; mean age 12.0 years) from urban middle schools. A total of 18.4% carried a weapon in the prior 12 months, with boys more likely to carry a weapon than girls (22.5% vs. 14.2%, p = .02). Of the youth, 78.4% reported aggressive behaviors with no significant differences found between girls (81.3%) and boys (75.5%). In logistic regression models, having peers who engage in problem behaviors was found to be a significant risk factor. Youth with peers who engaged in numerous problem behaviors were five times more likely to be aggressive than those who reported little or no peer problem behaviors. Teens who reported that their parents opposed aggression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 0.88) and who used self-control strategies (OR = 0.59; CI = 0.39, 0.87) were found to report less aggressive behaviors. For weapons carrying, being a girl (OR = 0.56; CI = 0.32, 0.97) and self-control (OR = 0.52; CI = 0.29, 0.92) were protective factors. This study demonstrated that the theory of planned behavior may provide a useful framework for the development of violence prevention programs. Practitioners should consider integrating strategies for developing healthy relationships and improving self-control. PMID:25228369

Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Cheng, Tina L; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2015-04-01

356

Risky Sexual Behaviors among Female Youth in Tiss Abay, a Semi-Urban Area of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15–29 years in September 2011. Results 711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3%) used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6%) had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6%) had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1%) did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%), and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3%) participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing ‘khat’, watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex. Conclusions Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended. PMID:25738508

Tadesse, Gojjam; Yakob, Bereket

2015-01-01

357

College Women and Breast Cancer: Knowledge, Behavior, and Beliefs regarding Risk Reduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…

Burak, Lydia; Boone, Barbara

2008-01-01

358

An exploration of multisystemic factors contributing to sexual risk-taking in minority suburban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual risk-taking in minority youth in the United States is a public health concern that has been linked to theories of neighborhood effects and urban deprivation. We used a qualitative interview method to explore possible factors contributing to sexual risk-taking among minority youth in a densely populated, high-risk, segregated suburban community, with a purposive sample of 34 participants who were

Julie Askew; Darlene Rampasaud; Ingrid Solano; Jessica Donaldson

2012-01-01

359

Towards a Conceptual Model Linking Community Violence Exposure to HIV-Related Risk Behaviors among Adolescents: Directions for Research  

PubMed Central

Purpose To present a conceptual framework which accounts for the relationship between community violence exposures and youth HIV risk behaviors. Methods This article provides an overview of existing research on the links between community violence exposure and HIV risk for youth and offers a conceptual framework for clarifying how community violence exposure might contribute to HIV sexual risk. Results Increasing empirical findings substantiate that the links between community violence exposure and HIV risk behaviors among youth are mediated by psychological problem behaviors, low school success and negative peer influences. Conclusions Researchers have identified the behaviors that place teens at risk for becoming infected with HIV. However, most scholars have overlooked the potential importance of community violence exposure in influencing such behaviors. This paper presents new directions for adolescent research and HIV interventions based on an integrated conceptual framework. PMID:21856513

Voisin, Dexter R.; Jenkins, Esther J.; Takahashi, Lois

2012-01-01

360

A prospective look at substance use and criminal behavior in urban ADHD youth: what is the role of maltreatment history on outcome?  

PubMed

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence/early adulthood. Here, we characterize the antisocial outcomes of a sample of urban, lower-socioeconomic-status, ethnically diverse ADHD youth and investigate the impact of maltreatment history on criminal and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes. Ninety-eight participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood were re-assessed 10 years later and compared with controls. Regression analyses investigated the effect of maltreatment on antisocial outcomes among four groups based on ADHD and maltreatment status. ADHD subjects and controls did not differ in rates of arrest, conviction, incarceration, or recidivism. ADHD youth were younger at their first arrest with higher rates of SUDs when compared to controls. Controls and ADHD subjects with maltreatment had significantly higher rates of SUDs compared to the no-ADHD/no-maltreatment group. Only ADHD youth with maltreatment had significantly higher rates of arrest than the reference group. In contrast to prior studies, ADHD youth did not differ from controls on most measures of antisocial behavior. Maltreatment increased the rate of arrest only among ADHD youth, though increased the rate of SUD for ADHD youth and controls. This suggests that ADHD youth, in the absence of maltreatment, are at no greater risk of SUDs or arrest than controls without maltreatment. PMID:24610394

De Sanctis, Virginia A; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

2014-06-01

361

Do dopamine gene variants and prenatal smoking interactively predict youth externalizing behavior?  

PubMed Central

Externalizing behaviors (encompassing antisocial, impulsive, and substance use behaviors) are pervasive and impairing across a multitude of settings and developmental contexts. These behaviors, though often investigated separately, are highly comorbid. Prenatal tobacco exposure in interaction with various genetic influences has predicted later externalizing behavior, and recent evidence supports investigating sex differences in these patterns. In the current study, we extend this work by (a) examining two functional genetic markers in the dopamine system: the transporter gene (DAT1) and the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) in interaction with prenatal tobacco exposure to predict a latent composite of externalizing behavior and (b) testing whether these patterns differ by sex of youth in a community sample of adolescents (n=176). The relatively small sample is partially offset by high quality, multi-method prospective measurement. We assessed prenatal tobacco exposure using prospective repeated cotinine-corrected reports and externalizing behaviors were assessed utilizing multiple measures across three waves. The interaction between DAT1 (but not DRD4) and prenatal tobacco exposure was statistically significant in boys, and patterns appeared to differ by sex. Risk for externalizing behaviors for exposed boys increased linearly as a function of the 10r DAT1 allele. For exposed girls, there was a trend such that DAT1heterozygotes had a marginally higher risk than homozygotes. This pattern was not explained by passive gene-environment correlation. Elucidating sex-specific pathways through which early adverse exposures and genetic susceptibilities contribute to externalizing behavior can inform early targeted prevention efforts for those children at highest risk. PMID:24064458

O’Brien, T. Caitlin; Mustanski, Brian S.; Skol, Andrew; Cook, Edwin H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

2014-01-01

362

Do dopamine gene variants and prenatal smoking interactively predict youth externalizing behavior?  

PubMed

Externalizing behaviors (encompassing antisocial, impulsive, and substance use behaviors) are pervasive and impairing across a multitude of settings and developmental contexts. These behaviors, though often investigated separately, are highly comorbid. Prenatal tobacco exposure in interaction with various genetic influences has predicted later externalizing behavior, and recent evidence supports investigating sex differences in these patterns. In the current study, we extend this work by (a) examining two functional genetic markers in the dopamine system: the transporter gene (DAT1) and the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) in interaction with prenatal tobacco exposure to predict a latent composite of externalizing behavior and (b) testing whether these patterns differ by sex of youth in a community sample of adolescents (n=176). The relatively small sample is partially offset by high quality, multi-method prospective measurement. We assessed prenatal tobacco exposure using prospective repeated cotinine-corrected reports and externalizing behaviors were assessed utilizing multiple measures across three waves. The interaction between DAT1 (but not DRD4) and prenatal tobacco exposure was statistically significant in boys, and patterns appeared to differ by sex. Risk for externalizing behaviors for exposed boys increased linearly as a function of the 10r DAT1 allele. For exposed girls, there was a trend such that DAT1 heterozygotes had a marginally higher risk than homozygotes. This pattern was not explained by passive gene-environment correlation. Elucidating sex-specific pathways through which early adverse exposures and genetic susceptibilities contribute to externalizing behavior can inform early targeted prevention efforts for those children at highest risk. PMID:24064458

O'Brien, T Caitlin; Mustanski, Brian S; Skol, Andrew; Cook, Edwin H; Wakschlag, Lauren S

2013-01-01

363

Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

2014-06-01

364

THE 6TH ANNUAL NEW ZEALAND ~ AUSTRALIA CONFERENCE ON ADDICTIVE DISEASE OUR YOUTH AT RISK  

E-print Network

THE 6TH ANNUAL NEW ZEALAND ~ AUSTRALIA CONFERENCE ON ADDICTIVE DISEASE OUR YOUTH AT RISK WELLINGTON and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Robert Crutcher, CCS, fellow CAADAC, Effective Youth Treatment in the communities and was invested as a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit (MNZM) Norm Hewitt, former All

Hofmann, Hans A.

