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Sample records for yttrium 88 target

  1. Process for separation of zirconium-88, rubidium-83 and yttrium-88

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, passing the first ion-containing solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in the first ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, contacting the first resin with an acid solution capable of stripping adsorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin whereby the adsorbed ions are removed from the first resin to form a second ion-containing solution, evaporating the second ion-containing solution for time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the second ion-containing solution whereby a residue remains, dissolving the residue from the evaporated second-ion containing solution in a dilute acid to form a third ion-containing solution, said third ion-containing solution having an acid molarity adapted to permit said ions to be adsorbed by a cationic exchange resin, passing the third ion-containing solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are adsorbed by the second resin, contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the adsorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin, and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the adsorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. Zirconium, rubidium, and yttrium radioisotopes can also be recovered with additional steps.

  2. Nature of the bifunctional chelating agent used for radioimmunotherapy with yttrium-88 monoclonal antibodies: critical factors in determining in vivo survival and organ toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, R.W.; Raubitschek, A.; Mirzadeh, S.; Brechbiel, M.W.; Junghaus, R.; Gansow, O.A.; Waldmann, T.A. )

    1989-05-15

    One factor that is critical to the potential effectiveness of radioimmunotherapy is the design of radiometal-chelated antibodies that will be stable in vivo. Stability in vivo depends on the condition that both the chelate linkage and radiolabeling procedures not alter antibody specificity and biodistribution. In addition, synthesis and selection of the chelating agent is critical for each radiometal in order to prevent inappropriate release of the radiometal in vivo. In the present study, we compare the in vivo stability of seven radioimmunoconjugates that use different polyaminocarboxylate chelating agents to complex yttrium-88 to the mouse anti-human interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibody, anti-Tac. Chelate linkage and radiolabeling procedures did not alter the immunospecificity of anti-Tac. In order to assess whether yttrium was inappropriately released from the chelate-coupled antibody in vivo, iodine-131-labeled and yttrium-88 chelate-coupled antibodies were simultaneously administered to the same animals to correlate the decline in yttrium and radioiodinated antibody activity. The four stable yttrium-88 chelate-coupled antibodies studied displayed similar iodine-131 and yttrium-88 activity, indicating minimal elution of yttrium-88 from the complex. In contrast, the unstable yttrium-88 chelate-coupled antibodies had serum yttrium-88 activities that declined much more rapidly than their iodine-131 activities, suggesting loss of the radiolabel yttrium-88 from the chelate. Furthermore, high rates of yttrium-88 elution correlated with deposition in bone. Four chelating agents emerged as promising immunotherapeutic reagents: isothiocyanate benzyl DTPA and its derivatives 1B3M, MX, and 1M3B.

  3. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-i; Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Gabriela; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Guzman-Partida, Ana María; Guzman, Roberto; Garcia-Soto, Mariano; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2015-01-01

    The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-β (4-1) galactose) was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac) and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3) were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10–17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections. PMID:26389896

  4. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-I; Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Montfort, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Guzman-Partida, Ana Mara; Guzman, Roberto; Garcia-Soto, Mariano; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2015-01-01

    The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-? (4-1) galactose) was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac) and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3) were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10-17 m. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections. PMID:26389896

  5. Dendritic cell specific targeting of MyD88 signalling pathways in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arnold-Schrauf, Catharina; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. During infection, DCs recognise pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. TLRs mainly signal via the adaptor protein MyD88. This signalling pathway is required for immune protection during many infections, which are lethal in the absence of MyD88. However, the cell type specific importance of this pathway during both innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogens in vivo remains ill-defined. We discuss recent findings from conditional KO or gain-of-function mouse models targeting TLR/MyD88 signalling pathways in DCs and other myeloid cells during infection. While the general assumption that MyD88-dependent recognition by DCs is essential for inducing protective immunity holds true in some instances, the results surprisingly indicate a much more complex context-dependent requirement for this pathway in DCs and other myeloid or lymphoid cell-types in vivo. Furthermore, we highlight the advantages of Cre-mediated DC targeting approaches and their possible limitations. We also present future perspectives on the development of new genetic mouse models to target distinct DC subsets in vivo. Such models will serve to understand the functional heterogeneity of DCs in vivo. PMID:25403892

  6. Yttrium-90 radioembolization stops progression of targeted breast cancer liver metastases after failed chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Andrew C.; Gradishar, William J.; Kaklamani, Virginia G.; Thuluvath, Avesh J.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Gates, Vanessa L.; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this open-label, retrospective report was to determine the safety and effectiveness of locoregional therapy with yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization for patients with progressing breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) despite polychemotherapy. MATERIALS & METHODS Seventy-five patients with progressing BCLM and stable extrahepatic disease were treated with radioembolization at our institution. Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed to evaluate clinical and biochemical toxicities, tumor response, overall survival (OS), and time to progression (TTP). Radiologic response assessments included Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors in primary index lesions and metabolic activity on positron emission tomography. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS 30-day mortality was 4% (n=3). Grade 3+ clinical toxicity and hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 7.6% (n=5) and 5.9% (n=4), respectively. The rate of partial response was 35.3% (n=24), 63.2% (n=43) had stable disease, and progressive disease occurred in 1.5% (n=1). PET imaging was available in 25 patients and 21 (84%) had a complete or partial response or stable disease. The median OS was 6.6mo (95% CI, 5.0 to 9.2mo). The hazard ratio (HR) for OS was .39 (95% CI, .23 to .66) for tumor burden <25% compared to greater tumor burden in multivariate analysis. Elevated bilirubin reduced OS. The HR for hepatic progression was .22 (95% CI, .05 to .98) for solitary compared to multifocal disease. CONCLUSIONS Locoregional therapy with 90Y radioembolization is safe and stops or delays the progression of targeted chemorefractory breast cancer liver metastases. Adverse prognosticators are identified. PMID:25156827

  7. Targeting the TLR9-MyD88 pathway in the regulation of adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2010-01-01

    IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors critical in the innate immune defense against invading pathogens. Recent advances also reveal a crucial role for TLRs in shaping adaptive immune responses, conferring a potential therapeutic value to their modulation in the treatment of diseases. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW The aim of this review is to discuss TLR9, the TLR9-MyD88 signaling pathway and its role in regulation of adaptive immune responses, as well as potential therapeutic implications by targeting this pathway. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN This review shows that the TLR9-MyD88 signaling pathway plays a critical role in promoting adaptive immune responses and that modulation of this pathway may have enormous therapeutic potential in enhancing vaccine potency, controlling autoimmunity, as well as improving the outcome of viral vector-mediated gene therapy. TAKE HOME MESSAGE Although TLR9 agonists have been used as adjuvants for enhancing vaccine potency, further exploitation of the TLR9-MyD88 pathway and its dynamic interaction with the immune system in vivo is needed to provide more effective therapeutic inventions in the design of vaccines for infectious diseases, allergies and cancer, in the control of autoimmunity, as well as in the improvement of viral vector-mediated gene therapy. PMID:20560798

  8. Radioimmunotherapy with yttrium-90

    SciTech Connect

    Hupf, H.B.; Lollo, C.P.; Butler, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    Yttrium-90 (T1/2=64.1 h), a pure beta emitter at 2.2 MeV max is a top candidate for radioimmunotherapy. It is a daughter of Sr-90 (T1/2=28.6 y) readily available at a reasonable cost and provides 1.99 gm-rad/..mu..Ci-hr. When chelated to a tumor targeting antibody, the product is capable of delivering a lethal radiation dose to tumor cells. Yttrium-90 is preferentially separated from a 0.1 M HCl solution of Sr-90 by extraction into 1 M Di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid in dodecane. The Y-90 is back extracted into 6 M HCl, Kd = 7.E-3, and decontamination levels in excess of 1.E-5 are achievable with an overall chemical yield of 70%. Yttrium-90 chloride is incubated with a tumor targeting antibody previously conjugated with DTPA to form a stable labelled complex. Following IV injection into tumor bearing animals or patients, the Y-90 complex is concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues. Tumor doses in excess of 2000 rads have been delivered with a single IV injection in hepatoma therapy at Johns Hopkins. A therapy planning system based on In-111 labelled antibody imaging is under development, as are methods to improve tumor specificity.

  9. Targeted deletion of MyD88 in intestinal epithelial cells results in compromised antibacterial immunity associated with downregulation of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, mucin-2, and antibacterial peptides.

    PubMed

    Frantz, A L; Rogier, E W; Weber, C R; Shen, L; Cohen, D A; Fenton, L A; Bruno, M E C; Kaetzel, C S

    2012-09-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a physical and immunological barrier that separates the vast gut microbiota from host tissues. MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling is a key mediator of microbial-host cross-talk. We examined the role of epithelial MyD88 expression by generating mice with an IEC-targeted deletion of the Myd88 gene (MyD88(?IEC)). Loss of epithelial MyD88 signaling resulted in increased numbers of mucus-associated bacteria; translocation of bacteria, including the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae, to mesenteric lymph nodes; reduced transmucosal electrical resistance; impaired mucus-associated antimicrobial activity; and downregulated expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (the epithelial IgA transporter), mucin-2 (the major protein of intestinal mucus), and the antimicrobial peptides RegIII? and Defa-rs1. We further observed significant differences in the composition of the gut microbiota between MyD88(?IEC) mice and wild-type littermates. These physical, immunological, and microbial defects resulted in increased susceptibility of MyD88(?IEC) mice to experimental colitis. We conclude that MyD88 signaling in IECs is crucial for maintenance of gut homeostasis. PMID:22491177

  10. Rapid Fluorescent Detection of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 Based on Graphene Oxide-Dependent Nanoquencher and Klenow Fragment-Triggered Target Cyclic Amplification.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min; Peng, Zhihui; Cheng, Lijuan; Deng, Le

    2015-10-01

    Based on Klenow fragment (KF)-assisted target recycling amplification and graphene oxide (GO), a novel aptasensor, containing a capture probe (CP) and a signal probe (SP), was constructed and applied for the rapid detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88. The CP was constructed of regions I and II, where the region I is aptamer sequence of ETEC K88 and the region II can form a double-stranded DNA structure with the SP. The SP was labeled with carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and acted as the primer sequence of the polymerization reaction. Before the targets were added, the two probes formed a partial double-strand junction (PDSJ) on the surface of the GO and the fluorescence was completely quenched. In the presence of the targets, the fluorescence was recovered due to the formation of the target-aptamer complex and its separation from the surface of the GO. Following this, the target-aptamer complex initiated the polymerization of the DNA strand in the presence of deoxynucleotides (dNTPs) and the KF. The displaced target then combined into another PDSJ, and the cycle started anew, leading to the formation of numerous complementary double-stranded DNAs. Meanwhile, the fluorescence signal was significantly enhanced. The results indicated that the established sensor has higher sensitivity specificity to its target bacteria in a wide range of 1 10(2) to 1 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) mL(-1). The detection limit based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 is 1 10(2) CFU mL(-1). More important, this rapid detection method is superior to other methods, having not only a short detection time but also a low fluorescence background, and is cheaper and has a wider applicability because its probes are easily designed and synthesized. Given these factors, our detection system has great prospects as a potential alternative to conventional ETEC K88 detection. PMID:26449811

  11. Metals Fact Sheet: Yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    1992-09-01

    Yttrium is a metallic element usually included among the rare earth metals, which it resembles chemically and with which it usually occurs in minerals. Yttrium was named after the village of Ytterby in Sweden---the element was discovered in a quarry near the village. This article discusses sources of the element, the world market for the element, and various applications of the material.

  12. Theranostic Imaging of Yttrium-90.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chadwick L; Zhang, Jun; Tweedle, Michael F; Knopp, Michael V; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    This paper overviews Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) as a theranostic and nuclear medicine imaging of (90)Y radioactivity with bremsstrahlung imaging and positron emission tomography. In addition, detection and optical imaging of (90)Y radioactivity using Cerenkov luminescence will also be reviewed. Methods and approaches for qualitative and quantitative (90)Y imaging will be briefly discussed. Although challenges remain for (90)Y imaging, continued clinical demand for predictive imaging response assessment and target/nontarget dosimetry will drive research and technical innovation to provide greater clinical utility of (90)Y as a theranostic agent. PMID:26106608

  13. Theranostic Imaging of Yttrium-90

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Chadwick L.; Zhang, Jun; Tweedle, Michael F.; Knopp, Michael V.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper overviews Yttrium-90 (90Y) as a theranostic and nuclear medicine imaging of 90Y radioactivity with bremsstrahlung imaging and positron emission tomography. In addition, detection and optical imaging of 90Y radioactivity using Cerenkov luminescence will also be reviewed. Methods and approaches for qualitative and quantitative 90Y imaging will be briefly discussed. Although challenges remain for 90Y imaging, continued clinical demand for predictive imaging response assessment and target/nontarget dosimetry will drive research and technical innovation to provide greater clinical utility of 90Y as a theranostic agent. PMID:26106608

  14. The HIV Protease Inhibitor Saquinavir Inhibits HMGB1-Driven Inflammation by Targeting the Interaction of Cathepsin V with TLR4/MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Pribis, John P; Al-Abed, Yousef; Yang, Huan; Gero, Domokos; Xu, Hongbo; Montenegro, Marcelo F; Bauer, Eileen M; Kim, Sodam; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Cai, Changchun; Li, Tunliang; Szoleczky, Petra; Szabo, Csaba; Tracey, Kevin J; Billiar, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) (disulfide form), via activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signaling, is a strong driver of pathologic inflammation in both acute and chronic conditions. Identification of selective inhibitors of HMGB1-TLR4 signaling could offer novel therapies that selectively target proximal endogenous activators of inflammation. A cell-based screening strategy led us to identify first generation HIV-protease inhibitors (PI) as potential inhibitors of HMGB1-TLR4 driven cytokine production. Here we report that the first-generation HIV-PI saquinavir (SQV), as well as a newly identified mammalian protease inhibitor STO33438 (334), potently block disulfide HMGB1-induced TLR4 activation, as assayed by the production of TNF-α by human monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1). We further report on the identification of mammalian cathepsin V, a protease, as a novel target of these inhibitors. Cellular as well as recombinant protein studies show that the mechanism of action involves a direct interaction between cathepsin V with TLR4 and its adaptor protein MyD88. Treatment with SQV, 334 or the known cathepsin inhibitor SID26681509 (SID) significantly improved survival in murine models of sepsis and reduced liver damage following warm liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models, both characterized by strong HMGB1-TLR4 driven pathology. The current study demonstrates a novel role for cathepsin V in TLR4 signaling and implicates cathepsin V as a novel target for first-generation HIV-PI compounds. The identification of cathepsin V as a target to block HMGB1-TLR4-driven inflammation could allow for a rapid transition of the discovery from the bench to the bedside. Disulfide HMGB1 drives pathologic inflammation in many models by activating signaling through TLR4. Cell-based screening identified the mammalian protease cathepsin V as a novel therapeutic target to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation induced by extracellular HMGB1 (disulfide form). We identified two protease inhibitors (PIs) that block cathepsin V and thereby inhibit disulfide HMGB1-induced TLR4 activation: saquinavir (SQV), a first-generation PI targeting viral HIV protease and STO33438 (334), targeting mammalian proteases. We discovered that cathepsin V binds TLR4 under basal and HMGB1-stimulated conditions, but dissociates in the presence of SQV over time. Thus cathepsin V is a novel target for first-generation HIV PIs and represents a potential therapeutic target of pathologic inflammation. PMID:26349060

  15. Astatine and Yttrium Resonant Ionization Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teigelhoefer, Andrea

    Providing intense, contamination-free beams of rare isotopes to experiments is a challenging task. At isotope separator on-line facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF, the choice of production target and ion source are key to the successful beam delivery. Due to their element-selectivity, high efficiency and versatility, resonant ionization laser ion sources (RILIS) gain increasingly in importance. The spectroscopic data available are typically incomplete in the region of excited- and autoionizing atomic states. In order to find the most efficient ionization scheme for a particular element, further spectroscopy is often required. The development of efficient laser resonant ionization schemes for yttrium and astatine is presented in this thesis. For yttrium, two ionization schemes with comparable relative intensities were found. Since for astatine, only two transitions were known, the focus was to provide data on atomic energy levels using resonance ionization spectroscopy. Altogether 41 previously unknown astatine energy levels were found.

  16. 21 CFR 500.88 - Regulatory method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regulatory method. 500.88 Section 500.88 Food and... 500.88 Regulatory method. (a) The sponsor shall submit for evaluation and validation a regulatory... regulatory method must be able to confirm the identity of the marker residue in the target tissue at...

  17. 21 CFR 500.88 - Regulatory method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regulatory method. 500.88 Section 500.88 Food and... 500.88 Regulatory method. (a) The sponsor shall submit for evaluation and validation a regulatory... regulatory method must be able to confirm the identity of the marker residue in the target tissue at...

  18. 21 CFR 500.88 - Regulatory method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regulatory method. 500.88 Section 500.88 Food and... 500.88 Regulatory method. (a) The sponsor shall submit for evaluation and validation a regulatory... regulatory method must be able to confirm the identity of the marker residue in the target tissue at...

  19. Sublimation Crystal Growth of Yttrium Nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Li; Edgar, J H; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Bakalova-hadjikrasteva, Silvia; Kuball, M

    2010-01-01

    The sublimation recombination crystal growth of bulk yttrium nitride crystals is reported. The YN source material was prepared by reacting yttrium metal with nitrogen at 1200 C and 800 Torr total pressure. Crystals were produced by subliming this YN from the source zone, and recondensing it from the vapor as crystals at a lower temperature (by 50 C). Crystals were grown from 2000 to 2100 C and with a nitrogen pressure from 125 to 960 Torr. The highest rate was 9.64 10 5 mol/h (9.92 mg/h). The YN sublimation rate activation energy was 467.1 21.7 kJ/mol. Individual crystals up to 200 m in dimension were prepared. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the crystals were rock salt YN, with a lattice constant of 4.88 . The YN crystals were unstable in air; they spontaneously converted to yttria (Y2O3) in 2 4 h. A small fraction of cubic yttria was detected in the XRD of a sample exposed to air for a limited time, while non-cubic yttria was detected in the Raman spectra for a sample exposed to air for more than 1 h.

  20. Apoferritin-Templated Yttrium Phosphate Nanoparticle Conjugates for Radioimmunotherapy of Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zheming; Fisher, Darrell R.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-05-01

    We report a templated-synthetic approach based on apoferritin to prepare radionuclide nanoparticle (NP) conjugates. Non-radioactive yttrium (89Y) was used as model target and surrogate for radioyttrium (90Y) to prepare the nanoparticle conjugate. The center cavity and multiple channel structure of apoferritin offer a fast and facile method to precipitate yttrium phosphate by diffusing yttrium and phosphate ions into the cavity of apofrritin, resulting a core-shell nanocomposite. The yttrium phosphate/apoferritin nanoparticle was functionalized with biotin for further application. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that the resulting nanoparticles were uniform in size, with a diameter of around 8 nm. We tested the pre-targeting capability of the biotin-modified yttrium phosphate/apoferritin nanoparticle (yttrium phosphate/apoferritin nanoparticle) conjugate with streptavidin-modified magnetic beads and with aid of biotin-modified fluorecein isothiocyanate (FITC) tracer. This work shows that an yttrium phosphate NP conjugate provides a fast, simple and efficient method to prepare radioactive yttrium conjugate for applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer.

  1. Side Effects of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Ahsun; Awais, Rafia; Salem, Riad

    2014-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options are available for hepatic malignancies. Image guided targeted therapies have established their role in management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. Radioembolization with yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres is safe and efficacious for treatment of hepatic malignancies. The tumoricidal effect of radioembolization is predominantly due to radioactivity and not ischemia. This article will present a comprehensive review of the side effects that have been associated with radioembolization using 90Y microspheres. Some of the described side effects are associated with all transarterial procedures. Side effects specific to radioembolization will also be discussed in detail. Methods to decrease the incidence of these potential side effects will also be discussed. PMID:25120955

  2. Impacts of yttrium substitution on FMR line-width and magnetic properties of nickel spinel ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishaque, M.; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Ali, Irshad; Khan, Hasan M.; Iqbal, M. Asif; Islam, M. U.; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2015-05-01

    The influence of yttrium (Y) substitution on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), initial permeability, and magnetic properties of NiFe2O4 ferrites were investigated. It was observed that the FMR line-width decreases with yttrium contents for the substitution level 0??0.06. Beyond this, the FMR line-width increases with yttrium contents. The nominal composition NiY0.12Fe1.88O4 exhibited the smallest FMR line-width ~282 Oe. A significant change in FMR position of nickel-yttrium (Ni-Y) ferrites was observed and it found to exist between 4150 and 4600 Oe. The saturation magnetization was observed to decrease with the increase of yttrium contents and this was referred to the redistribution of cations on octahedral. The coercivity increased from 15 Oe to 59 Oe by increasing the yttrium concentration. The initial permeability decreased from 110 to 35 at 1 MHz by the incorporation of yttrium and this was attributed to the smaller grains which may obstruct the domain wall movement and impede the domain wall motion. The magnetic loss factors of substituted samples exhibit decreasing behavior in the frequency range 1 kHz to 10 MHz. The smaller FMR line-width and reduced magnetic loss factor of the investigated samples suggest the possible use of these materials in high frequency applications.

  3. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization as a Palliative Treatment for Liver Tumors: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Maas, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    The best chance of cure for patients with liver cancer is surgical removal, but many tumors are too large or invasive. In addition, chemotherapy is frequently unsuccessful in this patient population. A case study is featured involving a patient determined to be a candidate for Yttrium-90 radioembolization, a minimally invasive liver-directed treatment used to target primary and metastatic liver tumors by delivering radioactive microspheres directly to the tumor. This article provides an introduction to the procedure, as well as practical information for nurses caring for patients with liver cancer following Yttrium-90 radioembolization.At a GlanceYttrium-90 radioembolization allows larger radiation doses to be used without affecting healthy tissues.An outpatient procedure, Yttrium-90 radioembolization results in fewer side effects than standard treatment.?Although Yttrium-90 radioembolization can extend and improve quality of life, its intent is palliative, not curative. PMID:26414581

  4. Combinatorial pulsed laser deposition of doped yttrium iron garnet films on yttrium aluminium garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sposito, A.; Gregory, S. A.; de Groot, P. A. J.; Eason, R. W.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the crystalline growth of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films doped with bismuth (Bi) and cerium (Ce) by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition, co-ablating a YIG target and either a Bi2O3 or a CeO2 target, for applications in microwave and optical communications. Substrate temperature is critical for crystalline growth of YIG with simultaneous inclusion of Bi in the garnet lattice, whereas Ce is not incorporated in the garnet structure, but forms a separate CeO2 phase.

  5. Combinatorial pulsed laser deposition of doped yttrium iron garnet films on yttrium aluminium garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Sposito, A. Eason, R. W.; Gregory, S. A.; Groot, P. A. J. de

    2014-02-07

    We investigate the crystalline growth of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films doped with bismuth (Bi) and cerium (Ce) by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition, co-ablating a YIG target and either a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a CeO{sub 2} target, for applications in microwave and optical communications. Substrate temperature is critical for crystalline growth of YIG with simultaneous inclusion of Bi in the garnet lattice, whereas Ce is not incorporated in the garnet structure, but forms a separate CeO{sub 2} phase.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of bombesin derivatives on the basis of pan-bombesin peptides labeled with indium-111, lutetium-177, and yttrium-90 for targeting bombesin receptor-expressing tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanwen; Chen, Jianhua; Waldherr, Christian; Hinni, Karin; Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude; Maecke, Helmut R

    2004-09-15

    Bombesin receptors are overexpressed on a variety of human tumors like prostate, breast, and lung cancer. The aim of this study was to develop radiolabeled (Indium-111, Lutetium-177, and Yttrium-90) bombesin analogues with affinity to the three bombesin receptor subtypes for targeted radiotherapy. The following structures were synthesized: diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gamma-aminobutyric acid-[D-Tyr6, beta-Ala11, Thi13, Nle14] bombesin (6-14) (BZH1) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N"' -tetraacetic acid-gamma-aminobutyric acid-[D-Tyr6, beta-Ala11, Thi13, Nle14] bombesin (6-14) (BZH2). [111In]-BZH1 and in particular [90Y]-BZH2 were shown to have high affinity to all three human bombesin receptor subtypes with binding affinities in the nanomolar range. In human serum metabolic cleavage was found between beta-Ala11 and His12 with an approximate half-life of 2 hours. The metabolic breakdown was inhibited by EDTA and beta-Ala11-His12 (carnosine) indicating that carnosinase is the active enzyme. Both 111In-labeled peptides were shown to internalize into gastrin-releasing peptide-receptor-positive AR4-2J and PC-3 cells with similar high rates, which were independent of the radiometal. The biodistribution studies of [111In]-BZH1 and [111In]-BZH2 ([177Lu]-BZH2) in AR4-2J tumor-bearing rats showed specific and high uptake in gastrin-releasing peptide-receptor-positive organs and in the AR4-2J tumor. A fast clearance from blood and all of the nontarget organs except the kidneys was found. These radiopeptides were composed of the first pan-bombesin radioligands, which show great promise for the early diagnosis of tumors bearing not only gastrin-releasing peptide-receptors but also the other two bombesin receptor subtypes and may be of use in targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. PMID:15374988

  7. Investigations of 89Y(p,x) 86,88,89gZr, 86m+g,87g,87m,88gY, 85gSr, and 84gRb nuclear processes up to 42 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Man-Woo; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Guinyun; Otuka, Naohiko

    2012-01-01

    Production cross-sections of the 89Y(p,x) 86,88,89gZr, 86m+g,87g,87m,88gY, 85gSr, and 84gRb nuclear processes were investigated up to 42-MeV proton energy by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. Cumulative cross-sections of the 88gY radionuclide have been reported here for the first time from proton activation on natural yttrium target. The present data were compared with the available experimental data as well as theoretical calculations based on the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE codes, and found in general good agreement among them. Due to the mono-isotopic characteristics of the natural yttrium, the investigated 89Y(p,x) 86,88,89gZr, 86m+g,87g,87m,88gY, 85gSr, and 84gRb processes are suitable for testing of nuclear reaction theories and/or mechanism. A quantitative analysis has also done to understand more accurately the predictive power of the model codes by performing calculations of deviation factors between the measured data and respective model calculations. The thick target integral yields, i.e., induced radioactivity per unit fluence of 42-MeV protons were also deduced from the measured cross-sections of the investigated radionuclides. Optimal production pathway for the 89Zr-PET radionuclide using a cyclotron is discussed elaborately. The measured cross-sections of 87gY, 88gY, 88Zr, and 89gZr radionuclides find importance due to their suitable decay characteristics leading to medical and thin layer activation applications. In addition, the present experimental results will play an important role in enrichment of the literature data base for proton-induced reactions on natural yttrium leading to various applications.

  8. The Parasitic Worm Product ES-62 Targets Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88Dependent Effector Mechanisms to Suppress Antinuclear Antibody Production and Proteinuria in MRL/lpr Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, David T; McGrath, Mairi A; Pineda, Miguel A; Al-Riyami, Lamyaa; Rzepecka, Justyna; Lumb, Felicity; Harnett, William; Harnett, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Objective The hygiene hypothesis suggests that parasitic helminths (worms) protect against the development of autoimmune disease via a serendipitous side effect of worm-derived immunomodulators that concomitantly promote parasite survival and limit host pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ES-62, a phosphorylcholine-containing glycoprotein secreted by the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, protects against kidney damage in an MRL/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods MRL/lpr mice progressively produce high levels of autoantibodies, and the resultant deposition of immune complexes drives kidney pathology. The effects of ES-62 on disease progression were assessed by measurement of proteinuria, assessment of kidney histology, determination of antinuclear antibody (ANA) production and cytokine levels, and flow cytometric analysis of relevant cellular populations. Results ES-62 restored the disrupted balance between effector and regulatory B cells in MRL/lpr mice by inhibiting plasmablast differentiation, with a consequent reduction in ANA production and deposition of immune complexes and C3a in the kidneys. Moreover, by reducing interleukin-22 production, ES-62 may desensitize downstream effector mechanisms in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Highlighting the therapeutic importance of resetting B cell responses, adoptive transfer of purified splenic B cells from ES-62treated MRL/lpr mice mimicked the protection afforded by the helminth product. Mechanistically, this reflects down-regulation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 expression by B cells and also kidney cells, resulting in inhibition of pathogenic cross-talk among Toll-like receptor, C3a-, and immune complexmediated effector mechanisms. Conclusion This study provides the first demonstration of protection against kidney pathology by a parasitic wormderived immunomodulator in a model of SLE and suggests therapeutic potential for drugs based on the mechanism of action of ES-62. PMID:25546822

  9. SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided Simultaneous Integrated Boost Head-And-Neck Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Can, S; Neylon, J; Qi, S; Santhanam, A; Low, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of improved normal tissue sparing for head-and-neck (H'N) image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) by employing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for target level II/III though a GPU-based deformable image registration and dose accumulation framework. Methods: Ten H'N simultaneous integrated boost cases treated on TomoTherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Weekly kVCT scans in addition to daily MVCT scans were acquired for each patient. Reduced margin plans were generated with 0- mm margin for level II and III PTV (while 3-5 mm margin for PTV1) and compared with the standard margin plan using 3-5mm margin to all CTV1-3 (reference plan). An in-house developed GPU-based 3D image deformation tool was used to register and deform the weekly KVCTs with the planning CT and determine the delivered mean/minimum/maximum dose, dose volume histograms (DVHs), etc. Results: Compared with the reference plans, the averaged cord maximum, the right and left parotid doses reduced by 22.7 %, 16.5 %, and 9 % respectively in the reduced margin plans. The V95 for PTV2 and PTV3 were found within 2 and 5% between the reference and tighter margin plans. For the reduced margin plans, the averaged cumulative mean doses were consistent with the planned dose for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 within 1.5%, 1.7% and 1.4%. Similar dose variations of the delivered dose were seen for the reference and tighter margin plans. The delivered maximum and mean doses for the cord were 3.55 % and 2.37% higher than the planned doses; a 5 % higher cumulative mean dose for the parotids was also observed for the delivered dose than the planned doses in both plans. Conclusion: By imposing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for level II and III targets for H'N irradiation, acceptable cumulative doses were achievable when coupled with weekly kVCT guidance while improving normal structure sparing.