365

Family Risk Factors and Prevalence of Dissociative Symptoms among Homeless and Runaway Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les

2004-01-01

366

Risk Acts, Health Care, and Medical Adherence Among HIV+ Youths in Care over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level and consistency of HIV-related sexual and substance-use risk acts, health status, and medical adherence were examined among 102 HIV+ youths aged 14 to 23 years (27% African American, 33% Latino). Over their lifetime, youths engaged in unprotected sexual acts with multiple partners (M = 284; Median = 44; consistent condom protection, 5%) and substance use (21% injecting drug

Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Debra A. Murphy; Christy L. Coleman; Michael Kennedy; Helen M. Reid; Timothy R. Cline; Jeffrey M. Birnbaum; Donna Futterman; Linda Levin; Arlene Schneir; Brenda Chabon; Zane O'Keefe; Michelle Kipke

1997-01-01

367

Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

2013-01-01

368

Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group

C. W. Njue; H. A. C. M. Voeten; P. Remes

2011-01-01

369

Evaluation of a High School Peer Group Intervention for At-Risk Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of Reconnecting Youth, a prevention program for at-risk high school youth. Data are from a large, independently evaluated effectiveness trial in two diverse urban school districts. A total of 1,218 students participated; 50% were male; average age was 15. We tested whether positive efficacy trial effects could be replicated, and

Hyunsan Cho; Denise Dion Hallfors; Victoria Sánchez

2005-01-01

370

Assessment of High Risk/High Need Youth in West Virginia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to examine the high risk/high need youth population of West Virginia. Workers from 55 county school boards, 27 area offices of health centers, private and public psychiatric hospitals with adolescent units, juvenile probation offices, and state juvenile correctional facilities were asked to nominate certain youths as high…

Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

371

Peer-Led Interventions to Reduce HIV Risk of Youth: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One approach in HIV prevention programming targeting youth is to use peer leaders in what is referred to as peer education programming. This paper critically reviews and synthesizes the results and lessons learned from 24 evaluated peer-led programs with an HIV/AIDS risk reduction component that target youth in the communities where they live and…

Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Barnett, Jessica Penwell

2010-01-01

372

Serving At-Risk Youth at Camp: Understanding This Population and Meeting Their Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines "at-risk youth." Describes characteristics of resilient children and their families, friends and mentors, schools, and communities. Discusses camp program practices that have been shown to promote resiliency: focus on youth development, intentional processes that target the personal domain, organizational elements borrowed from successful…

Grayson, Randall

2001-01-01

373

Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

2013-01-01

374

Preliminary Testing of a Program to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Youth.(research Papers)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Type 2 diabetes is increasing among youth, with minority youth at highest risk. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a school-based program to prevent type 2 diabetes in youth at risk. Forty-one participants (age 12.6 [+ or -] 1.1 years; 63% female, 51% African American, 44% Hispanic, and 5% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of…

Grey, Margaret; Berry, Diane; Davidson, Maryanne; Galasso, Pam; Gustafson, Elaine; Melkus, Gail

2004-01-01

375

Education and Services for Children and Youths with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To describe the current status of special education and services for children and youths with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in Singapore, the authors highlight the country's overall structure of special education and mental health, identification of and intervention with children and youths with E/BD, perspectives about E/BD, and…

Chen, Kaili; Soon, Tan Chee

2006-01-01

376

A Pilot Study Connecting Youth with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties to Summer Work Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the potential contributions of adolescent employment to postschool success, many youth who experience emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) do not access these opportunities. This intervention study examined the effects of a package of strategies designed to increase access to summer work experiences. Fifty-seven youth with EBD from…

Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Owens, Laura

2011-01-01

377

The Integration of Research and Practice in the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of youth problem behaviors is increasingly guided by science. Sound epidemiological research is coming to guide preventive efforts. Valid methods of monitoring the incidence and prevalence of youth problems increasingly shape preventive practice. The identification of empirically supported prevention interventions is becoming more sophisticated, and numerous scientific organizations have begun to engage in dissemination activities. These trends will

Anthony Biglan; Patricia J. Mrazek; Douglas Carnine; Brian R. Flay

2003-01-01

378

From Early to Late Adolescence: American Indian Youths' Behavioral Trajectories and Their Major Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article identifies behavioral trajectories of American Indian adolescents and examines their predictors. Method: A total of 401 urban and reservation American Indian adolescents were interviewed yearly from 2001 to 2004 (with 341 youths, or 85%, retained to 2004, and 385 completing at least two interviews). The Youth Self-Report…

Stiffman, Arlene Rubin; Alexander-Eitzman, Benjamin; Silmere, Hiie; Osborne, Victoria; Brown, Eddie

2007-01-01

379

Increased Intrasubject Variability in Response Time in Youths with Bipolar Disorder and At-Risk Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intrasubject variability in response time (ISV-RT) was higher in youths with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with first-degree relatives with BD compared to youths without BD. ISV-RT may be a risk marker for BD.

Brotman, Melissa A.; Rooney, Melissa H.; Skup, Martha; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

2009-01-01

380

Environmental risk, Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) methylation and youth callous-unemotional traits: A 13-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Youth with high callous-unemotional traits (CU) are at risk for early-onset and persistent conduct problems. Research suggests that there may be different developmental pathways to CU (genetic/constitutional vs environmental), and that the absence or presence of co-occurring internalizing problems is a key marker. However, it is unclear whether such a distinction is valid. Intermediate phenotypes such as DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification regulating gene expression, may help to clarify aetiological pathways. This is the first study to examine prospective inter-relationships between environmental risk (prenatal/postnatal) and DNA methylation (birth, age 7, age 9) in the prediction of CU (age 13), for youth low vs. high in internalizing problems. We focused on DNA methylation in the vicinity of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as it has been previously implicated in CU. Participants were 84 youth with early-onset and persistent conduct problems drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. For youth with low internalizing problems (46%), we found that: (i) OXTR methylation at birth associated with higher CU (age 13) as well as decreased experience of victimization during childhood (birth – age 9), (ii) higher prenatal parental risks (maternal psychopathology, criminal behaviors, substance use) associated with higher OXTR methylation at birth, and (iii) OXTR methylation levels were more stable across time (birth – age 9). In contrast, for youth with high internalizing problems, CU was associated with prenatal risks of an interpersonal nature (i.e., intimate partner violence, family conflict) but not OXTR methylation. Findings support the existence of distinct developmental pathways to CU. PMID:25199917

Cecil, Charlotte AM; Lysenko, Laura J.; Jaffee, Sara R.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Smith, Rebecca G.; Relton, Caroline L.; Woodward, Geoffrey; McArdle, Wendy; Mill, Jonathan; Barker, Edward D.

2014-01-01

381

Psychosocial Correlates of Substance Use Behaviors among African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-sectional data were collected on substance use behaviors and potential correlates in 1,494 African American students enrolled in grades 5-12 in eight schools in a central Alabama school district. Using a risk and asset framework, self-reported recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use were analyzed by identifying and measuring levels of…

Wright, Darlene R.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.

2004-01-01

382

A Multisite Randomized Trial of a Motivational Intervention Targeting Multiple Risks in Youth Living with HIV: Initial effects on Motivation, Self-Efficacy and Depression  

PubMed Central

Purpose Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors are needed for youth living with HIV (YLH). A randomized clinical trial compared Healthy Choices, a 4 session motivational intervention targeting two of three risk behaviors (HIV medication adherence, sexual risk behavior and substance use) to multidisciplinary specialty care alone. This paper presents intermediary outcomes available at 3-month follow-up, variables proposed to be precursors to behavior change (motivation, self-efficacy and depression). Methods YLH (N = 186) with at least one of the three problem behaviors were recruited from four sites in the Adolescent Trials Network (ATN) and one non-ATN site and were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Results Of the 94 youth randomly assigned to the treatment condition, 84% received at least one session, 67% received at least two sessions, 56% received at least 3 sessions, and 49% completed all four sessions. In intent-to-treat analysis, only depression was significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls. However, in per-protocol analysis, youth receiving at least two sessions of the intervention also showed significant improvements in motivational readiness to change compared to youth in the control condition. Conclusion Results suggest the potential benefits of clinic-based motivational interventions for YLH who access these interventions. Delivering interventions in the community using an outreach model may improve access. Analysis of subsequent time points will determine effects on actual behavior change. PMID:20413077

Naar-King, Sylvie; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Murphy, Debra; Kolmodin, Karen; Harris, D. Robert

2009-01-01

383

Ethnic differences in risk behaviors and related psychosocial variables among a cohort of maltreated adolescents in foster care.  