  10. STS-88 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Five NASA astronauts and a Russian cosmonaut assigned to the STS-88 mission pose for a crew portrait. Seated in front (left to right) are mission specialists Sergei K. Krikalev, representing the Russian Space Agency (RSA), and astronaut Nancy J. Currie. In the rear from the left, are astronauts Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist; Robert D. Cabana, mission commander; Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, pilot; and James H. Newman, mission specialist. The STS-88 mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on December 4, 1998 at 2:35 a.m. (CST) to deliver the Unity Node to the International Space Station (ISS).

  11. Electronic transitions of yttrium monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biu Wa; Chan, Man-Chor; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2015-11-01

    The electronic transition spectrum of the yttrium monophosphide (YP) molecule in the near infrared region between 715 nm and 880 nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The YP molecule was produced by reacting laser - ablated yttrium atoms with PH3 gas seeded in argon. Eleven vibrational bands were analyzed and six electronic transitions have been identified, namely the [12.17] Ω = 3 - X3Π2, [13.27] Ω = 3 - X3Π2, [13.44] Ω = 3 - X3Π2, [13.46] Ω = 3 - X3Π2 and [13.40] Ω = 2 - X3Π2 transitions and a [13.69] Ω = 3 - a1Δ2 transition. Least squares fits of the measured rotational lines yielded molecular constants for the ground and excited states. The ground state has been determined to be a X3Π2 state and the bond length ro and vibrational separation, ΔG1/2, were determined to be 2.4413 Å and 390.77 cm-1 respectively. A molecular orbital energy level diagram has been used to aid the assignment of the observed electronic states. This work represents the first experimental investigation of the electronic spectrum of the YP molecule.

  12. Electronic Transitions of Yttrium Monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Allan S. C.; Li, Biu Wa; Chan, MAN-CHOR

    2015-06-01

    Electronic transition spectrum of the yttrium monophosphide (YP) molecule in the visible region between 715 nm and 880 nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The YP molecule was produced by reacting laser - ablated yttrium atoms with PH3 seeded in argon. Thirteen vibrational bands were analyzed and five electronic transition systems have identified, namely the [12.2] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, [13.3] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, [13.4] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, [13.5] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, and [13.4] Ω = 2 - X3 Π_2 transition. Least squares fits of the measured rotational lines yielded molecular constants for the ground and excited states. The ground state symmetry and the bond length r_0 of the YP molecule have been determined to be a X3 Π_2 state and 2.4413 Å respectively in this work. A molecular orbital energy level diagram has been used to help the assignment of the observed electronic states. This work represents the first experimental investigation of the spectrum of the YP molecule.

  13. Rare earths, the lanthanides, yttrium and scandium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, rare earths were not mined in the United States. The major supplier, Molycorp, continued to maintain a large stockpile of rare-earth concentrates and compounds. Consumption decreased of refined rare-earth products. The United States remained a major importer and exporter of rare earths in 2005. During the same period, yttrium was not mined or refined in the US. Hence, supply of yttrium compounds for refined yttrium products came from China, France and Japan. Scandium was not also mined. World production was primarily in China, Russia and Ukraine. Demand for rare earths in 2006 is expected to be closely tied to economic conditions in the US.

  14. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Roshan, M. V.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-08-15

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f{sub n}{approx}4.1x10{sup -4} with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 8} neutrons per discharge.

  15. Yttrium and barium in open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishenina, T. V.; Korotin, S. A.; Yegorova, I. A.; Kovtukh, V. V.; Carraro, G.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the VLT high-resolution spectra for stars of five open clusters: Ruprecht 4, Ruprecht 7, Berkeley 25, Berkeley 73, and Berkeley 75 (G. Carraro et al., 2007) we determined the yttrium and barium abundances using the synthetic-spectrum method. Barium abundance was calculated under a non-LTE approximation. We analyzed the correlation between yttrium and barium abundances and the ages of open clusters and stars of the Galactic thin disk.

  16. Rare earths, the lanthanides, yttrium and scandium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, G.; Bleiwas, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, rare earths were recovered from bastnasite concentrates at the Mountain Pass Mine in California. Consumption of refined rare-earth products decreased in 2011 from 2010. U.S. rare-earth imports originated primarily from China, with lesser amounts from Austria, Estonia, France and Japan. The United States imported all of its demand for yttrium metal and yttrium compounds, with most of it originating from China. Scandium was imported in various forms and processed domestically.

  17. Urinary yttrium excretion and effects of yttrium chloride on renal function in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Satsuki; Usuda, Kan; Mitsui, Go; Shibutani, Takahiro; Dote, Emi; Adachi, Kazuya; Fujihara, Michiko; Shimbo, Yukari; Sun, Wei; Kono, Rei; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kono, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of yttrium exposure in biological samples has not been fully examined. To evaluate yttrium nephrotoxicity, yttrium chloride was orally administered to male Wistar rats and the urine volume (UV) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and creatinine excretion (Crt) were measured in 24-h urine samples. The urinary yttrium concentration and excretion rate were determined by inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Large significant decreases of UV (>30%) and Crt (>10%) were observed at yttrium doses of 58.3-116.7 mg per rat, but no significant NAG changes was observed. This response pattern shows that a high yttrium dosage alters glomerular function rather than the proximal convoluted tubules. A urinary yttrium excretion rate of 0.216% and good dose-dependent urinary excretion (r=0.77) were confirmed. These results suggest that urinary yttrium is a suitable indicator of occupational and environmental exposure to this element, an increasingly important health issue because recent technological advances present significant potential risks of exposure to rare earth elements. We propose that the ICP-AES analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be a valuable tool for future research on the toxicology of rare earth elements. PMID:17206005

  18. Irradiation of strontium chloride targets at proton energies above 35 MeV to produce PET radioisotope Y-86

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev D. G.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    2011-12-01

    Proton irradiation of natural and enriched SrCl{sub 2} targets was used to produce PET radioisotope {sup 86}. The proton energy was degraded from the incident 117.8 MeV to induce the {sup 88}Sr(p,3n) reaction. For the irradiation three pellets made of {sup nat}SrCl{sub 2} (6.61 and 74.49 g) and {sup 88}SrCl{sub 2} (5.02 g) were pressed and individually encapsulated in stainless steel target bodies. The two smaller targets were irradiated for 0.5-1 h at the energy - 46 {yields} 37 MeV to take advantage of the peak in the excitation function of the {sup 88}Sr(p,3n) reaction. The larger target was irradiated at 66.4 {yields} 44.6 MeV. The irradiated pellets were chemically processed to selectively separate {sup 86}Y radioisotope using Eichrom DGA (N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) resin. The production yields of {sup 86}Y were determined to be 10-13 mCi/{mu}A h. Coproduction of {sup 87m}Y in the final product was 34% for {sup nat}SrCl{sub 2} and 54% for {sup 88}SrCl{sub 2} target. The chemical separation yield of yttrium reached 88-92%. The developed chemical procedure allows for the same day processing and shipment of the isotope to users.

  19. Yttrium hole-barrier contacts for germanium semiconductor detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Suttle, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Sputtered yttrium metal forms a thin hole-barrier contact on both p- and n-type germanium semiconductor detectors. Yttrium contacts can provide a sufficiently high hole barrier to prevent measurable contact leakage current below 120 K. Detectors having yttrium contacts produce good gamma-ray spectroscopy data.

  20. Proton trapping in yttrium-doped barium zirconate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Blanc, Frdric; Okuyama, Yuji; Buannic, Lucienne; Lucio-Vega, Juan C.; Grey, Clare P.; Haile, Sossina M.

    2013-07-01

    The environmental benefits of fuel cells have been increasingly appreciated in recent years. Among candidate electrolytes for solid-oxide fuel cells, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has garnered attention because of its high proton conductivity, particularly in the intermediate-temperature region targeted for cost-effective solid-oxide fuel cell operation, and its excellent chemical stability. However, fundamental questions surrounding the defect chemistry and macroscopic proton transport mechanism of this material remain, especially in regard to the possible role of proton trapping. Here we show, through a combined thermogravimetric and a.c. impedance study, that macroscopic proton transport in yttrium-doped barium zirconate is limited by proton-dopant association (proton trapping). Protons must overcome the association energy, 29?kJ?mol-1, as well as the general activation energy, 16?kJ?mol-1, to achieve long-range transport. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show the presence of two types of proton environment above room temperature, reflecting differences in proton-dopant configurations. This insight motivates efforts to identify suitable alternative dopants with reduced association energies as a route to higher conductivities.

  1. Proton trapping in yttrium-doped barium zirconate.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Blanc, Frdric; Okuyama, Yuji; Buannic, Lucienne; Lucio-Vega, Juan C; Grey, Clare P; Haile, Sossina M

    2013-07-01

    The environmental benefits of fuel cells have been increasingly appreciated in recent years. Among candidate electrolytes for solid-oxide fuel cells, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has garnered attention because of its high proton conductivity, particularly in the intermediate-temperature region targeted for cost-effective solid-oxide fuel cell operation, and its excellent chemical stability. However, fundamental questions surrounding the defect chemistry and macroscopic proton transport mechanism of this material remain, especially in regard to the possible role of proton trapping. Here we show, through a combined thermogravimetric and a.c. impedance study, that macroscopic proton transport in yttrium-doped barium zirconate is limited by proton-dopant association (proton trapping). Protons must overcome the association energy, 29 kJ mol(-1), as well as the general activation energy, 16 kJ mol(-1), to achieve long-range transport. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show the presence of two types of proton environment above room temperature, reflecting differences in proton-dopant configurations. This insight motivates efforts to identify suitable alternative dopants with reduced association energies as a route to higher conductivities. PMID:23666383

  2. Photoconductivity of Yttrium Neodymium Gadolinium Oxalate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuryan, Soosy; Abraham, Rosalin; Isac, Jayakumari

    2007-03-01

    Crystals are pillars of modern technology..Yttrium Neodymium Gadolinium oxalate (YNdGaOx) crystals were grown by gel method by the diffusion of Yttrium Chloride, Neodymium Chloride, and Gadolinium Chloride into the set gel containing Oxalic acid. Silica gel method is capable of yielding crystals of high optical perfection and wide morphology. The growing crystals are held in the gel medium in a strain free manner and at the same time nucleation and super saturation are well controlled. Photo conductivity studies of these crystals revealed negative photoconductivity nature. The photocurrent is found to be less than the dark current at every applied electric field. Rare Earth compounds are known for their interesting electric, magnetic and luminescent properties. Recent investigations on the fluorescence of some rare earth oxalates suggest their potentiality for their optical applications. Rare Earth oxalates evoked greater attention because of their ionic conduction.

  3. Photoconductivity of Yttrium Praseodymium Gadolinium Oxalate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuryan, Soosy; Abraham, Rosalin; Isac, Jayakumari

    2007-06-01

    Crystals are pillars of modern technology. Yttrium Praseodymium Gadolinium oxalate (YPrGaOx) crystals were grown by gel method by the diffusion of Yttrium Chloride, Praseodymium Chloride, and Gadolinium Chloride into the set gel containing Oxalic acid. Silica gel method is capable of yielding crystals of high optical perfection and wide morphology. The growing crystals are held in the gel medium in a strain free manner and at the same time nucleation and super saturation are well controlled. Photo conductivity studies of these crystals revealed negative photoconductivity nature. The photocurrent is found to be less than the dark current at every applied electric field. Rare Earth compounds are known for their interesting electric, magnetic and luminescent properties. Recent investigations on the fluorescence of some rare earth oxalates suggest their potentiality for their optical applications. Rare Earth oxalates evoked greater attention because of their ionic conduction.

  4. Preparing of precursors for yttrium-containing ceramic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.S.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes a process for extracting a yttrium component from a rare earth ore, or rare earth ore concentrate, containing rare earth values and using the yttrium component to prepare a composite for use in fabrication of a metal oxide ceramic superconductor containing yttrium oxide. It comprises: feeding the rare earth ore or ore concentrate to a fluidized bed chlorinator to produce a chloride of the yttrium component and chlorides other rare earths contained in the ore; separating the yttrium chloride by differential condensation from the other rare earth chlorides at 725--1200{degrees}C; anhydrously reacting the separated the yttrium chloride with at least one alkoxide reactant selected from the group consisting of the alkali metal alkoxides to produce yttrium alkoxide and separating the yttrium alkoxide from reaction by-products and excess reagents; and mixing the yttrium alkoxide with alkoxides of other non-oxygen constituents of the metal oxide ceramic superconductor, thereby producing an alkoxide composite. The composite is useful for fabrication of a metal oxide ceramic superconductor.

  5. Divalent ytterbium ions in yttrium aluminum garnet and yttrium oxide ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, V. I.; Orlov, A. N.; Spirina, A. V.; Konev, S. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Luk'yashin, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ceramics based on ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and yttrium oxide are synthesized. The transmission, pulsed cathodoluminescence, and electron-spin resonance spectra of these ceramics at room temperature are measured and analyzed. It is shown that all the samples contain Yb2+ ions with the 4 f 136 s electronic configuration of the ground state, which manifest themselves in the form of relatively weak bands in the IR region of the optical spectra in addition to the bands of Yb3+ ions.

  6. Characterization of alumina/yttrium-aluminum garnet and alumina/yttrium-aluminum perovskite eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, L.E.; Hay, R.S.; Mah, T.

    1990-08-01

    Alumina/yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) and alumina/yttrium-aluminum perovskite (YAP) eutectics were made by directional solidification. The two systems were characterized using transmitted polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The alumina/YAG system exhibited a degenerate eutectic with a Chinese script morphology, while the alumina/YAP eutectic had a rod/lamellae morphology. The c-axis of alumina was aligned perpendicular to the solidification direction, and elongated grains were aligned along the solidification direction in both systems. A single orientation relationship between alumina and YAG was observed. Several orientation relationships were observed in the alumina/YAP system. 5 refs.

  7. Metabolism and toxicity of intravenously injected yttrium chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirano, S; Kodama, N; Shibata, K; Suzuki, K T

    1993-08-01

    Although radioactive yttrium (Y) has been used for medical treatment, little attention has been directed toward the toxicity of Y. We report time-course and dose-related changes in tissue distribution, subcellular localization, clearance, and acute toxicity of iv-injected yttrium chloride (YCl3) in rats. Intravenously injected Y was predominantly distributed to plasma in the blood. At doses more than 0.2 mg Y/rat, most plasma Y appears to be in colloidal material which was composed of proteins and some minerals. Electron microscopic analyses revealed that the colloidal material was taken up by phagocytic cells in the liver and spleen. The liver Y was slowly cleared with a half-time of 144 days at a dose of 1 mg Y/rat. Glutamic-oxaloacetic and glutamic-pyruvate transaminase activities in blood plasma were increased with a peak at 20 hr postinjection at a dose of 1 mg Y/rat and returned to their control values at 170 hr postinjection, indicating that iv-injected YCl3 caused acute hepatic injury. Some of the plasma Ca was translocated to the colloidal material and plasma Ca concentration was increased transiently following injection of YCl3, probably because of resorption of bone. At a dose of 1 mg Y/rat, a significant and tremendous amount of Ca was deposited in the liver (over 10-fold) and spleen (over 100-fold), while Ca concentration was only slightly increased in the lung and kidney (less than 1.5-fold). These results indicate that the liver and spleen are primary target organs of iv-injected YCl3. PMID:8346539

  8. Electrochemical synthesis of nanoparticles of yttrium and cobalt intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanov, A. M.; Kushkhov, Kh. B.; Shogenova, D. L.

    2015-08-01

    An electrochemical synthesis of nanoparticles of yttrium and cobalt intermetallic compounds from chloride melts is developed. The results of studying the synthesized nanopowders of the yttrium and cobalt intermetallic compounds are presented. The dependences of the dispersion composition and morphology of the obtained nanoparticles on the synthesis temperature and the cathodic current density are established.

  9. Terbium photoluminescence in yttrium aluminum garnet xerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Maliarevich, G. K.; Gaponenko, N. V. Mudryi, A. V.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Stepikhova, M. V.; Stepanova, E. A.

    2009-02-15

    Based on a colloidal solution containing terbium, yttrium, and aluminum metal ions, a powder was synthesized and films of terbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet Tb{sub 0.15}Y{sub 2.85}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} were grown on single-crystal silicon and porous anodic alumina. Annealing of the sample in a temperature range from 200-1100 deg. C results in an increase in the photoluminescence intensity in the wavelength range from 480-640 nm, which is caused by Tb{sup 3+} ion intra-atomic transitions {sup 5}D{sub 4}{sup {yields}}{sup 7}F{sub j} (j = 3, 4, 5, 6). Annealing at 900 deg. C and higher temperatures gives rise to low-intensity photoluminescence bands in the region of 667 and 681 nm, which correspond to transitions {sup 5}D{sub 4}{sup {yields}}{sup 7}F{sub 0}, {sup 5}D{sub 4}{sup {yields}}{sup 7}F{sub 1}, and room-temperature Stark term splitting, which suggests the existence of a crystalline environment of Tb{sup 3+} ions. The FWHM of spectral lines in the region of 543 nm decreases from {approx}10 to {approx}(2-3) nm as the xerogel annealing temperature is increased from 700 to 900 deg. C and higher. Three bands with maxima at 280, 330, and 376 nm, which correspond to Tb{sup 3+} ion transitions {sup 7}F{sub 6}{sup {yields}}{sup 5}I{sub 8}, {sup 5}L{sub 6}, {sup 5}G{sub 6}, {sup 5}D{sub 3}, are observed in the photoluminescence excitation spectra of the studied structures for the emission wavelength at 543 nm. X-ray diffraction detected the formation of a crystalline phase for a terbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet powder after annealing at 1100 deg. C.

  10. Cerium and yttrium oxide nanoparticles are neuroprotective

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, David . E-mail: schubert@salk.edu; Dargusch, Richard; Raitano, Joan; Chan, S.-W.

    2006-03-31

    The responses of cells exposed to nanoparticles have been studied with regard to toxicity, but very little attention has been paid to the possibility that some types of particles can protect cells from various forms of lethal stress. It is shown here that nanoparticles composed of cerium oxide or yttrium oxide protect nerve cells from oxidative stress and that the neuroprotection is independent of particle size. The ceria and yttria nanoparticles act as direct antioxidants to limit the amount of reactive oxygen species required to kill the cells. It follows that this group of nanoparticles could be used to modulate oxidative stress in biological systems.

  11. Metallic glass ingots based on yttrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Faqiang; Poon, S. Joseph; Shiflet, Gary J.

    2003-09-01

    We report a family of yttrium metallic alloys that are able to form glassy ingots directly from the liquid, as well as forming bulk-sized amorphous rods with diameters over 2 cm by water cooling of the alloy melt sealed in quartz tubes. It is apparent that, in addition to the strong chemical interaction among the components, the simultaneous occurrence of well-distributed atom sizes and a strongly depressed liquidus temperature in multicomponent metallic alloys is responsible for the formation of glassy ingots.

  12. Safety of knee radiosynovectomy with yttrium - 90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempi?ska, M.; Lass, P.; ?wik?a, J. B.; ?bikowski, P.

    2011-09-01

    Radioisotope knee synovectomy is based on an Yttrium - 90 citrate injection (185 - 222 MBq) into the knee joint cavity. The performance of procedure needs participation of a nuclear medicine specialist as well as an orthopedist or a rheumatologist and a technologist, who prepares radiopharmaceuticals. The ionization doses for patients and personnel depend not only on the injected activity, but also on the method and process of injection and the radioactivity measurement procedure used. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the degree of radiation exposure of patients and medical personnel during the performance of therapy with 90Y.

  13. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Ryan M; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2016-03-01

    (90)Y radioembolization refers to the selective, transcatheter, and intra-arterial injection of micrometer-sized particles loaded with the radioisotope yttrium-90 for the treatment of primary and metastatic hepatic malignancies. In the treatment of intermediate- and advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, (90)Y radioembolization provides favorable outcomes with minimal side effects, offering an alternative treatment option to other transarterial therapies, such as bland embolization and chemoembolization. This review provides an overview of the use of (90)Y radioembolization in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, including patient selection criteria, dosimetry, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26897714

  14. STS-88 Day 08 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev enter the International Space Station where Krikalev and Currie install a new battery charging unit. Sturckow and Currie remove launch restraint bolts from some of the panels inside Zarya. Cabana, Ross, and Newman check the communications system's videoconferencing capability. Then Ross, Newman, and Krikalev transfer equipment and supplies from Endeavour for future inhabitants of the Space Station. The crew then participates in an interview with KNX Radio in Los Angeles and KARE-TV in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

  15. STS-88 Day 06 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev are awakened by Dwight Yokum's "Streets of Bakersfield," requested by the wife of Pilot Rick Sturckow, a California native. Cabana and Sturckow fire Endeavour's primary reaction control jets to raise the altitude of the International Space Station by about 5-1/2 statute miles. Later on Cabana, Sturckow and Currie are interviewed by the ABC News/Discovery Channel and MSNBC.

  16. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  17. Pressure-stabilized superconductive yttrium hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinwei; Hao, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Tse, John S.; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2015-05-01

    The search for high-temperature superconductors has been focused on compounds containing a large fraction of hydrogen, such as SiH4(H2)2, CaH6 and KH6. Through a systematic investigation of yttrium hydrides at different hydrogen contents using an structure prediction method based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm, we have predicted two new yttrium hydrides (YH4 andYH6), which are stable above 110?GPa. Three types of hydrogen species with increased H contents were found, monatomic H in YH3, monatomic H+molecular H2 in YH4 and hexagonal H6 unit in YH6. Interestingly, H atoms in YH6 form sodalite-like cage sublattice with centered Y atom. Electron-phonon calculations revealed the superconductive potential of YH4 and YH6 with estimated transition temperatures (Tc) of 84-95?K and 251-264?K at 120?GPa, respectively. These values are higher than the predicted maximal Tc of 40?K in YH3.

  18. Pressure-stabilized superconductive yttrium hydrides

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinwei; Hao, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Tse, John S.; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    The search for high-temperature superconductors has been focused on compounds containing a large fraction of hydrogen, such as SiH4(H2)2, CaH6 and KH6. Through a systematic investigation of yttrium hydrides at different hydrogen contents using an structure prediction method based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm, we have predicted two new yttrium hydrides (YH4 andYH6), which are stable above 110?GPa. Three types of hydrogen species with increased H contents were found, monatomic H in YH3, monatomic H+molecular H2 in YH4 and hexagonal H6 unit in YH6. Interestingly, H atoms in YH6 form sodalite-like cage sublattice with centered Y atom. Electron-phonon calculations revealed the superconductive potential of YH4 and YH6 with estimated transition temperatures (Tc) of 8495?K and 251264?K at 120?GPa, respectively. These values are higher than the predicted maximal Tc of 40?K in YH3. PMID:25942452

  19. ESCA studies of yttrium aluminum garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlak, D.A.; Wozniak, K.; Frukacz, Z.; Barr, T.L.; Fiorentino, D.; Seal, S.

    1999-03-04

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA) has been employed to investigate pure single crystals and powdered samples of yttrium aluminum garnet, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG), and YAG crystals doped with several rare earth elements (Ln = Pr, Er, Ho, Tm) and a transition metal (Cr). Core level XPS peak shapes of the main elements forming the garnet structure can be rationalized due to different structural environments of particular ions modified by doping. The change of dopant oxidation state also results in variation of XPS peaks and helps to identify the sites in which it takes place. Single-crystal and powder samples give different XPS spectra. Possible sources of these differences are discussed. Similarities and differences between simple and mixed oxides are shown. The structure of YAG suggests the presence of only one independent oxygen ion; however the O(1s) spectra of all YAG systems exhibit two readily discerned peaks. An explanation for this dichotomy is discussed, involving the possible polarization of the oxygen valence electron density between the aluminum and yttrium. Alternative explanations are also considered.

  20. Investigation of the high spin structure of Zr88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Palit, R.; Sethi, J.; Biswas, S.; Singh, P.; Trivedi, T.; Choudhury, D.; Srivastava, P. C.

    2014-04-01

    High spin states of Zr88 were populated with Se80(C13, 5n) fusion evaporation reaction. A thin target as well as Au backed target were used in two different experiments for the present study. Excited levels of Zr88 have been observed up to spin 20? and an excitation energy of 10 MeV. Spin and parity of most of the states have been determined from directional correlation and polarization measurements. The level scheme was substantially extended with the addition of a number of high spin states and transitions. The comparison of the measured levels of Zr88 with large shell model calculations based on the full unrestricted f5/2pg9/2 model space established the dominance of shell-model excitation up to the highest observed spin.

  1. STS-88 Day 05 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev are awakened with the song "Jerry the Rigger," in honor of Mission Specialist Jerry Ross. Ross and Newman are then seen being readied for the first EVA. This space walk, which will last 6-1/2 hours, will focus on connecting computer and electrical cables between Unity, the two mating adapters attached to either end of Unity, and Zarya. In all, Ross and Newman will make about 40 connections during the spacewalk. This will enable power to flow to Unity for the first time in orbit and will permit Unity's avionics, computers and heaters to be activated.

  2. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions 200.88 Late charge. (a) The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions, and...

  3. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions 200.88 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions and standards of...

  4. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions 200.88 Late charge. (a) The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions, and...

  5. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions 200.88 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions and standards of...

  6. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions 200.88 Late charge. (a) The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions, and...

  7. 32 CFR 644.88 - Other acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Other acquisition. 644.88 Section 644.88 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Purchase, Donation, and Transfer § 644.88 Other acquisition. (a) Acquisition from other Federal...

  8. 32 CFR 88.6 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements. 88.6 Section 88.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN TRANSITION ASSISTANCE FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL § 88.6 Information requirements. The quarterly...

  9. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assessment. 763.88 Section 763.88... Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.88 Assessment. (a)(1) For each inspection and reinspection... agency shall have an accredited inspector provide a written assessment of all friable known or...

  10. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assessment. 763.88 Section 763.88... Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.88 Assessment. (a)(1) For each inspection and reinspection... agency shall have an accredited inspector provide a written assessment of all friable known or...

  11. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assessment. 763.88 Section 763.88... Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.88 Assessment. (a)(1) For each inspection and reinspection... agency shall have an accredited inspector provide a written assessment of all friable known or...

  12. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment. 763.88 Section 763.88... Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.88 Assessment. (a)(1) For each inspection and reinspection... agency shall have an accredited inspector provide a written assessment of all friable known or...

  13. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assessment. 763.88 Section 763.88... Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.88 Assessment. (a)(1) For each inspection and reinspection... agency shall have an accredited inspector provide a written assessment of all friable known or...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the...

  15. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the...

  17. 50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 Section 260.88... Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed samplers are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an...

  18. 50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 Section 260.88... Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed samplers are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an...

  19. 50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 Section 260.88... Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed samplers are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an...

  20. 50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 Section 260.88... Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed samplers are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an...

  1. 7 CFR 3570.88 - Management assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management assistance. 3570.88 Section 3570.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program 3570.88 Management assistance....

  2. 40 CFR 98.88 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 98.88 Section 98.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production 98.88 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have the...

  3. 40 CFR 98.88 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 98.88 Section 98.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production 98.88 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have the...

  4. 32 CFR 88.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 88.5 Section 88.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN TRANSITION ASSISTANCE FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL § 88.5 Responsibilities. (a) The Assistant Secretary of...

  5. 32 CFR 88.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities. 88.5 Section 88.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN TRANSITION ASSISTANCE FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL § 88.5 Responsibilities. (a) The Assistant Secretary of...

  6. 32 CFR 552.88 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Responsibilities. 552.88 Section 552.88 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.88...

  7. 32 CFR 552.88 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 552.88 Section 552.88 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.88...

  8. 40 CFR 98.88 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 98.88 Section 98.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.88 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have the...

  9. 40 CFR 98.88 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 98.88 Section 98.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.88 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have the...

  10. 40 CFR 98.88 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 98.88 Section 98.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.88 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have the...

  11. 40 CFR 88.103-94 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 88.103-94 Section 88.103-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Emission Standards for Clean-Fuel Vehicles § 88.103-94 Abbreviations. The abbreviations of part 86 also apply to this subpart....

  12. 40 CFR 88.102-94 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 88.102-94 Section 88.102-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Emission Standards for Clean-Fuel Vehicles § 88.102-94 Definitions. Any terms defined in 40 CFR part 86 and not defined in this...

  13. 38 CFR 4.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 4.88 Section 4.88 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies 4.88...

  14. 38 CFR 4.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 4.88 Section 4.88 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies 4.88...

  15. 38 CFR 4.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4.88 Section 4.88 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies 4.88...

  16. 38 CFR 4.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4.88 Section 4.88 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies 4.88...

  17. 42 CFR 430.88 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 430.88 Section 430.88 Public Health... Plans and Practice to Federal Requirements § 430.88 Evidence. (a) Evidentiary purpose. The hearing is directed to receiving factual evidence and expert opinion testimony related to the issues involved in...

  18. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions 905.88 Personal...

  19. 19 CFR 141.88 - Computed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computed value. 141.88 Section 141.88 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices 141.88 Computed value. When the port director determines that information as to computed value is necessary in the appraisement of any class or kind of merchandise,...

  20. 19 CFR 141.88 - Computed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computed value. 141.88 Section 141.88 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices 141.88 Computed value. When the port director determines that information as to computed value is necessary in the appraisement of any class or kind of merchandise,...

  1. 19 CFR 141.88 - Computed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computed value. 141.88 Section 141.88 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices 141.88 Computed value. When the port director determines that information as to computed value is necessary in the appraisement of any class or kind of merchandise,...

  2. 19 CFR 141.88 - Computed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computed value. 141.88 Section 141.88 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices 141.88 Computed value. When the port director determines that information as to computed value is necessary in the appraisement of any class or kind of merchandise,...

  3. 19 CFR 141.88 - Computed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Computed value. 141.88 Section 141.88 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices 141.88 Computed value. When the port director determines that information as to computed value is necessary in the appraisement of any class or kind of merchandise,...

  4. 34 CFR 668.88 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing. 668.88 Section 668.88 Education Regulations of... Proceedings 668.88 Hearing. (a) A hearing is an orderly presentation of arguments and evidence conducted by a hearing official. (b) If the hearing official, the designated department official who brought...

  5. 21 CFR 500.88 - Regulatory method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regulatory method. 500.88 Section 500.88 Food and... 500.88 Regulatory method. (a) The sponsor shall submit for evaluation and validation a regulatory method developed to monitor compliance with FDA's operational definition of no residue. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 500.88 - Regulatory method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulatory method. 500.88 Section 500.88 Food and... 500.88 Regulatory method. (a) The sponsor shall submit for evaluation and validation a regulatory method developed to monitor compliance with FDA's operational definition of no residue. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 88.201-94 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 88.201-94 Section 88.201-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program 88.201-94 Scope. Applicability. The requirements of this...

  8. 50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 Section 260.88... Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous § 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed... part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities in city, county, State,...

  9. 7 CFR 3570.88 - Management assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Management assistance. 3570.88 Section 3570.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program 3570.88 Management assistance....

  10. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  11. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  12. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  13. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  14. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  15. 42 CFR 88.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.2 General provisions. (a) Designated... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General provisions. 88.2 Section 88.2 Public Health... appointment must be in writing. (2) There may be only one representative at any time. After one...

  16. 42 CFR 88.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.2 General provisions. (a) Designated... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. 88.2 Section 88.2 Public Health... appointment must be in writing. (2) There may be only one representative at any time. After one...

  17. 42 CFR 88.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.2 General provisions. (a) Designated... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General provisions. 88.2 Section 88.2 Public Health... appointment must be in writing. (2) There may be only one representative at any time. After one...

  18. 42 CFR 88.2 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.2 General provisions. (a) Designated... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General provisions. 88.2 Section 88.2 Public Health... appointment must be in writing. (2) There may be only one representative at any time. After one...

  19. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  20. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  1. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  2. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  3. 29 CFR 2570.88 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effective date. 2570.88 Section 2570.88 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION... ERISA Section 502(l) 2570.88 Effective date. This section is effective June 20, 1990, and shall...

  4. 29 CFR 2570.88 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effective date. 2570.88 Section 2570.88 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION... ERISA Section 502(l) 2570.88 Effective date. This section is effective June 20, 1990, and shall...

  5. 32 CFR 88.6 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information requirements. 88.6 Section 88.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN TRANSITION ASSISTANCE FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL 88.6 Information requirements. The quarterly...

  6. 7 CFR 1780.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true 1780.88 Section 1780.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER... Documents for Public Body Applicants 1780.88...

  7. WSR-88D Cell Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the Applied Meteorology Unit's evaluation of the Cell Trends display as a tool for radar operators to use in their evaluation of storm cell strength. The objective of the evaluation is to assess the utility of the WSR-88D graphical Cell Trends display for local radar cell interpretation in support of the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and National Weather Service (NWS) Melbourne (MLB) operational requirements. The analysis procedure was to identify each cell and track the maximum reflectivity, height of maximum reflectivity, storm top, storm base, hail and severe hail probability, cell-based Vertically Integrated Liquid (VIL) and core aspect ratio using WATADS Build 9.0 cell trends information. One problem noted in the analysis phase was that the Storm Cell Identification and Tracking (SCIT) algorithm had a difficult time tracking the small cells associated with the Florida weather regimes. The analysis indicated numerous occasions when a cell track would end or an existing cell would be give a new ID in the middle of its life cycle. This investigation has found that most cells, which produce hail or microburst events, have discernable Cell Trends signatures. Forecasters should monitor the PUP's Cell Trends display for cells that show rapid (1 scan) changes in both the heights of maximum reflectivity and cell-based VIEL. It is important to note that this a very limited data set (four case days). Fifty-two storm cells were analyzed during those four days. The above mentioned t=ds, increase in the two cell attributes for hail events and decrease in the two cell attributes for wind events were noted in most of the cells. The probability of detection was 88% for both events. The False Alarm Rate (FAR) was a 36% for hail events and a respectable 25% for microburst events. In addition the Heidke Skill Score (HSS) is 0.65 for hail events and 0.67 for microburst events. For random forecast the HSS is 0 and that a perfect score is 1.

  8. STS-88 Day 10 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this tenth day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev are awakened by the sounds of Elvis Presley's "Hound Dog". Today's activities are devoted mostly to tasks that ready the station for future assembly work. The crew's first job is to release some cable ties on four cables connected on an earlier space walk, three located on Unity's upper mating adapter and one on its lower adapter, to relieve tension on the lines. The space walkers also will check an insulation cover on one cable connection on the lower Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA 2) to make sure it is fully installed. Near the end of the space walk, the astronauts conduct a detailed photographic survey of the space station from top to bottom. Finally, each astronaut test fires the Simplified Aid for Extravehicular Activity Rescue (SAFER) jet backpacks they are wearing, a type of space "lifejacket," that would allow an astronaut to fly back to the station if they should ever become untethered.

  9. STS-88 Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev are awakened with the song "Goodnight, Sweetheart, Goodnight". Pilot Rick Sturckow undocks Endeavour from the station and backs the shuttle away to a distance of 450 feet above the station before beginning a nose-forward fly-around. Later Cabana, Sturckow and Ross deploy the SAC-A satellite from Endeavour's payload bay. SAC-A is a small, self-contained, non-recoverable satellite built by the Argentinean National Commission of Space Activities. The cube-shaped, 590-pound satellite will test and characterize the performance of new equipment and technologies that may be used in future scientific or operational missions. The payload includes a differential global positioning system, a magnetometer, silicon solar cells, a charge-coupled device Earth camera and a whale tracker experiment.

  10. An evaluation of the corrosion performance of magnesium-yttrium and yttrium-magnesium nonequilibrium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidersbach, Krista Lynn

    1998-11-01

    In an effort to develop a corrosion-resistant light-weight metallic alloy, magnetron co-sputter deposition and electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) have been employed to deposit binary magnesium-yttrium and yttrium-magnesium alloys. Yttrium was selected because it has been shown to significantly alter the passive film of magnesium and has been used in several commercially available alloys. The binary alloys, employed in this study, were evaluated for film structure, electrochemical performance and passive film composition and structure. The film's morphology was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphologies of the sputtered alloys ranged from zones 1 to zone T. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used as a quick check for the presence of secondary phases that are detrimental to corrosion behavior. Although secondary phases were present, MgY particles, they did not affect the corrosion performance of the alloys. Electrochemical testing included potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic long term testing, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. All studies were performed using a standard three electrode technique in one of two solutions; pH 12 buffered solution containing 0.1M NaCl and 0.05M Nasb2Bsb4Osb7 with varied chloride concentration up to 3.5sp{w}/sb{o} NaCl (pH 9.2). Corrosion rates for all four alloys were a minimum of two orders of magnitude lower than either pure Mg or pure Y. The chemical composition of the air-formed oxides, the passive formed upon immersion in the pH 12 buffered solution with no applied potential, and the passive films formed by potentiostatic polarization in the same solution were characterized using XPS. The internal structure of these surface films was identified using transmission electron microscopy. Results from XPS indicated that a bi-layer oxide-hydroxide film was present on the surface of all the sputtered alloys. The inner layer of the film was found to be Ysb2Osb3. The outer layer was a mixture of Mg(OH)sb2 and Y(OH)sb3. TEM verified that this bi-layer film was present in both the air-formed oxides and the passive films formed on all four alloys. Yttrium oxide content increased as the polarization potential increased. It was this inner layer of yttrium oxide that was determined to be responsible for the improved corrosion resistance of these alloys.

  11. The STS-88 crew eats a meal together before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As part of the final STS-88 prelaunch activities, the six crew members gather for a last meal before liftoff and a photo opportunity in the Operations and Checkout Building. From left, they are Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut; Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow; Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie; Commander Robert D. Cabana; and Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross and James H. Newman. STS-88 will be the first U.S. launch dedicated to the assembly of the International Space Center. Liftoff aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour is targeted for 3:36 a.m. EST, Dec. 4, from Launch Pad 39A.

  12. Radiation induced synthesis of powder yttrium aluminium garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?uba, Vclav; Indrei, Jakub; M?ka, Viliam; Nikl, Martin; Beitlerov, Alena; Pospil, Milan; Jakubec, Ivo

    2011-09-01

    Yttrium-aluminium garnet powders were prepared from aqueous solutions containing yttrium nitrate and aluminium chloride or nitrate via irradiation with accelerated electrons or UV light and via consequent calcination of formed solid phase. UV light seems to be more convenient for yttrium-aluminium garnet preparation; both types of irradiation yield crystalline Y 3Al 5O 12 phase after 1 h calcination at 1000 C in air, but some amounts of yttrium oxide and aluminium oxide were also detected in calcinated solid phase formed under accelerated electrons irradiation. Preliminary radioluminescence and thermoluminescence measurements were performed to further evaluate prepared materials. Intensive radioluminescence typical for Ce 3+ doped structure was observed; thermoluminescence glow curves show distinctive peaks at 135-140 and 240-250 C.

  13. Discovery of interaction signatures in the Hickson Compact Group 88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosch, Noah

    2015-08-01

    I describe new observations of the Hickson Compact Group 88 (HCG88) obtained during the commissioning of a new telescope at the Wise Observatory. The observations that reach low surface brightness levels reveal a diffuse, ~20-kpc long low-surface-brightness tail emerging from the brightest component (NGC 6878) to the NW, and possibly a morphological abnormally in component B (NGC 6977). The N6878 tail could explain the asymmetry in this galaxy’s optical rotation curve. These findings show that significant interactions, including possible galactic cannibalism, have taken place in at least two galaxies of this group, contrary to previous claims that HCG88 is in a very early stage of interaction. This work emphasizes the surprisingly interesting results that can be obtained from deep imaging of interesting targets.

  14. Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Stein, B S

    1998-08-01

    Since 1986, benign prostatic hyperplasia has been treated with lasers, but clinical use was not practical until the right-angled fiber was developed in the early 1990s. The neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser is one of four types available for treating the prostate. Laser energy levels can be adjusted to provide coagulation (at lower energy densities) or vaporization (at higher energy densities). In a randomized study of these two techniques, symptom scores were similar at 1-year follow-up, but the peak urinary flow rate was higher and the reoperation rate was lower in the patients who received vaporization treatment. In randomized investigations that have compared laser prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), symptom scores and urinary flow rates improved in both groups, but results were somewhat better after TURP. Cumulative data for 3-year follow-up after laser prostatectomy have shown that the improved symptom scores and urinary flow are durable. The major disadvantages with use of Nd:YAG prostatectomy are delayed time to voiding, posttreatment dysuria (which occurs in 15 to 30% of patients), and total cost. Overall, Nd:YAG prostatectomy has both pros and cons. In comparison with TURP, the laser procedure is shorter, has fewer complications, can be done on an outpatient basis, and provides quicker recovery and equivalent results. PMID:9703309

  15. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  16. 36 CFR 223.88 - Bidding methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.88 Section 223.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids ...

  17. 36 CFR 223.88 - Bidding methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 223.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids 223.88 Bidding methods. (a) Competitive sales of National Forest timber shall be offered through either sealed or...

  18. 38 CFR 4.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4.88 Section 4.88 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies ...

  19. 7 CFR 982.88 - Amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amendments. 982.88 Section 982.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  20. 7 CFR 982.88 - Amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendments. 982.88 Section 982.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  1. 7 CFR 982.88 - Amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amendments. 982.88 Section 982.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  2. 7 CFR 982.88 - Amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amendments. 982.88 Section 982.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  3. 7 CFR 982.88 - Amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amendments. 982.88 Section 982.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  4. 38 CFR 8.8 - Health requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health requirements. 8.8... INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.8 Health requirements. National Service life insurance on any plan may be... month for which the unpaid premium was due, provided the applicant be in as good health on the date...

  5. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  6. 7 CFR 966.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 966.88 Section 966.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  7. 7 CFR 966.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 966.88 Section 966.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  8. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  9. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  10. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  11. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 984.88 Section 984.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  12. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 984.88 Section 984.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  13. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 984.88 Section 984.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  14. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 984.88 Section 984.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  15. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 984.88 Section 984.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  16. 7 CFR 966.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 966.88 Section 966.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  17. 7 CFR 966.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 966.88 Section 966.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  18. 7 CFR 966.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 966.88 Section 966.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  19. 40 CFR 88.302-94 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 86 also apply to this part. All terms used in this part, but not defined in this section or in 88.302-93 and 40 CFR part 86 shall have the meaning assigned to them in the Clean Air Act.../engine conversion configuration pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR part 86 and this part 88....

  20. 49 CFR 230.88 - Throttles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Throttles. 230.88 Section 230.88 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Throttles...

  1. 40 CFR 88.302-94 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 86 also apply to this part. All terms used in this part, but not defined in this section or in § 88.302-93 and 40 CFR part 86 shall have the meaning assigned to them in the Clean Air Act.../engine conversion configuration pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR part 86 and this part 88....

  2. 40 CFR 88.302-94 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 86 also apply to this part. All terms used in this part, but not defined in this section or in § 88.302-93 and 40 CFR part 86 shall have the meaning assigned to them in the Clean Air Act.../engine conversion configuration pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR part 86 and this part 88....

  3. 38 CFR 8.8 - Health requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health requirements. 8.8... INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.8 Health requirements. National Service life insurance on any plan may be... month for which the unpaid premium was due, provided the applicant be in as good health on the date...

  4. 38 CFR 8.8 - Health requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health requirements. 8.8... INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.8 Health requirements. National Service life insurance on any plan may be... month for which the unpaid premium was due, provided the applicant be in as good health on the date...

  5. 38 CFR 8.8 - Health requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health requirements. 8.8... INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.8 Health requirements. National Service life insurance on any plan may be... month for which the unpaid premium was due, provided the applicant be in as good health on the date...

  6. 38 CFR 8.8 - Health requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health requirements. 8.8... INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.8 Health requirements. National Service life insurance on any plan may be... month for which the unpaid premium was due, provided the applicant be in as good health on the date...

  7. 49 CFR 230.88 - Throttles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Throttles. 230.88 Section 230.88 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Throttles...

  8. 49 CFR 230.88 - Throttles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Throttles. 230.88 Section 230.88 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Throttles...

  9. 49 CFR 230.88 - Throttles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Throttles. 230.88 Section 230.88 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Throttles...

  10. 49 CFR 230.88 - Throttles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Throttles. 230.88 Section 230.88 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Throttles...

  11. 7 CFR 945.88 - Derogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derogation. 945.88 Section 945.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 993.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 993.88 Section 993.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA...

  13. 7 CFR 993.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 993.88 Section 993.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA...

  14. 7 CFR 993.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 993.88 Section 993.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA...

  15. 7 CFR 993.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 993.88 Section 993.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA...

  16. 7 CFR 993.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 993.88 Section 993.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10627 - Yttrium borate phosphate vanadate with europium and additional dopants (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yttrium borate phosphate vanadate with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10627 Yttrium borate phosphate... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as yttrium borate...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10627 - Yttrium borate phosphate vanadate with europium and additional dopants (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yttrium borate phosphate vanadate with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10627 Yttrium borate phosphate... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as yttrium borate...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  14. Gadolinium and Yttrium Borates: Thermal Behavior and Structural Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Adad, M. Th.; Aloui-Lebbou, O.; Goutaudier, C.; Panczer, G.; Dujardin, C.; Pedrini, C.; Florian, P.; Massiot, D.; Gerard, F.; Kappenstein, Ch.

    2000-10-01

    The present work deals with the phase diagram of the Gd2O3-B2O3 binary system where three solid phases with respective stoichiometries Gd3BO6, GdBO3, and Gd(BO2)3 have been evidenced. MAS NMR experiments were performed using similar yttrium compounds. Only BIV sites exist in orthoborate at room temperature and the transition phase observed at about 900C has to be attributed to the change of the boron environment with progressive formation of BIII and fast exchange between BIII and BIV when temperature increases. MAS NMR results confirm the existence of two yttrium sites. In Y3BO6, two threefold and one fourfold boron atoms are observed. One BIII corresponds to a planar orthoborate group; the other would be distorted. Fifteen yttrium sites have been observed which are not interpreted yet.

  15. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold; Grantham, LeRoy F.; Specht, Eugene R.

    1992-01-01

    To increase the operating temperature of a reactor, the melting point and mechanical properties of the fuel must be increased. For an actinide-rich fuel, yttrium, lanthanum and/or rare earth elements can be added, as stabilizers, to uranium and plutonium and/or a mixture of other actinides to raise the melting point of the fuel and improve its mechanical properties. Since only about 1% of the actinide fuel may be yttrium, lanthanum, or a rare earth element, the neutron penalty is low, the reactor core size can be reduced, the fuel can be burned efficiently, reprocessing requirements are reduced, and the nuclear waste disposal volumes reduced. A further advantage occurs when yttrium, lanthanum, and/or other rare earth elements are exposed to radiation in a reactor, they produce only short half life radioisotopes, which reduce nuclear waste disposal problems through much shorter assured-isolation requirements.

  16. Effect of yttrium on nucleation and growth of zirconium hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changji; Xiong, Liangyin; Wu, Erdong; Liu, Shi

    2015-02-01

    Addition of yttrium in zirconium causes precipitates of yttrium, which form two types of particles and are oxidized upon heat treatment. One type of particles with sub-micrometer scale sizes has a low population, whereas the other with nano scale sizes has a high population and cluster distribution. Owing to strong affinity of yttrium to hydrogen, the nanoparticles, mostly within the grains of the Zr-Y alloy, attract nucleation of hydrides at the clusters of the nanoparticles and cause preferential distribution of intragranular hydrides. In comparison with that of Zr, additional nanoparticles in the Zr-Y alloy impede further growth of hydride precipitates during hydriding. It is deduced that the impediment of growing hydride precipitates by the nanoparticles is developed during an auto-catalytic nucleation process, which leads to formation of thin and intragranular hydrides, favorable to mitigation of hydride embrittlement.

  17. Synthesis and chemistry of yttrium and lanthanide metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this research project is to determine the special features of complexes of yttrium and the lanthanide metals which will allow the design and synthesis of materials with unique chemical, physical, and catalytic properties. Past studies of yttrium and lanthanide metal alkyl and hydride complexes stabilized by cyclopentadienyl co-ligands have shown that a substantial, often singular, organometallic chemistry is available via these metals. More extensive utilization of the chemical opportunities available through yttrium and the lanthanides would be possible, however, if stabilizing ancillary ligand systems less sensitive to oxidation and protonolysis than cyclopentadienides could be developed. Alkoxide ligands are attractive in this regard and our recent research had focused on alkoxides and the special opportunities they can provide to these metals. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Thermochromism in yttrium iron garnet compounds.

    PubMed

    Serier-Brault, Hélène; Thibault, Lucile; Legrain, Magalie; Deniard, Philippe; Rocquefelte, Xavier; Leone, Philippe; Perillon, Jean-Luc; Le Bris, Stéphanie; Waku, Jean; Jobic, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, hereafter labeled YIG) has been synthesized by solid-state reaction, characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and its optical properties from room temperature (RT) to 300 °C are discussed. Namely, its greenish color at RT is assigned to an O(2-) → Fe(3+) ligand-to-metal charge transfer at 2.57 eV coupled with d-d transitions peaking at 1.35 and 2.04 eV. When the temperature is raised, YIG displays a marked thermochromic effect; i.e., the color changes continuously from greenish to brownish, which offers opportunities for potential application as a temperature indicator for everyday uses. The origin of the observed thermochromism is assigned to a gradual red shift of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer with temperature while the positioning in energy of the d-d transitions is almost unaltered. Attempts to achieve more saturated colors via doping (e.g., Al(3+), Ga(3+), Mn(3+), ...) remained unsuccessful except for chromium. Indeed, Y3Fe5O12:Cr samples exhibit at RT the same color than the undoped garnet at 200 °C. The introduction of Cr(3+) ions strongly impacts the color of the Y3Fe5O12 parent either by an inductive effect or, more probably, by a direct effect on the electronic structure of the undoped material with formation of a midgap state. PMID:25382733

  19. Development of photocatalyst by combined nitrogen and yttrium doping

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Matiullah; Cao, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The simulated compensated YN{sub SUB} co-doped TiO{sub 2} model can reasonably explain the experimental observations. Calculation results show that substitutional Y at Ti sites and substitutional N at O sites with an oxygen vacancy give stable configuration, reduced band gap, better visible light absorption and enhance separations of photoexcited charge carriers. The experimental observations confirmed the theoretical findings. - Highlights: (Y, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} was synthesized by mild one pot hydrothermal method. The Y doping concentration was varied from 0.01 to 1.38 at%. 0.05% (Y, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} shows enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. Compensated and noncompensated ab-initio calculations were performed. Calculation results reasonably explained the experimental findings. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide co-doped with yttrium and nitrogen with different yttrium doping concentration has been synthesized by mild one pot hydrothermal method without any post calcination for crystallization. Irrespective of the yttrium doping concentration, all the synthesized samples were composed of pure anatase phase with good crystallinity. And the synthesized co-doped samples have spherical morphology with uniform particle size distribution. The absorption edge of the co-doped TiO{sub 2} was shifted toward visible light region depicting that the intrinsic band gap of TiO{sub 2} was affected by the co-doping. Among the different samples, the co-doped sample with 0.05% yttrium doping concentration exhibits enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. Compensated and non-compensated yttriumnitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} models were simulated using density functional theory to explain the experimental findings. The calculation results show that the compensated yttriumnitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} model may reasonably explain the experimental observations due to its stable configuration, narrowed band gap and enhanced separation of photoexcited carriers.

  20. Enhancement of Superconductivity of Lanthanum and Yttrium Sesquicarbide

    DOEpatents

    Krupka, M. C.; Giorgi, A. L.; Krikorian, N. H.; Szklarz, E. G.

    1972-06-22

    A method of enhancing the superconductivity of body-centered cubic lanthanum and yttrium sesquicarbide through formation of the sesquicarbides from ternary alloys of novel composition (N/sub x/M/sub 1-x/)C/sub z/, where N is yttrium or lanthanum, M is thorium, any of the Group IV and VI transition metals, or gold, germanium or silicon, and z is approximately 1.2 to 1.6. These ternary sesquicarbides have superconducting transition temperatures as high as 17.0/sup 0/K.

  1. A Cilia Independent Role of Ift88/Polaris during Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Christoph; Powelske, Christian; Mergen, Miriam; Herbst, Henriette; Kotsis, Fruzsina; Nitschke, Roland; Kuehn, E. Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Ift88 is a central component of the intraflagellar transport (Ift) complex B, essential for the building of cilia and flagella from single cell organisms to mammals. Loss of Ift88 results in the absence of cilia and causes left-right asymmetry defects, disordered Hedgehog signaling, and polycystic kidney disease, all of which are explained by aberrant ciliary function. In addition, a number of extraciliary functions of Ift88 have been described that affect the cell-cycle, mitosis, and targeting of the T-cell receptor to the immunological synapse. Similarly, another essential ciliary molecule, the kinesin-2 subunit Kif3a, which transports Ift-B in the cilium, affects microtubule (MT) dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells independently of cilia. We now show that loss of Ift88 impairs cell migration irrespective of cilia. Ift88 is required for the polarization of migrating MDCK cells, and Ift88 depleted cells have fewer MTs at the leading edge. Neither MT dynamics nor MT nucleation are dependent on Ift88. Our findings dissociate the function of Ift88 from Kif3a outside the cilium and suggest a novel extraciliary function for Ift88. Future studies need to address what unifying mechanism underlies the different extraciliary functions of Ift88. PMID:26465598

  2. Highly efficient yttrium-doped ZnO nanorods for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Punnoose, Dinah; Kim, Hee-Je

    2016-03-01

    Yttrium-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were applied to photoanodes of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The introduction of yttrium to ZnO nanostructures facilitates the growth of ZnO nanorods and increases the amount of QD deposition with a large surface area. Furthermore, lower electrical resistance and longer electron lifetime were achieved with yttrium-doping owing to fewer defects and trap sites on the surface of yttrium-doped ZnO nanorods. As a result, the conversion efficiency of 3.3% was achieved with the optimized concentration of yttrium.

  3. Identification and Function of Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 (MyD88) in Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Chao-Zheng; Yan, Hui; Qiu, Wei; Chen, Yong-Gui; Wang, Pei-Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a universal and essential signaling protein in Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. In this study, two MyD88 protein variants (LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1) were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvMyD88 cDNA is 1,848 bp in length and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,428 bp, whereas the LvMyD88-1 cDNA is 1,719 bp in length and has an ORF of 1,299 bp. Both variants encode proteins with death and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains and share 91% sequence identity. In healthy L. vannamei, the LvMyD88 genes were highly expressed in hemocytes but at a low level in the hepatopancreas. The LvMyD88s expression was induced in hemocytes after challenge with lipopolysaccharide, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphyloccocus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus, but not by poly I?C. Overexpression of LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1 in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to activation of antimicrobial peptide genes and wsv069 (ie1), wsv303, and wsv371. These results suggested that LvMyD88 may play a role in antibacterial and antiviral response in L. vannamei. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MyD88 in shrimp and a variant of MyD88 gene in invertebrates. PMID:23071706

  4. Availability of yttrium-90 from strontium-90: a nuclear medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-12-01

    Yttrium-90 (T() 64.1 hours, E(?max)=2.28 MeV) is a pure ?? particle emitting radionuclide with well-established applications in targeted therapy. There are several advantages of ??Y as a therapeutic radionuclide. It has a suitable physical half-life (?64 hours) and decays to a stable daughter product ??Zr by emission of high-energy ?? particles. Yttrium has a relatively simple chemistry and its suitability for forming complexes with a variety of chelating agents is well established. The ??Sr/??Y generator is an ideal source for the long-term continuous availability of no-carrier-added ??Y suitable for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The parent radionuclide ??Sr, which is a long-lived fission product, is available in large quantities from spent fuel. Several useful technologies have been developed for the preparation of ??Sr/??Y generators. There are several well-established radiopharmaceuticals based on monoclonal antibodies, peptides, and particulates labeled with ??Y, that are in regular use for the treatment of some forms of primary cancers and arthritis. At present, there are no generators for the elution of ??Y that can be set up in a hospital radiopharmacy. The radionuclide is procured from manufacturers and the radiopharmaceuticals are formulated on site. This article reviews the development of ??Sr/??Y generator and the development of ??Y radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:23009585

  5. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Guon, J.; Grantham, L.F.; Specht, E.R.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes an improved metal alloy reactor fuel consisting essentially of uranium, plutonium, and at least one element from the group consisting of yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium.