PubMed

This study examined the cross-ethnic equivalence of measures and the relationships between psychosocial variables and risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of maltreated adolescents 6 years after their placement in foster care. Overall, there was cross-ethnic measurement equivalence, except for the self-destructive behavior and perceived opportunities constructs, which did not demonstrate internal consistency for African American youth. The authors found few differences between White (non-Latino), Hispanic, and African American youth on levels of engagement in risk behaviors and across domains of psychosocial functioning. The relationships between the psychosocial variables and risk behaviors were then examined across ethnic groups. The pattern of results was different as a function of ethnicity, as fewer of the psychosocial variables were significantly related to the risk behavior variables for African American youth. Possible explanations for these differences are presented and implications for intervention discussed. PMID:16705793

Taussig, H N; Talmi, A

2001-05-01

384

Disconnect between discourse and behavior regarding concurrent sexual partnerships and condom use: findings from a qualitative study among youth in Malawi.  

PubMed

The practice of concurrent sexual partnerships (CP) is posited to be a contributor to the elevated risk of HIV transmission among youth in Malawi. The lens through which Malawian youth conceptualize the practices of CP and condom use has yet to be fully explored. The current study--a secondary data analysis of semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 19) with Malawian youth aged 18 to 22 years--addresses this gap. Participants were interviewed about their sexual relationships and behavior, as well as their perceptions and knowledge regarding condom use and CP. In order to ensure that youth engaged in CP were oversampled, the recruitment process asked potential respondents to self-identify whether they currently participated in CP. Of the total sample (n = 19), 13 self-identified as currently engaging in CP. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. This qualitative study highlights a disconnect between the high level of knowledge youth exhibit about HIV prevention methods and their actual reported condom use and CP behaviors. While some youth claimed to use condoms, their discourse demonstrated fluidity in that use changed over time, or interest in changing behavior was expressed, or was inconsistent between partnerships. The disconnect between knowledge of the consequences of risky sexual behavior and actual behavior was most evident among inconsistent condom users engaged in CP. This finding indicates knowledge alone has a limited role in the adoption of lower risk behaviors such as condom use and reduction of CP among youth. Moreover, findings from this study can inform HIV prevention programs operating in Malawi and the sub-Saharan Africa region by enabling them to provide tailored, more persuasive health promotion and prevention messaging. PMID:24803440

Romero, Stacy L; Ellis, Amy A; Gurman, Tilly A

2012-12-01

385

International note: Association between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours in homeless youth.  

PubMed

Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours. PMID:25575268

Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

2015-02-01

386

The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

2004-01-01

387

Beyond the "Model Minority" Stereotype: Trends in Health Risk Behaviors among Asian/Pacific Islander High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Asian/Pacific Islander (API) students have been stereotyped as the "model minority." The objective of this study was to examine the trends in health risk behaviors among API students who participated in the San Diego City Schools Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) between 1993 and 2005. Methods: High school students from the San Diego…

Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2009-01-01

388

Child Behavior Checklist Profiles of Children and Adolescents with and at High Risk for Developing Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than or equal to…

Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

2007-01-01

389

Youth Risk Factors and Educational Outcomes of Mentored and Non-Mentored Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As mentoring is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve youth educational outcomes, it is important to continue to examine the effects of mentoring on these youth outcomes. This study uses secondary data from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and transcript data from the Adolescent…

Castellanos-Brown, Karen

2010-01-01

390

Siblings Are Special: Initial test of a New Approach for Preventing Youth Behavior Problems  

PubMed Central

Purpose A growing body of research documents the significance of siblings and sibling relationships for development, mental health, and behavioral risk across childhood and adolescence. Nonetheless, few well-designed efforts have been undertaken to promote positive and reduce negative youth outcomes by enhancing sibling relationships. Methods Based on a theoretical model of sibling influences, we conducted a randomized trial of Siblings Are Special, a group-format afterschool program for 5th graders with a younger sibling in 2nd through 4th grade, which entailed 12 weekly afterschool sessions and 3 Family Nights. We tested program efficacy with a pre-posttest design with 174 families randomly assigned to condition. In home visits at both time points we collected data via parent questionnaires, child interviews, and observer-rated videotaped interactions and teachers rated children’s behavior at school. Results The program enhanced positive sibling relationships, appropriate strategies for parenting siblings, and child self-control, social competence, and academic performance; program exposure was also associated with reduced maternal depression and child internalizing problems. Results were robust across the sample, not qualified by sibling gender, age, family demographics, or baseline risk. No effects were found for sibling conflict, collusion or child externalizing problems; we will examine follow-up data to determine if short-term impacts lead to reduced negative behaviors over time. Conclusions The breadth of the SAS program’s impact is consistent with research suggesting that siblings are an important influence on development and adjustment and supports our argument that a sibling focus should be incorporated into youth and family-oriented prevention programs. PMID:23298985

Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; Hostetler, Michelle L.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Jones, Damon; McHale, Susan M.

2012-01-01

391

4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

2014-01-01

392

A national study of risk and protective factors for substance use among youth in the child welfare system  

PubMed Central

While child welfare services are intended, in part, to diminish maltreatment’s negative impact on adolescents’ development, there is evidence that receiving child welfare services affects adolescents’ substance use adversely. The literature on the extent and correlates of this problem is still emerging. The present study aims to fill part of this gap by examining the association between baseline psychosocial risk and protective factors on engagement in substance use behavior over a period of 36 months for child welfare involved youth. It further compares substance use behavior between youth placed in out-of-home care and those who remained with their biological families. Data come from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), a national probability study of children and adolescents undergoing investigation for abuse or neglect. The sample for this analysis was restricted to 827 youth who were 11 years or older at baseline data collection. Key findings include a high rate of social substance use (47.7%) and illicit substance use (17.4%). There was a limited role of protective factors in mitigating risk behavior for social substance use (caregiver connectedness; OR=0.51, p<0.05). Avoiding foster care placement was a protective factor for illicit substance use (OR=0.43, p<0.05). Delinquency was a risk factor associated with both social substance use (OR=1.06, p<0.01) and hard substance use (OR=1.10, p<0.001). Given the high prevalence of substance use among child welfare involved youth, prevention efforts for this population require a better understanding of biological, psychological, and social protective factors. The child welfare system is an untapped resource that has the potential to be a gateway to and a platform for substance abuse prevention services that should be incorporated into child welfare safety and permanency interventions. PMID:22321315

Traube, Dorian E.; James, Sigrid; Zhang, Jinjin; Landsverk, John

2012-01-01

393

Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth). A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed physical activity level, sex and pubertal stage were independently associated with cardiovascular risk score. Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage. PMID:20525239

2010-01-01

394

The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N=102; range=7–16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11% of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger’s disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993

Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2013-01-01

395

Parental Social Support and the Physical Activity-Related Behaviors of Youth: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity—related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity—related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms—tangible and intangible. Tangible social support is divided into two categories: instrumental—purchasing equipment\\/payment of

Michael W. Beets; Bradley J. Cardinal; Brandon L. Alderman

2010-01-01

396

Working, Sex Partner Age Differences, and Sexual Behavior among African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in the workplace has been proposed as a potential structural-level HIV\\/STI prevention strategy for youth. Only\\u000a a few cross-sectional studies have explored the effect of work during adolescence and young adulthood on sexual behavior and\\u000a their results have been mixed. This study builds on this literature by exploring whether work influences youths’ sexual behavior\\u000a in a cohort of African

José A. Bauermeister; Marc Zimmerman; Yange Xue; Gilbert C. Gee; Cleopatra H. Caldwell