  6. Structural and dielectric properties of yttrium substituted nickel ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Ognjanovic, Stevan M.; Tokic, Ivan; Cvejic, Zeljka; Rakic, Srdjan; Srdic, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Dense NiFe{sub 2?x}Y{sub x}O{sub 4} ceramics (with 0 ? x ? 0.3) were prepared. Pure spinels were obtained for x ? 0.07 while for x ? 0.15 samples had secondary phases. With addition of yttrium, ac conductivity slightly increased. We suggest several effects that can explain the observed changes in ac conduction. With addition of yttrium, dielectric constant increased while the tg ? decreased. - Abstract: The influence of Y{sup 3+} ions on structural and dielectric properties of nickel ferrites (NiFe{sub 2?x}Y{sub x}O{sub 4}, where 0 ? x ? 0.3) has been studied. The as-synthesized samples, prepared by the co-precipitation method, were analyzed by XRD and FTIR which suggested that Y{sup 3+} ions were incorporated into the crystal lattice for all the samples. However, the XRD analysis of the sintered samples showed that secondary phases appear in the samples with x > 0.07. The samples have densities greater than 90% TD and the SEM images showed that the grain size decreases with the addition of yttrium. Dielectric properties measured from 150 to 25 C in the frequency range of 100 Hz1 MHz showed that the addition of yttrium slightly increases the ac conductivity and decreases the tg ? therefore making the materials better suited for the use in microwave devices.

  7. Evidence of yttrium silicate inclusions in YSZ-porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Brian R; Griggs, Jason A; Neidigh, John; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    This report introduces the discovery of crystalline defects that can form in the porcelain veneering layer when in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The focus was on dental prostheses and understanding the defects that form in the YSZ/porcelain system; however the data reported herein may have broader implications toward the use and stability of YSZ-based ceramics in general. Specimens were cut from fully sintered YSZ plates and veneering porcelain was applied (<1 mm thick) to one surface and fired under manufacturer's recommended protocol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with integrated electron dispersive X-ray (EDAX) was used for microstructural and elemental analysis. EDAX, for chemical analysis and transmission electron diffraction (TED) for structural analysis were both performed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, in order to spatially resolve Y-rich precipitates, micro-CT scans were conducted at varying depths within the porcelain veneer. Local EDAX (SEM) was performed in the regions of visible inclusions and showed significant increases in yttrium concentration. TEM specimens also showed apparent inclusions in the porcelain and selected area electron diffraction was performed on these regions and found the inclusions to be crystalline and identified as either yttrium-silicate (Y2 SiO5 ) or yttrium-disilicate (Y2 Si2 O7 ). Micro-CT data showed that yttrium-silicate precipitates were distributed throughout the thickness of the porcelain veneer. Future studies are needed to determine whether many of the premature failures associated with this materials system may be the result of crystalline flaws that form as a result of high temperature yttrium diffusion near the surfaces of YSZ. PMID:24106151

  8. The High-Energy Transport Code HETC88

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Alsmiller, F.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Hermann, O.W.; Barnes, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    An upgraded version, HETC88, of the previously available High-Energy Transport Code HETC is briefly described. In the upgraded code, the particle production model from hadron-nucleus nonelastic collisions at energies greater than 5 GeV has been revised. At nucleon and ion energies below 5 GeV, HETC88 is not different from the code previously available. In particular, provision is still made to allow neutrons with energies less than or equal to20 MeV to be transported by none of the available codes designed for low-energy neutron transport. Calculated results for the longitudinal distribution of the flux of neutrons with energy greater than or equal to40 KeV in the Tevatron tunnel when 900 GeV protons interact with N/sub 2/ in a warm section are presented and compared with experimental data. Some disagreements between the calculated and measured neutron flux are found. For 20 TeV protons incident on a large cylindrical iron target, calculated ''star'' density results from HETC88, FLUKA87, CASIM, and MARS10 are also compared. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Validation of the Serbian Version of Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale 88 (MSSS-88)

    PubMed Central

    Rodic, Sindi Z.; Knezevic, Tatjana I.; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija B.; Dackovic, Jelena R.; Dujmovic, Irena; Pekmezovic, Tatjana D.; Drulovic, Jelena S.; Konstantinovic, Ljubica M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS)-88 has been developed for self-assessment of spasticity symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to validate MSSS-88 and evaluate the psychometric properties in patients with MS in Serbia. Methods The study comprised 65 MS patients with spasticity. MSSS-88 consists of 88 items grouped in eight sections. Internal consistency of the MSSS-88SR subscales was determined using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Test/retest reliability with an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for each MSSS-88SR subscale was performed. Clinical validity of MSSS-88SR was determined by correlations with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Results The range of Cronbach’s alpha for all scales and ICC was 0.91–0.96 and 0.84–0.91, respectively. All ICCs were statistically significant (p<0.05). All evaluated subscales of MSSS-88 were significantly correlated with the NRS scale. The highest correlation coefficients were registered between the WL subscale and the EDSS and MAS, while the strongest relationship was observed between the MSS subscale and the NRS. Conclusion The Serbian translated version of this instrument may be useful as a clinical measure for spasticity and functionality in patients with MS. PMID:26771661

  10. 42 CFR 88.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM § 88.1 Definitions. Act means the Title XXXIII of the... Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, Pub.L. 111-347), which created the World Trade Center... Street to the east in which stood the former World Trade Center complex. Health condition...

  11. 42 CFR 88.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM § 88.1 Definitions. Act means the Title XXXIII of the... Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, Pub.L. 111-347), which created the World Trade Center... Street to the east in which stood the former World Trade Center complex. Health condition...

  12. 32 CFR 552.88 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.88 Responsibilities... of Ft. Lewis Land Use Policy and area access procedures, and provide periodic updates through media. Act as interface, when necessary, to resolve community relations issues related to land...

  13. 32 CFR 552.88 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.88 Responsibilities... of Ft. Lewis Land Use Policy and area access procedures, and provide periodic updates through media. Act as interface, when necessary, to resolve community relations issues related to land...

  14. 32 CFR 552.88 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.88 Responsibilities... of Ft. Lewis Land Use Policy and area access procedures, and provide periodic updates through media. Act as interface, when necessary, to resolve community relations issues related to land...

  15. Project MASTER, 1987-88. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Hammack, Floyd

    Project MASTER completed its 3-year funding cycle in 1987-88. The project aimed at providing enhanced science instruction to 575 Spanish-speaking limited-English-proficient students in 5 elementary schools. Project MASTER offered classes in English as a Second Language (ESL), mathematics, science, and computer skills with a hands-on, integrated…

  16. 40 CFR 88.201-94 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program 88.201-94 Scope. Applicability. The requirements of this subpart shall apply to the following: (a) State Implementation Plan revisions for the State of California and...) Vehicle manufacturers with sales in the State of California....

  17. 36 CFR 223.88 - Bidding methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 223.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber... Forest timber shall be offered through either sealed or oral auction bidding. The method chosen for...

  18. 36 CFR 223.88 - Bidding methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 223.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber... Forest timber shall be offered through either sealed or oral auction bidding. The method chosen for...

  19. 36 CFR 223.88 - Bidding methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 223.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber... Forest timber shall be offered through either sealed or oral auction bidding. The method chosen for...

  20. 40 CFR 88.302-93 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.302-93 Definitions. The definitions in 40 CFR part 86.... Combination heavy-duty vehicle means a vehicle with a GVWR greater than 8,500 pounds (3,900 kilograms) which... covered fleet purchase requirements. Single-unit heavy-duty vehicle means a self-propelled motor...

  1. 40 CFR 88.302-93 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.302-93 Definitions. The definitions in 40 CFR part 86.... Combination heavy-duty vehicle means a vehicle with a GVWR greater than 8,500 pounds (3,900 kilograms) which... covered fleet purchase requirements. Single-unit heavy-duty vehicle means a self-propelled motor...

  2. 40 CFR 88.302-93 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.302-93 Definitions. The definitions in 40 CFR part 86.... Combination heavy-duty vehicle means a vehicle with a GVWR greater than 8,500 pounds (3,900 kilograms) which... covered fleet purchase requirements. Single-unit heavy-duty vehicle means a self-propelled motor...

  3. 40 CFR 88.302-93 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.302-93 Definitions. The definitions in 40 CFR part 86.... Combination heavy-duty vehicle means a vehicle with a GVWR greater than 8,500 pounds (3,900 kilograms) which... covered fleet purchase requirements. Single-unit heavy-duty vehicle means a self-propelled motor...

  4. 40 CFR 88.302-93 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.302-93 Definitions. The definitions in 40 CFR part 86.... Combination heavy-duty vehicle means a vehicle with a GVWR greater than 8,500 pounds (3,900 kilograms) which... covered fleet purchase requirements. Single-unit heavy-duty vehicle means a self-propelled motor...

  5. 42 CFR 88.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Conditions (4) Cancers: This list includes those individual cancer types specified in Table 1, below, according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition (ICD-9). 88.1, Nt. ER12OC12.000 ER12OC12.001 ER12OC12.002...

  6. 9 CFR 88.2 - General information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.2 General information. (a) State governments may enact and enforce regulations... whether an individual or other entity found to transport equines to a slaughtering facility is subject to... who transported the equines information regarding the business of that individual or other...

  7. 9 CFR 88.2 - General information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.2 General information. (a) State governments may enact and enforce regulations... whether an individual or other entity found to transport equines for slaughter is subject to the... transported the equines information regarding the business of that individual or other entity. When...

  8. 9 CFR 88.2 - General information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.2 General information. (a) State governments may enact and enforce regulations... whether an individual or other entity found to transport equines to a slaughtering facility is subject to... who transported the equines information regarding the business of that individual or other...

  9. 9 CFR 88.2 - General information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.2 General information. (a) State governments may enact and enforce regulations... whether an individual or other entity found to transport equines for slaughter is subject to the... transported the equines information regarding the business of that individual or other entity. When...

  10. 9 CFR 88.2 - General information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.2 General information. (a) State governments may enact and enforce regulations... whether an individual or other entity found to transport equines for slaughter is subject to the... transported the equines information regarding the business of that individual or other entity. When...

  11. Determining yttrium in plutonium by anion-exchange x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Martell, C.J.; Hansel, J.M.

    1985-11-01

    This report describes a method for determining yttrium in plutonium using an anion-exchange separation and x-ray fluorescence. We add zirconium to the plutonium solution as an internal standard. We oxidize the plutonium to Pu + 4 and pass the solution through an anion-exchange column with 8M HCl. The Pu + 4 sorbs to the resin and the yttrium and zirconium pass through completely. We evaporate the eluate solution containing the yttrium and zirconium and transfer it to a 10-ml volumetric flask. We add a portion of this solution to an x-ray cell and measure the Ka x-ray line for both yttrium and zirconium. The ratio of yttrium to zirconium is then compared with standards. This method has a precision of 0.84% relative standard deviation for yttrium over a concentration range of 0.5 to 3.5 mg in a 10-ml volume. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Synthesis of aluminum-based scandium-yttrium master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhin, V. Yu.; Kosov, Ya. I.; Lobacheva, O. L.; Dzhevaga, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    The preparation technology for an Al-2% Sc-0.5% Y master alloy using aluminum-manganese alloys has been developed and tested. The microstructure of the prepared master alloy is studied and the compositions of intermetallics is determined. The efficient technological parameters of the synthesis are determined. It is shown that varying the compositions of starting reagents and alloying additions and optimizing the process conditions (temperature, mixing, etc.) allow us to forecast the manufacturing and operating characteristics of aluminum-based master alloys. Joint additions of scandium and yttrium oxides to a charge favor a substantial decrease in the grain size of the formed intermetallics; this effect appears to the utmost in the case of microallying with yttrium up to 0.5 wt %.

  13. Structural study of yttrium substituted BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía Gómez, J. A.; Canaria, C.; Ochoa Burgos, R.; Ortiz, C. A.; Supelano, G. I.; Parra Vargas, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Yttrium-substituted Bi1-xYxFeO3 (x=0, 0.03, 0.07, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5) samples were prepared by solid state reaction technique. Morphological analysis was obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique indicating mainly granular behaviour. In addition, the substitution of yttrium promotes smaller particle size of BiFeO3. The obtained samples were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystal structure and the lattice parameters were confirmed by XRD. Rietveld refinement of experimental X-ray diffraction patterns showed that substituted BiFeO3 compounds crystallize in a R3c type structure and the lattice parameters decrease as Y concentration increases.

  14. Novel Synthesis of Yttrium Phosphate Microspheres for Radioembolization of Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashita, M.; Matsui, N.; Li, Z.; Miyazaki, T.

    2011-10-01

    Chemically durable microspheres containing yttrium and/or phosphorus are useful for intra-arterial radiotherapy. In the present study, we attempted to prepare yttrium phosphate (YPO4) microspheres with high chemical durability as well as smooth surface and investigated their chemical durability in simulated body environment. YPO4 microspheres with smooth surface around 25 ?m were successfully obtained, when gelatin droplets containing YPO4 precursor was cooled to be solidified in water-in-oil emulsion and then heat-treated at 1100C. The chemical durability of the heat-treated microspheres in simulated body fluid at pH =6 and 7 was high enough for clinical application of radioembolic therapy of cancer.

  15. Phonon anharmonicity of monoclinic zirconia and yttrium-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. W.; Smith, H. L.; Lan, T.; Niedziela, J. L.; Muoz, J. A.; Keith, J. B.; Mauger, L.; Abernathy, D. L.; Fultz, B.

    2015-04-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on monoclinic zirconia (ZrO2 ) and 8 mol% yttrium-stabilized zirconia were performed at temperatures from 300 to 1373 w K . Temperature-dependent phonon densities of states (DOS) are reported, as are Raman spectra obtained at elevated temperatures. First-principles lattice dynamics calculations with density functional theory gave total and partial phonon DOS curves and mode Grneisen parameters. These mode Grneisen parameters were used to predict the experimental temperature dependence of the phonon DOS with partial success. However, substantial anharmonicity was found at elevated temperatures, especially for phonon modes dominated by the motions of oxygen atoms. Yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was somewhat more anharmonic and had a broader phonon spectrum at low temperatures, owing in part to defects in its structure. YSZ also has a larger vibrational entropy than monoclinic zirconia.

  16. Yttrium Complexes of Arsine, Arsenide, and Arsinidene Ligands**

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Thomas; Kerridge, Andrew; Layfield, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Deprotonation of the yttriumarsine complex [Cp?3Y{As(H)2Mes}] (1) (Cp?=?5-C5H4Me, Mes=mesityl) by nBuLi produces the ?-arsenide complex [{Cp?2Y[?-As(H)Mes]}3] (2). Deprotonation of the AsH bonds in 2 by nBuLi produces [Li(thf)4]2[{Cp?2Y(?3-AsMes)}3Li], [Li(thf)4]2[3], in which the dianion 3 contains the first example of an arsinidene ligand in rare-earth metal chemistry. The molecular structures of the arsine, arsenide, and arsinidene complexes are described, and the yttriumarsenic bonding is analyzed by density functional theory. PMID:25655652

  17. Preparation of precursors for yttrium-containing advanced ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.S.; Stolz, R.A.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a process for extracting a blend of rare earths for components of a ceramics principally comprising at least one of zirconia or hafnium from a rare earth ore containing rare earth values and using the blend or rare earths in preparing a composite for use in fabrication of an ceramics containing oxides of the blend of rare earths. It comprises: feeding at least a portion of the rare earth ore to a fluidized bed chlorinator at 800{degrees}--1250{degrees}C to produce rare earth chlorides from the rare earth values contained in the ore; separating a blend of yttrium-depleted rare earth chlorides from yttrium chloride by-product, with the yttrium chloride by-product being separated by differential condensation from the blend of rare earth chlorides at 725{degrees}--1200{degrees}C; anhydrously reacting the separated blend of rare earth chlorides with at least one of alkoxide reactant selected from the group consisting of the alkali metal alkoxides to produce blend rare earth alkoxides and separating the blended rare earth alkoxides from reaction by-products and excess reagents; mixing the rare earth alkoxide with at least one of zirconium and hafnium alkoxide, to produce an alkoxide composite; and polymerizing and processing the composite into ceramic.

  18. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 88

    SciTech Connect

    McCutchan, E.A.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2014-01-15

    The experimental results from the various reaction and radioactive decay studies leading to nuclides in the A=88 mass chain have been reviewed. Nuclides ranging from Ge (Z=32) to Ru (Z=44) are included. For these nuclei, level and decay schemes, as well as tables of nuclear properties, are given. This work supersedes the previous evaluation of the data on these nuclides (G. Mukherjee, A.A. Sonzogni – Nucl.Data Sheets 105, 419 (2005))

  19. Unusual Chlorination Patterns of Three IPR Isomers of C88 Fullerene in C88 (7)Cl12/24 , C88 (17)Cl22 , and C88 (33)Cl12/14.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Yang, Shangfeng; Kemnitz, Erhard; Troyanov, Sergey I

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature chlorination of three IPR isomers of fullerene C88 , C2 -C88 (7), Cs -C88 (17), and C2 -C88 (33), resulted in the isolation and X-ray structural characterization of C88 (7)Cl12 , C88 (7)Cl24 , C88 (17)Cl22 , and C88 (33)Cl12/14 . Chlorination patterns of C88 (7) and C88 (33) isomers are unusual in that one or more pentagons remain free from chlorination while some other pentagons are occupied by two or three Cl atoms. The addition patterns of the isolated chlorides are discussed in terms of the distribution of twelve pentagons on the carbon cages and the formation of stabilizing isolated C=C bonds and benzenoid rings. PMID:26546791

  20. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 88, 2004 July

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, S.S.; Folco, L.; Grady, M.M.; Zolensky, M.E.; Jones, R.; Righter, K.; Zipfel, J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The Meteoritical Bulletin No. 88 lists information for 1610 newly classified meteorites, comprising 753 from Antarctica, 302 from Africa, 505 from Asia (495 of which are from Oman), 40 from North America, 5 from South America, 4 from Europe, and 1 of unknown origin. Information is provided for 9 falls (Alby sur Che??ran, Al Zarnkh, Devgaon, Kamioka, Kendrapara, Maromandia, New Orleans, Sivas, and Villalbeto de la Pen??a). Noteworthy specimens include a eucrite fall (Alby sur Che??ran), 6 martian meteorites, 13 lunar meteorites, and 12 irons including one weighing 3 metric ions (Dronino). ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

  1. Influence of powerful laser irradiation on electromagneto-optical dependences of yttrium iron garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Koronovskyy, V. E.

    2009-09-15

    Electromagneto-optical properties of yttrium iron garnets have been investigated in a longitudinal geometry by using optical polarimetry method. It is revealed that irradiation of yttrium iron garnet films by powerful laser impulse leads to essential increase in the electromagneto-optical effect value, which can be due to the elimination of the local mechanical strain or nonuniform pressure in them.

  2. Bacterial infections in Myd88-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Villano, Jason S; Rong, Fang; Cooper, Timothy K

    2014-04-01

    Three breeding colonies of Myd88(-/-) mice had a history of significant morbidity and mortality. Although strain-specific poor reproductive performance might explain neonatal death and dystocia, mice were found dead or required euthanasia because of moribundity, distended abdomen, head tilt, and seizures. Histopathology results included bacteremia, placentitis, metritis, peritonitis with abscess formation, and suppurative meningoencephalitis. Intralesional gram-negative coccobacilli were present, often in extremely high number. Cultures of samples of the cardiac blood of a mouse and from water-bottle sipper tubes provided to some affected mice grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, affected tissues from 2 mice and feces from a third tested PCR-positive for P. aeruginosa. Although the mice had received autoclaved reverse-osmosis-purified drinking water, we suspect that the mice were inoculated with P. aeruginosa through contaminated sipper tubes. Because of the deficiency in most of the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways, these Myd88(-/-) mice were unlikely to have developed competitive innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in bacterial infections. These clinical cases underscore the importance of understanding how genotype, phenotype and environment affect animal health. Sound husbandry and experimental practices are needed to prevent the exposure of immuno-deficient mice to pathogens. PMID:24674585

  3. Bioaccumulation of yttrium in Pseudomonas fluorescens and the role of the outer membrane component(s).

    PubMed

    Appanna, V D; Hamel, R D; Pankar, E; Puiseux-Dao, S

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens was grown in millimolar amounts of yttrium. The tolerance to yttrium appeared to be mediated by the ability of the organism to accumulate the trivalent metal predominantly in the outer membrane component(s). At the stationary phase of growth, 65 to 70% of the metal was associated with the constituent(s) of the outer membrane. Treatment with 2 mM (EDTA) did not release the metal. Incubation of the outer membrane fraction with yttrium led to further accumulation of the metal. The outer membrane equivalent to 1 mg of protein was shown to immobilize 175 microg of yttrium. There was no significant variation in uronic acid and the lipid contents of the control and yttrium-stressed cells as monitored by colorimetric assays. The protein profiles of the outer and inner membrane components obtained from the control and metal-stressed cells showed marked variations as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis. PMID:11491521

  4. RBS and GAXRD contributions to yttrium implanted extra low carbon steel characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Caudron, E.; Buscail, H.; Jacob, Y.P.; Stroosnijder, M.F.

    1999-02-01

    Extra low carbon steel samples were yttrium implanted using an ion implantation method. Composition and structural studies were carried out before and after yttrium implantations by several analytical and structural techniques (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and glancing angle X-ray diffraction) to characterize the yttrium implantation effect on extra low carbon steel. The aim of this article is to show the contributions of Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry (RBS) and glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) to the determination of yttrium depth profiles in the samples. The results obtained by these techniques are compared to those of the other analyses performed in this work to show the existing correlation between composition and structural studies. Their results allow a better understanding of the effect of yttrium implantation in extra low carbon steel before studying their corrosion resistance at high temperature.

  5. Giant Dipole Resonance decay of hot rotating 88Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciema?a, M.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Gramegna, F.; Barlini, S.; Casini, G.; Camera, F.

    2014-03-01

    An experiment focusing on study of the properties of hot rotating compound nucleus of 88Mo was performed in LNL Legnaro using 48Ti beam at energies of 300 and 600 MeV on 40Ca target. The compound nucleus was produced at the temperatures of 3 and 4.5 MeV, with angular momentum distribution with lmax > 60 ? (i.e. exceeding the crtical angular momentum for fission). High-energy gamma rays, measured in coincidence with evaporation residues and alpha particles, were analyzed with the statistical model. The GDR parameters were obtained from the best fit to the data, which allowed investigating an evolution of the GDR width up to high temperatures.

  6. Lattice parameter and luminescence properties of europium activated yttrium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, M. V.; Kang, J. H.; Jeon, D. Y.; Popovici, E.-J.; Muresan, L.; Tsukerblat, B. S.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of yttrium oxide doped with trivalent europium have been prepared by ceramic techniques, under different synthesis conditions; barium chloride (BaCl 2) and sodium tetraborate (Na 2B 4O 7) were tested as flux. The improvement of luminescence properties in dependence on substitution of Eu 3+ for Y 3+ in the host lattice, under electron and UV excitations is demonstrated. The lattice parameter as a quantitative assessment of activator incorporation degree is proposed. The obtained results are discussed with respect to the employed processing method.

  7. Potassium yttrium hexaniobium octadecachloride, KYNb6Cl18.

    PubMed

    Duraisamy, Thirumalai; Lachgar, Abdessadek

    2003-04-01

    The structure of potassium yttrium hexaniobium octadecachloride is built of anionic [Nb(6)Cl(12)(i)Cl(6)(a)](4-) cluster units (where 'i' and 'a' denote inner and outer ligands, respectively), linked together by K(+) and Y(3+) cations. The K(+) cations occupy half of the tetrahedral vacancies in the face-centered cubic lattice of cluster units, and are coordinated by 12 chloride ligands. The Y atom is located in an octahedral site and is bonded to six outer chloride ligands. PMID:12682382

  8. Scandium and yttrium extraction from ash-slag wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kontsevoi, A.A.; Mikhnev, A.D.; Pashkov, G.L.; Kolmakova, L.P.

    1995-12-20

    The influence of various factors on scandium (III) and yttrium (II) extraction from the ash-slag wastes of brown coal combustion to hydrochloric acid solution was studied. In the present study the authors used a specimen of ASWs that was obtained in brown coal combustion and contained (wt.%): SiO{sub 2} 40.1, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} 8.5, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 10.6, CaO 7.4, MgO 8.3, Sc 0.020, Y 0.048.

  9. Enhanced spin pumping at yttrium iron garnet/Au interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Burrowes, C.; Heinrich, B.; Kardasz, B.; Montoya, E. A.; Girt, E.; Sun Yiyan; Song, Young-Yeal; Wu Mingzhong

    2012-02-27

    Spin injection across the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG)/normal metal Au interface was studied using ferromagnetic resonance. The spin mixing conductance was determined by comparing the Gilbert damping parameter {alpha} in YIG/Au and YIG/Au/Fe heterostructures. The main purpose of this study was to correlate the spin pumping efficiency with chemical modifications of the YIG film surface using in situ etching and deposition techniques. By means of Ar{sup +} ion beam etching, one is able to increase the spin mixing conductance at the YIG/Au interface by a factor of 5 compared to the untreated YIG/Au interface.

  10. Damping in yttrium iron garnet nanoscale films capped by platinum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yiyan; Chang, Houchen; Kabatek, Michael; Song, Young-Yeal; Wang, Zihui; Jantz, Michael; Schneider, William; Wu, Mingzhong; Montoya, E; Kardasz, B; Heinrich, B; te Velthuis, Suzanne G E; Schultheiss, Helmut; Hoffmann, Axel

    2013-09-01

    Strong damping enhancement in nm-thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films due to Pt capping layers was observed. This damping is substantially larger than the expected damping due to conventional spin pumping, is accompanied by a shift in the ferromagnetic resonance field, and can be suppressed by the use of a Cu spacer in between the YIG and Pt films. The data indicate that such damping may originate from the ferromagnetic ordering in Pt atomic layers near the YIG/Pt interface and the dynamic exchange coupling between the ordered Pt spins and the spins in the YIG film. PMID:25166689

  11. Knee arthroscopy after yttrium or osmic acid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Guaydier-Souquieres, C.; Beguin, J.; Ollivier, D.; Loyau, G.

    1989-01-01

    This study presents the macroscopic and histologic results of 35 knee arthroscopies performed on patients with rheumatoid arthritis, some months after an yttrium or osmic acid intraarticular injection. The procedure was most often performed after a failure of the injection or a relapse of synovitis. Arthroscopy provides an understanding of the cause of synoviorthesis failure--insufficient action of the product on the synovitis or its poor diffusion, fibri-nonecrotic deposits, or cartilaginous lesions--and may be used both diagnostically and therapeutically.

  12. Granulometric composition of a luminophor based on yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Smirdova, N.I.; Chau, P.T.; Efryushina, N.P.; Ermakova, S.V.; Parasovchenko, O.G.

    1986-05-01

    The authors tested ammonium, lithium, potassium, and sodium fluorides, chlorides, sulfates, phosphates, and pyrophosphates; calcium, strontium, and barium fluorides, and sodium tetraborate in amounts from 1 to 25% as fluxes. Yttrium and europium oxides, brands ITO-MGr and EiO-1, were used as the starting materials in the synthesis. The photometric characteristics of the luminophors were measured and other methods used in the investigation were thermographic and x-ray phase analysis. It is shown that with a concentration of flux greater than 5%, the intensity and brightness of the luminescence decreases slightly. The granulometric composition of the luminophors after crystallization with the fluxes in optimum conditions is reported.

  13. Some aspects of the geochemistry of yttrium and the lanthanides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Michael

    1965-01-01

    Recent data on the relative abundances of the lanthanides and yttrium in meteorites, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks and sedimentary rocks are reviewed. It is shown that the data are inadequate to substantiate or to disprove Taylor's derivation from these data of a 1:1 abundance ratio of basaltic to granitic rocks in the continental crust. Graphs are given to illustrate the variation of lanthanides in minerals with paragenesis. Both the paragenesis and the crystal chemistry of minerals affect the composition of the lanthanides.