2009-01-01

397

Psychosocial correlates of substance use behaviors among African American youth.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional data were collected on substance use behaviors and potential correlates in 1,494 African American students enrolled in grades 5-12 in eight schools in a central Alabama school district. Using a risk and asset framework, self-reported recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use were analyzed by identifying and measuring levels of influence, including individual, family, and school. For alcohol and marijuana use, recurrent risk factors were age, being hit by a parent, affiliation with gangs, and a tolerant attitude of peers toward drug use. For cigarette use, risk factors were peer-oriented: associations with gangs or cohorts holding lenient attitudes about substance use. For all substances, salient asset factors were academic achievement and parental monitoring. Findings suggest that efforts to reduce substance use behaviors should be directed at adolescents in terms of academic achievement and grade level as well as their social environments. For the latter, peer/family risks and family/school assets should be the foci for programs to minimize the short- and long-term consequences of these behaviors. Hence, the emphasis should be placed on modeling attitudes, preventing gang and family violence, encouraging parental supervision, and building positive teacher-student interactions. PMID:15727405

Wright, Darlene R; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M

2004-01-01

398

Effect of an Injury Awareness Education Program on Risk-Taking Behaviors and Injuries in Juvenile Justice Offenders: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRisk-taking behavior is a leading cause of injury and death amongst young people.Methodology and Principal FindingsThis was a retrospective cohort study on the effectiveness of a 1-day youth injury awareness education program (Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth, P.A.R.T.Y.) program in reducing risk taking behaviors and injuries of juvenille justice offenders in Western Australia. Of the 3659 juvenile justice

Kwok M. Ho; Edward Litton; Elizabeth Geelhoed; Monica Gope; Maxine Burrell; Jacqueline Coribel; Angela McDowall; Sudhakar Rao

2012-01-01

399

Fructose Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study  

PubMed Central

Aims High consumption of dietary fructose has been shown to contribute to dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure in adults, but there are few data in youth, particularly those at greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine the association between fructose intake and CVD risk factors in a diverse population of youth with type 1diabetes (T1D). Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, including 2085 youth ages 10–22 years with T1D, of which 22% were racial/ethnic minority and 50% were female. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake. Results Median daily fructose consumption was 7.9% of total calories. Fructose intake was positively associated with triglycerides (p<.01), but not with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or blood pressure after adjustment for physical activity and socio-demographic, clinical, and dietary covariates. An increase in fructose intake of 22 grams (equivalent to a 12 oz. can of soda) was associated with a 23% higher odds of borderline/ high versus low triglycerides (p<.005). Conclusion These data suggest that children with T1D should moderate their intake of fructose, particularly those with borderline or high triglycerides. PMID:23540682

Couch, Sarah C.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Shah, Amy S.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Merchant, Anwar T.; Liese, Angela D.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Pihoker, Catherine; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

2013-01-01

400

Framing the Future for Children and Youth in the Risk Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter sets out to explore the six significant findings of this study by relating the interview content to the sociological risk literature. It examines thinking behind loss zones and gain zones and then moves on to look at individual versus collective risk and perceptions of risk. A child and youth care understanding is noted within the…

Child & Youth Services, 2007

2007-01-01

401

Association Between Life Satisfaction and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between perceived life satisfaction and sexual risk-taking behaviors were examined in a statewide sample of public high school students (n = 4,758) using the self-report CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Adjusted polychotomous logistic regression analyses and multivariate models (via SUDAAN) constructed separately, revealed a significant race by gender interaction for each race-gender group. Age of first intercourse (=13),

Robert F. Valois; Keith J. Zullig; E. Scott Huebner; Sandra K. Kammermann; J. Wanzer Drane

2002-01-01

402

Parental underestimates of adolescent risk behavior: a randomized, controlled trial of a parental monitoring intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To develop and evaluate an intervention (ImPACT) seeking to increase monitoring (supervision and communication) by parents and guardians of African-American youth regarding high risk and protective behaviors; and to develop an instrument to assess parental monitoring, the Parent–Adolescent Risk Behavior Concordance Scale.Design\\/Intervention: This research was a randomized, controlled longitudinal study. Baseline (preintervention), and 2 and 6 months postintervention data

Bonita F Stanton; Xiaoming Li; Jennifer Galbraith; George Cornick; Susan Feigelman; Linda Kaljee; Yong Zhou

2000-01-01

403

Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017

Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.

2012-01-01

404

Controlling Behaviors in Middle School Youth's Dating Relationships: Reactions and Help-Seeking Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examined middle school students' (N = 380) help-seeking behaviors and other reactions to controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Over three-fourths of the participants perpetrated and were victimized by controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Youth used emotional/verbal and dominance/isolation…

Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly M.; Chigbu, Kingsley U.

2014-01-01

405

Sexting and Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (?2[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (?2[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678

Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.

2014-01-01

406

Storytelling Narratives: Social Bonding as Key for Youth at Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research used a structured storytelling narrative methodology to capture the lived experience of youth participants to identify effective factors that helped them in three programs in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California. Thirty-nine youth aged 8-17 participated in two storytelling protocols at their home sites; one was a written…

Nelson, Annabelle; McClintock, Charles; Perez-Ferguson, Anita; Shawver, Mary Nash; Thompson, Greg

2008-01-01

407

Youth injury risk behaviour and safety in Macedonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth in Macedonia face a number of health problems among which violence and injuries are dominant. The main objective of the paper is to determine the magnitude and characteristics of violence and injuries among youth at national and community level. Data from global student health survey 2007 (GSHS) conducted in Macedonia (sample of 2114 students at age 13–15) and from

F Tozija; G Dragan; B Kasapinov; D Gudeva Nikovska

2010-01-01

408

Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

McGee, Zina T.

1999-01-01

409

Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth  

PubMed Central

American Indian (AI) adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools in a sample of 24 AI adolescents. Participants experienced significant decreases in anxiety and PTSD symptoms, and avoidant coping strategies, as well as a marginally significant decrease in depression symptoms. Improvements in anxiety and depression were maintained 6 months post-intervention; improvements in PTSD and avoidant coping strategies were not. Feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability of CBITS are discussed in the context of efforts to develop culturally sensitive interventions for AI youth. PMID:21058132

Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Milford, Jaime

2011-01-01

410

Risk indicators of suicide ideation among on-reserve First Nations youth  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Despite the known disparity in suicide rates in Canada, there is limited information on the independent risk indicators of suicide ideation among First Nations youth living on reserve. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and adjusted risk indicators for suicide ideation among on-reserve First Nations youth. METHODS: Saskatoon Tribal Council (Saskatchewan) First Nations students enrolled in grades 5 through 8 who were living on reserve were asked to complete a health survey using validated questionnaires. In total, 75.3% of the students completed the survey. The study was led by the Saskatoon Tribal Council with assistance from three departments at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan). RESULTS: Among on-reserve First Nations youth, 23% experienced suicide ideation within the past 12 months. In comparison, 8.5% of Saskatoon urban youth and 19% of Saskatoon urban Aboriginal youth within the same grades experienced suicide ideation. Wanting to leave home (OR 13.91 [95% CI 3.05 to 63.42]), having depressed mood (OR 2.98 [95% CI 1.16 to 7.67]) and not feeling loved (OR 3.85 [95% CI 1.49 to 9.93]) were independently associated with suicide ideation among on-reserve youth. None of the children with a father who was professionally employed reported suicide ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the independent risk indicators associated with suicide ideation among First Nations youth living on reserve will hopefully aid in appropriate interventions. PMID:24381486

Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John; Grant, Eisha

2013-01-01

411

Sexual Behavior Associated with Low Verbal IQ in Youth Who Have Severe Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A retrospective chart review was used to examine sexual behaviors and cognitive impairment in 200 youth (ages 5-18) with serious mental illness. Lower IQ was associated with increased sexual acting-out. For more serious victimizing sexual behaviors, only verbal IQ differences were statistically significant. Overall, sexual behavior disorders were…

McCurry, Christopher; McClellan, Jon; Adams, Julie; Norrei, Marilyn; Storck, Michael; Eisner, Andrea; Breiger, David

1998-01-01

412

Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth. Sixth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed as an introductory text on special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. Part 1 addresses the problems in the definition of emotional and behavioral disorders, the prevalence of the disorders, the growth of the field of emotional and behavior disorders, and major current trends. Part 2…

Kauffman, James M.

413

Conduct disorder and HIV risk behaviors among runaway and homeless adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to assess the prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) among runaway and homeless adolescents and to investigate associations between CD and HIV risk behaviors. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and a standardized HIV risk assessment questionnaire were administered to 219 runaway and homeless adolescents recruited from a drop-in center serving high-risk youth. One-half of the males

Robert E. Booth; Yiming Zhang

1997-01-01

414

Risk-Taking Behavior among Adolescents with Prenatal Drug Exposure and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity  

PubMed Central

Objective High-risk environments characterized by familial substance use, poverty, inadequate parental monitoring, and violence exposure are associated with an increased propensity for adolescents to engage in risk-taking behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency). However, additional factors such as drug exposure in utero and deficits in inhibitory control among drug-exposed youth may further influence the likelihood that adolescents in high-risk environments will engage in risk-taking behavior. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure, inhibitory control, and sociodemographic/environmental risk factors on risk-taking behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Method Risk-taking behavior (delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity) was assessed in 963 adolescents (433 cocaine-exposed, 530 nonexposed) at 15 years of age. Results PCE predicted later arrests and early onset of sexual behavior in controlled analyses. Associations were partially mediated, however, by adolescent inhibitory control problems. PCE was not associated with substance use at this age. In addition, male gender, low parental involvement, and violence exposure were associated with greater odds of engaging in risk-taking behavior across the observed domains. Conclusions Study findings substantiate concern regarding the association between prenatal substance exposure and related risk factors and the long-term outcomes of exposed youth. Access to the appropriate social, educational, and medical services are essential in preventing and intervening with risk-taking behaviors and the potential consequences (e.g., adverse health outcomes, incarceration), especially among high-risk adolescent youth and their families. PMID:24220515

Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Lester, Barry M.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

2014-01-01

415

Identifying Patterns of Early Risk for Mental Health and Academic Problems in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

This investigation examined profiles of individual, academic, and social risks in elementary school, and their association with mental health and academic difficulties in adolescence. Latent profile analyses of data from 574 urban youth revealed three risk classes. Children with the “well-adjusted” class had assets in the academic and social domains, low aggressive behavior, and low depressive symptoms in elementary school, and low rates of academic and mental health problems in adolescence. Children in the “behavior-academic-peer risk” class, characterized by high aggressive behavior, low academic achievement, and low peer acceptance, had conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use in adolescence. Children with the “academic-peer risk” class also had academic and peer problems but they were less aggressive and had higher depressive symptoms than the “behavior-academic-peer risk” class in the first grade; the “academic-peer risk” class had depression, conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use during adolescence. No differences were found between the risk classes with respect to adolescent outcomes. PMID:21538121

Valdez, Carmen R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

416

Major depressive disorder in a Kenyan youth sample: relationship with parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on mental health problems during childhood and youth development phases have reported that families of children diagnosed with a depressive disorder tend to be dysfunctional. These dysfunctions have been shown to be mediating factors for children to develop psychiatric disorders in the future. Objective This study was designed to investigate whether perceived parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders have any relationship with youth presenting with major depressive disorder. Methodology The study sample had a total number of 250 purposely selected youth attending the Youth Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. Results This study found associations between major depressive disorders (MDD) in the youth and co-morbid psychiatric disorders among the youth: conduct disorder (OR = 2.93, 95% CI 1.04 to 8.26, p = 0.035), any anxiety disorder (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.20 to 4.87, p = 0.012), drug abuse (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 2.01 to 5.76, p < 0.001), alcohol use (OR = 3.29, 95% CI 1.94 to 5.57, p < 0.001), and suicidal behavior (OR = 5.27, 95% CI 2.39 to 11.66, p < 0.001). The results also indicate that a higher proportion of youth between 16 and 18 years had major depressive disorder than the youth below 16 years or above 18 years of age (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.40 to 5.05, p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis shows that both rejecting maternal behavior (AOR = 2.165, 95% CI 1.060 to 4.422, p = 0.003) and maternal MDD (AOR = 5.27, 95% CI 1.10 to 14.76, p < 0.001) are associated with MDD in youth. Conclusion Negative maternal parenting behavior and maternal depressive disorder are associated with major depressive disorder in children. PMID:23663452

2013-01-01

417

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Health: Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... of bisexual students. 2 The stresses experienced by LGBT youth also put them at greater risk for depression, substance use, and sexual behaviors that place them at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 1,2, ...

418

The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Findings on Designing and Implementing Effective Prevention Programs for Youth at High Risk. Monograph Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. It provides concrete guidance regarding what elements of design and implementation are…

Hermann, Jack; Sambrano, Soledad; Springer, J. Fred; Nister, Mary; Sale, Elizabeth; Brounstein, Paul J.; Cordray, David; Shadish, Will; Kasim, Rafa; Pan, Wei

419

"Strengthifying" Data on Assets versus Risks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most discussions of youth behavior focus on the small group engaged in high-risk activities, ignoring the majority of youth who are developing in prosocial ways. This article provides a rationale for reversing this self-fulfilling prophecy which creates the impression that problem behavior is the norm. It describes the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

Kerosky, Michael; Zlatkovski, Ariel

2012-01-01

420

Community Risk and Resiliency Factors Related to Drug Use of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

This exploratory, qualitative study examined the community-based risk and resiliency factors related to drug use of rural Native Hawaiian youth. Forty-seven youth from five middle schools participated in focus groups that examined the ecological context of drug use for rural Hawaiian youth. Findings indicated that youth in the study were part of large extended networks of families, and that these networks became a defining characteristic of the rural communities in the study. These familial networks functioned as sources of risk and protection related to drug use for youth participants. Implications for community based practice are discussed. PMID:19459123

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Po‘a-Kekuawela, Ka‘ohinani; Chin, Coralee I. H.; Nebre, La Risa H.

2009-01-01

421

Thinking about the Future as a Way to Succeed in the Present: A Longitudinal Study of Future Orientation and Violent Behaviors among African American Youth  

PubMed Central

Previous research has linked higher levels of hopelessness about one's future to violent behavior during adolescence; however, little is known about this relationship over time for adolescents. Using growth curve modeling, we tested the association between future orientation and violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of African American youth (n = 681). Variation based on demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, SES, previous violence) was explored. At baseline, differences in violent behavior varied by demographic characteristics. Overall, violent behavior decreased with age. Higher levels of future orientation were associated with greater decreases in violent behavior over time. Demographic characteristics were not associated with change in violent behavior overtime. Our findings suggest that future orientation can act as a promotive factor for at risk African American youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in violence prevention efforts. PMID:21104432

Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, José A.

2011-01-01

422

Nurturing Hidden Resilience in At-Risk Youth in Different Cultures  

PubMed Central

Introduction While there has been growing interest in the concept of resilience, there has been little attention paid to the cultural and contextual factors that influence children’s healthy growth and development under adversity. Using findings from the International Resilience Project, a study of over 1500 youth in 11 countries on five continents, it has been possible to show that there are both generic and culturally specific aspects to resilience. Method Fourteen communities were invited to participate based on the variability in the risks children face in each setting. A minimum of 60 youth in each community were administered the Child and Youth Resilience Measure. Qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of youth. Results Both homogeneity and heterogeneity in the overall sample was demonstrated, with exploratory factor analyses suggesting at least four subgroups of youth distinguished by their status as Western or non-Western, boys or girls, and the degree of social cohesion of their communities. Qualitative data explains these differences as related to seven tensions experienced by youth developmentally. Conclusion This work highlights the need for greater cultural and contextual sensitivity in how resilience is understood. Implications for practice with at-risk youth include the need to understand the contextual specificity of positive development under stress. PMID:18392194

Ungar, Michael

2006-01-01

423

Amygdala hyperactivation during face emotion processing in unaffected youth at risk for bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparisons (HC), both BD subjects and youth at-risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD relative) will demonstrate amygdala hyperactivation when viewing fearful and happy faces. The at-risk youth were unaffected, in that they had no history of mood disorder. Methods Amygdala activity was examined in 101 unrelated participants, 8-18 years old. Age, gender, and IQ-matched groups included BD (N=32), unaffected at-risk (N=13), and HC (N=56). During fMRI scanning, participants attended to emotional and non-emotional aspects of fearful and happy faces. Results While rating their fear of fearful faces, both BD and unaffected at-risk subjects exhibited amygdala hyperactivity vs. HC. There were no between-group differences in amygdala activity in response to happy faces. Post-hoc comparisons revealed that, in at-risk youth, familial risk status (offspring vs. sibling), presence of Axis I diagnosis (N=1 ADHD, 1 social phobia), and history of medication exposure (N=1) did not influence imaging findings. Conclusions We found amygdala hyperactivation in both unaffected at-risk and BD youth while rating their fear of fearful faces. These pilot data suggest that both face emotion labeling deficits and amygdala hyperactivity during face processing should receive further study as potential BD endophenotypes. Longitudinal studies should test whether amygdala hyperactivity to fearful faces predicts conversion to BD in at-risk youth. PMID:22365465

Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

2012-01-01

424

Developmental Trajectory of Sexual Risk Behaviors from Adolescence to Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23 and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high…

Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

2012-01-01

425

Barrios and Burbs: Residential Context and Health-Risk Behaviors among Angeleno Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing size of the Latino immigrant population in the United States underscores the need for a more complete understanding of the role that social context plays in influencing the health of immigrants and their children. This analysis explores the possibility that residential location influences the health-risk behaviors of Latino youth in…

Frank, Reanne; Cerda, Magdalena; Rendon, Maria

2007-01-01

426

Clustering of Internet Risk Behaviors in a Middle School Student Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Internet safety is a growing public concern especially among adults and youth who live in an "instant messaging" world of technological communication. To better understand how early adolescents are using the Internet, a study was undertaken to more clearly identify the online general use, safety knowledge, and risk behaviors of middle…

Dowell, Elizabeth B.; Burgess, Ann W.; Cavanaugh, Deborah J.

2009-01-01

427

The Associations between Parents' References to Their Own Past Substance Use and Youth's Substance-Use Beliefs and Behaviors: A Comparison of Latino and European American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using primary socialization theory and theory of planned behavior, this study examined how targeted parent-child communication against substance use and parents' references to the negative consequences of their own past substance use (from the youth's perspective) directly and indirectly relate to Latino and European American youth's external…

Kam, Jennifer A.; Middleton, Ashley V.

2013-01-01

428

Effect of Televised, Tobacco Company-Funded Smoking Prevention Advertising on Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertis- ing to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Methods. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets, and to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth- targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n=103172) gathered from

Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath; Sherry Emery; Henry Saffer; Frank J. Chaloupka; Glen Szczypka; Brian Flay; Patrick M. O'Malley; Lloyd D. Johnston

2006-01-01

429

Storytelling Narratives: Social Bonding as Key for Youth at Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research used a structured storytelling narrative methodology to capture the lived experience of youth participants to\\u000a identify effective factors that helped them in three programs in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California. Thirty-nine\\u000a youth aged 8–17 participated in two storytelling protocols at their home sites; one was a written narrative of a vivid experience\\u000a in the project, and the

Annabelle Nelson; Charles McClintock; Anita Perez-Ferguson; Mary Nash Shawver; Greg Thompson

2008-01-01

430

The Potential for PTSD, Substance Use, and HIV Risk Behavior among Adolescents Exposed to Hurricane Katrina  

PubMed Central

Adverse psychosocial outcomes can be anticipated among youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of this natural disaster and may suffer lasting consequences in the form of psychological morbidity and the development of negative health behaviors due to their exposure. We review existing literature on the effects of exposure to natural disasters and similar traumas on youth and, where data on youth are unavailable, on adults. The effect of natural disasters is discussed in terms of risk for three negative health outcomes that are of particular concern due to their potential to cause long-term morbidity: post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorder, and HIV-risk behavior. Where available, data from studies of the effects of Hurricane Katrina are included. PMID:19895305

WAGNER, KARLA D.; BRIEF, DEBORAH J.; VIELHAUER, MELANIE J.; SUSSMAN, STEVE; KEANE, TERENCE M.; MALOW, ROBERT

2014-01-01

431

Youth Substance Use and Body Composition: Does Risk in One Area Predict Risk in the Other?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study…

Pasch, Keryn E.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2012-01-01

432

Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence  

PubMed Central

The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

2013-01-01

433

Children and Youth At Risk. Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., February 5-7, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development approved a 3-year international project to identify programs that have been effective in helping children at risk of educational failure. A conference held to launch the project identified program strategies for serving at-risk youth, determined ways for member countries to improve…

Sociometrics, Inc., Hyattsville, MD.

434

Youth Perspectives on Risk and Resiliency: A Case Study from Juiz De Fora, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work seeks to contribute to studies of cross-cultural risk and resiliency by presenting results from qualitative research with adolescents attending programs for at-risk youth in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. In 1990, Brazil introduced the Child and Adolescent Act (ECA), a significant piece of legislation that has had a direct impact on how…

Morrison, Penelope; Nikolajski, Cara; Borrero, Sonya; Zickmund, Susan

2014-01-01

435

Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of…

Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

2014-01-01

436

Working with Youth in High-Risk Environments: Experiences in Prevention. OSAP Prevention Monograph-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on prevention programs developed with support from the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention's (OSAP) High-Risk Youth Demonstration Grant Program. Included are an Introduction (Eric Goplerud and others) and the following reports: (1) "Athletes Coaching Teens for Substance Abuse Prevention: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Risk

Marcus, Carol E., Ed.; Swisher, John D., Ed.

437

Risk and Protective Factors Influencing Life Skills among Youths in Long-Term Foster Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined through mail surveys of youth, parents, and social workers the predictive value of selected risk and protective factors in explaining self-sufficiency skills of 219 ethnically diverse 12- to 15-year-olds in foster care. Found that protective factors related to greater self-sufficiency skills, and risk factors were negatively associated.…

Nollan, K. A.; Pecora, P. J.; Nurius, P. N.; Whittaker, J. K.

2002-01-01

438

Resiliency in Action: Practical Ideas for Overcoming Risks and Building Strengths in Youth, Families, & Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contained in this publication are re-prints of articles which deal with guiding youth and families from risk to resiliency that appeared in the journal, Resiliency in Action. This compilation shares the results of scientific studies showing how people overcome risk, trauma, and adversity. The articles exemplify how the field of psychology is…

Henderson, Nan, Ed.; Benard, Bonnie, Ed.; Sharp-Light, Nancy, Ed.

439

Linkages Between Internet and Other Media Violence With Seriously Violent Behavior by Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.The goal was to examine the association between violence in the media and the expression of seriously violent behavior among older children and teenagers in a national sample. METHODS.The Growing up with Media survey was a national, online survey of 1588 youths that was conducted in August and September 2006. Participants were 10- to 15-year-old youths who had used the

Michele L. Ybarra; Marie Diener-West; Dana Markow; Philip J. Leaf; Merle Hamburger; Paul Boxer

2010-01-01

440

Protective School Climates and Reduced Risk for Suicide Ideation in Sexual Minority Youths  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether sexual minority students living in states and cities with more protective school climates were at lower risk of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts. Methods. Data on sexual orientation and past-year suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts were from the pooled 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Surveys from 8 states and cities. We derived data on school climates that protected sexual minority students (e.g., percentage of schools with safe spaces and Gay–Straight Alliances) from the 2010 School Health Profile Survey, compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students living in states and cities with more protective school climates reported fewer past-year suicidal thoughts than those living in states and cities with less protective climates (lesbians and gays: odds ratio [OR]?=?0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.47, 0.99; bisexuals: OR?=?0.81; 95% CI?=?0.66, 0.99). Results were robust to adjustment for potential state-level confounders. Sexual orientation disparities in suicidal thoughts were nearly eliminated in states and cities with the most protective school climates. Conclusions. School climates that protect sexual minority students may reduce their risk of suicidal thoughts. PMID:24328634

Birkett, Michelle; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Meyer, Ilan H.

2014-01-01

441

Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement  

MedlinePLUS

... 2009 † Health-Risk Behaviors Percentage of U.S. high school students who engaged in each risk behavior, by type of grades mostly earned A’s B’s C’s D’s/F’s Unintentional Injury and Violence-Related Behaviors Rarely or never wore a seat ...