  14. Characteristics of yttrium oxide laser ceramics with additives

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, V V; Solomonov, V I; Orlov, A N; Shitov, V A; Maksimov, R N; Spirina, A V

    2013-03-31

    Neodymium- or ytterbium-doped laser ceramics with a disordered crystal-field structure formed by introduction of iso- and heterovalent elements into yttrium oxide are studied. It is shown that these additives broaden the spectral band of laser transitions, which makes it possible to use ceramics as active laser media emitting ultrashort pulses. Lasing was obtained in several samples of this ceramics. At the same time, it is shown that addition of zirconium and hafnium stimulates the Foerster quenching of upper laser levels and pump levels. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  15. Secondary laser cooling of strontium-88 atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelkin, S. A.; Khabarova, K. Yu.; Galyshev, A. A.; Berdasov, O. I.; Gribov, A. Yu.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Slyusarev, S. N.

    2015-07-01

    The secondary laser cooling of a cloud of strontium-88 atoms on the 1 S 0-3 P 1 (689 nm) intercombination transition captured into a magneto-optical trap has been demonstrated. We describe in detail the recapture of atoms from the primary trap operating on the strong 1 S 0-1 P 1 (461 nm) transition and determine the recapture coefficient ?, the number of atoms, and their temperature in the secondary trap as a function of experimental parameters. A temperature of 2 K has been reached in the secondary trap at the recapture coefficient ? = 6%, which confirms the secondary cooling efficiency and is sufficient to perform metrological measurements of the 1 S 0-3 P 1 (698 nm) clock transition in an optical lattice.

  16. W88 integrated circuit shelf life program

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, J.M.; Anderson, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The W88 Integrated Circuit Shelf Life Program was created to monitor the long term performance, reliability characteristics, and technological status of representative WR ICs manufactured by the Allied Signal Albuquerque Microelectronics Operation (AMO) and by Harris Semiconductor Custom Integrated Circuits Division. Six types of ICs were used. A total of 272 ICs entered two storage temperature environments. Electrical testing and destructive physical analysis were completed in 1995. During each year of the program, the ICs were electrically tested and samples were selected for destructive physical analysis (DPA). ICs that failed electrical tests or DPA criteria were analyzed. Fifteen electrical failures occurred, with two dominant failure modes: electrical overstress (EOS) damage involving the production test programs and electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage during analysis. Because of the extensive handling required during multi-year programs like this, it is not unusual for EOS and ESD failures to occur even though handling and testing precautions are taken. The clustering of the electrical test failures in a small subset of the test operations supports the conclusion that the test operation itself was responsible for many of the failures and is suspected to be responsible for the others. Analysis of the electrical data for the good ICs found no significant degradation trends caused by the storage environments. Forty-six ICs were selected for DPA with findings primarily in two areas: wire bonding and die processing. The wire bonding and die processing findings are not surprising since these technology conditions had been documented during manufacturing and were determined to present acceptable risk. The current reliability assessment of the W88 stockpile assemblies employing these and related ICs is reinforced by the results of this shelf life program. Data from this program will aid future investigation of 4/3 micron or MNOS IC technology failure modes.

  17. Temporary Arterial Balloon Occlusion as an Adjunct to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Nambiar, Ashwin; Hagspiel, Lauren M.; Ahmad, Ehab Ali; Bozlar, Ugur

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study was designed to describe the technique of arterial occlusion using a temporary occlusion balloon system as an alternative to coil occlusion during Yttrium-90 radioembolization of hepatic tumors. Methods. Review of charts, angiography, and follow-up imaging studies of consecutive patients undergoing oncological embolization procedures in which a HyperForm system (ev3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA) was used. Intraprocedural target vessel occlusion and patency of the target vessel on follow-up were recorded. Clinical data and Bremsstrahlung scans were reviewed for evidence of nontarget embolization. Results. Four radioembolization procedures were performed in three patients (all female, age 48-54 (mean 52) years). Five arteries were temporarily occluded (three gastroduodenal arteries, one right gastric artery, and one cystic artery). All radioembolization procedures were successfully completed. Follow-up imaging (either digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA)) was available for all patients between 28-454 (mean 183) days following the procedure, demonstrating all five vessels to be patent. No clinical or imaging evidence for nontarget embolization was found. Conclusions. Temporary balloon occlusion of small and medium-sized arteries during radioembolization allows safe therapy with preserved postprocedural vessel patency on early and midterm follow-up.

  18. Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina, 1987-88. Research Report 1-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill.

    The 21st annual statistical abstract focuses on the breadth of higher education activities in North Carolina in their quantitative aspect. It ranges from brief enrollment counts to complex analyses of the flow of student transfers among institutions. Both past and current (1987-88) information is provided. Data were compiled from forms mailed to…

  19. MCrAlY bond coat with enhanced Yttrium layer

    DOEpatents

    Jablonski, Paul D; Hawk, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-21

    One or more embodiments relates to an MCrAlY bond coat comprising an MCrAlY layer in contact with a Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. The MCrAlY layer is comprised of a .gamma.-M solid solution, a .beta.-MAl intermetallic phase, and Y-type intermetallics. The Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer is comprised of Yttrium atoms coordinated with oxygen atoms comprising the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 lattice. Both the MCrAlY layer and the Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer have a substantial absence of Y--Al oxides, providing advantage in the maintainability of the Yttrium reservoir within the MCrAlY bulk. The MCrAlY bond coat may be fabricated through application of a Y.sub.2O.sub.3 paste to an MCrAlY material, followed by heating in a non-oxidizing environment.

  20. Theoretical study of the scandium and yttrium halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry

    1988-07-01

    Theoretical spectroscopic constants are reported for the X 1?+ and a 3? states of the fluorides, chlorides, and bromides of scandium and yttrium. The calculated D0 values (eV) are ScF(6.00), ScC1(4.55), ScBr(3.90), YF(6.72), YC1(5.36), and YBr(4.74). All systems are predicted to have 1?+ ground states once the effect of unlinked higher excitations are incorporated using the coupled-pair functional approach and relativistic effects are included using either perturbation theory or relativistic effective core potentials. The singlet-triplet splitting is larger for the yttrium halides and decreases for both metals from F to Br. A complete-active space self-consistent-field plus multireference configuration-interaction study of the spectroscopic constants and radiative lifetimes is presented for most of the singlet and triplet states of ScF and YCl below 28 000 cm-1. The theoretical Te value computed for the B 1? state of ScF indicates that the longest wavelength peak (9405 ) for the B 1??X 1?+ system observed in absorption in a neon matrix probably corresponds to the 2-0 band. The calculations provide an unambiguous assignment of two previously unassigned band systems in the laser excitation spectrum of the YCl molecule.

  1. Yttrium oxide based three dimensional metamaterials for visible light cloaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene

    2014-04-01

    Metamaterial with negative refractive index is the key phenomenon behind the concept of a cloaking device to hide an object from light in visible spectrum. Metamaterials made of two and three dimensional lattices of periodically placed electromagnetic resonant cells can achieve absorption and propagation of incident electromagnetic radiation as confined electromagnetic fields confined to a waveguide as surface plasmon polaritons, which can be used for shielding an object from in-tune electromagnetic radiation. The periodicity and dimensions of resonant cavity determine the frequency, which are very small as compared to the wavelength of incident light. Till now the phenomena have been demonstrated only for lights in near infrared spectrum. Recent advancements in fabrication techniques have made it possible to fabricate array of three dimensional nanostructures with cross-sections as small as 25 nm that are required for negative refractive index for wavelengths in visible light spectrum of 400-700 nm and for wider view angle. Two types of metamaterial designs, three dimensional concentric split ring and fishnet, are considered. Three dimensional structures consisted of metal-dielectric-metal stacks. The metal is silver and dielectric is yttrium oxide, other than conventional materials such as FR4 and Duroid. High ? dielectric and high refractive index as well as large crystal symmetry of Yttrium oxide has been investigated as encapsulating medium. Dependence of refractive index on wavelength and bandwidth of negative refractive index region are analyzed for application towards cloaking from light in visible spectrum.

  2. Thick-Film Yttrium Iron Garnet Coatings via Aerosol Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Scooter D.; Glaser, Evan R.; Cheng, Shu-Fan; Eddy, Charles R.; Kub, Fritz; Gorzkowski, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol deposition is a thick-film deposition process that can produce layers up to several hundred micrometers thick with densities greater than 95 pct of the theoretical value. The primary advantage of aerosol deposition is that the deposition takes place entirely at room temperature, thereby enabling film growth in material systems with disparate melting temperatures. We show representative characterization results of yttrium iron garnet thick films deposited onto a <111> gadolinium gallium garnet substrate by aerosol deposition using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, profilometry, vibrating sample magnetometry, and ferromagnetic resonance. To further elucidate the effect of density and grain size on the magnetic properties, we perform post-deposition annealing of the films to study the effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the films. Our results indicate that our system can successfully deposit dense, thick yttrium iron garnet films and that with moderate annealing the films can achieve a ferromagnetic resonance linewidth comparable to that reported for polycrystalline films deposited by other higher temperature growth techniques.

  3. Thick-Film Yttrium Iron Garnet Coatings via Aerosol Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Scooter D.; Glaser, Evan R.; Cheng, Shu-Fan; Eddy, Charles R.; Kub, Fritz; Gorzkowski, Edward P.

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol deposition is a thick-film deposition process that can produce layers up to several hundred micrometers thick with densities greater than 95 pct of the theoretical value. The primary advantage of aerosol deposition is that the deposition takes place entirely at room temperature, thereby enabling film growth in material systems with disparate melting temperatures. We show representative characterization results of yttrium iron garnet thick films deposited onto a <111> gadolinium gallium garnet substrate by aerosol deposition using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, profilometry, vibrating sample magnetometry, and ferromagnetic resonance. To further elucidate the effect of density and grain size on the magnetic properties, we perform post-deposition annealing of the films to study the effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the films. Our results indicate that our system can successfully deposit dense, thick yttrium iron garnet films and that with moderate annealing the films can achieve a ferromagnetic resonance linewidth comparable to that reported for polycrystalline films deposited by other higher temperature growth techniques.

  4. Magnetism in Mo-doped Yttrium Iron Garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanra, S.; Kolekar, Y.; Langhoff, M.; Kahol, P.; Ghosh, K.

    2013-03-01

    Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a synthetic garnet and ferrimagnetic, with chemical formula Y3Fe5O12. In YIG, five iron (III) ions occupy two octahedral and three tetrahedral sites, with the yttrium (III) ions coordinated by eight oxygen ions in an irregular cube. The iron ions in the two coordination sites exhibit different spins, resulting in magnetic behavior. Bulk YIG has been synthesized systematically by solid state reaction method. The formation of pure YIG have been investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) beginning from weighing in molar proportions of Y2O3 and Fe2O3, mixing and grinding, pre-sintering and final sintering at 1300 C. XRD study shows that YIG exhibits cubic structure with lattice constant of about 12 . Magnetization with varying field and temperature has been measured using a SQUID magnetometer. Magnetic measurement of Mo YIG has shown that magnetic moment increase initially and then decreases with Mo doping. Detailed results will be discussed in this presentation. This work is supported by National Science Foundation (Award Number DMR-0907037).

  5. Matrix isolation infrared spectroscopic and density functional theoretical study of the reactions of scandium and yttrium monoxides with monochloromethane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongfei; Zhao, Yanying; Zheng, Xuming; Zhou, Mingfei

    2010-02-25

    Reactions of scandium and yttrium monoxide molecules (ScO and YO) with monochloromethane have been studied in solid argon by infrared absorption spectroscopy and density functional theoretical calculations. The metal monoxide molecules were prepared by laser-evaporation of bulk metal oxide targets. The results show that the ground state scandium and yttrium monoxide molecules reacted with CH(3)Cl to form two MO(CH(3)Cl) (M = Sc, Y) complex isomers spontaneously on annealing. Broad-band UV-visible irradiation initiated the addition of the Cl-C bond to the M=O bond to form the CH(3)OMCl molecule and the addition of the C-H bond to the M=O bond to give the CH(2)ClMOH isomer, both of which are more stable than the MO(CH(3)Cl) complex structures. The CH(2)ClMOH molecule was predicted to involve agnostic interaction between the chlorine atom and the metal atom. PMID:20128585

  6. Genetics Home Reference: MyD88 deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... systems compensate for the loss of MyD88 protein, accounting for the improvement in the condition that occurs ... Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of MyD88 deficiency? These resources address the diagnosis ...

  7. Thin film sputtering of gadolinium and chromium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuepeng

    2005-11-01

    In this work, rf magnetron reactive sputtering was used to synthesize yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) thin films at relatively low temperature and short processing period. A combination of 80W for yttrium target, 130W for aluminum target, and a total pressure of 3 mTorr gas mixtures with 25 sccm argon and 1.4 sccm oxygen flow rate produced a Y3Al5 O12 stoichiometric thin film. Gadolinium and chromium-doped YAG thin films were synthesized in a combinatorial fashion. The combinatorial thin film sputtering technique rapidly determined the gadolinium and chromium concentration that yielded the optimum luminescence intensity to be 5.5 at% for YAG:Gd and 0.69 at% YAG:Cr films, respectively. The concentration quenching phenomena were discussed. A 23 full factorial design of experiments (DOE) was conducted to investigate the effects of substrate temperature, substrate bias, and oxygen flow rate on the luminescence properties and the crystallinity of YAG:Gd and YAG:Cr thin films, respectively. DOE results showed that increasing O2 flow rate decreases both luminescence intensity and film crystallinity, substrate temperature slightly improves luminescence and has a negligible effect on crystallinity, and substrate bias enhances luminescence but decreases crystallinity. The effects of the parameters were thoroughly interpreted by correlating the composition and morphology of the films. Single factor studies for each variable verified the DOE results. The optimum process condition consists if low O 2 flow rate and high substrate bias. The effect of total pressure of the Ar/O2 gas mixture on CL efficiency and XRD intensity was also investigated. The PL temperature dependence of YAG:Gd and YAG:Cr thin films were studied in a temperature range of 15-298 K. The thermal quenching phenomena were observed above 110K on both YAG:Gd and YAG:Cr films. Activation energies of 24.7 meV and 25.2 meV were estimated for YAG:Gd and YAG:Cr films, respectively. Both activation energies were attributed to electron-phonon coupling.

  8. Enhanced Arsenate Removal Performance in Aqueous Solution by Yttrium-Based Adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Byung-Tae; Bang, Sunbaek; Kim, Hyunseok; Kang, Hyorang; Jang, Am

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has become an increasingly important issue due to its high toxicity to humans. The present study focuses on the development of the yttrium-based adsorbents, with basic yttrium carbonate (BYC), Ti-loaded basic yttrium carbonate (Ti-loaded BYC) and yttrium hydroxide prepared using a co-precipitation method. The Langmuir isotherm results confirmed the maximum adsorption capacity of Ti-loaded BYC (348.5 mg/g) was 25% higher than either BYC (289.6 mg/g) or yttrium hydroxide (206.5 mg/g) due to its increased specific surface area (82 m/g) and surface charge (PZC: 8.4). Pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models further confirmed that the arsenate removal rate of Ti-loaded BYC was faster than for BYC and yttrium hydroxide. It was subsequently posited that the dominant removal mechanism of BYC and Ti-loaded BYC was the carbonate-arsenate ion exchange process, whereas yttrium hydroxide was regarded to be a co-precipitation process. The Ti-loaded BYC also displayed the highest adsorption affinity for a wide pH range (3-11) and in the presence of coexisting anionic species such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Therefore, it is expected that Ti-loaded BYC can be used as an effective and practical adsorbent for arsenate remediation in drinking water. PMID:26516879

  9. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps' fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation.

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, V; De Michelis, I; Ferella, F; Vegliò, F

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes. PMID:23831004

  10. Enhanced Arsenate Removal Performance in Aqueous Solution by Yttrium-Based Adsorbents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Byung-Tae; Bang, Sunbaek; Kim, Hyunseok; Kang, Hyorang; Jang, Am

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has become an increasingly important issue due to its high toxicity to humans. The present study focuses on the development of the yttrium-based adsorbents, with basic yttrium carbonate (BYC), Ti-loaded basic yttrium carbonate (Ti-loaded BYC) and yttrium hydroxide prepared using a co-precipitation method. The Langmuir isotherm results confirmed the maximum adsorption capacity of Ti-loaded BYC (348.5 mg/g) was 25% higher than either BYC (289.6 mg/g) or yttrium hydroxide (206.5 mg/g) due to its increased specific surface area (82 m2/g) and surface charge (PZC: 8.4). Pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models further confirmed that the arsenate removal rate of Ti-loaded BYC was faster than for BYC and yttrium hydroxide. It was subsequently posited that the dominant removal mechanism of BYC and Ti-loaded BYC was the carbonate-arsenate ion exchange process, whereas yttrium hydroxide was regarded to be a co-precipitation process. The Ti-loaded BYC also displayed the highest adsorption affinity for a wide pH range (3–11) and in the presence of coexisting anionic species such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Therefore, it is expected that Ti-loaded BYC can be used as an effective and practical adsorbent for arsenate remediation in drinking water. PMID:26516879

  11. 29 CFR 8.8 - Filing of administrative record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Filing of administrative record. 8.8 Section 8.8 Labor... SERVICE CONTRACTS Review of Other Proceedings and Related Matters 8.8 Filing of administrative record..., the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall promptly forward the record of the proceeding before...

  12. 42 CFR 32.88 - Examinations and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examinations and treatment. 32.88 Section 32.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease 32.88 Examinations and...

  13. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1.88-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section...

  14. 7 CFR 3575.88 - Transfers and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers and assumptions. 3575.88 Section 3575.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans 3575.88 Transfers and assumptions. (a) General. For all transfers and assumptions,...

  15. 42 CFR 88.3 - Eligibility-currently identified responders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility-currently identified responders. 88.3 Section 88.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.3...

  16. 42 CFR 88.3 - Eligibility-currently identified responders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility-currently identified responders. 88.3 Section 88.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.3...

  17. 42 CFR 88.3 - Eligibility-currently identified responders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility-currently identified responders. 88.3 Section 88.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.3...

  18. New twist on orphan receptor GPR88 function

    PubMed Central

    Lovinger, David M

    2016-01-01

    Ligands for G protein–coupled receptor 88 (GPR88) have not yet been found. A new study finds that GPR88 is important in the physiology of dorsal striatal projection neurons, as well as in behaviors involving this brain region. PMID:23103990

  19. 40 CFR 745.88 - Recognized test kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recognized test kits. 745.88 Section 745.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property Renovation § 745.88 Recognized test kits....

  20. 21 CFR 312.88 - Safeguards for patient safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Safeguards for patient safety. 312.88 Section 312.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Severely-debilitating Illnesses 312.88 Safeguards for patient safety. All of the safeguards...

  1. 28 CFR 8.8 - Commencing the administrative forfeiture proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commencing the administrative forfeiture proceeding. 8.8 Section 8.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES Seizure and Forfeiture of Property 8.8 Commencing the administrative forfeiture proceeding. An administrative forfeiture...

  2. 21 CFR 520.88 - Amoxicillin oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amoxicillin oral dosage forms. 520.88 Section 520.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88 Amoxicillin...

  3. 21 CFR 520.88 - Amoxicillin oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amoxicillin oral dosage forms. 520.88 Section 520.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88 Amoxicillin...

  4. 21 CFR 520.88 - Amoxicillin oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amoxicillin oral dosage forms. 520.88 Section 520.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88 Amoxicillin...

  5. 21 CFR 520.88 - Amoxicillin oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin oral dosage forms. 520.88 Section 520.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88 Amoxicillin...

  6. 21 CFR 520.88 - Amoxicillin oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amoxicillin oral dosage forms. 520.88 Section 520.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88 Amoxicillin...

  7. 50 CFR 18.88 - Cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-examination. 18.88 Section 18.88... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations 18.88 Cross-examination... examination; and (2) Exclude cross-examination questions that are immaterial, irrelevant or unduly...

  8. 29 CFR 452.88 - Resumption of good standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resumption of good standing. 452.88 Section 452.88 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Right To Vote 452.88 Resumption of good standing. While it is permissible for a... member has resumed his good-standing status, it would be unreasonable to continue to deprive him of...

  9. 14 CFR 34.83-34.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) 34.83-34.88 ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 34.83-34.88 Section 34.83-34.88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  10. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d Section 520.88d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder....

  11. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. 520.88c Section 520.88c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88c Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension....

  12. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. 520.88e Section 520.88e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88e Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. (a) Specifications....

  13. 36 CFR 7.88 - Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. 7.88 Section 7.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.88 Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore....

  14. 40 CFR 87.83-87.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 87.83-87.88 Section 87.83-87.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §§ 87.83-87.88...

  15. 42 CFR 88.14 - Standard for determining medical necessity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard for determining medical necessity. 88.14 Section 88.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.14 Standard...

  16. 42 CFR 88.14 - Standard for determining medical necessity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard for determining medical necessity. 88.14 Section 88.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.14 Standard...

  17. 42 CFR 88.14 - Standard for determining medical necessity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard for determining medical necessity. 88.14 Section 88.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.14 Standard...

  18. 42 CFR 88.14 - Standard for determining medical necessity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard for determining medical necessity. 88.14 Section 88.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM 88.14 Standard...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Subpart B of Part 88

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Tables to Subpart B of Part 88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program State opt-in for the California Pilot Test Program. Pt. 88, Subpt. B, Tables Tables to Subpart B of Part 88...

  20. 7 CFR 1779.88 - Transfers and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers and assumptions. 1779.88 Section 1779.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.88 Transfers and assumptions. (a) General. For all...

  1. 7 CFR 800.88 - Loss of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loss of identity. 800.88 Section 800.88 Agriculture... Methods and Procedures 800.88 Loss of identity. (a) Lots. Except as noted in paragraph (d) of this... personnel performing a reinspection, appeal inspection, or Board appeal inspection service, the identity...

  2. 7 CFR 800.88 - Loss of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loss of identity. 800.88 Section 800.88 Agriculture... Methods and Procedures 800.88 Loss of identity. (a) Lots. Except as noted in paragraph (d) of this... personnel performing a reinspection, appeal inspection, or Board appeal inspection service, the identity...

  3. 12 CFR 238.88 - Factors for review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Factors for review. 238.88 Section 238.88 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies 238.88 Factors for review....

  4. 36 CFR 9.88 - Permit modification, suspension, and cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit modification, suspension, and cancellation. 9.88 Section 9.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program 9.88 Permit modification, suspension, and cancellation....

  5. 28 CFR 115.88 - Data review for corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data review for corrective action. 115.88 Section 115.88 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review 115.88 Data...

  6. 28 CFR 115.88 - Data review for corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data review for corrective action. 115.88 Section 115.88 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review 115.88 Data...

  7. 28 CFR 115.88 - Data review for corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data review for corrective action. 115.88 Section 115.88 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review 115.88 Data...

  8. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  9. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  10. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  11. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  12. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  13. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Political entities and public corporations. 306.88 Section 306.88 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations 306.88...

  14. 7 CFR 800.88 - Loss of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loss of identity. 800.88 Section 800.88 Agriculture... Methods and Procedures 800.88 Loss of identity. (a) Lots. Except as noted in paragraph (d) of this... personnel performing a reinspection, appeal inspection, or Board appeal inspection service, the identity...

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and yttrium aluminum iron garnet (YAIG) nanoferrites prepared by microemulsion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Bakar Sulong, Abu; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Raza, M. R.; Raza, R.; Saleem, M.; Kashif, M.

    2016-03-01

    Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and yttrium aluminum iron garnet (YAIG) nanoferrite samples were synthesized by microemulsion method. The effect of sintering was examined by heating the samples at 900, 1000, and 1100 °C. The YIG and YAIG samples were then characterized using X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Static and dynamic magnetic properties were measured by evaluating initial permeability, Q factor, and vibrating sample magnetometry properties of YIG and YAIG samples. YIG samples sintered at 1100 °C showed higher initial permeability and Q factor compared with YAIG samples. However, hysteresis loops also showed variations in the saturation magnetization, remanence, and coercivity of YIG and YAIG samples sintered at 900, 1000, and 1100 °C. The observed magnetic parameter such as saturation magnetization, coercivity and initial permeability are strongly affected by increasing temperature. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of YIG and YAIG nanoferrites were found in the range 11.56-19.92 emu/g and 7.30-87.70 Oe respectively. Furthermore, the decreasing trends in the static and magnetic properties of YAIG samples may be due to the introduction of Al ions in the YIG crystal lattice. Thus, YIG and YAIG sintered at 1100 °C can be used for wide-ranging frequency applications.

  16. Coordination between yttrium ions and amide groups of polyamide 6 and the crystalline behavior of polyamide 6/yttrium composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Chengfeng; Liu, Yuhai; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Yizhuang; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Wu, Jinguang

    2012-08-01

    Different amounts of yttrium ions were introduced into polyamide 6 (PA6) matrix by solution casting process. Structure, morphology and properties of the obtained PA6/Y3+ composite films were investigated by using FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), polarized optical microscope (POM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) methods. Yttrium ions show strong coordination ability and their complexation with amide groups of PA6 can be reflected by the appearance of new bands in the amide A and amide I regions in FT-IR and Raman spectra. Furthermore, the FT-IR and Raman spectra of the PA6/Y3+ composite show that the resultant chain conformations of the amide groups in the composite films are twisted from the ideal trans conformation. The DSC results reveal that Y3+ ions cause a significant reduction of the melting point of PA6. In addition, the existence of Y3+ prevents the crystallization of molten PA6/Y3+ composite films during the cooling process. Moreover, the PA6/Y3+ composite can convert into ? phase PA6 or ? phase PA6 when different solvents are used to remove Y3+ ions and induce crystallization of PA6.

  17. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps’ fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Innocenzi, V. De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Vegliò, F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Fluorescent powder of lamps. • Fluorescent powder of cathode ray rubes. • Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powders. • Economic simulation for the processes to recover yttrium from WEEE. - Abstract: In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

  18. Transmembrane protein 88: a Wnt regulatory protein that specifies cardiomyocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Palpant, Nathan J.; Pabon, Lil; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S.; Hadland, Brandon K.; Stoick-Cooper, Cristi L.; Paige, Sharon L.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Moon, Randall T.; Murry, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic regulation of the cell fate transition from lateral plate mesoderm to the specification of cardiomyocytes requires suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but the mechanism for this is not well understood. By analyzing gene expression and chromatin dynamics during directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we identified a suppressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, transmembrane protein 88 (TMEM88), as a potential regulator of cardiovascular progenitor cell (CVP) specification. During the transition from mesoderm to the CVP, TMEM88 has a chromatin signature of genes that mediate cell fate decisions, and its expression is highly upregulated in advance of key cardiac transcription factors in vitro and in vivo. In early zebrafish embryos, tmem88a is expressed broadly in the lateral plate mesoderm, including the bilateral heart fields. Short hairpin RNA targeting of TMEM88 during hESC cardiac differentiation increases Wnt/β-catenin signaling, confirming its role as a suppressor of this pathway. TMEM88 knockdown has no effect on NKX2.5 or GATA4 expression, but 80% of genes most highly induced during CVP development have reduced expression, suggesting adoption of a new cell fate. In support of this, analysis of later stage cell differentiation showed that TMEM88 knockdown inhibits cardiomyocyte differentiation and promotes endothelial differentiation. Taken together, TMEM88 is crucial for heart development and acts downstream of GATA factors in the pre-cardiac mesoderm to specify lineage commitment of cardiomyocyte development through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:23924634

  19. Modification of aluminide coating with yttrium for improved resistance to corrosive erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.; Luo, Y.; Li, D.Y.

    1999-12-01

    Aluminide coatings on a mild steel substrate were modified by using an oxygen-active element, yttrium, for improved resistance to corrosive erosion. The performance of the yttrium-containing coating during the following three erosion conditions was evaluated: dry sand erosion at different temperatures, erosion in a dilute NaCl slurry containing 30% silica sand, and erosion in a dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} slurry containing 30% silica sand. Results of the study demonstrated that yttrium significantly improved the resistance of the aluminide coating to both corrosive erosion and dry sand erosion.