442

Did youth smoking behaviors change before and after the shutdown of Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: No previous studies document the effects of both comprehensive tobacco control and its defunding on youth smoking. This study tests the effect of the youth-focused Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative (MYTPI) and its shutdown on youth smoking and determines whether these effects differed by age. Methods: The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort is a population-based, observational study designed to evaluate the MYTPI. The sample included cohorts of youth aged 12–16 years at baseline in Minnesota (N?=?3,636) and a comparison group in six other Midwestern states (n?=?605). Biannual surveys assessed youth smoking from October 2000, 5 months after the MYTPI launch, through October 2005, 2 years postshutdown. Adjusted piecewise linear trajectories predicted smoking stage (measured on a 1–6 continuum) comparing Minnesota with a comparison group during the MYTPI (Slope 1) and postshutdown (Slope 2) for each baseline age cohort. Analysis then compared baseline age cohorts with each other by centering their intercepts on age 16. Results: Neither slope of smoking stage differed between Minnesota and comparison groups, showing no period effects for the MYTPI or shutdown. However, younger cohorts, with early teen experience of MYTPI, smoked less than older cohorts by the same age. Mean smoking stage at age 16 differed by almost a half stage from the youngest (2.04) to the oldest (2.46) age cohort. Discussion: The study offers no evidence of period effects for the MYTPI or its shutdown. Design limitations, national or continued post-MYTPI statewide tobacco control efforts, or program flaws could explain the findings. PMID:19633274

Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.

2009-01-01

443

Personality Factors Underlying Suicidal Behavior Among Military Youth  

PubMed Central

Background: Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors. Objectives: One of the underlying factors in suicidal behavior is individuals' personality. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised of the Iranian Armed Forces. To recruit the sample of the research, 1659 soldiers were selected by multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Results: There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323) between neuroticism and suicide ideation; however, significant negative correlations existed between three other personality traits --extraversion [r = -0.306], agreeableness [r = -0.227], and conscientiousness [r = -0.271] and suicidal ideation. Unlike neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness personality factors could reduce significantly (as much 14% as are predicted) levels of suicidal ideation. Conclusions: Based on these results, neuroticism might increase suicide, but extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits are associated with a reduced risk of suicide. PMID:24910793

Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

2014-01-01

444

Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth With Learning Disabilities and ADHD.  

PubMed

Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic status, we investigated the likelihood that youth with learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are obese, physically active, and sedentary using a nationally representative sample of 45,897 youth in the United States from 10 to 17 years of age. Results indicated that youth with comorbid LD/ADHD were significantly more likely than peers without LD or ADHD to be obese; that youth with LD only, ADHD only, and comorbid LD/ADHD were significantly less likely to meet recommended levels of physical activity; and that youth with LD only were significantly more likely to exceed recommended levels of sedentary behavior. Medication status mediated outcomes for youth with ADHD. We offer school-based recommendations for improving health-related outcomes for students with LD and ADHD. PMID:24449262

Cook, Bryan G; Li, Dongmei; Heinrich, Katie M

2014-01-21

445

Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

2012-01-01

446

Religion's Role in Promoting Health and Reducing Risk Among American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although past research has long documented religion's salutary impact on adult health-related behaviors and outcomes, relatively little research has examined the relationship between religion and adolescent health. This study uses large, nationally representative samples of high school seniors to examine the relationship between religion and behavioral predictors of adolescent morbidity and mortality. Relative to their peers, religious youth are less

John M. Wallace; Tyrone A. Forman

1998-01-01

447

The Impact of Future Expectations on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior  

PubMed Central

Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8 % female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period. PMID:24357042

Sipsma, Heather L.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S.

2014-01-01

448

The impact of future expectations on adolescent sexual risk behavior.  

PubMed

Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8% female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period. PMID:24357042

Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S

2015-01-01

449

Youth alcohol use and risky sexual behavior: evidence from underage drunk driving laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research calls into question previous methods for estimating the relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior among youths [Rashad, I., Kaestner, R., 2004. Teenage sex, drugs and alcohol use: problems identifying the cause of risky behaviors. Journal of Health Economics 23, 493–503]. This paper provides new evidence on this question by using reductions in heavy alcohol use among

Christopher Carpenter

2005-01-01

450

Training and generalization of affective behavior displayed by youth with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to teach contextually appropriate affective behavior to 4 youths with autism. Treatment consisted of modeling, prompting, and reinforcement introduced in a multiple baseline design across response categories of affective behavior. During treatment, verbal praise and tokens were delivered contingent on appropriate affective responding during training trials. Modeling and verbal prompting were used as correction

ANGELIKI GENA; PATRICIA J. KRANTZ; LYNN E. MCCLANNAHAN; CLAIRE L. POULSON

1996-01-01

451

The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…

Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.

2007-01-01

452

Safety-Seeking and Coping Behavior during Exposure Tasks with Anxious Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined child behavior during exposure tasks and characteristics of the exposure tasks as related to outcomes when treating anxious youth. Participants (aged 7-13) were 87 anxiety-disordered children (37 girls; 50 boys) and their parents (84 mothers; 70 fathers) who completed a 16-session cognitive-behavioral therapy. Videotapes of…

Hedtke, Kristina A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Tiwari, Shilpee

2009-01-01

453

At Risk Youth: A Transitory State? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Briefing Paper 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By definition, youth transitions involve young people moving between school, post-school study and employment. It is a time of flux, as young people try out different school, post-school work and study options. But are those who don't find work immediately likely to make a poor transition? Given that many may well have a spell out of the labour…

Anlezark, Alison

2011-01-01

454

Longitudinal Impact of the Project PATHS on Adolescent Risk Behavior: What Happened after Five Years?  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the longitudinal impact of the Project PATHS, a large-scale curriculum-based positive youth development program in Hong Kong, on the development of adolescents' risk behavior over a period of five years. Using a longitudinal randomized controlled design, eight waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools in which students participated in the Project PATHS (N = 2,850 at Wave 8) and 24 control schools without joining the Project PATHS (N = 3,640 at Wave 8). At each wave, students responded to measures assessing their current risk behaviors, including delinquency, use of different types of drug, and their intentions of participating in risk behaviors in the future. Results demonstrated that adolescents receiving the program exhibited significantly slower increases in delinquent behaviors and substance use as compared to the control participants. During two years after the completion of the program, differences in youth risk behaviors in the two groups still existed. These results suggest that the Project PATHS has long-term effect in preventing adolescent problem behavior through promoting positive youth development. PMID:22649287

Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

2012-01-01

455

Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors for Recidivism in Spanish Youth Offenders.  

PubMed

Although a large body of research has studied the factors associated to general recidivism, predictive validity of these factors has received less attention. Andrews and Bonta's General Personality and Social-Psychological Model attempts to provide an in-depth explanation of risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory was administered to 210 adolescents aged between 14 and 18 with a criminal record to analyse risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. Their possible differential contribution over a 2-year follow-up period was also examined. Risk factors showed good levels of recidivism prediction. The factors that emerged as the most discriminative were education/employment, leisure/recreation, and personality. Protective factors differentiated between recidivists and non-recidivists in all factors. Hence, results showed that not only individual but also social factors would be crucial in predicting recidivism. PMID:25406141

Cuervo, Keren; Villanueva, Lidón

2014-11-17

456

Relationship between number of sexual intercourse partners and selected health risk behaviors among public high school adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the relationship between number of sexual partners and selected health risk behaviors in a statewide sample of public high school students.Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used to secure usable sexual risk-taking, substance use, and violence\\/aggression data from 3805 respondents. Because simple polychotomous logistic regression analysis revealed a significant Race

Robert F Valois; John E Oeltmann; Jennifer Waller; James R Hussey

1999-01-01

457

Disentangling psychobiological mechanisms underlying internalizing and externalizing behaviors in youth: Longitudinal and concurrent associations with cortisol  

PubMed Central

Research examining cortisol dysregulation is seemingly contradictory with studies showing that both internalizing and externalizing behaviors are related to high and low cortisol. One extant theory to explain divergent findings in the stress literature is that both hypo- and hyper-arousal of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be present depending on time since onset of the stressor. This theory may extend to the onset of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data from 96 youth participating in a longitudinal project were used to examine this possibility. Composite measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors at both childhood and early adolescence were formed using mother and teacher reports. Multiple salivary cortisol samples were also collected over two consecutive days during early adolescence. Problematic behaviors were associated with cortisol and the direction of the association was dependent on amount of time passed since onset of the behaviors. When examined concurrently in adolescence, youth with more internalizing behaviors had higher morning cortisol; however, when examined longitudinally, youth with more internalizing behaviors in childhood had lower morning cortisol levels as adolescents. Youth with more externalizing behaviors in childhood had flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms as adolescents, and this finding persisted when examined in adolescence. Cortisol dysregulation was greatest in children with the most severe behavior problems. Findings support the theoretical model of blunting of the HPA axis over time. While the HPA axis may show hyper-arousal when youth first display behaviors, long-term exposure may lead to a hypo-arousal of the HPA axis which culminates in a dysregulated diurnal rhythm. PMID:21056565

Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Fisher, Dahlia Ben-Dat; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.