  20. Treatment of exhaust fluorescent lamps to recover yttrium: Experimental and process analyses

    SciTech Connect

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Varelli, Ennio Fioravante; Veglio, Francesco

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Recovery of yttrium from spent fluorescent lamps by sulphuric acid leaching. > The use of sulphuric acid allows to reduce calcium dissolutions. > Main contaminant of fluorescent powder are Si, Pb, Ca and Ba. > Hydrated yttrium oxalate, recovered by selective precipitation, is quite pure (>90%). > We have studied the whole process for the treatment of dangerous waste (plant capability). - Abstract: The paper deals with recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder coming from dismantling of spent fluorescent tubes. Metals are leached by using different acids (nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric) and ammonia in different leaching tests. These tests show that ammonia is not suitable to recover yttrium, whereas HNO{sub 3} produces toxic vapours. A full factorial design is carried out with HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to evaluate the influence of operating factors. HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching systems give similar results in terms of yttrium extraction yield, but the last one allows to reduce calcium extraction with subsequent advantage during recovery of yttrium compounds in the downstream. The greatest extraction of yttrium is obtained by 20% w/v S/L ratio, 4 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration and 90 deg. C. Yttrium and calcium yields are nearly 85% and 5%, respectively. The analysis of variance shows that acid concentration alone and interaction between acid and pulp density have a significant positive effect on yttrium solubilization for both HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} medium. Two models are empirically developed to estimate yttrium and calcium concentration during leaching. Precipitation tests demonstrate that at least the stoichiometric amount of oxalic acid is necessary to recover yttrium efficiently and a pure yttrium oxalate n-hydrate can be produced (99% grade). The process is economically feasible if other components of the fluorescent lamps (glass, ferrous and non-ferrous scraps) are recovered after the equipment dismantling and valorized, besides the cost that is usually paid to recycling companies for collection, treatment or final disposal of such fluorescent powders.

  1. Electroreduction of yttrium ions in an equimolar NaCl–KCl molten mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstobrov, I. V.; El'kin, O. V.; Kovalevskii, A. V.; Chebykin, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    The behavior of yttrium ions in an equimolar NaCl-KCl melt is studied in a temperature range of 973-1123 K using cyclic voltammetry at an inert electrode containing 5 wt % YCl3 in the range of potential sweep rates from 0.02 to 0.2 V/s. A cathodic reaction proceeds via the scheme Y(III) + 3 e = Y. The diffusion coefficients of yttrium ions are determined, and the activation energy of the diffusion of yttrium ions is estimated.

  2. Yttrium radiosynoviorthesis in the treatment of knee arthritis in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Heuft-Dorenbosch, L.; de Vet, H. C W; van der Linden, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo consider the question: How strong is the evidence in favour of yttrium synovectomy in chronic knee arthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in comparison with placebo and intra-articular steroid treatment??METHODSA systematic review of the literature was performed using Medline and the Embase database.?RESULTSInitially, seven papers were identified, but only two met the inclusion criteria. Neither study showed evidence in favour of yttrium synovectomy.?CONCLUSIONFrom the point of view of evidence based medicine it should be seriously questioned whether yttrium synovectomy deserves a place in clinical practice.?? PMID:10913051

  3. Nanocrystal formation via yttrium ion implantation into sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, E.M.; Hampikian, J.M.; Poker, D.B.

    1995-12-31

    Ion implantation has been used to form nanocrystals in the near surface of single crystal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The ion fluence was 5 x 10{sup 16} Y{sup +}/cm{sup 2}, and the implant energies investigated were 100, 150, and 170 keV. The morphology of the implanted region was investigated using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and ion channeling. The implantation causes the formation of an amorphous surface layer which contains spherical nanosized crystals with a diameter of {approximately}13 nm. The nanocrystals are randomly oriented and exhibit a face-centered cubic structure with a lattice parameter of {approximately}4.1 A {+-} .02 A. Preliminary chemical analysis shows that these nanocrystals are rich in aluminum and yttrium and poor in oxygen relative to the amorphous matrix.

  4. Bridgman growth of large-aperture yttrium calcium oxyborate crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Anhua; Jiang, Linwen; Qian, Guoxing; Zheng, Yanqing; Xu, Jun; Shi, Erwei

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► YCOB is a novel non-linear optical crystal possessing good thermal, mechanical and nonlinear optical properties. ► Large size crystal growth is key technology question for YCOB crystal. ► YCOB crystals 3 in. in diameter were grown with modified vertical Bridgman method. ► It is a more effective growth method to obtain large size and high quality YCOB crystal. -- Abstract: Large-aperture yttrium calcium oxyborate YCa{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (YCOB) crystals with 3 in. in diameter were grown with modified vertical Bridgman method, and the large crystal plate (63 mm × 68 mm × 20 mm) was harvested for high-average power frequency conversion system. The crack, facet growth and spiral growth can be effectively controlled in the as-grown crystal, and Bridgman method displays more effective in obtain large size and high quality YCOB crystal plate than Czochralski technique.

  5. Preparation and characterization of spherical yttrium iron garnet via coprecipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafelicci, M.; Godoi, R. H. M.

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to obtain spherical particles yttrium iron garnet (YIG) by coprecipitation technique. The spherical particles were obtained from either nitrate or chloride salt solutions by controlling the precipitation medium. Different agents of dispersion such as PVP and ammonium iron sulfate were used to optimize the shape and size of YIG. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results show that the samples phase transition takes place at 850C (orthorhombic phase) and at 1200C (cubic phase). Spherical shape particles, with diameter of around 0.5 ?m, present magnetization values close to the bulk value (26 emu g -1).

  6. Enhanced optical constants of nanocrystalline yttrium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ramana, C. V.; Mudavakkat, V. H.; Bharathi, K. Kamala; Atuchin, V. V.; Pokrovsky, L. D.; Kruchinin, V. N.

    2011-01-17

    Yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films with an average crystallite-size (L) ranging from 5 to 40 nm were grown by sputter-deposition onto Si(100) substrates. The optical properties of grown Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were evaluated using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The size-effects were significant on the optical constants and their dispersion profiles of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. A significant enhancement in the index of refraction (n) is observed in well-defined Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystalline films compared to that of amorphous Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A direct, linear L-n relationship found for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films suggests that tuning optical properties for desired applications can be achieved by controlling the size at the nanoscale dimensions.

  7. Electroluminescent characteristics of scandium and yttrium 8-quinolinolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katkova, Marina A.; Ilichev, Vasilii A.; Konev, Alexey N.; Bochkarev, Mikhail N.; Vitukhnovsky, Alexey G.; Parshin, Mikhail A.; Pandey, Lesley; Van der Auweraer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Efficient electroluminescence (EL) was obtained in organic light-emitting devices using 8-quinolinolate complexes of scandium (Scq3) and yttrium (Yq3) as emitters. Compared to the device based on the analogous Alq3 complex, no notable difference in the EL performances of the Yq3 device can be found; however, the EL characteristics of device with Scq3 were significantly enhanced. The device with the configuration of indium tin oxide/ N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine/Scq3/Yb exhibits a maximum current efficiency of 4.6 cd/A and a maximum power efficiency of 2.6 lm/W at a luminance of 300 cd/m2. The improvement of the performance of this device should be attributed to the higher hole mobility of the Scq3 as compared to Alq3 or a smaller barrier for hole injection into Scq3 compared to Alq3.

  8. Novel light emissive yttrium-based nanoparticles and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Laura Burka

    Yttrium-based inorganic optical materials generally are of practical interest for three applications: solid state lighting/displays, lasers, and scintillators. Solid-state lighting is particularly desirable commercially for its efficiency and lifetime compared to traditional incandescent alternatives. This type of lighting technology is of increasing interest as incandescent light bulbs are being gradually phased-out due to government regulations on maximum wattage of these devices. Additionally, shortcomings in the current state of the art have driven the need for a more thermally stable material for use in this area. In this dissertation, we develop and characterize a novel composite material consisting of optically active yttrium-based nanoparticles doped into silica sol-gels. For lighting and display applications, low-cost, low-temperature synthesis methods for materials that meet or exceed the quality of the materials currently on the market are highly desirable. During the course of this work, we discuss the characterization of yttrium-based nanoparticles with respect to their incorporation in a sol-gel matrix composite. We then prepared these composite materials using a variety of methods and assess their quality according to a set of selection criteria and for lighting/display applications. Novel light-emitting composites consisting of Ce:YAG or Eu:Y2O 3 (yttria) nanoparticles in an inorganic medium were successfully developed and characterized. The optical properties of the nanoparticles were maintained when incorporated into the sol-gel medium and were shown to be comparable with the current state of the art. Comparison was made between the nanoparticle emission and the composite emission and, in the case of the Ce:YAG, the CIE coordinates, showing no change between the emission intensities or peak locations. We successfully demonstrated the conversion of fluoride-based particles into Y2O3 during sol-gel processing and demonstrated that no reaction took place between the nanoparticles and the sol-gel medium. Stability of nanoparticles in suspension was overcome through the control of pH during sol-gel synthesis. Through both base- and/or acid-catalysis, we produced optically active nanoparticle doped sol-gel composites containing YAG and Yttria. Our results indicated no detrimental effect on the nanoparticles upon incorporation into the sol-gel matrix; this was demonstrated through XRD, where no silicate phases were observed, through EDX, where we saw no diffusion of yttrium into the sol-gel and no silicon diffusing into the nanoparticles, and through photoluminescence, where emissions were consistent with that of the as-made nanoparticles. These results led us to theorize that the nanoparticles, rather than being bonded to the matrix, are seated in the void space that is prevalent in sol-gel systems. Additionally, these materials are stable at much higher temperatures than current resin-based systems.

  9. Rare Earth Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie T.; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study presents a spectral emittance model for films and cylinders of rare earth doped yttrium aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical film spectral emittances was found for erbium and holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. For operating conditions of interest, the film emitter experiences a linear temperature variation whereas the cylinder emitter has a more advantageous uniform temperature. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For holminum aluminum garnet film the efficiency is 0.35 at 1446K but only 0.27 at 1270 K.

  10. Sodium yttrium fluoride based upconversion nano phosphors for biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswaran Nampi, Padmaja; Varma, Harikrishna; Biju, P. R.; Kakkar, Tarun; Jose, Gin; Saha, Sikha; Millner, Paul

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, NaYF4-Yb3+/Er3+ having the composition NaYF4-18%Yb3+/2%Er3+ and NaYF4-20%Yb3+/2%Er3+ with and without the addition of PVP (polyvinyl pyrolidone) have been synthesised by a solution method using NaF, yttrium nitrate, ytterbium nitrate and erbium nitrate as precursors. Upconversion spectra of prepared nanomaterial under 980 nm laser excitation have been studied. The variation in upconversion spectra with new born calf serum and myoglobin has been studied. Myoglobin (Mb) may be helpful when used in conjunction with other cardiac markers for rapid determination of acute myocardial ischemia, especially in patients with a typical chest pain or nonspecific ECG changes. The variation of UC fluorescence with addition of Mb indicates the suitability of using NaYF4 based UC nanoparticles in cardiac marker detection. The detailed study is currently under progress.

  11. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Hepatic Metastases from Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Mihir; Bande, Dinesh; Pillai, Anil K.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Ganguli, Suvranu; Beg, Muhammad S.; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.

    2014-01-01

    Liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) result in substantial morbidity and mortality. The primary treatment is systemic chemotherapy, and in selected patients, surgical resection; however, for patients who are not surgical candidates and/or fail systemic chemotherapy, liver-directed therapies are increasingly being utilized. Yttrium-90 (Y-90) microsphere therapy, also known as selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) or radioembolization, has proven to be effective in terms of extending time to progression of disease and also providing survival benefit. This review focuses on the use of Y-90 microsphere therapy in the treatment of liver metastases from CRC, including a comprehensive review of published clinical trials and prospective studies conducted thus far. We review the methodology, outcomes, and side effects of Y-90 microsphere therapy for metastatic CRC. PMID:25120951

  12. Effect of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Meier-Ruge, W; Mller, W; Pavelka, K

    1976-01-01

    Seventeen rabbits were immunized with complete Freund's adjuvant and bovine serum albumin by the method of Dumonde and Glynn (1962), as modified by Cooke and Jasin (1972). Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint, 8 animals were given an injection of 20 muCi yttrium 90 (90Y) into the left joint cavity; 7 were injected with 400 muCi. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks and at 6 and 12 months after the injection. The right knee joint served as control for assessment of untreated allergic arthritis. Morphological control of the severity of the arthritis was provided by sacrificing 2 uninjected animals 13 weeks after immunization. Images PMID:1275583

  13. The laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of yttrium monosulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Jianzheng; Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Deping; Qin, Chengbing; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yang

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) excitation spectra and dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra of yttrium monosulfide (YS) in the energy range of 17 860-20 700 cm-1. Rotational analyses indicated that almost all of the intense vibronic bands can be attributed to the new [ 19.38 ]2?+ (??) - X2?+ (??) transition system. The missing (1, 2), (2, 1) and (3, 3) bands are caused by their very small Franck-Condon factors, as confirmed by our calculations. The new 2?+ state has been suggested to arise from the electronic configuration of (core)1?22?21?33?2?, featuring a charge-transfer nature. Moreover, the spin-rotation parameter ? for the newly observed 2?+ state has been determined to be 0.0206 cm-1, the magnitude of which is larger than the known ? (X2?+) (0.001427 cm-1) but smaller than ? (B2?+) (-0.1515 cm-1).

  14. Electrical properties of strontium doped yttrium manganite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Rajesh K.; Thakur, Rasna; Kaurav, N.; Okram, G. S.; Gaur, N. K.

    2013-02-01

    Powders of Y1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0.1 and 0.2) pervoskites were obtained by using conventional solid state reaction method and their electrical properties are carefully analyzed. The XRD pattern showed the pointed peaks which correspond to the hexagonal structure of the reported compounds with space group P63cm (25-1079). The resistivity versus temperature plot infers a semiconducting like behavior in both reported compounds. The suppression in the resistivity has been witnessed with increasing concentration Sr2+ ions at yttrium site. The small polaron hopping conductivity model adequately describes the electrical conductivity behavior. The activation energy (Ea) is found to decrease as the 'x' (Sr content) increases.

  15. Intermittency Observed in Yttrium Iron Garnet under Parallel Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsudo, Seitaro; Yamazaki, Hitoshi

    1994-09-01

    Parallel pumping experiments in yttrium iron garnet have been performed at a pumping frequency 9.45 GHz and at a temperature 4.2 K. Above the spin-wave instability threshold, auto-oscillations of magnon amplitude are observed. Just above the onset of the auto-oscillations, signal has character of intermittent. From time-series data, Poincaré return maps and distribution of laminar period lengths are obtained. These results are in agreement with the theory based on symmetrical mapping that describes the dynamics of Lorentz type flows. Bifurcation parameters obtained by the best fit with the theoretical relation are presented as a function of the microwave power. Relationship between the average of the laminar lengths and the bifurcation parameter is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  16. Ferromagnetic resonance of sputtered yttrium iron garnet nanometer films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tao; Chang, Houchen; Sun, Yiyan; Kabatek, Michael; Wu, Mingzhong; Vlaminck, Vincent; Hoffmann, Axel; Deng, Longjiang

    2014-05-07

    Growth of nm-thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films by sputtering and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) properties in the films were studied. The FMR linewidth of the YIG film decreased as the film thickness was increased from several nanometers to about 100?nm. For films with very smooth surfaces, the linewidth increased linearly with frequency. In contrast, for films with big grains on the surface, the linewidth-frequency response was strongly nonlinear. Films in the 726?nm thickness range showed a surface roughness between 0.1?nm and 0.4?nm, a 9.48-GHz FMR linewidth in the 610?Oe range, and a damping constant of about 0.001.

  17. Yttrium oxide transparent ceramics by low-temperature microwave sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Junming; Zhong, Zhenchen; Xu, Jilin

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The figure shows the SEM photos of the surfaces of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramic samples obtained by microwave sintering and vacuum sintering. It is clearly demonstrated that the grain distribution of the vacuum sintering sample is not uniform with the smallest and the largest particle size at about 2 ?m and 15 ?m respectively, while the grain distribution of microwave sintering sample is uniform with the average diameter at about 24 ?m (the smallest reported so far) and with no abnormal growth-up or coarsening phenomenon. We have further found out that the smaller the grain size, the higher the mechanical and optical properties. Display Omitted Highlights: ? The microwave sintering temperature of the sample is lower compared with vacuum. ? The microwave sintering time of the sample is shorter compared with vacuum. ? The mechanical properties of the microwave sintering sample is improved greatly. ? The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} grain of microwave sintering sample is the smallest reported so far. -- Abstract: Yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) transparent ceramics samples have been successfully fabricated by microwave sintering processing at relatively low temperatures. In comparison with the vacuum sintering processing, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramics can be obtained by microwave sintering at lower sintering temperature and shorter sintering time, and they possess higher transmittances and mechanical properties. The technologies of low-temperature microwave sintering and the relationships of the microstructures and properties of the specified samples have been investigated in detail. We have found out that the low-temperature microwave sintering technique has its obvious advantages over the conventional methods in manufacturing yttrium oxide transparent ceramics.

  18. Antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of yttrium fluoride nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lellouche, Jonathan; Friedman, Alexandra; Gedanken, Aharon; Banin, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has prompted the search for new agents that can inhibit bacterial growth. Moreover, colonization of abiotic surfaces by microorganisms and the formation of biofilms is a major cause of infections associated with medical implants, resulting in prolonged hospitalization periods and patient mortality. In this study we describe a water-based synthesis of yttrium fluoride (YF3) nanoparticles (NPs) using sonochemistry. The sonochemical irradiation of an aqueous solution of yttrium (III) acetate tetrahydrate [Y(Ac)3 (H2O)4], containing acidic HF as the fluorine ion source, yielded nanocrystalline needle-shaped YF3 particles. The obtained NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray elemental analysis. NP crystallinity was confirmed by electron and powder X-ray diffractions. YF3 NPs showed antibacterial properties against two common bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) at a ?g/mL range. We were also able to demonstrate that antimicrobial activity was dependent on NP size. In addition, catheters were surface modified with YF3 NPs using a one-step synthesis and coating process. The coating procedure yielded a homogeneous YF3 NP layer on the catheter, as analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. These YF3 NP-modified catheters were investigated for their ability to restrict bacterial biofilm formation. The YF3 NP-coated catheters were able to significantly reduce bacterial colonization compared to the uncoated surface. Taken together, our results highlight the potential to further develop the concept of utilizing these metal fluoride NPs as novel antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents, taking advantage of their low solubility and providing extended protection. PMID:23152681

  19. Analysis of Prognostic Factors After Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Inarrairaegui, Mercedes; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio; Rodriguez, Macarena; Bilbao, J. Ignacio

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze which patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors may influence outcome after {sup 90}Y radioembolization ({sup 90}Y-RE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods: Seventy-two consecutive patients with advanced HCC treated with {sup 90}Y-RE were studied to detect which factors may have influenced response to treatment and survival. Results: Median overall survival was 13 months (95% confidence interval, 9.6-16.3 months). In univariate analysis, survival was significantly better in patients with one to five lesions (19 vs. 8 months, p = 0.001) and in patients with alpha-fetoprotein <52 UI/mL (24 vs. 11 months, p = 0.002). The variation in target tumor size and the appearance of new lesions were analyzed among 50 patients with measurable tumors. A decrease in target tumor size was observed in most patients, and the intensity of such decrease was not associated with any of the factors under study. Patients who developed new lesions in the treated liver (and also in the nontargeted liver) at month 3 more frequently had more than five nodules, bilobar disease, and alpha-fetoprotein >52 UI/mL, and their survival in the multivariate analysis was significantly worse (hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 13-1.73) (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Yttrium-90 radioembolization results in control of target lesions in the majority of patients with HCC but does not prevent the development of new lesions. Survival of patients treated with {sup 90}Y-RE seems to depend largely on factors related to the aggressiveness of the disease (number of nodules, levels of alpha-fetoprotein, and presence of microscopic disease).

  20. Sorptive separation of yttrium and cerium on a weakly basic anionite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisina, O. V.; Ponomareva, M. A.; Chirkst, D. E.; Lobacheva, O. L.; Shul'gin, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The sorption of complex yttrium ions with Trilon B onto the weakly basic anionite D-403 in nitrate form from an acidic medium at pH 3 with constant ionic strength (NaNO3, 1 mol/kg) is investigated. A thermodynamic evaluation of the sorption isotherm of anionic yttrium complexes is performed using a method based on the linearization of the equation of the law of active mass, modified for ionic exchange reactions. The ionic exchange constant, the Gibbs free energy of ionic exchange, the capacity of the anionite, and the sorption limit of ethylenediaminetetraacetatoyttrate ions (EDTA yttrate ions) are calculated. Using a frontal version of ion exchange chromatography, cerium and yttrium are separated on D-403 anionite with a fraction of pure yttrium at the column outlet of no less than 30%.

  1. STS-88 Mission Commander Robert Cabana arrives at KSC for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-88 Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana arrives after dark at the Shuttle Landing Facility in a T-38 jet aircraft to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with simulated countdown exercises, emergency egress training, and opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. Mission STS-88 is targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998. It is the first U.S. flight for the assembly of the International Space Station and will carry the Unity connecting module. Others in the STS-88 crew are Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, Jerry L. Ross, James H. Newman and Russian cosmonaut Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev. Ross and Newman will make three spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment.

  2. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Isotopic Yttrium-90-Labeled Rare Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals for Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paik, Taejong; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Mikitsh, John L; Friedberg, Joseph S; Pryma, Daniel A; Murray, Christopher B

    2015-09-22

    Isotopically labeled nanomaterials have recently attracted much attention in biomedical research, environmental health studies, and clinical medicine because radioactive probes allow the elucidation of in vitro and in vivo cellular transport mechanisms, as well as the unambiguous distribution and localization of nanomaterials in vivo. In addition, nanocrystal-based inorganic materials have a unique capability of customizing size, shape, and composition; with the potential to be designed as multimodal imaging probes. Size and shape of nanocrystals can directly influence interactions with biological systems, hence it is important to develop synthetic methods to design radiolabeled nanocrystals with precise control of size and shape. Here, we report size- and shape-controlled synthesis of rare earth fluoride nanocrystals doped with the β-emitting radioisotope yttrium-90 ((90)Y). Size and shape of nanocrystals are tailored via tight control of reaction parameters and the type of rare earth hosts (e.g., Gd or Y) employed. Radiolabeled nanocrystals are synthesized in high radiochemical yield and purity as well as excellent radiolabel stability in the face of surface modification with different polymeric ligands. We demonstrate the Cerenkov radioluminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging capabilities of (90)Y-doped GdF3 nanoplates, which offer unique opportunities as a promising platform for multimodal imaging and targeted therapy. PMID:26257288

  3. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Innocenzi, Valentina; De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Kopacek, Bernd

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2{sup 2} full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2{sup 2} full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na{sub 2}S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%.

  4. Measurements of High Energy Neutron Spectrum (> 10 MeV) by Using Yttrium Foils in a U/Pb Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewicz, M.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Szuta, M.; Wojciechowski, A.; Kadykov, M.; Tyutyunnikov, S.

    2014-05-01

    Study of deep subcritical electronuclear systems and radioactive waste transmutation using relativistic beams were performed. This work is a preliminary step toward the study of the physical properties of Accelerator Driven Systems, in which a deeply subcritical active core is irradiated by a pulsed beam of relativistic ions. The long-range goal of the project is to study the capabilities of such systems with a hard neutron spectrum, for transmutation of radioactive nuclear wastes. Two experimental assemblies, Energy plus Transmutation (2006-2009) and Quinta (2011-), were irradiated by 1 to 6 GeV deuteron beams using the JINR NUCLOTRON accelerator. The main difference between the two experimental setups is the spallation target - lead or natural uranium. We attempt to obtain neutron energy spectra inside the volume of these assemblies using threshold reactions in natural yttrium (89Y) foils. Some results from three different experiments are presented.

  5. Diffusivity of hydrogen isotopes in liquid lithium and in solid yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Buxbaum, R.E.; Johnson, E.F.

    1982-12-01

    The separation of tritium from liquid lithium at low concentrations is an important problem for fusion technology. One of the most promising techniques for effecting this separation involves sorbing the tritium on solid yttrium metal. Reliable diffusivity data are essential for a realistic evaluation of this technique. This paper reviews the bodies of relevant experimental diffusivity data, i.e., data on protium diffusion in liquid lithium, protium diffusion in solid yttrium, and the isotope effect in metals.

  6. Analysis of Emission Spectra of Yttrium Monoiodide Produced by the Photodissociation of YI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenting Wendy; Galvin, Thomas C.; Houlahan, Thomas J., Jr.; Eden, J. Gary

    2015-06-01

    Emission spectra of yttrium monoiodide (YI) spanning the 250 - 940 nm spectral region were generated by the photodissociation of yttrium tri-iodide under photoexcitation at 248 nm (KrF laser). Fluorescent spectra in the13,000 - 19,000 cm-1 and 24,000 - 40,000 cm-1 regions will be first reported. New vibrational transitions of YI in the 20,000 - 25,000 cm-1 interval will be presented as well.

  7. Planktic foraminifer census data from Northwind Ridge cores PI-88-AP P3, PI-88-AR P7 and PI-88-AR P9, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Kevin M.; Poore, Richard Z.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recovered 9 piston cores from the Northwind Ridge in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean from a cruise of the USCGC Polar Star during 1988. Preliminary analysis of the cores suggests sediments deposited on Northwind Ridge preserve a detailed record of glacial and interglacial cycles for the last few hundred-thousand to one million years. This report includes quantitative data on foraminifers and selected sediment size-fraction data in 98 samples from Northwind Ridge core PI-88AR P3, 51 samples from core PI-88-AR P7 and 117 samples from core PI-88-AR P9.

  8. Thermal conversions of the yttrium-barium-copper salt of carboxylated cellulose and the synthesis of yttrium barium cuprate from it

    SciTech Connect

    Kaputskii, F.N.; Bashmakov, I.A.; Novikov, V.P.

    1994-09-20

    Thermal solid-phase conversions of the yttrium-barium-copper salt of tricarboxycellulose (TCC) with a 1-2-3 cation stoichiometry, respectively, have been considered. Yttrium barium cuprate is the end product of the thermal treatment of the triple salt. According to the data of X-ray analysis the onset of 1-2-3 phase formation is noticeable at 750-800{degrees}C. The temperature 875{degrees}C (with a duration of heating of 12 h) is sufficient for practically complete conversion of the Y-Ba-Cu salt of TCC into YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}.

  9. 27 CFR 6.88 - Equipment and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equipment and supplies. 6.88 Section 6.88 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.88 Equipment and supplies. (a) General. The act by an industry member of selling...

  10. Biodistribution of Yttrium-90-Labeled Anti-CD45 Antibody in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, Eneida; Hamlin, Donald K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Pagel, John M.; Applebaum, F. R.; Press, Oliver W.; Matthews, Dana C.

    2005-01-15

    Radioimmunotherapy may improve the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies by delivering targeted radiation to hematopoietic organs while relatively sparing nontarget organs. We evaluated the organ localization of yttrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 (90Y-anti-CD45) antibody in macaques, a model that had previously predicted iodine-131-labeled anti-CD-45 (131I-anti-CD45) antibody biodistribution in humans. Experimental Design: Twelve Macaca nemestrina primates received anti-CD45 antibody labeled with 1 to 2 mCi of 90Y followed by serial blood sampling and marrow and lymph node biopsies, and necropsy. The content of 90Y per gram of tissue was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Time-activity curves were constructed using average isotope concentrations in each tissue at measured time points to yield the fractional residence time and estimate radiation absorbed doses for each organ per unit of administered activity. The biodistribution of 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody was then compared with that previously obtained with 131I-anti-CD45 antibody in macaques. Results: The spleen received 2,120, marrow 1,060, and lymph nodes 315 cGy/mCi of 90Y injected. The liver and lungs were the nontarget organs receiving the highest radiation absorbed doses (440 and 285 cGy/mCi, respectively). Ytrrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 antibody delivered 2.5- and 3.7-fold more radiation to marrow than to liver and lungs, respectively. The ratios previously observed with 131I-antiCD45 antibody were 2.5-and 2.2-fold more radiation to marrow than to liver and lungs, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody can deliver relatively selective radiation to hematopoietic tissues, with similar ratios of radiation delivered to target versus nontarget organs, as compared with the 131I immunoconjugate in the same animal model.

  11. Influence of etching with erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser on microleakage of class V restoration.

    PubMed

    Marotti, Juliana; Geraldo-Martins, Vincius Rangel; Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Apel, Christian; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate some parameters of dental etching when irradiated with an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser. One-hundred sound human third molars were selected and randomly distributed into ten groups (n = 10). The class V cavities of group 1 (control) were prepared with a bur and etched with 37% phosphoric acid, while groups G2 to G10, were prepared with laser (5 W, 88.46 J/cm(2), 90/70% air/water) and etched with the following powers: G3 and G4, 0.25 W; G5 and G6, 0.5 W; G7 and G8, 0.75 W; G9 and G10, 1 W. Group G2 received no laser etching. Prior to restoration, G2, G4, G6, G8 and G10 received acid etching. After restoration, all samples were submitted to a microleakage test. According to statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests), G10 presented the lowest microleakage values (P<0.05). The other groups showed no differences between them. Etching with Er,Cr:YSGG laser (1 W) followed by phosphoric acid was effective in reducing the microleakage of class V restorations. PMID:19011950

  12. Why There Are 88 Keys on the Piano: "88 Logic-The Mackay Method for Piano." Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: After trying to define the reason why the piano ended up with 88 keys, I found patterns to explain ways of playing the piano with an 8:8 ratio which gives purpose to why the piano has 88 keys on it. Purpose: The first purpose is to enable piano teachers and music students to benefit from understanding how to play piano and be…

  13. 21 CFR 312.88 - Safeguards for patient safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Safeguards for patient safety. 312.88 Section 312... Severely-debilitating Illnesses 312.88 Safeguards for patient safety. All of the safeguards incorporated within parts 50, 56, 312, 314, and 600 of this chapter designed to ensure the safety of clinical...

  14. 21 CFR 312.88 - Safeguards for patient safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Safeguards for patient safety. 312.88 Section 312... Severely-debilitating Illnesses 312.88 Safeguards for patient safety. All of the safeguards incorporated within parts 50, 56, 312, 314, and 600 of this chapter designed to ensure the safety of clinical...

  15. 21 CFR 312.88 - Safeguards for patient safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Severely-debilitating Illnesses 312.88 Safeguards for patient safety. All of the safeguards incorporated within parts 50, 56, 312, 314, and 600 of this chapter designed to ensure the safety of clinical testing... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safeguards for patient safety. 312.88 Section...

  16. 40 CFR 146.88 - Injection well operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rate, volume and/or mass, and temperature of the carbon dioxide stream; and the pressure on the annulus.... 146.88 Section 146.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and...

  17. 7 CFR 2.88 - Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... position under 29 CFR part 1614, including the authority: (A) To make changes in programs and procedures... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights. 2.88 Section 2... Administration 2.88 Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to 2.24(a)(1), and...

  18. 21 CFR 312.88 - Safeguards for patient safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Safeguards for patient safety. 312.88 Section 312... Severely-debilitating Illnesses 312.88 Safeguards for patient safety. All of the safeguards incorporated within parts 50, 56, 312, 314, and 600 of this chapter designed to ensure the safety of clinical...

  19. 14 CFR 34.83-34.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 34.83-34.88 Section 34.83-34.88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine...

  20. 45 CFR 88.5 - Written certification of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... such at the Department's discretion. I further certify that, except as provided in 45 CFR 88.5(e), the... under this instrument, and will require, except as provided in 45 CFR 88.5(e), such sub-recipient to... for, abortion. _ subject any institutional or individual health care entity to discrimination on...

  1. 27 CFR 6.88 - Equipment and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equipment and supplies. 6.88 Section 6.88 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... act by an industry member of selling equipment or supplies to a retailer does not constitute a...

  2. 27 CFR 6.88 - Equipment and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equipment and supplies. 6.88 Section 6.88 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... act by an industry member of selling equipment or supplies to a retailer does not constitute a...

  3. 27 CFR 6.88 - Equipment and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment and supplies. 6.88 Section 6.88 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... act by an industry member of selling equipment or supplies to a retailer does not constitute a...

  4. 27 CFR 6.88 - Equipment and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equipment and supplies. 6.88 Section 6.88 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... act by an industry member of selling equipment or supplies to a retailer does not constitute a...

  5. 50 CFR 648.88 - Multispecies open access permit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multispecies open access permit restrictions. 648.88 Section 648.88 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED...

  6. 50 CFR 648.88 - Multispecies open access permit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multispecies open access permit restrictions. 648.88 Section 648.88 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED...

  7. 50 CFR 648.88 - Multispecies open access permit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multispecies open access permit restrictions. 648.88 Section 648.88 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED...

  8. 14 CFR 33.88 - Engine overtemperature test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine overtemperature test. 33.88 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.88 Engine overtemperature test. (a) Each engine must run for 5 minutes at maximum permissible rpm with the gas temperature...

  9. 14 CFR 33.88 - Engine overtemperature test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine overtemperature test. 33.88 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.88 Engine overtemperature test. (a) Each engine must run for 5 minutes at maximum permissible rpm with the gas temperature...

  10. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88...

  11. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88...

  12. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88...

  13. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. 520.88c... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88c Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each 0.8-milliliter dose contains amoxicillin...

  14. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. 520.88c... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88c Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each 0.8-milliliter dose contains amoxicillin...

  15. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. 520.88c... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88c Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each 0.8-milliliter dose contains amoxicillin...

  16. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to...

  17. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. 520.88e Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88e Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains the equivalent of 400 milligrams of...

  18. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. 520.88e Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88e Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains the equivalent of 400 milligrams of...

  19. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. 520.88e Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88e Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains the equivalent of 400 milligrams of...

  20. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to...

  1. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. 520.88e Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88e Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains the equivalent of 400 milligrams of...

  2. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to...

  3. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. 520.88c... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88c Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each 0.8-milliliter dose contains amoxicillin...

  4. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to...

  5. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  6. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  7. 40 CFR 86.603-88 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test orders. 86.603-88 Section 86.603... New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.603-88 Test orders. (a) The Administrator will require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the...

  8. 40 CFR 86.603-88 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test orders. 86.603-88 Section 86.603... Auditing of New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.603-88 Test orders. (a) The Administrator will require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed...

  9. 32 CFR 776.88 - Report to licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... report that fact to the Federal, State, or local bar or other licensing authority of the covered attorney... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report to licensing authorities. 776.88 Section... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.88 Report to licensing authorities. Upon determination by JAG that...

  10. 14 CFR 33.88 - Engine overtemperature test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 33.88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.88 Engine overtemperature... this run, the turbine assembly must be within serviceable limits. (b) In addition to the...

  11. 27 CFR 479.88 - Special (occupational) taxpayers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special (occupational) taxpayers. 479.88 Section 479.88 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  12. 27 CFR 479.88 - Special (occupational) taxpayers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special (occupational) taxpayers. 479.88 Section 479.88 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  13. 27 CFR 479.88 - Special (occupational) taxpayers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special (occupational) taxpayers. 479.88 Section 479.88 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  14. 27 CFR 479.88 - Special (occupational) taxpayers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special (occupational) taxpayers. 479.88 Section 479.88 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  15. 27 CFR 479.88 - Special (occupational) taxpayers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special (occupational) taxpayers. 479.88 Section 479.88 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  16. 40 CFR 745.88 - Recognized test kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recognized test kits. 745.88 Section... Renovation § 745.88 Recognized test kits. (a) Effective June 23, 2008, EPA recognizes the test kits that have... publicizes its recognition of the first test kit that meets both the negative response and positive...

  17. 18 CFR 401.88 - Findings, report and Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Findings, report and Commission review. 401.88 Section 401.88 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Administrative and Other Hearings ...

  18. 28 CFR 8.8 - Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... forfeiture. 8.8 Section 8.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR... (FBI) within 20 days from the date of the first publication of the notice a claim to such property and... judicial district in which the property was seized. If a claim is not made within the time period, the...

  19. 28 CFR 8.8 - Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... forfeiture. 8.8 Section 8.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR... (FBI) within 20 days from the date of the first publication of the notice a claim to such property and... judicial district in which the property was seized. If a claim is not made within the time period, the...

  20. 28 CFR 8.8 - Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forfeiture. 8.8 Section 8.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR... (FBI) within 20 days from the date of the first publication of the notice a claim to such property and... judicial district in which the property was seized. If a claim is not made within the time period, the...

  1. 40 CFR 87.83-87.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 87.83-87.88 Section 87.83-87.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §§...

  2. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88...

  3. 7 CFR 983.88 - Suspension or termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Suspension or termination. 983.88 Section 983.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 983.88 - Suspension or termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Suspension or termination. 983.88 Section 983.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 983.88 - Suspension or termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or termination. 983.88 Section 983.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  6. 7 CFR 983.88 - Suspension or termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension or termination. 983.88 Section 983.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  7. 7 CFR 983.88 - Suspension or termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Suspension or termination. 983.88 Section 983.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  8. 9 CFR 88.4 - Requirements for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for transport. 88.4 Section 88.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER §...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Subpart B of Part 88

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables to Subpart B of Part 88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program State opt-in for the California Pilot Test Program. Pt. 88, Subpart B, Tables Tables to Subpart B of Part...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Subpart C of Part 88

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tables to Subpart C of Part 88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program Incentives for the purchase of Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. Pt. 88, Subpt. C, Tables Tables to Subpart C of...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Subpart B of Part 88

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tables to Subpart B of Part 88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program State opt-in for the California Pilot Test Program. Pt. 88, Subpart B, Tables Tables to Subpart B of Part...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Subpart B of Part 88

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tables to Subpart B of Part 88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program State opt-in for the California Pilot Test Program. Pt. 88, Subpt. B, Tables Tables to Subpart B of Part...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Subpart C of Part 88

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables to Subpart C of Part 88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program Incentives for the purchase of Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. Pt. 88, Subpt. C, Tables Tables to Subpart C of...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Subpart C of Part 88

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tables to Subpart C of Part 88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program Incentives for the purchase of Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. Pt. 88, Subpt. C, Tables Tables to Subpart C of...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Subpart C of Part 88

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Tables to Subpart C of Part 88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program Incentives for the purchase of Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. Pt. 88, Subpt. C, Tables Tables to Subpart C of...

  16. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  17. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  18. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  19. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations....

  20. 1987-88 Degrees Conferred Report. Massachusetts Public Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Board of Regents of Higher Education, Boston.

    The results of a survey of all degrees conferred in the state of Massachusetts during 1987-88 are presented. Statistics include the following: the public colleges and universities in Massachusetts conferred over 24,000 degree and certificates during the 1987-88 academic year; 58% of the people receiving degrees were women; only 6.1% of the degrees

  1. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Law enforcement vessels. 88.11... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities....

  2. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  4. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  5. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  6. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  7. 14 CFR 34.83-34.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 34.83-34.88 Section 34.83-34.88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §§...

  8. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Political entities and public corporations. 306.88 Section 306.88 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL...

  9. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Political entities and public corporations. 306.88 Section 306.88 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL...

  10. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Political entities and public corporations. 306.88 Section 306.88 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf...

  11. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  12. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  13. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  14. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  15. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  16. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  17. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  18. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  19. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  20. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions. 86.1343-88 Section 86.1343-88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for...

  2. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Law enforcement vessels. 88.11... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may... light must be located so that it does not interfere with the visibility of the vessel's...

  3. Modification of surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing lifetime of neutron tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. M.; Dvoichenkova, O. A.; Evsin, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The peculiarities of interaction of hydrogen ions with a titanium target and its surface oxide layer were studied. Two ways of modification of the surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing the lifetime of neutron tubes were proposed: (1) deposition of an yttrium oxide barrier layer on the target surface; (2) implementation of neutron tube work regime in which the target is irradiated with ions with energies lower than 1000 eV between high-energy ion irradiation pulses.

  4. IFT88 influences chondrocyte actin organization and biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Wann, A.K.T.; Thompson, C.L.; Hassen, A.; Wang, W.; Knight, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives Primary cilia are microtubule based organelles which control a variety of signalling pathways important in cartilage development, health and disease. This study examines the role of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein, IFT88, in regulating fundamental actin organisation and mechanics in articular chondrocytes. Methods The study used an established chondrocyte cell line with and without hypomorphic mutation of IFT88 (IFT88orpk). Confocal microscopy was used to quantify F-actin and myosin IIB organisation. Viscoelastic cell and actin cortex mechanics were determined using micropipette aspiration with actin dynamics visualised in live cells transfected with LifeACT-GFP. Results IFT88orpk cells exhibited a significant increase in acto-myosin stress fibre organisation relative to wild-type (WT) cells in monolayer and an altered response to cytochalasin D. Rounded IFT88orpk cells cultured in suspension exhibited reduced cortical actin expression with reduced cellular equilibrium modulus. Micropipette aspiration resulted in reduced membrane bleb formation in IFT88orpk cells. Following membrane blebbing, IFT88orpk cells exhibited slower reformation of the actin cortex. IFT88orpk cells showed increased actin deformability and reduced cortical tension confirming that IFT regulates actin cortex mechanics. The reduced cortical tension is also consistent with the reduced bleb formation. Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time that the ciliary protein IFT88 regulates fundamental actin organisation and the stiffness of the actin cortex leading to alterations in cell deformation, mechanical properties and blebbing in an IFT88 chondrocyte cell line. This adds to the growing understanding of the role of primary cilia and IFT in regulating cartilage biology. PMID:26493329

  5. Opportunity Spies Its Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a forward-looking view of the Meridiani Planum plains that lie between the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and its primary drive target, 'Endurance Crater.' The images in this image mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 88.

  6. Nanoscale inhomogeneities in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBCO) superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Zahirul; Sinha, S. K.; Lang, J. C.; Liu, X.; Haskel, D.; Moss, S. C.; Srajer, G.; Veal, B. W.; Wermeille, D.; Lee, D. R.; Haeffner, D. R.; Welp, U.; Wochner, P.

    2004-03-01

    X-ray diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source reveal that nanoscale inhomogeneities, electronic or structural in origin, form in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x) superconductors and coexist with the superconducting (SC) state. Diffuse scattering from these inhomogeneous superstructures is due to atomic displacements with respect to equilibrium lattice sites (Z. Islam et al. Phys. Rev. B 66, 92501 (2002)), that are characterized by a wavevector of the form q=(q_x,0,0), where qx varies with hole doping from 2 unit cells (along shorter Cu-O-Cu direction) for very low doping to 4 unit cells at optimal doping. Interestingly, while these superstructures are 3-dimensionally ordered when the SC state is weakened (e.g., at x=0.4), as the doping increases, they become quasi 1D with correlation lengths comparable to SC coherence lengths in these cuprates. Recent first-principles calculations (D. de Fontaine et al., to be published) for the x=0.63 compound show that atomic displacements consistent with experimental data can be the result of ordering of O vacancies in YBCO. Models for various superstructures and their role in the phase diagram will be discussed.

  7. Structural and optical characterization of samarium doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Yogamalar, Rajeswari; Vinu, Ajayan; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Bose, Arumugam Chandra

    2009-11-01

    Here we demonstrate the preparation of samarium doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles using samarium chloride as a samarium source by co-precipitation method. The samarium doped yttria nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD results revealed that all the synthesized samples exhibit cubic phase with average grain size of the nanoparticles in the order of 9-20 nm, calculated by Scherer's formula. The strain present in the annealed sample is estimated from Williamson-Hall (W-H) plot which is in the order of 3 x 10(-3). SEM and HRTEM results showed that the samples are composed of aggregated nanoparticles with uniform shape and size. The particles are highly crystalline which is also confirmed by XRD results. The position of the absorption peak is shifted towards the lower wavelength side when particles sizes reduced around 10 nm is observed by UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrometer. The direct band gap is estimated from UV-vis absorption spectrum, the calculated value is 5.98 and 5.87 eV for as-prepared and annealed sample (800 degrees C) respectively. The high intense red emission band observed at 608 nm from 4G(5/2)-6H(7/2) transition for Y2O3:Sm3+ under excitation at 214 nm using fluorescence spectrometer. PMID:19908594

  8. Ab initio calculations of yttrium nitride: structural and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerroug, S.; Ali Sahraoui, F.; Bouarissa, N.

    2009-11-01

    Using first principles total energy calculations within the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of yttrium nitride (YN) in the three phases, namely wurtzite, caesium chloride and rocksalt structures. The calculations are performed at zero and under hydrostatic pressure. In agreement with previous findings, it is found that the favored phase for YN is the rocksalt-like structure. We predict that at zero pressure YN in the rocksalt structure is a semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of 0.8 eV. A phase transition from a rocksalt to a caesium chloride structure is found to occur at 134 GPa. Besides, a transition from an indirect ( ?- X) bandgap semiconductor to a direct ( X- X) one is predicted at pressure of 84 GPa. For the electron effective mass of rocksalt YN, these are the first results, to our knowledge. The information derived from the present study may be useful for the use of YN as an active layer in electronic devices such as diodes and transistors.

  9. Improved Yttrium and Zirconium Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violante, Renata; Biemont, E.; Cowan, J. J.; Sneden, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present new abundances of the lighter n-capture elements, Yttrium (Z=39) and Zirconium (Z=40) in the very metal poor, r-process rich stars BD+17 3248 and HD 221170. Very accurate abundances were obtained by use of the new transition probabilities for Y II published by Bimont et al. 2011, and Zr II by Malcheva et al. 2006, and by expanding the number of transitions employed for each element. For example, in BD+17 3248, we find log ???????=-0.03 +/- 0.03 (?????=0.15, from 23 lines) for Y II. As for Zr II, log ??????? = 0.65 +/- 0.03 (????? = 0.1, from 13 lines). The resulting abundance ratio is log ??????? [Y/Zr] = -0.68 +/- 0.05. The results for HD 221170 are in accord with those of BD+17 3248. The quantity of lines used to form the abundance means has increased significantly since the original studies of these stars, resulting in more trustworthy abundances. These observed abundance ratios are in agreement with an r-process-only value predicted from stellar models, but is under-abundant compared to an empirical model derived from direct analyses of meteoritic material. This ambiguity should stimulate further nucleosynthetic analysis to explain this abundance ratio. We would like to extend our gratitude to NSF grant AST-0908978 and the University of Texas Astronomy Department Rex G. Baker, Jr. Endowment for their financial support in this project.

  10. RBS and XRD Characterization of Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Roumie, M.; Abdel Samad, B.; Basma, H.; Korek, M.

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic materials such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG or Y3Fe5O12) present a great importance for their magneto-optic properties. They are potential materials used for applications in the domain of optical telecommunications for example. In this work, we have investigated YIG thin films deposited on substrates of quartz and GGG (gadolinium gallium garnet or Gd3Ga5O12). Using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) we characterized the performed layers (thickness and stoichiometry) in order to correlate the films preparation conditions with the quality of the final material. We determined the optimal energy of the alpha particles beam used for RBS measurements and we fitted the experimental spectra using the SIMNRA simulated code. Our RBS results showed that the films have a stoichiometry close to that of the starting material. In addition, we found that the film thickness is proportional to deposition time but inversely proportional to the substrate temperature. Moreover, using x-ray diffraction (XRD) we determined the annealing effect on the structure of the profile of our thin films.

  11. Phase diagram for magnon condensate in Yttrium Iron Garnet film.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuxiang; Saslow, Wayne M; Pokrovsky, Valery L

    2013-01-01

    Recently, magnons, which are quasiparticles describing the collective motion of spins, were found to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at room temperature in films of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). Unlike other quasiparticle BEC systems, this system has a spectrum with two degenerate minima, which makes it possible for the system to have two condensates in momentum space. Recent Brillouin Light Scattering studies for a microwave-pumped YIG film of thickness d = 5??m and field H = 1?kOe find a low-contrast interference pattern at the characteristic wavevector Q of the magnon energy minimum. In this report, we show that this modulation pattern can be quantitatively explained as due to unequal but coherent Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons into the two energy minima. Our theory predicts a transition from a high-contrast symmetric state to a low-contrast non-symmetric state on varying the d and H, and a new type of collective oscillation. PMID:23455849

  12. Phase Diagram for Magnon Condensate in Yttrium Iron Garnet Film

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuxiang; Saslow, Wayne M.; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, magnons, which are quasiparticles describing the collective motion of spins, were found to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at room temperature in films of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). Unlike other quasiparticle BEC systems, this system has a spectrum with two degenerate minima, which makes it possible for the system to have two condensates in momentum space. Recent Brillouin Light Scattering studies for a microwave-pumped YIG film of thickness d = 5??m and field H = 1?kOe find a low-contrast interference pattern at the characteristic wavevector Q of the magnon energy minimum. In this report, we show that this modulation pattern can be quantitatively explained as due to unequal but coherent Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons into the two energy minima. Our theory predicts a transition from a high-contrast symmetric state to a low-contrast non-symmetric state on varying the d and H, and a new type of collective oscillation. PMID:23455849

  13. Transendoscopic neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser irradiation in horses.

    PubMed

    Tate, L P; Sweeney, C L; Cullen, J M; Corbett, W T; Newman, H C; Brown, T C; Ketner, M T

    1989-05-01

    A neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser was used to study effects of applying laser irradiation transendoscopically to the corniculate process of the arytenoid cartilage in horses. Dosimetry was established initially in vitro in 10 corniculate cartilages that were irradiated and examined histologically to determine penetration depths at selected power settings. Eleven horses were given xylazine IV and butorphoral tartrate IV, and their left ventricle and corniculate process were irradiated. Six horses had left laryngeal hemiplegia and were euthanatized and necropsied 14 weeks after laser application and evaluation for upper airway stridor. Endoscopy was performed in the 5 other horses; they were euthanatized and necropsied at selected intervals to characterize the healing process. Healing was by second intention and was complete at 14 weeks. Two horses developed buds of granulation tissue along the laser incision, which resolved after a second laser application. Scar tissue formation resulted in left of midline displacement of the dorsal portion of the right corniculate process. The left ventricle healed without complications and was totally ablated. All horses had inspiratory stridor when exercised 14 weeks after laser irradiation. PMID:2729727

  14. Method of forming a relatively stable slip of silicon metal particles and yttrium containing particles

    DOEpatents

    Dickie, Ray A.; Mangels, John A.

    1984-01-01

    The method concerns forming a relatively stable slip of silicon metal particles and yttrium containing particles. In one embodiment, a casting slip of silicon metal particles is formed in water. Particles of a yttrium containing sintering aid are added to the casting slip. The yttrium containing sintering aid is a compound which has at least some solubility in water to form Y.sup.+3 ions which have a high potential for totally flocculating the silicon metal particles into a semiporous solid. A small amount of a fluoride salt is added to the casting slip which contains the yttrium containing sintering aid. The fluoride salt is one which will produce fluoride anions when dissolved in water. The small amount of the fluoride anions produced are effective to suppress the flocculation of the silicon metal particles by the Y.sup.+3 ions so that all particles remain in suspension in the casting slip and the casting slip has both an increased shelf life and can be used to cast articles having a relatively thick cross-section. The pH of the casting slip is maintained in a range from 7.5 to 9. Preferably, the fluoride salt used is one which is based on a monovalent cation such as sodium or ammonia. The steps of adding the yttrium containing sintering aid and the fluoride salt may be interchanged if desired, and the salt may be added to a solution containing the sintering aid prior to addition of the silicon metal particles.

  15. Yttrium-doped cobalt nanoferrites prepared by sol-gel combustion method and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Shobana, M K; Nam, Wonjong; Choe, Heeman

    2013-05-01

    Ferrites are extremely important magnetic ceramics in the production of electronic components because they reduce the energy losses by the induced currents acting as electrical insulators. Similarly, the spinel-structured cobalt-based ferrites are promising materials for stress, torsion sensors and energy storage applications (anode materials in lithium batteries, fuel cells and solar cells). Therefore, many studies have focused on cobalt ferrites obtained using conventional techniques. Different sintering conditions, types and levels of substitution result in different microstructures and magnetostriction coefficients under a wide range of preparation conditions. Despite many attempts, there are no specific reports on the trivalent substitution of yttrium in cobalt ferrite to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, yttrium-doped cobalt ferrite was prepared with different concentrations to identify the crystallite size with respect to the yttrium concentration, temperature and changes in the structural and electrical properties. In addition, the resistance of the nanostructured yttrium-doped cobalt ferrites nanopowders was analyzed. The resistance was increased by the addition of yttrium to cobalt ferrites. PMID:23858896

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Li; Sun, QiLiang; Zhao, RuiNi; He, HuiLin; Xue, JianRong; Lin, Jun

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF{sub 4} to hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} and to hexagonal Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98}. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation.

  17. Dopant effect of yttrium and the growth and adherence of alumina on nickel-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. B.; Mehandru, S. P.; Smialek, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The atom superposition and electron delocalization molecular orbital theory and large cluster models have been employed to study cation vacancy diffusion in alpha-Al2O3 and the bonding of alpha-Al2O3 to nickel, aluminum, and yttrium surfaces. Al(3+) diffusion barriers in alpha-Al2O3 by the vacancy mechanism are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The barrier to Y(3+) diffusion is predicted to be much higher. Since addition of yttrium to transition metal alloys is known to reduce the growth rate and stress convolutions in protective alumina scales, this result suggests the rate-limiting step in scale growth is cation vacancy diffusion. This may partially explain the beneficial effect of yttrium dopants on scale adhesion. The theory also predicts a very strong bonding between alumina and yttrium at the surface of the alloy. This may also be important to the adhesion phenomenon. It is also found that aluminum and yttrium atoms bond very strongly to nickel because of charge transfer from their higher lying valence orbitals to the lower lying nickel s-d band.

  18. Increased N-glycosylation of Asn88 in serum pancreatic ribonuclease 1 is a novel diagnostic marker for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of carbohydrate structures in cancer cells are the most promising targets for developing clinical diagnostic reagents. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most difficult cancers to diagnose because it lacks definitive symptoms. Two antibodies were raised against human pancreatic ribonuclease 1 that bind to the enzyme containing unglycosylated Asn88, but not when its Asn88 is N-glycosylated. Differential studies using these antibodies in immunoassays and Western blot analyses showed a significant increase in the serum levels of pancreatic ribonuclease 1 containing N-glycosylated Asn88 in pancreatic cancer patients compared with normal human subjects. Focusing on the increase in an N-glycosylated Asn residue of serum pancreatic ribonuclease 1, specifically Asn88, affords a new diagnostic marker for pancreatic cancer. This is the first report of a diagnostic cancer marker that takes advantage of the presence or absence of N-glycosylation at a specific Asn residue of a glycoprotein. PMID:25336120

  19. Lack of GPR88 enhances medium spiny neuron activity and alters motor- and cue-dependent behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Albert; Sanz, Elisenda; Wang, Wengang; Storey, Granville P.; Gler, Ali D.; Wanat, Matthew J.; Roller, Bryan A.; La Torre, Anna; Amieux, Paul S.; McKnight, G. Stanley; Bamford, Nigel S.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The striatum regulates motor control, reward, and learning. Abnormal function of striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is believed to contribute to the deficits in these processes that are observed in many neuropsychiatric diseases. The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) GPR88 is robustly expressed in MSNs and regulated by neuropharmacological drugs, but its contribution to MSN physiology and behavior is unclear. Here we show that in the absence of GPR88, MSNs have increased glutamatergic excitation and reduced GABAergic inhibition that together promote enhanced firing rates in vivo, resulting in hyperactivity, poor motor-coordination, and impaired cue-based learning in mice. Targeted viral expression of GPR88 in MSNs rescues the molecular and electrophysiological properties and normalizes behavior, suggesting that aberrant MSN activation in the absence of GPR88 underlies behavioral deficits and its dysfunction may contribute to behaviors observed in neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:23064379

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Combined Yttrium 90 Resin Radioembolization with Aflibercept and FOLFIRI in a Patient with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Andre; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2015-01-01

    Background. When associated with isolated four or fewer liver foci, metastatic colorectal cancer is amenable to surgical resection. Alternative therapeutic methods for isolated liver metastases include radioembolization with yttrium 90 (Y90) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). We present here a case of a patient with two sites of liver metastatic disease from colorectal cancer who underwent Y90 radioembolization combined with aflibercept and FOLFIRI. Case Report. A 56-year-old female with history of bilateral breast cancer and metastatic colon cancer with prior hemicolectomy and 4 previous chemotherapy regimens developed liver metastasis. She was started on aflibercept and FOLFIRI and concurrently underwent two treatments of radioembolization with Y90, initially targeting the largest right lobe tumor, and then a subsequent treatment targeting the smaller left lobe tumor with retreatment of the right lobe tumor. Her liver metastases exhibited partial response on imaging utilizing the modified RECIST criteria. Interestingly, the patient CEA levels decreased after the procedure. Discussion. This is the first reported case of a patient managed with radioembolization with Y90 combined with aflibercept, an anti-VEGF treatment, and FOLFIRI. An ongoing randomized clinical trial aims to define the role of combined targeted therapy and chemotherapy with radioembolization with Y90. PMID:25866690

  1. Intestinal epithelial MyD88 is a sensor switching host metabolism towards obesity according to nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Everard, Amandine; Geurts, Lucie; Caesar, Robert; Van Hul, Matthias; Matamoros, Sébastien; Duparc, Thibaut; Denis, Raphael G. P.; Cochez, Perrine; Pierard, Florian; Castel, Julien; Bindels, Laure B.; Plovier, Hubert; Robine, Sylvie; Muccioli, Giulio G.; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Dumoutier, Laure; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Luquet, Serge; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Cani, Patrice D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a cluster of metabolic disorders, low-grade inflammation and altered gut microbiota. Whether host metabolism is controlled by intestinal innate immune system and the gut microbiota is unknown. Here we report that inducible intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of MyD88 partially protects against diet-induced obesity, diabetes and inflammation. This is associated with increased energy expenditure, an improved glucose homeostasis, reduced hepatic steatosis, fat mass and inflammation. Protection is transferred following gut microbiota transplantation to germ-free recipients. We also demonstrate that intestinal epithelial MyD88 deletion increases anti-inflammatory endocannabinoids, restores antimicrobial peptides production and increases intestinal regulatory T cells during diet-induced obesity. Targeting MyD88 after the onset of obesity reduces fat mass and inflammation. Our work thus identifies intestinal epithelial MyD88 as a sensor changing host metabolism according to the nutritional status and we show that targeting intestinal epithelial MyD88 constitutes a putative therapeutic target for obesity and related disorders. PMID:25476696

  2. In Vivo Function of PTEX88 in Malaria Parasite Sequestration and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Joachim M.; Ingmundson, Alyssa; Costa Nunes, Jean; Stenzel, Werner; Matuschewski, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Malaria pathology is linked to remodeling of red blood cells by eukaryotic Plasmodium parasites. Central to host cell refurbishment is the trafficking of parasite-encoded virulence factors through the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX). Much of our understanding of its function is based on experimental work with cultured Plasmodium falciparum, yet direct consequences of PTEX impairment during an infection remain poorly defined. Using the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei, it is shown here that efficient sequestration to the pulmonary, adipose, and brain tissue vasculature is dependent on the PTEX components thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) and PTEX88. While TRX2-deficient parasites remain virulent, PTEX88-deficient parasites no longer sequester in the brain, correlating with abolishment of cerebral complications in infected mice. However, an apparent trade-off for virulence attenuation was spleen enlargement, which correlates with a strongly reduced schizont-to-ring-stage transition. Strikingly, general protein export is unaffected in PTEX88-deficient mutants that mature normally in vitro. Thus, PTEX88 is pivotal for tissue sequestration in vivo, parasite virulence, and preventing exacerbation of spleen pathology, but these functions do not correlate with general protein export to the host erythrocyte. The presented data suggest that the protein export machinery of Plasmodium parasites and their underlying mechanistic features are considerably more complex than previously anticipated and indicate challenges for targeted intervention strategies. PMID:25820521

  3. Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 microspheres in hepatocellular carcinoma: Role and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Cristina; Cappelli, Alberta; Pettinato, Cinzia; Golfieri, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) is a form of brachytherapy in which intra-arterially injected yttrium-90-loaded microspheres serve as a source for internal radiation purposes. On the average, it produces disease control rates exceeding 80% and it is a consolidated therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, current data are all based on retrospective series or non-controlled prospective studies since randomized controlled trials comparing it with the other liver-directed therapies for intermediate and locally advanced stage HCC are still underway. The data available show that TARE provides similar or even better survival rates when compared to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). First-line TARE is best indicated for both intermediate-stage patients (staged according to the barcelona clinic liver cancer staging classification) who have lesions which respond poorly to TACE due to multiple tumors or a large tumor burden, and for locally advanced-stage patients with solitary tumors, and segmental or lobar portal vein tumor thrombosis. In addition, emerging data have suggested the use of TARE in patients who are classified slightly beyond the Milan criteria regarding radical treatment for downstaging purposes. As a second-line treatment, TARE can also be applied in patients progressing to TACE or sorafenib; a large number of phase II/III trials are ongoing with the purpose of evaluating the best association with systemic therapies. Transarterial radioembolization is very well tolerated and has a low rate of complications which are mainly related to unintended non-target tissue irradiation, including the surrounding liver parenchyma. The complications can be additionally reduced by accurate patient selection and a strict pre-treatment evaluation including dosimetry and assessment of the vascular anatomy. Since a correct treatment algorithm for potential TARE candidates is not clear and standardized, this comprehensive review analyzes the best selection criteria for patients who really benefit from TARE and also the new advances of this therapy, which can be a very important weapon against HCC. PMID:25914774

  4. Yttrium silicate and oxonitridosilicate luminescent materials from a silicone resin and nano-sized fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, E.; Storti, E.; Quaranta, A.; Valotto, G.