2011-01-01

458

Youth participation in disaster risk reduction through science clubs in the Philippines.  

PubMed

With the UN-led celebration of the International Year of Youth from August 2010 to August 2011 there has been a renewed interest in young people and the vital role they can play in important issues, such as disaster risk reduction (DRR). This study aims to examine the potential of science clubs as a vehicle for youth participation in DRR in the Philippines. A questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 658 science club members from different provinces of the Philippines participated in the survey. The result of the survey is used to explain how the major barriers to youth participation in DRR can be overcome. Through science clubs, the youth can become a link between their school, home and community and can contribute to spreading knowledge about disaster prevention, preparedness and response learned inside and outside the classroom. PMID:25440993

Fernandez, Glenn; Shaw, Rajib

2015-04-01

459

Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition  

PubMed Central

Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0% white, 23.9% African American, and 20.0% Hispanic) between the ages of 13 and 24 years (M = 20.1 years, SD = 2.5) who were randomly sampled from 41 shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles. Travelers were almost twice as likely as non-travelers to exhibit recent heavy drinking, 37% more likely to exhibit recent marijuana use, and five times as likely to have injected drugs. Travelers also had more recent sex partners and were more likely to report having casual or need-based sexual partners and combining sex with substance use. Mediation analyses suggest that travelers' deviant peer associations and disconnection to conventional individuals and institutions may drive their elevated substance use. Differences in sexual risk behaviors are likely attributable to demographic differences between the two groups. Overall, these differences between travelers and non-travelers suggest different service needs and the need for different service approaches. PMID:21400037

Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

2011-01-01

460

Predicting early positive change in multisystemic therapy with youth exhibiting antisocial behaviors.  

PubMed

This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n = 185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into midtreatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared with those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24866967

Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth

2015-03-01

461

Differential Educational Attainment among "At-Risk" Youth: A Case Study of Language Minority Youth of Mexican Descent and Low Socioeconomic Status. NCBR Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little has been done to analyze the forces that predict whether high-risk students will stay in school or drop out. Current and retrospective data from 27 high-risk youths were studied to shed light on this problem and to suggest ways of improving educational services. The at-risk students were from low socioeconomic backgrounds, were Mexican…

Hirano-Nakanishi, Marsha J.; Diaz, R. Leticia

462

Gender Differences in Monitoring and Deviant Peers as Predictors of Delinquent Behavior among Low-Income Urban African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Juvenile delinquency is an ongoing social problem particularly among low-income urban youth who are regularly exposed to numerous risk factors. Although much research has been conducted in this area, the most at-risk youth have been largely neglected. This study examines the role of peer deviance in mediating the influence of adult monitoring on…

O'Donnell, Philip; Richards, Maryse; Pearce, Steven; Romero, Edna

2012-01-01

463

Linking Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent Risk Behavior: The Intervening Role of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the…

Jones, Deborah J.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Patricia; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond

2013-01-01

464

Behavioral and emotional dysregulation trajectories marked by prefrontal-amygdala function in symptomatic youth  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroimaging measures of behavioral and emotional dysregulation can yield biomarkers denoting developmental trajectories of psychiatric pathology in youth. We aimed to identify functional abnormalities in emotion regulation (ER) neural circuitry associated with different behavioral and emotional dysregulation trajectories using Latent Class Growth Analyses (LCGA) and neuroimaging. Methods 61 youth (9-17 years) from The Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study, and 24 healthy control youth, completed an emotional face n-back ER task during scanning. LCGA was performed on 12 biannual reports completed over five years of the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10 Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M), a parental report of the child’s difficulty regulating positive mood and energy. Results There were 2 latent classes of PBGI-10M trajectories: high and decreasing (HighD; n=22) and low and decreasing (LowD; n=39) course of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over the 12 time points. Task performance was >89% in all youth, but more accurate in healthy controls and LowD versus HighD (p<.001). During ER, LowD had greater activity than HighD and healthy controls in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a key ER region, and greater functional connectivity than HighD between amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (ps<0.001, corrected). Conclusions Patterns of function in lateral prefrontal cortical-amygdala circuitry in youth denote the severity of the developmental trajectory of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over time, and may be biological targets to guide differential treatment and novel treatment development for different levels of behavioral and emotional dysregulation in youth. PMID:24468022

Bertocci, Michele A; Bebko, Genna; Olino, Thomas; Fournier, Jay; Hinze, Amanda K; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge RC; Perlman, Susan B; Versace, Amelia; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; White, Richard; Schirda, Claudiu; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Holland, Scott K; Kowatch, Robert A; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Youngstrom, Eric A; Findling, Robert L; Horwitz, Sarah M; Fristad, Mary A; Phillips, Mary L

2014-01-01

465

Educational Policy and Foster Youths: The Risks of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent child welfare legislation requires agencies to address the educational well-being of foster youths. Schools face new accountability standards through No Child Left Behind and the Obama "Blueprint for Reform" as they move toward the goal of ensuring that all children receive a quality education. Both of these pieces of legislation can work…

Gustavsson, Nora; MacEachron, Ann E.

2012-01-01

466

Strengths-Based Counseling with At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now more than ever, counselors, teachers, community youth workers, and parents are striving to prevent individual and school-wide tragedy before it happens. Critical to the success of their efforts is a deep respect for the adolescent experience. In this book, author and social worker Michael Ungar takes a fresh, hopeful approach to challenging…

Ungar, Michael

2006-01-01

467

Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity  

SciTech Connect

Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical significance. In summary, airborne exposure to manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with increased risk of adjudication. Causality cannot be proven in observational studies such as this one, but the association warrants further examination in other research studies. Comprehensive epidemiologic investigations of metal exposure in pediatric populations should include social health outcomes, including measures of delinquent or criminal activity. Furthermore, the influence of metals on the neurotoxic pathway leading to delinquent activity should be further explored. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate the relationship between air pollutants and adjudication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with risk of adjudication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further research of metal exposure should include social health outcomes.

Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)] [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

2011-11-15

468

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disordered Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Child and Family Modalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This randomized clinical trial compared the relative efficacy of individual (child) cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT), family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT), and a family-based education/support/attention (FESA) active control for treating anxiety disordered youth ages 7-14 years (M = 10.27). Youth (N = 161; 44% female; 85% Caucasian, 9%…

Kendall, Philip C.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Suveg, Cynthia

2008-01-01

469

HIV testing among youth in a high-risk city: prevalence, predictors, and gender differences.  

PubMed

While HIV is prevalent among adolescents and young adults, testing levels remain low and little is known about gender differences in HIV testing. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of past-year HIV testing and evaluate associations between HIV testing and individual- and partner-level factors by gender among heterosexually experienced youth (15-24 years) in Baltimore, Maryland (N = 352). Past-year HIV testing was prevalent (60.1%) and differed by gender (69.4% among women vs. 49.6% among men, p = 0.005). For women, African-American race (AOR 3.09) and recent older partner by ?2 years (AOR 4.04) were significantly associated with testing. Among men, only African-American race was associated with testing (OR 4.23), with no patterns identified based on risk behavior or perceived partner risk. HIV testing among adolescent and young adults was prevalent in this highly affected urban area. Findings emphasize the value of a gender lens, and provide direction for optimizing engagement in HIV testing. PMID:25495522

Decker, Michele R; Rodney, Ria; Chung, Shang-En; Jennings, Jacky M; Ellen, Jon M; Sherman, Susan G

2015-05-01

470

Youth Smoking Behavior Characteristics and Their Educational Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive monograph provides a thorough and critical analysis of previous research on youth smoking, the various influential factors, and anti-smoking education, outlining study and evaluation techniques and instruments, and attitude change methods available in this field. Using this informational base and a broad-scale survey of…

Creswell, William H., Jr.; And Others

471

Behavioral Strategies for Constructing Nonviolent Cultures with Youth: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth violence is widely recognized as a critical social issue in the United States, and many approaches to prevention have been developed in recent years. Emerging research suggests that only approaches that are deeply embedded in cultural, community, and organizational contexts a