    2015-08-01

    Yttrium silicate and oxonitridosilicate ceramic powders have been successfully prepared by heat treatment, at 1300-1400 °C, of a silicone resin embedding Y2O3 nano-sized particles as reactive fillers. Nano-sized RE-oxides (Eu2O3, CeO2), used as secondary additives, promoted the development of apatite phase, in both air and N2 atmosphere. For treatments in nitrogen, the only crystal phase consisted of yttrium nitrogen apatite, mixed with amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC). Eu-doped and Ce-doped yttrium silicates were characterized by means of UV-visible luminescence and ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL). Strong luminescence features were observed, depending on the conditions of thermal treatment.

  5. Yttrium and aluminium complexes bearing dithiodiolate ligands: synthesis and application in cyclic ester polymerization.

    PubMed

    Meduri, A; Cozzolino, M; Milione, S; Press, K; Sergeeva, E; Tedesco, C; Mazzeo, M; Lamberti, M

    2015-11-01

    Yttrium and aluminium complexes of two dithiodiolate ligands that feature different bridges (CF3)2C(OH)CH2SRSCH2C(OH)(CF3)2 (L(1)-H2, R = CH2CH2 and L(2)-H2, R = C6H4) were synthesized in good yields by reacting tris(silylamide)yttrium or trimethylaluminium with one equivalent of the proligand. All complexes were characterized by NMR and elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray structural analysis was also performed for one of the yttrium complexes. The catalytic activities of the four complexes in the ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone and rac-lactide have been investigated. Furthermore, DOSY experiment and DFT calculations have been carried out to determine the structure of the isopropoxo derivative of the complex L(2)Y amide. PMID:26406112

  6. FACILITY 234, LOCATED BETWEEN FACILITIES 88 AND 89 FRONT OBLIQUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 234, LOCATED BETWEEN FACILITIES 88 AND 89 FRONT OBLIQUE. VIEW FACING EAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Carport Type with Central Storage Rooms, Various locations throughout housing area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 88. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115117 South El Paso St., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115-117 South El Paso St., south facade, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  8. 45 CFR 88.6 - Complaint handling and investigating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 88.6 Complaint handling and investigating. The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) of the Department of... on the health care conscience protection statutes and this regulation. OCR will coordinate...

  9. 12 CFR 313.88 - Format of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment 313.88 Format of hearing. The FDIC will have the... that collection of the debt may not be pursued due to operation of law. The hearing official...

  10. 40 CFR 87.83-87.88 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §§ 87.83-87.88...

  11. 88. 451 MADISON AVENUE, LIBRARY, SOUTH WALL, WEST CENTRAL SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. 451 MADISON AVENUE, LIBRARY, SOUTH WALL, WEST CENTRAL SECTION SHOWING WINDOW AND RADIATOR (Pair with NY-5635-89) - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York, New York County, NY

  12. 88. VIEW LOOKING FROM THE BRIDGE FROM THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. VIEW LOOKING FROM THE BRIDGE FROM THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL TOWARD THE READING LOUNGE OUTSIDE OF THE MAIN DINING ROOM OF THE BLENHEIM HOTEL - Blenheim Hotel, Ohio Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  13. 88. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 CONTEXTUAL ELEVATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 CONTEXTUAL ELEVATION VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS AT PIER E-2, NORTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 88. Reproduction from glass plate negative (original in Modjeski and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Reproduction from glass plate negative (original in Modjeski and Masters office, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Modjeski Collection, No. 4, not dated) LOOKING DOWNSTREAM - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 9 CFR 88.6 - Violations and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.6 Violations and penalties. (a) The Secretary is authorized to... equine transported in violation of the regulations of this part will be considered a separate...

  16. 9 CFR 88.6 - Violations and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.6 Violations and penalties. (a) The Secretary is authorized to... equine transported in violation of the regulations of this part will be considered a separate...

  17. 9 CFR 88.6 - Violations and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.6 Violations and penalties. (a) The Secretary is authorized to... equine transported in violation of the regulations of this part will be considered a separate...

  18. 9 CFR 88.6 - Violations and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.6 Violations and penalties. (a) The Secretary is authorized to... equine transported in violation of the regulations of this part will be considered a separate...

  19. 9 CFR 88.6 - Violations and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.6 Violations and penalties. (a) The Secretary is authorized to... equine transported in violation of the regulations of this part will be considered a separate...

  20. 88. (Credit CBF) Twelve Mile Bayou Pumping Station and force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. (Credit CBF) Twelve Mile Bayou Pumping Station and force main for pumping water over levee and into the canal (Blind Bayou), March 1913. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  1. 88. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 25' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT GYRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 25' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT GYRO MONITORS AND TAPE PUNCH - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 88. VIEW OF AIR COMPRESSOR ROOM FROM NORTHWEST (ON SUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. VIEW OF AIR COMPRESSOR ROOM FROM NORTHWEST (ON SUMP LEVEL). COMPRESSOR No. 1 IN FOREGROUND; No. 2 TO REAR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. Genetics Home Reference: MyD88 deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... systems compensate for the loss of MyD88 protein, accounting for the improvement in the condition that occurs ... information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in ... inherited ; prevalence ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; ...

  4. 7 CFR 1779.88 - Transfers and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.88 Transfers and assumptions... method for servicing problem cases when an eligible transferee is not available. Transfers should not...

  5. Assessing the corrosion resistance of nonequilibrium magnesium-yttrium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.L.; Shaw, B.A.; Wendt, R.G.; Moshier, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    Magnesium-yttrium (Mg-Y) alloys containing 7 at% to 26 at% solute were fabricated using magnetron cosputter deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that no second phases were present in any of the alloys and that all but two of the alloys (Mg-7% Y and Mg-14% Y) were nanocrystalline and/or amorphous. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization performed in 0.1 M sodium chloride (NaCl) at both near-neutral and high pH values showed improved anodic polarization behavior for most of the alloys when compared to either pure Mg or one of the most corrosion-resistant commercial Mg alloys (alloy WE43 [UNS M18430]). In the high-pH solution, it was not uncommon for breakdown potentials (E{sub b}) of the Mg-Y alloys to be 2,000 mV higher than values for alloy WE43. Long-term galvanic and potentiostatic testing was performed on selected alloys to verify anodic polarization behavior. Potentiostatic testing also was performed in a pH 12 buffer solution. When defects did not affect corrosion behavior, low current density values were obtained, with one specimen exhibiting a current density of 0.9 {micro}A/cm{sup 2} (5.8 {micro}A/in.{sup 2}) at a potential > 300 mV{sub SCE}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) conducted on Mg-22% Y revealed Y was enriched significantly in the passive film once the alloy was immersed in solution. This presence of oxidized Y in the passive film was believed to be responsible for the exceptional corrosion resistance of these alloys.

  6. Yttrium-90 radioembolization for advanced inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Victor Ho-Fun; Leung, Dennis KC; Luk, Mai-Yee; Tong, Chi-Chung; Law, Martin WM; Ng, Sherry CY; Wong, Ka-Kin; Poon, Ronnie TP; Kwong, Dora LW; Leung, To-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Advanced inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) conferring a grave prognosis may benefit from yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization. Methods Thirty patients with advanced inoperable HCC including those with any lesion >8 cm in maximal diameter or multiple bi-lobar lesions (totally more than five lesions), or portal vein thrombosis treated with radioembolization were reviewed. Treatment efficacy and safety were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for identifying potential prognostic factors. Results After a median follow-up of 18.3 months, the response rate was 30.0%, and the disease control rate was 50.0%. Median overall progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 3.3 months and 13.2 months, respectively. Longer median PFS was noted in those who had transarterial chemoembolization before radioembolization (7.3 months vs 3.1 months; P=0.021) and duration of alfafeto protein (AFP) response ?6 months (11.8 months vs 3.0 months; P<0.001). Longer median OS was also revealed in those without portal vein thrombosis (17.1 months vs 4.4 months; P=0.015) and those whose duration of AFP response was ?6 months (21.2 months vs 8.6 months; P=0.001). Seventeen patients (56.7%) developed treatment-related complications including five (16.7%) grade 3 events. Multivariate analysis revealed that treatment responders (P=0.001) and duration of AFP response ?6 months (P=0.006) were prognostic of PFS, whereas the absence of portal vein invasion (P=0.025), treatment responders (P=0.010), and duration of AFP response ?6 months (P=0.001) were prognostic of OS. Conclusion 90Y radioembolization is an alternative treatment with a promising outcome for poor-risk advanced inoperable HCC. PMID:26640386

  7. High-Pressure Phase Transition in Yttrium Iron Garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, C. V.; Wang, J.; Zouboulis, I. S.; Prakapenka, V.; Duffy, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    High-pressure investigations of rare earth transition metal oxide garnets have revealed structural and magnetic phase transitions, including pressure-induced amorphization, magnetic collapse, spin crossover transitions and metallization, as well as transformation to highly-incompressible oxides. Yttrium iron garnet (YIG), Y3Fe5O12, exhibits interesting magnetic properties, behaving as a ferrimagnet with a Nel temperature TN ~ 559 K at ambient pressure and transforming to a paramagnetic material at high temperatures. At high temperatures and pressures, it converts to a GdFeO3-type perovskite structure. However, the composition of the perovskite is debated, with two proposed reaction pathways, leading to either (Y0.75Fe0.25)FeO3-perovskite or a mixture of YFeO3-perovskite and Fe2O3. Here, we synthesized YIG-perovskite in the diamond anvil cell above 18 GPa and 1500 K at GeoSoilEnviroCARS beamline 13-ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source. NaCl was used as a quasihydrostatic pressure medium, and Au, with the Fei equation of state, was used as the pressure calibrant and laser absorber. Our measurements of the perovskite structure extend to 70 GPa with annealing at each pressure step. We do not find any iron oxide diffraction peaks after heating, indicating that the perovskite structure is likely (Y0.75Fe0.25)FeO3. We observe a previously unknown ~5% volume discontinuity in the perovskite between 44 and 50 GPa. This discontinuity is not accompanied by a change in the diffraction pattern, suggesting that the Fe in this structure undergoes a high-spin to low-spin transition. When compressing without laser heating, we confirm the amorphization of YIG starting material at 50 GPa that was previously observed by Gavriliuk et al. (2006). This amorphous material is easily converted to the low-spin perovskite upon heating above 1400 K.

  8. Anisotropic Optical-Response of Eu-doped Yttrium Orthosilicate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Huimin; Santiago, Miguel; Jia, Weiyi; Zhang, Shoudu

    1998-01-01

    Eu-doped yttrium orthosilicate (Eu(3+) : Y2SiO5) had been a subject being investigated for coherent time-domain optical memory and information processing applications since its ultraslow optical dephasing was discovered several years ago. In this crystal the weakly allowed (7)F0 - (5)D0 transition of europium ions exhibits a sufficient long dephasing time and no spectral difli.usion on a time scale of several hours at low temperature, thus an information pattern or data can be stored as a population grating in the ground state hyperfine levels. On the other hand, the study on photon-echo relaxation shows that the dephasing time T2 of Eu (3+) and other rare-earth ions doped YAG, YAlO3 strongly depends on the intensity of the excitation pulses. In Eu (3+) :YAlO3, an exponential decay of photon-echo with T2 = 53 microseconds if the excitation pulses are weak (5 vJ/pulse) was observed. However, when the excitation pulses are strong (80 pJ/pulse) they observed a much shortened T2 with a highly nonexponential decay pattern. The conclusion they derived is that the intensity-dependent dephasing rate effects are quite general, and it depends on how much the excitation intensity varies. In this paper we use transient grating formation technique showing that a temporal lattice distortion may only occur along crystal c axis, caused by EU (3+) excitation. At high excitation level the produced exciton in conduction band may also couple to the dynamical lattice relaxation process, giving rise to an apparently much shortened dephasing time.

  9. Root Cause Analysis of Gastroduodenal Ulceration After Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Banerjee, Subhas; Louie, John D.; Abdelmaksoud, Mohamed H. K.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Ennen, Rebecca E.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-12-15

    IntroductionA root cause analysis was performed on the occurrence of gastroduodenal ulceration after hepatic radioembolization (RE). We aimed to identify the risk factors in the treated population and to determine the specific mechanism of nontarget RE in individual cases. Methods: The records of 247 consecutive patients treated with yttrium-90 RE for primary (n = 90) or metastatic (n = 157) liver cancer using either resin (n = 181) or glass (n = 66) microspheres were reviewed. All patients who developed a biopsy-proven microsphere-induced gastroduodenal ulcer were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on baseline parameters and procedural data to determine possible risk factors in the total population. Individual cases were analyzed to ascertain the specific cause, including identification of the culprit vessel(s) leading to extrahepatic deposition of the microspheres. Results: Eight patients (3.2 %) developed a gastroduodenal ulcer. Stasis during injection was the strongest independent risk factor (p = 0.004), followed by distal origin of the gastroduodenal artery (p = 0.004), young age (p = 0.040), and proximal injection of the microspheres (p = 0.043). Prolonged administrations, pain during administration, whole liver treatment, and use of resin microspheres also showed interrelated trends in multivariate analysis. Retrospective review of intraprocedural and postprocedural imaging showed a probable or possible culprit vessel, each a tiny complex collateral vessel, in seven patients. Conclusion: Proximal administrations and those resulting in stasis of flow presented increased risk for gastroduodenal ulceration. Patients who had undergone bevacizumab therapy were at high risk for developing stasis.

  10. Peptoid-ligated pentadecanuclear yttrium and dysprosium hydroxy clusters.

    PubMed

    Thielemann, Dominique T; Wagner, Anna T; Lan, Yanhua; Oa-Burgos, Pascual; Fernndez, Ignacio; Rsch, Esther S; Klmel, Dominik K; Powell, Annie K; Brse, Stefan; Roesky, Peter W

    2015-02-01

    A new family of pentadecanuclear coordination cluster compounds (from now on simply referred to as clusters) [{Ln15 (OH)20 (PepCO2 )10 (DBM)10 Cl}Cl4 ] (PepCO2 =2-[{3-(((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)methyl)benzyl}amino]acetate, DBM=dibenzoylmethanide) with Ln=Y and Dy was obtained by using the cell-penetrating peptoid (CPPo) monomer PepCO2 H and dibenzoylmethane (DBMH) as supporting ligands. The combination of an inorganic cluster core with an organic cell-penetrating peptoid in the coordination sphere resulted in a core component {Ln15 (?3 -OH)20 Cl}(24+) (Ln=Y, Dy), which consists of five vertex-sharing heterocubane {Ln4 (?3 -OH)4 }(8+) units that assemble to give a pentagonal cyclic structure with one Cl atom located in the middle of the pentagon. The solid-state structures of both clusters were established by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. MS (ESI) experiments suggest that the cluster core is robust and maintained in solution. Pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR diffusion measurements were carried out on the diamagnetic yttrium compound and confirmed the stability of the cluster in its dicationic form [{Y15 (?3 -OH)20 (PepCO2 )10 (DBM)10 Cl}Cl2 ](2+) . The investigation of both static (dc) and dynamic (ac) magnetic properties in the dysprosium cluster revealed a slow relaxation of magnetization, indicative of single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior below 8?K. Furthermore, the ?T product as a function of temperature for the dysprosium cluster gave evidence that this is a ferromagnetically coupled compound below 11?K. PMID:25483296

  11. Hanford isotope project strategic business analysis yttrium-90 (Y-90)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to address the short-term direction for the Hanford yttrium-90 (Y-90) project. Hanford is the sole DOE producer of Y-90, and is the largest repository for its source in this country. The production of Y-90 is part of the DOE Isotope Production and Distribution (IP and D) mission. The Y-90 is ``milked`` from strontium-90 (Sr-90), a byproduct of the previous Hanford missions. The use of Sr-90 to produce Y-90 could help reduce the amount of waste material processed and the related costs incurred by the clean-up mission, while providing medical and economic benefits. The cost of producing Y-90 is being subsidized by DOE-IP and D due to its use for research, and resultant low production level. It is possible that the sales of Y-90 could produce full cost recovery within two to three years, at two curies per week. Preliminary projections place the demand at between 20,000 and 50,000 curies per year within the next ten years, assuming FDA approval of one or more of the current therapies now in clinical trials. This level of production would incentivize private firms to commercialize the operation, and allow the government to recover some of its sunk costs. There are a number of potential barriers to the success of the Y-90 project, outside the control of the Hanford Site. The key issues include: efficacy, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and medical community acceptance. There are at least three other sources for Y-90 available to the US users, but they appear to have limited resources to produce the isotope. Several companies have communicated interest in entering into agreements with Hanford for the processing and distribution of Y-90, including some of the major pharmaceutical firms in this country.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls and neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser capsulotomy

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Sharma, Shiv Kumar; Kaur, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare surgical peeling and aspiration and neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy for pearl form of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). METHODS A prospective, randomized, double blind, study was done at Rotary Eye Hospital, Maranda, Palampur, India, Santosh Medical College Hospital, Ghaziabad, India and Laser Eye Clinic, Noida India. Consecutive patients with pearl form of PCO following surgery, phacoemulsification, manual small incision cataract surgery and conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) for age related cataract, were randomized to have peeling and aspiration or neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intra-operative and post-operative complications were compared. RESULTS A total of 634 patients participated in the study, and 314 (49.5%) patients were randomized to surgical peeling and aspiration group and 320 (50.5%) to the Nd:YAG laser group. The mean pre-procedural logMAR CDVA in peeling and neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser group was 0.800.25 and 0.860.22, respectively. The mean final CDVA in peeling group (0.220.23) was comparable to Nd:YAG group (0.240.28; t test, P=0.240). There was a significant improvement in vision after both the procedures (P<0.001). A slightly higher percentage of patients in Nd:YAG laser group (283/88.3%) than in peeling group (262/83.4%) had a CDVA of 0.5 (20/63) or better at 9mo (P<0.001). On the contrary, patients having CDVA worse than 1.00 (20/200) was also significantly higher in Nd:YAG laser group as compared to peeling group (25/7.7% vs 15/4.7%, respectively). On application of ANCOVA, there was less than 0.001% risk that PCO thickness and total laser energy had no effect on rate of complications in Nd:YAG laser group and less than 0.001 % risk that PCO thickness had no effect on complications in peeling group respectively. Sum of square analysis suggests that in the Nd:YAG laser group, thick PCO had a stronger impact on complications (Fischer test probability, Pr<0.0001) than thin PCO and total laser energy (Fischer test probability, Pr<0.002), respectively; similarly, in peeling group, thick PCO and preoperative vision had a stronger effect on complications than thin PCO, respectively (Fischer test probability, Pr<0.001).The rate of complications like uveitis (P=0.527) and cystoid macular edema (P=0.068), did not differ significantly between both the groups. However, intraocular pressure spikes (P=0.046) and retinal detachment (P<0.001) were significantly higher in Nd:YAG laser group as compared to peeling group. Retinal detachment was more common in patients having degenerative myopia (7/87.5%, P<0.001). Recurrence of pearls was the most common cause of reduction of vision in the peeling group (24/7.6%, P<0.001). CONCLUSION There is no alternative to Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy for fibrous subtype of PCO. For pearl form of PCO, both techniques are comparable with regard to visual outcomes. Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy has a higher incidence of IOP spikes and retinal detachment whereas recurrence of pearls may occur after successful peeling and aspiration. When posterior capsulotomy is needed in patients with retinal degenerations, retinopathies and pre-existing retinal breaks, the clinician should be cautious about increased risks of possible complications of Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. PMID:26086014

  13. Recyclables recovery of europium and yttrium metals and some salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2008-01-01

    Europium and yttrium metals and some valuable salts were recovered from the powder coating the inner surface of the glass tubes of fluorescent lamps. The tubes were broken under 30% aqueous acetone to avoid emission of mercury vapor to the atmosphere, and the powder was collected by brushing. Metals available in the powder were pressure leached using sulfuric/nitric acid mixture. Sulphate salt of europium and yttrium so obtained was converted to thiocyanate. Trimethyl-benzylammonium chloride solvent was used to selectively extract Eu and Y from the thiocyanate solution. The metal loaded in the organic solvent was recovered by N-tributylphosphate in 1M nitric acid to produce nitrate salts of Eu and Y. Europium nitrate was separated from yttrium nitrate by dissolving in ethyl alcohol. The isolated powder contained 1.62% europium oxide, 1.65% yttrium oxide, 34.48% calcium sulphate, 61.52% Ca orthophosphate and 0.65% other impurity metals by weight. Autoclave digestion of the powder in the acid mixture for 4h at approximately 125 degrees C and 5 MPa dissolved 96.4% of the yttrium and 92.8% of the europium. Conversion of the sulphate to thiocyanate is favoured at low temperature. Extraction of Eu and Y from the thiocyanate solution attained its maximum at approximately 80 degrees C. N-tributylphosphate in 1N nitric acid at 125 degrees C achieved a stripping extent of 99%. Thermal reduction using hydrogen gas at 850 degrees C and 1575 degrees C produced europium and yttrium metals, respectively. A metal separation factor of 9.4 was achieved. Economic estimation revealed that the suggested method seemed feasible for industrial applications. PMID:17566725

  14. A solid target system with remote handling of irradiated targets for PET cyclotrons.

    PubMed

    Siikanen, J; Tran, T A; Olsson, T G; Strand, S-E; Sandell, A

    2014-12-01

    A solid target system was developed for a PET cyclotron. The system is compatible with many different target materials in the form of foils and electroplated/sputtered targets which makes it useful for production of a wide variety of different PET radionuclides. The target material is manually loaded into the system. Remote handling of irradiated target material is managed with a pneumatic piston and a vacuum technique which allows the targets to be dropped into a shielded transport container. To test the target performance, proton irradiations (12.8 MeV, 45 μA) of monoisotopic yttrium foils (0.64 mm, direct water cooling) were performed to produce 89Zr. The yields were 2200±200 MBq (1 h, n=13) and 6300±65 MBq (3 h, n=3). PMID:25265518

  15. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection. PMID:20862016

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structures and photoluminescence properties of mixed europium-yttrium organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yinfeng; Fu, Lianshe; Mafra, Lus; Shi, Fa-Nian

    2012-02-01

    Three mixed europium-yttrium organic frameworks: Eu2-xYx(Mel)(H2O)6 (Mel=mellitic acid or benzene-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexacarboxylic acid, x=0.38 1, 0.74 2, and 0.86 3) have been synthesized and characterized. All the compounds contain a 3-D net with (4, 8)-flu topology. The study indicates that the photoluminescence properties are effectively affected by the different ratios of europium and yttrium ions, the quantum efficiency is increased and the Eu3+ lifetime becomes longer in these MOFs than those of the Eu analog.

  17. The Influence of Yttrium on High Temperature Oxidation of Valve Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzesik, Z.; Migdalska, M.; Mrowec, S.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of small amounts of yttrium, electrochemically deposited on the surface of four steels utilized in the production of valves in car engines, on the protective properties of the oxide scale and its adherence to the surface of the oxidized materials has been studied under isothermal and thermal cycle conditions. Oxidation measurements have been carried out at 1173 K. It has been found that yttrium addition improves considerably the scale adherence to the substrate surface, increasing thereby corrosion resistance of the studied materials.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Optical Properties of Pristine and Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yiguang; Zhang, Ligong; Fan, Yi; Luo, Jinsong ..; McCready, David E.; Wang, Chong M.; An, Linan

    2005-02-01

    Pristine, Si-doped, and Si/Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) nanoparticles were synthesized by pyrolysis of complex compounds of aluminum and yttrium with triethanolamine. It was found that the coexistence of Si?? and Nd?? increased the solubility of both ions and promoted the formation of YAG phase. Single-phase, nanocrystalline Si/Nd:YAG powders were obtained at calcinations temperatures as low as 920 C. The optical behaviour of the Si/Nd:YAG nanopowders was similar to that of single-crystal ND:YAG.

  19. The nature of photoinduced changes in the magnetostriction of yttrium-iron garnet single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'eva, N. V.

    2011-05-15

    A model of the occurrence of photoinduced changes in linear magnetostriction is proposed based on a complex experimental study of magnetostrictive strains in yttrium-iron garnets Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} with low contents of different impurities. Analytical expressions for calculating the magnetostriction in yttrium-iron garnet single crystals with different types of doping are presented. The correlation of the photoinduced change in the magnetostriction with the crystallographic features of the samples is demonstrated. The changes in the magnetostriction constants are analyzed quantitatively for samples prepared in different ways.

  20. Study of lattice dynamics in yttrium doped NdMnO{sub 3} using Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Ruchika Elizabeth, Suja; Nair, Harikrishnan S.

    2014-04-24

    A systematic study of Raman spectra on Yttrium doped NdMnO{sub 3} polycrystalline samples was undertaken to understand the lattice dynamics in this compound. Raman active phonons were analyzed and the observed peak were assigned to elucidate various phonon modes in the range (200 - 800) cm{sup ?1}. It was observed that at 325 cm{sup ?1} phonon frequency shifts upward as much as upto 4 % with increase in Yttrium content. Lattice distortions manifest themselves by frequency shifts in both bending and tilt modes of MnO{sub 6} octahedra, resulting in increase of Raman band line-widths.